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1 Education: Natalia Shelikhova to St. Herman

By Dawn Lea Black The interactions of Alaskan native people and foreigners, especially Russians, all had ramifications which could be considered educational. The Shelikhovs who founded several RussianAmerican fur mercantile companies, specifically provided educational materials and facilities and encouraged teaching for native students. Although E. A. Okladnikova gives Natalia Shelikhova credit for teaching "... needlework to young creole girls .... [in a] special sewing workshop ... in her home ...." 1 the citation for this is not provided. Moreover Natalia's patronymic is not accurate in this reference, so the person who conducted such a workshop might actually be a later teacher, probably Mrs. Natalia P. Banner who started a sewing, cooking and gardening school for orphaned 15 and 16 year old creole girls at the request of Shelikhov's soninlaw Nikolai Rezanov who arrived in Kodiak in 1805. 2 This same Okladnikova article also goes into some detail on Grigorii Shelikhov's efforts in Alaskan native education. The year/s on Kodiak when he started putting his goals into writing would be 178586, rather than 1775. 3 The book, Natalia Shelikhova, recounts how both Shelikhovs together participated in the education of the four Alaskan native boys who went back to Shelikhovs' estate in Irkutsk for awhile before returning to Alaska. 4 On July 1, 1788, Gonzalo Lopez de Haro the Spanish captain of the ship, San Carlos, arrived at the Russian settlement which Shelikhovs had started in Three Saints' Bay on Kodiak. He was allowed to tour the settlement and described the school: "... a house where they have a school with many Indians, adults and children; to some they were teaching religious doctrine, and to others how to read and write the Russian language .... Also we went to the two boats which they have grounded on the shore. In one was the chapel ... and where the chaplain [probably Osip Prianishnikov] lives ...." 5


There is a list of KodiakArea natives, 6 through Natsk from Stykyn, who were all "taught from/by an oral literacy" [method] and from a primer, and they were instructed on how to write, all through the efforts of the peasant Petr Belorukov from Tobol'sk, according to the priest Vasilii Sivtsov who baptized them in 1790 when he arrived with the Billings Expedition and composed this list. 7 Belorukov is the godparent of three natives on the list. In addition, the baptismal godparents and natives usually formed social and financial bonds and, thus, participated in mutual education. Baptized natives received acceptance and many consequent benefits from the Russians. 8 The Russian Stephen/Stepan Glotov is credited by Orthodox historian, Bensin, as having performed the first reported Orthodox lay baptism in Alaska [@17591762, of a 12 or 13 year old] Umnak Aleutian boy, [Mushkal] who was named [Ivan Stepanovich] Glotov, because Stephen became his godparent. Bensin says, "On his [Stephen's] return trip he took the boy back to Siberia, where he learned Russian, and to read and write. Later, he returned from Russia to his island." 9 Mushkal had been given as a hostage to Glotov by Mushkal's uncle, Shushak, the toion of Umnak. The 1776 writings of the anonymous "J.L.S." say that in 1747 Michael Nevodchikov took the Attuan, Temnak, to Okhotsk for baptism, and the Monk Gedeon noted that Temnak became literate and held readers' services back home. 10 Some Alaskan natives who went to Russia in 1786 or `87 were educated at the estate of the Shelikhovs' partner, I. L. Golokov, who became their godparent. Two of them stayed there permanently and were educated as salesmen, as will be mentioned later. Golikov, however, sent one of his own serfs, Artamon Kashevarov, from Kursk to Kodiak in 1793, along with Artamon's 15 year old son, Filipp, and the monks who were to go to Kodiak to found a more permanent Russian Orthodox church in Alaska. They arrived in 1794. Both Filipp and the monks would also eventually become teachers in Alaska's schools. In 17941795, Filipp was taught navigation and


shipbuilding by none other than James Shields, the GolikovShelikhov company's English shipbuilder. In 1794 Filipp also served occasionally as a schoolmaster, himself. 11 "Golikov Shelikhov" was not an official name of the August 17, 1781 company because the original company documents were simply signed by the two Golikov partners and Grigorii Shelikhov with their full names, no initials, and with no actual company name being assigned. 12 This company funded many of the schools in Russian America because the students were often expected to work for the company which administered many areas in Russian America until its merger into the United American Company in 1797 which then merged into the Russian American Company in 1799. In 1799, the monopolistic Russian American Company governed Russian America under a charter with the Russian government, and it funded and oversaw most of the schools there. 13 The first charter of this company mandated that, "schools be established for the natives as well as children of settlers." 14 After arriving at Kodiak in 1794, the Orthodox missionaries led by Archimandrite Ioasaf founded a school, in a Mission building, which enrolled fifteen children. Ioasaf appointed monk Nektary and then Fr. Herman to be teachers. In 1802, [or possibly before that] it was taken over by the Russian American Company, and a Russian scout, named Yudin, taught the children. 15 Lt. Aleksei Chistiakov is credited with being this school's director. 16 Baranov wrote Natalia Shelikhova a June 10, 1798 letter requesting that she provide for some more native children to be sent to Russia to study. He also said that in January of 1798, the company had opened what he considered to be the first civil school which had about 20 boys enrolled. 17 After the death of Grigorii Shelikhov in 1795, his wife, Natalia, and family inherited his portion of the company, and because his partner, Ivan L. Golikov, was in tax trouble with the government and the other partner, Michael S. Golikov, had died, Natalia became the de facto governor of much of Russian America from about July 20, 1795 until July 19, 1797. In this capacity, Natalia Shelikhova wrote a request to "Archpastor" (probably Archbishop Gavriil) that he allow


Joseph/Osip Prianishnikov, a merchant from Tobolsk, (according to R. A. Pierce in his Biographical Dictionary) to go back to Russia to be further trained so he could be even more effective than he already had been, as a bilingual person, in leading some Orthodox rituals and teaching the native people. Natalia's November 22, 1795 letter says,"...Father Archimandrite [the Kodiak Mission's head priest, Ioasaf] wrote to me ... that he recognizes the ability of our promyshlennik Osip Prianishnikov as the able priest among commoners to conduct such services which do not necessitate monks. He knows the Church Cycle and the Rubrics of the Church and conducted the service before the arrival of the missionaries. He knows the morning service and the evening service and the language of the American people [Natives], as he is also married to an American [Native] woman." 18 Golikov also supported Osip Prianishnikov's further training, and he advocated for Archimandrite Ioasaf to become a bishop. Prianishnikov went to St. Petersburg and was appointed to a newly created position: the Kodiak Mission's "collegiate interpreter" with a salary of 250 rubles per year. 19 Unfortunately he clashed with Baranov and was unable to do much in Kodiak. Michael Oleksa has stated that Osip was a "Native Koniag," but it was more likely his son or godson, Khristofor, who was part native. 20 Khristofor, born in 1788, was trained by the monks, especially Gedeon, to be a teacher and translater which will be discussed later. Both Natalia Shelikhova, who had a Native goddaughter, and members of the Russian Orthodox hierarchy encouraged bilingualism. In fact, the Russian managers and crew leaders in Russian America also usually supported bilingualism because they, themselves, often were married to or lived with Alaskan native women. These Russians included Alexander Baranov, Ivan Kuskov, Vasilii Merkul'ev, and Timofei Tarakanov. Kuskov retired to Tot'ma with his wife, Ekaterina Prokhorovna, who is believed to have been Tlingit, and Tarakanov also retired to Kursk area with his native wife, Aleksandra Ignatova, who was possibly Aleut, age 45, and with his 15 year old son, Aleksei. The information about Tarakanov and his family was obtained by Kursk historian,


Alexander V. Zorin, from the 1834 Kursk census after I had gone to Kursk and requested such information from the director of the museum of famous people of Kursk. Russian laymen and at least one woman (Natalia Shelikhova) had become godparents to Alaskan natives, participated in baptisms which laymen could do "in case of emergency or necessity" 21 , and/or led some types of religious rituals, as Prianishnikov did, without a priest being present. Richard Dauenhauer proposes that the Orthodox were more positive than some other branches of Christianity toward bilingualism because the Orthodox had "liturgically based churches" in which "membership is not culturally bound." He gives Frank Roth of Sheldon Jackson College credit for this idea. The Orthodox, Dauenhauer says, also believed in "human dignity and respect for the individual ...." such that "... each person contains within him or herself the potential of divinity ...." and reject "... the idea that Christianity is linked to specific language and culture." Dauenhauer also contemplates whether religious views might be influenced by a society's politics. 22 Another author, Antoinette Shalkop gives a concrete example of why Russians were favorably oriented towards bilingualism and that this was encouraged by Russian politics: "With Russia's own Tartar population, the purpose of such translations went beyond religion: they were needed to foster communication." 23 In addition, those Tartars and Mongols, especially, had actually controlled most of Russia for a couple of centuries, from 12401480, so they had an elevated status in Russia. Of course, this did not indicate that there were perfect relations between the various cultural groups in Russia, but it did indicate that good communications could be highly desirable if one wished to function well in Russian society. Also, "... in order to counteract the rapid progress of Islam among the Tartars, [professors of missionary studies in


Kazan, Russia].... toward the middle of the nineteenth century .... conceived the idea of translating the Biblical and liturgical texts ... into the various spoken dialects." 24 Bilingual texts were used and written in cooperative efforts between Russians and Alaskan natives, in the early nineteenth century also. One Canadian group has put several Alaskan bilingual texts on a computer disk which can be purchased by individuals. 25

This photo, which I took, is of an 1893 bilingual Aleut Primer, published in St. Petersburg by Synodal Typography. The Primer, which shows the "Lord's Prayer," on the right, is housed at the St. Herman Theological Seminary in Kodiak. It was taken from an 1840 Aleut book, Beginnings of Christian Teaching and Christian Catechism, published in St. Petersburg, written and translated by the Russian John/Ioann/Ivan Veniaminov and the creole Jacob/Iakov Netsvetov, both of whom have been sainted (Veniaminov, born Popov, is now St. Innokentii/Innocent).


A Russian seminarian and several Alaskan natives who were active in bilingual translations of Kodiak Alutiiq, are: the seminarian Il'ia I. Tyzhnov, Konstantin Larionov, who was probably creole, the native Gerasim Zyrianov, and the native Kosma Uchilishchev. 26 They "... translated prayers and formulated a primer of the local [Kodiak] dialect ...." 27 To be more precise they translated "The Christian guidebook with the history of St. Michael and the Michael catechism (St. Petersburg. 1847, 96 pp.), and The Gospel according to St. Matthew. (St. Petersburg, 1848, pp. 1270). He [Tyzhnov] also aided in compilation of an AleutKad'iak primer (St. Petersburg, 1847, 33 pp.)." 28 J. Lincoln Starr states that Tyzhnov was also responsible for "... grammatical notes, and 500 words in Kodiak. He compiled notes on the history and culture of the Kodiak aborigines in their own tongue, as related to him by an elder." 29 Before these linguists, however, there were others who had started to introduce bilingual texts into the schools. When the Hieromonk Gedeon came to Kodiak in 1804, he made an inventory of the books which he found in the school and sent that to the Church Synod. Gedeon also revived the Kodiak school and reinstated the monk Nektary/Nektarii as teacher for the [fifty, then] eighty [and later one hundred] boys who came to the school. Nikolai Rezanov, Shelikhovs' soninlaw arrived in 1805 and supported Gedeon's educational efforts 30 even though he claimed that one of Gedeon's own excellent ideas was his own. In addition, Rezanov brought books to Alaska in 1805, and these books were accompanied, in some cases, by notes from those who had donated the books. Some of the donated books which Rezanov brought to Alaska and books which were available in the offices of the Russian American Company, probably brought by naval officers and early governors, contained early seeds of socialism and secularism 31 about which the monk and future Saint Herman was apprehensive. When Gedeon departed for Russia in 1807, he left Herman in charge of the school in which Gedeon had instituted a stellar bilingual document production plan and a progressive teacher training program. In the second of two class levels, arithmetic and geography


were also supposed to be taught. 32 Gedeon, in a letter to Baranov, states, "Also at the special injunction of His Excellency [Rezanov], there has begun to be compiled a dictionary of the Aleut [Kodiak Alutiiq] language under the guidance of a senior pupil, Paramon Chumovitskii, and the basic work has already been done towards a grammar of the same language .... on 1st May, he [possibly Chumovitskii] should present his detachment for the public [school/college] examination [instituted by Gedeon] and then continue with his activities until the autumn at the port of Pavlovsk--i. e. correcting the dictionary, translating under the guidance of the leader of the Religious Mission, Father Herman .... This also goes for the younger pupil of grammar-- Aleksei Kotel'nikov--he should stay here with his teacher, Ivan Kadiakskii and his colleague Khristofor Prianishnikov." 33 In 1818, a company document announced that "... Baranov assigned Khristofor Prianishnikov, employed in the church, 120 rubles per year from [the company's] church funds, therefore [please] record distribution to the monks in the same account [fund]. We expect a special instruction about this fund, as the church will be supported by the company after elimination of the shares [pai]. If a teacher in the school should be lacking and Prianishnikov takes on that duty, he is to receive an additional 60 rubles per year on the company account." 34 Rezanov is credited with giving the impetus for this school to become an academy and for later academies to be founded, especially in Sitka under Assistant Chief Manager and naval officer A. K. Etholen [18301834] and in 1825 for the natives of Unalaska. 35 Sitka's "colonial academy" (2nd of 2 levels) emphasized navigation and seminary studies, graduating seventeen students in 1837. 36 In about 1805 Rezanov sent creole children to study in Russia. Four of those returned to Alaska. 37 Father Herman did not stay in Kodiak permanently to work with the students there. Instead, he operated a small school, emphasizing religious instruction and agriculture, along with an orphanage in the Kodiak area on Spruce Island where he was assisted by Sophie Vlasov[a] 38 and other native people [such as Christian Zyrianov] 39 "... for over twenty years, beginning about


1816...." 40 Fr. Herman had special spiritual insight and gifts which are undeniable, but some of Gedeon's insights would have balanced the curriculum if he could have stayed on in Kodiak. Fr. Herman wrote some letters about the new books. 41 In 1836, the year Father Herman died, the Czar decreed that early primary education be established in the colonies. Church land and books were to be involved in this education system. Many villages opened such schools. 42 Two Alaskan native young men went to the estate of Ivan L. Golikov in Kursk in 1787, after being brought back to Russia with the Shelikhovs. They received education in both Russian religion and secular subjects. Their main teacher was a Kalmyk Russian man, Panfil Ivanov, the Kalmyks being a Mongolian tribe which inhabit the Caspian Sea region, so in this case, he was teaching his probable ancient relatives the Alaskan natives. The original Russian of this article was obtained by Alexander V. Zorin, historian from Kursk who states that the Kazaks would capture and sell young Kalmyks to Russians such as Golikov. Zorin says that one of Golikov's Kalmyk serfs [and a probable godson], Petr Ivanov (Zaysan[?]) went to Kodiak with the Shelikhovs, on their own ship, and went to Alaska again in 1789. Petr's share of the money was controlled by Golikov because Petr was a bondserf. 43 The ship, "Three Saints'..." log records a "Petr Golikov" who signed for illiterate crewmembers who owed debts. 44 Native people who worked for Golikov were sometimes educated so they could participate in the business. 45 Although this paper has emphasized literary and religious studies, education in mathematics, agriculture, metalworking, carpentry, music, navigation etc. was also advocated by Russian company owners, managers and shareholders. These were provided whenever possible in Russian America. Richard Pierce's Biographical Dictionary notes many instances of creole and other individuals from Alaska who studied in Russia such as Andrei and Osip Larionov and Alexander Kashevarov. Some students were also taught navigation aboard ship, as has been


mentioned already. Grigorii Shelikhov recognized the seamanship abilities of the Alaskan natives and found some of them training positions on a Russian ship which went to Japan on a humanitarian and trading mission. Shelikhov said, "... they [Alaskan native seamen] will obviate the presence of many Russian sailors to navigate in those waters; for they are all brave seamen by nature, gladly enter upon that occupation, and learn all the methods and develop the necessary skill in seafaring faster than the Russians do." 46 The governorgeneral of Irkutsk, Ivan Pil', wrote Shelikhov a letter in 1794 in which he mentioned the Alaskan natives who were being trained as seamen, " ... [Native Alaskan] children learn not only to speak Russian but to read and to write; some of them have even studied mathematics, two of whom were sent by you in 1792 to Japan to practice navigation and seven were used for the same purpose in America." 47 Education involves both change and conservation, and the Alaskan native people and Russian Alaskans showed a remarkable ability to do both in forming the societies and structures of Russian America. This was a time of change and discovery, but remarkably, there were some concurrent efforts to conserve the native languages and the cultural materials which were commendable.

Notes 1 E. A. Okladnikova, "Science and Education in Russian America," in Part Three, Russia's American Colony, A Special Study of the Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, ed. S. Frederick Starr (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1987), 236. 2 R. A. Pierce, Russian America: A Biographical Dictionary, s.v. "Banner, Natal'ia Petrovna (d. 1806)." (Kingston, Ontario and Fairbanks, Alaska: Limestone Press, 1990). 3 Okladnikova, Russia's, 237. 4 Dawn Lea Black and Alexander Yu. Petrov, eds. and trans., Natalia Shelikhova: Russian Oligarch of Alaska Commerce, Historical Translation Series, ed. Marvin W. Falk, no. 15 (Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 2010) p. xxxi, xxxv, 1114. 5 Katrina H. Moore, "Spain Claims Alaska, 1775: Spanish Exploration of the Alaskan Coast," in The Sea in Alaska's Past: Conference Proceedings, History and Archaeology Publication Series, no. 25 (Anchorage, Alaska, Office of History and Archaeology, Alaska Division of Parks, 1979; handtyped manuscript given to Baranov Museum, p. 10; Wallace M. Olson, Through Spanish Eyes: Spanish Voyages to Alaska, 17741792 (Auke Bay, Alaska: Heritage Research, 2002). 6 Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv VoennoMorskogo Flota, F. 214, Op. 1, D. 28, L. 84ob85. Primary translation of this document was by Alexander Yu. Petrov with rerenditions by Dawn Lea Black.

11 7 KodiakArea Native; Baptismal Names; Village; Godparent; Town

o Ukuzha Shaeva; Ekaterina Ivanova; Shettak[/S(c)hattaq]; Natalia A. Shelikhova; Irkutsk and ? [Natalia had baptized and/or become godparent to Ukuzha when the Shelikhovs were in Kodiak from 1784 1786. Sivtsov is recording that event for his and church records, and he married Ukuzha to V. P. Merkul'ev, from Tomsk, with whom she had lived for several years]. Iakov (Ukuzha's son); Iakov; Shettak; (PetitBourgeois) Ivan Grigoriev Polomoshnoi; Tot'ma Dmitrii (Ukuzha's son); Dmitrii; Shettak; Ivan G. Polomoshnoi; Tot'ma Pizhokhinakh Atliachkova; Matrona Vasil'eva; Akhk[/Akhiok?]; (PetitBourgeois) Vasilii P. Merkul'ev; Tomsk [Descendants of the Merkul'ev family now live in the Pribilof Islands etc.] Ioan (Pizhokhinakh's son); Ioan; Akhk; (PetitBourgeois) Grigorii Konovalov; Eniseisk Feodosia (Pizhokhinakh's daughter); Feodosia; Akhk; Grigorii Konovalov; Eniseisk Agnazhuk Malem'iunova; Feodosia; Chestkova; (PetitBourgeois) Ivan Terent'ev; Eniseisk Makhkakhk Apazhinov; Petr; Shchezhngaui [/Cingiyak?/Chiniak (C=Ch)]; (PetitBourgeois) Dmitrii Kovrigin; Krasnoirsk Kinunakhkon Iziaachkov; Andrei; Kaniagi[/Kangiyaq?/Kaguyak]; Leontii Kurbatov; Tobol'sk Kumuiaugak Angagakov; Petr; Kaniagi; (Guildmaster) Leontii Kurbatov; Tobol'sk Aliazhak Achugukov Iziaachkov; Mikhail; Karluk/Kallut [Kallut is original]; (PetitBourgeois) Petr Zakharov Chechenev [Chichenoff]; Irkutsk [Descendants of the Chichenoff family now live in Kodiak] Algun Chevykpak Kumugin Iziaachkov; Simeon; Igashak [/Ingisaq?]; Leontii Kurbatov; Tobol'sk Agashchka Aminakov [relative of Arsenti Aminak?]; Simeon; village unreadable; Leontii Kurbatov; Tobol'sk Kaiakhkok Apaliakhov; Simeon; same as Agashchka's; Simeon; Petr Z. Chechenev; Irkutsk Kaiazhigmiu (can't remember father's name); Simeon; Uiuiak[/Uyak?]; Peter Z. Chechenev Kasamason Onikin; Simeon; Chukakot [/Cungaciq?, C=Ch ; (Cook Inlet)] ; (PetitBourgeois) Aleksei Petrov; Irkutsk Sidula Agishkov; Boris; Alitaka[/Alitak]; (Peasant) Petr Timofe[evich] Belorukov; Tobol'sk Atunuka (can't remember father's name); Roman; Uganaktuik [/Uganut?/Uganik]; Petr Timofe[evich] Belorukov; Tobol'sk Chunimon Kar'iukin; Roman; Ugashiku [Uggasaq/Ugashik? on the Alaska Peninsula across from Kodiak]; (Priest) Vasillii Sivtsov; [Yakutsk: of Yakut aboriginal heritage (see note #10 below) L. Black, Orthodoxy, 12] Ashumyshtak Aiakshakov; Roman; Ugataka [Ugat?]; Petr Tomofe[evich] Belorukov; Tobol'sk Chevykhpak Iliakhokov; Makarii; Kiliady [/Kiliuda?]; Aleksei [A.?*] Petrov; Irkutsk Kalaganatnai Kashakov; Makarii; Kiliady [/Kiliuda?]; Aleksei [A.?*] Petrov; Irkutsk Emgok Apaniakliakov; Stefan; Karluk/Kallut [Kallut is original]; Vasilii Sivtsov; [Yakutsk: a Yakut] Chigikmon Akokogliakov; Stefan; Karluk/Kallut; Vasilii Sivtsov; [Yakutsk: Yakut aboriginal heritage] Asmok Chadaginakov; Petr; Baptized from [on?] Tugidat [Tugidak? very close to Kodiak] Island; from Karluk [Karluk is on Kodiak Island]; Vasilii Sivtsov; [Yakutsk: of Yakut aboriginal heritage] Kaugei Aziazhakov; Petr; Baptized from [on?] Tugidat [Tugidak?] Island; from Karluk/Kallut [Karluk is on Kodiak Island]; Vasilii Sivtsov; [Yakutsk: of Yakut aboriginal heritage: L. Black, Orthodoxy, 12] Natsk Obshanov Akokogliakov; Vasilii; Stykyn [Sitkinak? Island [very close to Kodiak]; village is unreadable; Vasilii Sivtsov; [Yakutsk: of Yakut aboriginal heritage] Tangion Kakagonkov; Vasilii; Baptized from [on?] Kodiak Island; Nunialuka [/Nanwalek? which is at the tip of the Kenai Peninsula]; Petr Zakharov[ich] Chechenev; Irkutsk Kaiangok Kanauzhin; Vasilii; Baptized from [on?] Kodiak Island; Nunialuka [/Nanwalek?]; Leontii Kurbatov; Tobol'sk Siginok Uiuschemov; Andrei; Karluk/Kallut; Petr Zakharov[ich] Chechenov; Irkutsk Kuchuiugak Kotohnokov; Andrei; Ubanamkuik; Petr Zakharov[ich] Chechenov; Irkutsk Kalaganatnakh Pitakhnakov; Vasilii; Kiliady [/Kiliuda?]; (Guildmaster) *Aleksei Alekseevich Petrov; Irkutsk Kashpak [a title, probably Qaspeq = "high ranking man" (see L. Black, "Russian Conquest of Kodiak," In Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska, nos. 12 (1992): 171 of 165182; in "()")] Angakov Kotoshnokov; Vasilii; Kniavika [Kiavak?]; (Guildmaster) Aleksei Alekseevich Petrov; Irkutsk.

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o


o Sivtsov noted that none of these natives had to pay taxes. The iasak tax had been repealed in 1788 for Alaska, reportedly due to the efforts of Grigorii Shelikhov. Most alternate Village Names, with names shown not being a complete representation, are from: Aron L. Crowell, Amy F. Steffian, and Gordon L. Pullar, eds., Looking Both Ways: Heritage and Identity of the Alutiiq People (Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2001), 32, 57. One alternate, [cape] Ugat is from a modern map. A village might have been on that cape earlier. L. Black says that Sivtsov was of Yakut aboriginal heritage (Orthodoxy, 12). Afognak Native Corporation has more old villages listed on their website according to Gordon Pullar.

Robert Kingery Buell and Charlotte Northcote Skladal, Sea Otters and the China Trade [Biography of John Ledyard] (N.p., Copyright by the Authors: David McKay Co., Inc., 1968), 32. Also see Ivan Kuskov, F. 796, Op. 9, D. 108, L. 110, copy, in "July 1, 1802, Report. I. Kuskov (in charge of the hunting party) to A. A. Baranov on Kad'iak regarding an armed encounter with the local tribes and the devastation of NovoArkhangel'sk," in Documents on the History of the RussianAmerican Company, Materials for the Study of Alaska History, Pierce, Richard A., ed., no. 7 (Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press, 1976), 128150; Also see Ivan Veniaminov, Zapiski ob ostrovakh Unalashkinskogo otdela, pt. 2 (St. Petersburg, 1840), 152153, in Roza Liapunova, "Relations with the Natives of Russian America," in Starr, Russia's, 127. 9 Basil M. Bensin, Russian Orthodox Church in Alaska: 17941967 (Sitka, Alaska: Russian Orthodox Church of North America: 1967), 12. Words in brackets, in material to which this note refers, are taken from R. A. Pierce, ... Dictionary, s.v. "Glotov, Stepan Gavrilovich (d. 1769)." (Kingston, Ontario and Fairbanks, Alaska: Limestone Press, 1990). 10 Lydia Black, Orthodoxy in Alaska: Christianization of Alaska, Veniaminov's Stewardship, Orthodoxy in Alaska after 1867, Distinguished Lectures, no. 6 (Berkeley, California: The Patriarch Athenagoras Orthodox Institute at the Graduate Theological Union, October 1996), 9, 10; citing J. L. S. and Gideon [Gedeon]. 11 Richard A. Pierce, ... Dictionary, s.v. "Kashevarov, Filipp Artamonovich (17811843)." 12 Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennyi Istoricheskii Arkhiv, Fond 13, Op. 1, D. 15, L. 2125. 13 Antoinette Shalkop, "The Russian Orthodox Church in Alaska," in Part Four, Russia's American Colony, A Special Study of the Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, ed. S. Frederick Starr (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1987), 196, 205. 14 J. Lincoln Starr, Education in Russian Alaska (N. p.: Copyright by J. Lincoln Starr, 1972), in Appendix: "Highlights in the Educational History of Russian America." Available at Alaska Historical Library, Alaska Division of State Libraries. Contains lists of some books available in schools in Russian Alaska . 15 Kirill Khlebnikov, "RecentlyDiscovered Notes of Khlebnikov," in Orthodox Word, no. 119 (1984), 247. 16 Okladnikova, Russia's, 238. 17 Aleksandr A. Baranov, "[Letter] Aleksandr A. Baranov to Natalia A. Shelikhova," in AVPRI/Arkhiv Vneshnei Politiki Rossiiskoi Imperii, F. RAC, Op. 888, D. 121, in D. L. Black and A. Yu. Petrov, Natalia, 1112. 18 D.L. Black and A. Yu. Petrov, "[Letter] Natalia A. Shelikhova to the Archpastor, November 22, 1795," in Frank A. Golder Collection, U. of Washington, vol. 15, pp. 87100, primary translation by A. Yu. Petrov with rerenditions by D. L. Black, in Natalia Shelikhova, 54. 19 Lydia Black, Orthodoxy, 4344. 20 Michael J. Oleksa, "Orthodoxy in Alaska: the Spiritual History of the Kodiak Aleut People," in St. Vladimir's Theological Quarterly, 25, no. 1 (1981), 10. 21 Bensin, Russian Orthodox, 12. 22 Richard L. Dauenhauer, Conflicting Visions in Alaskan Education, Center for CrossCultural Studies, Occasional [handtyped] Paper no. 3 (Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1980), 15, 8, 16. 23 Shalkop, "The Russian Orthodox Church in Alaska," Russia's, 207. 24 John Meyendorff, L'Eglise Orthodoxe (France: Editions du Seuil, 1960; revised English translation: The Orthodox Church: Its Past and Its Role in the World Today, trans. John Chapin, N. p., Pantheon Books, a Division of Random House, 1962; 3rd revised edition, Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1981), 119 (page references are to 3rd revised edition). 25 Alaskan Orthodox Texts (Hamilton, Ontario, Canada:; All Saints of North America Orthodox Church, 2009, computer CD). (Note: the place is only found on the opening page when the CD is viewed on the computer screen.) 26 April Gale Laktonen Counceller, Kodiak Alutiiq Language Converstional Phrasebook with Audio CD (Kodiak, Alaska: Alutiiq Museum and Archaeological Repository, 2006), ed. Jeff Leer, 37. Only the last two native people and "Ilia Tyzhnev" are mentioned in this source because it refers to the "Lord's Prayer" as found



in the Kodiak Aleut [now published as Alutiiq by ibid.] Primer [Gospel of St. Matthew?] which was translated by them and then transcribed and edited by Ilia Tyzhnev [spelled Il'ia Tyzhnov elsewhere; #27, #28 below]. 27 Shalkop, Russia's, 208; Okladnikova, Russia's, 243, 247; Konstantin Larionov, "Translation of Kodiak Language Dictionary," Alaska Russian Church Archives (Kodiak, 1867, microfilm). Container #D249, Reel #172: Note: the author perused this microfilm, but found no actual dictionary. Perhaps it is mentioned. 28 Pierce, ... Dictionary, s.v. "Tyzhnov, Il'ia I."; Russian Church et al, "Translation of Gospel into Kodiak Language," in Alaska Russian Church Archives (Kenai, 1850, microfilm), Container #D266, Reel #182183. 29 J. L. Starr, Education in Russian Alaska, 28. Available at Alaska Historical Library, Alaska Division of State Libraries. Contains lists of some books available in schools in Russian Alaska. 30 Svetlana G. Fedorova, Russian Population in Alaska and California: Late 18th Century1867 (Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press, 1973), 244245; Michael Oleksa, Alaskan Missionary Spirituality, Sources of American Spirituality (New York and Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1987), 128. The letters by Gedeon cited here were obtained by Oleksa by permission from Richard Pierce, ed., The RussianOrthodox Mission 17941837 (Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press, 1978); Lydia Black, Orthodoxy, 50; Khlebnikov, "RecentlyDiscovered," in Orthodox, 247. 31 Sitnikov, Leonid A., "Otkryvaya Knizhnuyu Ameriku/Discovering Bookish America," in Sibirsky Bibliophil/Siberian Booklover, VostochnoSibirskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo/EasternSiberian Book Publishing House, no. 1, (1988): 6394. Private trans. by Ilyas Sagdeev for Dawn Lea Black in Kodiak, Alaska. Article available from Shelekhov Museum, Shelekhov [City], Russia. 32 Okladnikova, Russia's, 243. 33 Michael Oleksa, Alaskan Missionary, 128129. 34 Richard A. Pierce, ed., "Apr. 10th, No. 131, Proposal to the Kad'iak Office," RussianAmerican Company. Correspondence of the Governors. Communications Sent: 1818, Alaska History Series, no. 25 (Kingston and Fairbanks: Limestone Press, 1984), 78. 35 S. G. Fedorova, Russian Population, 244; Okladnikova, Russia's, 239, 244245. 36 Okladnikova, Russia's, 239. 37 S. G. Fedorova, Russian Population, 245. 38 Khlebnikov, "RecentlyDiscovered" in Orthodox, 250. 39 Okladnikova, Russia's, 243. 40 William Allen Amarok and Rev. Michael J. Oleksa, "The Suppression of the Aleuts: The Conflict in Alaskan Education 18761916," in St. Vladimir's Theological Quarterly, 28, no. 2 (1984), 100. 41 These are the citations of the following 3 letters in order by date: State Archive of Perm' Region, F. 445, Op. 1, D. 174, L. 12ob.; L. 33ob.; L. 45ob. in N. N. Bolkhovitinov, ed., Rossiisko Amerikanskaia Kompania I Izushenie Tikookeanskogo Severa: Sbornik dokumentov 18151841 Moscow: Nauka, 2005), 5657; 111; 134. Primary acquisition and translation of these documents was by Alexander Yu. Petrov with rerenditions by Dawn Lea Black. Khlebnikov was a chief clerk/office manager for the Russian American Company headquartered in Sitka, although he traveled to Kodiak etc. He worked for the Governor and naval officer, Semen Ianovskii. Fr. Herman converted Yanovskii to Orthodoxy. Yanovskii described himself as previously being a "free thinker". He married Baranov's daughter with whom he went to Russia and had two children. After his second wife died, he became a monk. (Pierce, Dictionary, s.v. "Ianovskii ...." and "Khlebnikov".) A Letter of Fr. Herman to Kirill Timofeevich Khlebnikov Sent: March 17, 1819; Received: March 31, 1819 Gracious Sire Kirill Timofeevich: [I] have received the book that has been sent by you. [I] tender my thanks. The favor that has been shown by you for me, ubogii [Herman] is appreciated allthemore, in that during my presence here, from our own Russians, I have mostly seen contempt and have heard reproaches and mockeries, to which I have already been accustomed and by force of habit [I] think that my state ofdestitution is deserving of this. But you have not seen and known me at all, [and still] have directed such gracious attentions toward me. [I] am much astonished and [am] thanking [you]. Your Gracious Sire's Humble Servant, Ubogii [Lowly] Herman [German] I wanted to talk a lot about the book, but the [my] lack of mentality does not allow [it]. I am a common person and not an educated [one], and this publisher is not just a great philosopher, but is


besides that a virtuous and solemn man. I with all my simplicity can not but wonderat how he was writing against freethinkers, who are mistaken about the truth, not accepting the Holy Writ, and the Holy Truth, God, nature, and the duty of the individual, which could so vividly be explained by the beautiful parable of history, [even] without the evidence of the Holy Scripture, but by a proof of nature. They are necessary for our Christians, who are Christians only in words or in opinion, but the true Christians do not need convincing philosophical evidence concerning the truth; in them the simple and clear and briefest wording of the Holy Writ enflame love toward God; they are compliant to the Words of the Savior, and also if [people] are not like children then [they] will not enter into the heavenly Kingdom and [they will] follow, inaccordancewith the Holy Spiritgiven command, which has been prescribed through theologians: [if you] do not love to speak Peace, neither will I ever be [available] inthepathof Peace [for you] and also: whoever loves peace carries the Father's love in that, because stillyet in the world there are fleshly lusts and the lust of the eyes and worldly pride; the world passesaway, and its lust turns away God's willwhich abides forever and by the other [things], similar to the above mentioned, although with other words [and] writings, but all those who are faithful are called to God's Kingdom, and true lovers of eternity follow the example of babes without [other] thoughts, in simplicity of heart; [they] follow it with openheartedness and not begrudging [others], as we, all, ourselves [can] see in all the histories of the Church, but, I, being ashamed to talk a lot in my simplicity to clever men: [I am] takingmyleave. Ubogii, Herman A Letter of Fr. Herman to Kirill Timofeevich Khlebnikov; Sent: August 10, 1821: New Valaam Gracious Sire, Kirila Timofeevich: [Fr. Herman uses the alternate spelling "Kirila" here and later.] Semen Ivanovich [Ianovskii] during the [his] departure from the local places [back] to Russia, was writing to me, that you would be able to deliver my letter to whom[ever], which I am enclosing. [I] ask [you] to fulfill his wish. Once you wanted to know my opinion of the writer of the books that were sent to me from Semen Ivanovich. It is shameful for me, uneducated, to speak about educated people, although being a faithful son of the Eastern Orthodox Church, and knowing The Holy Truth, with all its simplicity, [I know that] philosophical stratagems should not be followed, nor [should one] be lured by the beauty of those writings. From the book of his [unknown author's] writings, that was sent by you, which I read quickly once and was not able to understand him in his abstract thoughts, it is clearly seen, concerning the last two books, that he is of the Western opinion and was arrogant with pride and was not ashamed to compare himself with the prophets and [to think] as though the Holy Spirit opened to him the sacredness of nature. Nevertheless, many [things] are pleasant to me in those books, however, with all that [said], if someone does not firmly know the holy Truth, they could be harmed a lot. You will receive [this letter] from Matvei Ivanovich [Murav'ev]. Thus, while giving you my respect, I remain your humble servant, Ubogii German [Herman] A Letter of Fr. Herman to Kirill Timofeevich Khlebnikov; October 31, 1822 Gracious Sire, Kirila Timofeevich: [I] have received your letter from the vessel Chirika along with the parka kukhlianka [kamleika/straighthanging parka usually made from animal skins or intestines that was sent] by Semen Ivanovich. [I] tender my thanks. Your humble servant, Ubogii, Herman [I] am writing a little [bit]. I hope that you will not be angry [with me], considering your many duties that are so great and necessary for you; I do not dare to bother [you] with my inoobraznyi [otherworldly] talks: Present age with the future, real with unreal, external with internal, spiritual and outer [nonspiritual], transient with eternal--extreme variation for the lover of the present age and boring discussions. October 31 day, 1822 year 42 Okladnikova, Russia's, 244245. 43 Alexander V. Zorin, "First Founder, Details [Addedto] the Portrait of I. L. Golikov," American Yearbook (Moscow: Nauka, 2002). The Russian language article about Alaskan Natives in Kursk is also found in this article by Zorin sent by Email to D.L. Black by Zorin to be translated. Private translation by Ilyas Sagdeev for


Dawn Lea Black 2009. The article was also translated by Alexander Iu. Petrov. Rerenditions by Dawn Lea Black. 44 Grigorii I. Shelikhov, Voyage to America, 17831786, Alaska History Series, ed. Richard A. Pierce, no. 19 (Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press, 1981), 117. 45 The newspaper article about these Alaskan native young men who went to Kursk is from: Kurskie Gubernskie Vedomosti, 1897, No. 183; It was collected by A. V. Zorin: Fragmenty Kurskoi Stariny. Dikie Amerikantsy v Kurske/Fragments of Old Time Kursk. Wild Americans in Kursk by A.A. Tankov: "It is known that the Kursk merchant, `Honorable Citizen' Ivan Illarionovich Golikov, took part in the activities of the Russian American Company. In 1787 he thought of taking away to Kursk from the Alaska Peninsula `two wild Americans' and [later] placed them in his house as [their] residence. One of those Americans had the name Alakhan, and another one was Kiiak. There was a Kalmyk person, Panfil Ivanov, who was a typeof educator for them. In 1789, Golikov, on behalf of Alakhan and Kiiak brought a formal request to the Kursk Theological Council[:] `We, below mentioned, were born, one of us on the most remote of the newly found islands, and another one on the American shores, where [we] had lived according the way of life of the wild peoples who lived there, knowing no faith or law and having no idea of God, [and] were raised in the prevalent ignorance of the true God. In the past year, 1787, being in the care and support of the honorable citizen of Kursk, the merchant Ivan Illarionovich, Mr. Golikov, we were taken out from those places to Russia, where [we] have been staying for more than two years; [we] learned the Russian language and are residing in the house of Mr. Golikov; [we] often listened to instruction from the people in the house: that there is a God, that God's power is like the light and that the earth, and the peoples as well as all the visible and invisible creation (which wisely was created for the good of mankind and was primarily benefitting man) were obligated to [keep] the sacred law [which] dictated what to do and from what to abstain as harmful and against God) raising the hopes [of mankind] from temporary kindness to eternal blissful life. Hearkening to this, we, from [internalizing] his private instruction given to us and honoring the necessity of Christian law and faith which bring salvation, felt in ourselves a strongly moving, sincere and unshakable desire to be among enlightened mankind and to join the Orthodox GreekRussian Church by means of godly sacraments. In preparing for these [sacraments] [we] prepared [ourselves] by learning the symbols of faith and other Christian prayers, so [we] humbly ask this Council, [that we] having known iniquitous nonbelief, be enlightened by sacred baptism and enfolded into Christian society.' The Kalmyk, Panfil Ivanov, whom we mentioned above, signed instead of the illiterate, wild Americans. The Kursk Ecclesiastical Council ordered F.[ather] Ioan Zlotinskii to baptize Alakhan and Kiiak, and upon completing the sacraments, to inform the HighCouncil, who were vospriemnikami vistupali [sponsors/godparents/ receptive witnesses], as to what names were given to the newly baptized. F.[ather] Ioan shortly informed the Dykhovnoe Pravlenie [Ecclesiastical HighCouncil] that Alakhan was named Petr, and Kiiak, Pavel. For the first person [Petr,] the vospriemnikami vistupali were Ivan Golikov and the merchantwoman from Voronezh, Gardenina, and for the second one [Pavel, the godparents] were this very Golikov and his daughter Alexandra. After that, the HighCouncil presented the report, on the event which occurred, to the Bishop of Belgorod and Kursk, [His Very Reverend] Feoktist. He thought that circumstance deserving of the attention of the highest church authorities and informed the Sacred Synod. The newly baptized Americans served as komissioners [salesmen] for Golikov for the business of the American Company but had permanent residence in Kursk. Nothing is known of their later life." (Also see State Archive Kursk Region, F. 108, Op. 8, D. 528, L. 18, 18ob. 2425.) 46 Andreyev, "1788, February ... Petition Submitted to Her Majesty by the Members of the Company I. L. Golikov and G. I. Shelikhov," in Russian Discoveries in the Pacific and in North America in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: A Collection of Materials, translated by Carl Ginsberg (Ann Arbor, Michigan: J. Edwards for the American Council of Learned Societies, 1952), 88. 47 Ivan Peel [Pil'], "Order, LieutenantGeneral Ivan Peel to G. I. Shelikhov, #991, Irkutsk, May 12, 1794," in U.S. Library of Congress, Yudin Collection., Box 1, Folder 4; trans. in DRHA/Documents Relative to the History of Alaska [sometimes written as "America/n (History)"], v. 2, pp. 161163; in Grigorii I. Shelikhov, Voyage to America, 17831786, Alaska History Series, ed. Richard A. Pierce, no. 19 (Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press, 1981) 133134.



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