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What's New in Cleaners and Sanitizers

Ron Schmidt Food Sci. Hum. Nut Univ. of Florida Gainesville, Fl [email protected]

3A Sanitary Standards 5/18/09

ALTERNATIVE TITLE : THE MINDLESS RAMBLINGS OF AN EFFETE ACADEMICIAN

disclaimers

No intended endorsements!! If I do not mention your product, it was not intentional.

Please don't accost me.

Not limited to dairy applications

TODAY VS. YESTERYEAR-- HAVE CLEANING & SANITIZING REQUIREMENTS CHANGED?

Does a hobby horse have a wooden leg?

CLEANING AND SANITIZING OF YESTERYEAR!

Cleaning US Army Water Trailers (water buffaloes) ­ CIRCA 1972

Problem

Accumulate water scale & sludge

Cleaning procedure

Fill tank 2/3 full of 150 F water Add SentolTM detergent ­ 1 oz/gal Drain & rinse Refill with water and cle-ChlorTM - ¾ oz/gal (150F) Drive over 20 miles of rough road Drain & Rinse

[Note: These tanks are aluminum and, therefore, exposure to chemicals should only be periodic]

Source: JohnsonDiversey

THAT OUGHTA DO `ER

COUNTER TREND. TOO CLEAN? LOSING IMMUNE SYSTEMS?

SOURCE: V. ALVAREZ, TAKEN AT OSU DAIRY??

IS CLEANING AND SANITIZING IMPORTANT IN FOOD FACILITY?

Does a one-legged duck swim in a circle?

Why cleaning and sanitizing innovations? Driving forces

CURRENT FOOD INDUSTRY CHALLENGES (FPSA- 2008)

TOP FOUR CHALLENGES

FOOD SAFETY SUSTAINABILITY

CARBON FOOTPRINT GOING GREEN

CONSUMER DEMAND

HEALTH/WELLNESS/OBESITY

COSTS AND AVAILABILITY

DO ANY OF THESE FOUR "CHALLENGES " IMPACT CLEANING & SANITIZING??

Does a pound of flour make a big biscuit?

CLEANING & SANITIZING PROGRAM - INCLUDES

APPROPRIATE MATERIALS WELL DESIGNED CLEANING EQUIPMENT & SYSTEMS APPLICATION, IMPLEMENTATION PEOPLE ISSUES CLEANABLE SURFACES

PRODUCT CONTACT SURFACES Meets sanitary design standards (e.g. 3A, NSF) Other surfaces NON-PRODUCT CONTACT SURFACES

DOCUMENTATION

OTHER GATORS IN THE SWAMP

ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

WASTE TREATMENT SPECIFICATIONS PHOSPHATES OVERALL LOAD (COD) HALOMETHANES

Water use issues

Sustainability trend Mandates from management Recycling, Re-use, Over-loading

CLEANING INCLUDES CHEMISTRY TEMPERATURE MECHANICAL ACTION

CLEANABLE SURFACE

DETERGENT INGREDIENT CHEMISTRY 101

PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

ALTER PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICES (SOLUBILITY, COLLOIDAL STABILITY)

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

MODIFY SOIL COMPONENTS

SPECIALIZED INGREDIENTS

ENZYME INGREDIENTS OTHERS

PHYSICALLY ACTIVE -SURFACTANTS

Anionic Cationic Nonionic Amphoteric Alkaline pH Acid pH

+ +

Negative Positive Neutral Anionic Cationic

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

HIGHLY ALKALINE DETERGENTS

CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) CAUSTIC POTASH (POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE) SAPONIFY FATS

MODERATELY ALKALINE DETERGENTS

PHOSPHATES, SILICATES, CARBONATES TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE (TSP)

CHEMICALLY ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

ACID DETERGENTS

INORGANIC ACIDS

PHOSPHORIC, NITRIC, SULFAMIC, HYDROCHLORIC

ORGANIC ACIDS

HYDROXYACETIC, CITRIC, GLUCONIC

SEQUENTIALLY USED WITH ALKALINE DETERGENTS PREVENTION OF STONE FILMS

ENZYME INGREDIENTS

TYPES

AMYLASES, PROTEASES, LIPASES

ADVANTAGES

LESS ENERGY LESS WASTE PROBLEMS

DISADVANTAGE

USUALLY LIMITED TO COLD SURFACES

CLEANING INNOVATIONS

CHEMICAL INNOVATIONS

Combined ingredients

Chlorinated detergents Oxy ­ detergents Dishwashing detergents (food service)

"2 IN 1" = pretreatment + cleaner "3 IN 1" = pretreatment + cleaner + sanitizer Safety concerns ­ suicides

Specialized cleaners

Foaming Degreasers CIP applications Phosphate ­ free

FOAMING CLEANERS AND DEGREASERS

CHLORINE BASED

FATS/PROTEINS CARBONIZED MATERIAL

NON-CHLORINE

CAUSTIC BASED

PENETRATE/EMULSIFY TOUGH SOILS

NONCAUSTIC - based

CHELATING AGENTS (E.G. SODIUM GLUCOHEPTONATE) WATER STONE, CALCIUM STONE, ETC.

CIP DETERGENTS

Oxygenated Phosphate free Low foaming Others

SPECIAL APPLICATON DETERGENTS

Acid cleaners ­

Phosphoric/other acids Milkstone, beerstone, etc. Soak, spray, circulate

Organic salt ­ wetting agents

Mineral deposits

SOME EXAMPLES -

OXY-DETERGENTS

INTENDED APPLICATIONS

PENETRATION "PRE-TREATMENT" SOFTEN SOILS ON HEATED SURFACES

PROTEIN DEPOSITS AND RELATED SOILS KETTLES PASTEURIZERS, HTSTs

EXAMPLE

EXELERATE HS (ECOLAB)

PEROXYACID-BASED

OTHERS

HIGH PRESSURE OZONE CLEANING (PULSATORTM)

Intended to replace chlorinated cleaners "No residue" cleaning Applications

Meat industry ­ environmental surfaces

GLYCOLIC ACID DETERGENTS (DupontTM)

Environmentally friendly Biodegradable Chloride and phosphate free Cosmetics and lotions

Source

Chemically derived

Chloracetic acid + sodium hydroxide Oxalic acid hydrogenation

Natural

Sugarcane, sugar beets, pineapple, grapes

Applications

Scale removal

Calcium stone Iron scale

Meat, poultry, egg products

ORGANIC ACID DETERGENTS

Phosphate replacement Example

SCALEVA (ARKEMATM) - SCALE REMOVAL

BREWERIES, ETC.

CHEMICAL SANITIZERS ­

CHEMICAL SANITIZERS-IDEAL FEATURES

WIDE RANGE OR SCOPE RAPID KILL STABLE TOLERANT TO BROAD RANGE OF CONDITIONS READILY SOLUBLILIZED/SOME DETERGENCY LOW IN TOXICITY AND CORROSIVITY ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPATIBLE INEXPENSIVE

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

DOCUMENTATION ISSUES

ABILITY TO MONITOR STRENGTH

RELIABLE METHODS

ADAPTABLE TO HACCP SYSTEM

NEW SANITIZER CONSIDERATIONS

CHEMICAL FACTORS

pH WATER QUALITY INACTIVATORS

ORGANIC MATTER DETERGENT RESIDUES

USE CONCENTRATION

BIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

DESTRUCTION MECHANISM MICROBIAL LOAD

LEVEL TYPE SPECIFICITY

BIOFILMS

PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Surface characteristics

Hard surfaces

Reactivity/corrosivity

Direct food contact?

Exposure time

Practical

Temperature

APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS

DIP CIRCULATE SPRAY FOAM FOG

REGULATORY CONCERNS

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA)

REGISTRATION AS A "NO-RINSE SANITIZER" ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY (EFFICACY) ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

FOOD AND DRUG ADMIN. (FDA)

FOOD SAFETY (RESIDUES) HARD SURFACE SANITZERS

INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVE REGS

FOOD SURFACE ANTIMICROBIALS

DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVE REGS

USDA

APPROVAL SYSTEM

SANITIZER INNOVATIONS

CHLORINE TYPE SANITIZERS

CHLORINE - TRADITIONAL

CHLORINE GAS SODIUM, CALCIUM, LITHIUM HYPOCHLORITES POWDERED ORGANIC CHLORINE PRODUCTS

MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION = 200 PPM AVAILABLE CHLORINE

CHLORINE DISADVANTAGES

Toxicity Corrosive Inactivated by organic matter Unstable, short shelf-life Environmental concerns

TRIHALOMETHANES (thms)

CHLORINE ­ ACTIVE FORM

· Hypochlorite and Cl2 form hypochlorous acid (HOCl).

· Hypochlorous acid - active species

NaOCl Ca(OCl)2 Cl2

=>

HOCl

IMPROVEMENTS IN CHLORINE CHEMISTRY

CHLORINE DIOXIDE & RELATED CHEMICALS

CHLORINE DIOXIDE

CL02

MAXIMUM LEVEL DEPENDENT UPON APPLICATION (TYPICAL USE CONCENTRATIONS 1-10 PPM)

CHEMICAL REACTION

NaClO2 + H+

Sodium Chlorite

HClO2

Chlorous Acid

ClO2 + H+

IMPROVEMENTS IN CHLORINE DIOXIDE

"STABILIZED" CHLORINE DIOXIDE

ALKALINE HIGHER STABILITY

CHLORINE DIOXIDE TABLETS AND SACHETS

DRY POWDER ACID INGREDIENT GAS RELEASED UPON WETTING

CHLORINE DIOXIDE SACHETS

SODIUM CHLORITE DRY OR SOLID SUBSTRATE + ACID MIX TO "ACTIVATE"

Source: AseptrolTM www.englehard.com/aseptrol

USES OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE SACHETS

Non-product contact surfaces

Rooms Drains Other

Food product surfaces

Fruits & vegetables Poultry In line treatment

Gas release in conveyor tunnels

Gas release during cold storage

In room In Containers

CHLORINE DIOXIDE SACHETS

ADVANTAGES

GAS REACHES NOOKS AND CRANNYS POOF ­ DONE AND GONE

DISADVANTAGES

VALIDATION OF LEVEL? MAY HAVE SOME CORROSION

Depends on surfaces exposed

ACIDIFIED SODIUM CHLORITE

SODIUM CHLORITE PLUS WEAK ACID

PHOSPHORIC CITRIC MALIC SODIUM HYDROGEN SULFATE

CHEMICAL REACTION

NaClO2 + H+

Sodium Chlorite

HClO2

Chlorous Acid

ClO2

Chlorite Ion

OPTIMUM pH Range

Source: Alcide Corp., Redmond, WA www.alcide.com

ACIDIFIED SODIUM CHLORITE

BROAD SPECTRUM ACTIVITY APPLICATIONS

HARD SURFACE SANITIZER PRODUCT SURFACE ANTIMICROBIAL

DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVE APPROVAL

· MEATS · POULTRY · FRUITS AND VEGETABLES · SEAFOOD

QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (QACS)

BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE SUBSTITUTED BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE

MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION -200 PPM

QAC - INNOVATIONS

VARIOUS SUBSTITUTIONS

R GROUPS

DUALQUATS TWIN CHAIN QUATS COMBINATIONS WITH OTHER CHEMICALS ADJUNCT INGREDIENTS

QAC INNOVATIONS

SPECIALIZED SANITIZERS

SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS

LOWER FOAMING IMPROVED HARD WATER TOLERANCE

ACID SANITIZERS

Acid sanitizers - traditional

Acid anionic Carboxylic acid (e.g. Fatty acids)

ACID SANITIZER INNOVATIONS

Combinations of acids

fatty acids with strong acids

Butyric, valeric, Propionic, decanoic, octanoic Nitric

COMBINATIONS WITH OTHER CHEMICALS

SURFACTANTS FOAMING AGENTS CHLORINE PEROXY ACIDS

OXY- SANITIZERS

OXY SANITIZERS

Hydrogen peroxide Percarboxylic acids

Peroxyacetic (e.g. Peracetic) Peroctanoic Perdecanoic Others

PEROXY ACID REACTIONS

H2O2 + R- COOH R- COO-OH + H2O

INNOVATIONS - PEROXY ACID BLENDS AND COMBINATIONS

Combinations with other peroxy acids Combinations with strong acids

Peroxy acid/Nitric acid Potent descaler

OZONE - 03

OZONE-03 OZONE-0 ADVANTAGES

POWERFUL BACTERIOCIDE & VIRCUCIDE BROAD SPECTRUM

OZONE-03 OZONE-0 DISADVANTAGES

pH SENSITIVE TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE SENSITIVE TO ORGANICS, INORGANICS SAFETY ISSUES TOXICITY COST CORROSIVE

OZONE INNOVATIONS

PRIMARILY IN THE APPLICATION SYSTEM ???

OZONE APPLICATIONS

WATER & ICE TREATMENT FRESH PRODUCE APPLICATIONS HARD SURFACE SANITIZER

ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

Non product contact surfaces

FOOD CONTACT SURFACES ???

Other hard surface sanitizers

Gluteraldehyde Environmental surfaces Applications

Clinical uses Food??

· Toxicity issues

Nitrofuranes

BACTOKILLTM (SUNDERAM) CLEAN AND SANITIZE IN SINGLE OPERATION

SUGGESTED APPLICATIONS

· DAIRY CIP · BREWING INDUSTRY

APPROVAL STATUS ­ US ??

"TESTED BY FDA APPROVED LABORATORIES "

ULTRAVIOLET (UV) LIGHT

Applications

Environmental sanitation Fresh produce surface antimicrobial

Tumbling systems Light wand (advertised in sky mall) Other systems

ELECTROLYZED WATER

ELECTRO-CHEMICAL ACTIVATION (ECA) TECHNOLOGY

Electrolyzed water Super-oxidized water Ionized water Activated water Energized water

ELECTROLYZED WATER IN FOOD SANITATION ­ FROM SODIUM CHLORIDE

Neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) Acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW) Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) water Alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) Electrolyzed Reducing (ER) water

ACTIVE SPECIES GENERATION

Free radicals, active oxygen, hydrogen peroxide Ozone gas Oxygen gas Chlorine Derivatives

Chlorine, hypochlorous acid, hypochloric acid, hypochlorite

Hydrogen gas Sodium hydrate Sodium hydroxide

Acidic EW (EO Water) ­

The type most commonly used in food applications examples

Hard surface sanitizer

environmental sanitation Food service - sanitizing cutting boards

Product surface antimicrobial

Fresh-cut vegetable operations Fish operations

OTHER ANTIMICROBIALS

Organic acid dips

Lactic acid & others

Chilled beef carcass treatment Fresh produce

Ultra-sonic systems Bacteriophages ­ "bacteria eating viruses" Chitosan & trichlosan Redox Agents

Silver

Plant extracts

Thiocyanate Cyanuric acid (hmmm!!) Garlic extract

INNOVATIONS IN APPLICATION SYSTEMS

Combining chemistry with engineering CIP Cleaning innovations Environmental cleaning/sanitation

Improved contact/efficiency

Spray nozzle design

· Trigger vs. trigger-less design

Low Pressure Foaming ­ improve soak/penetration

Water saving

High pressure/low volume

LOW PRESSURE FOAM

"No Chemical" Cleaning & sanitizing

SUPERHEATED "DRY "STEAM SYSTEMS

"Dry" Steam Systems

Advantages

No chemicals Water savings Efficient cleaning Dries surfaces

Disadvantages

Variation in stream Variation in penetrating power Cost factors variable Surface effects

ADDITIONAL ISSUES & COMMENTS

INNOVATIONS BRING CHALLENGES

ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE? NEW SURFACES ­ NEW CHALLENGES?

FOOD SURFACE INNOVATIONS

NON-PRODUCT CONTACT SURFACES NON-METALS

NEW PLASTICS NEW RUBBERS SPECIALTY APPLICATIONS

SURFACE TREATMENTS & COATINGS ANTIMICROBIAL SURFACES

SILVER ALLOYS OTHERS BLACK BOX WIZARDRY??

ACTIVE PACKAGING

QUESTIONS?

Information

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