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Aug 09 May09 Deep Dive DeepDive With unemployment at a 25-year high, one might think that attracting, engaging, and retaining talent could justifiably be last on the list of an organization's priorities. But that's not the case, for several reasons. Especially now that nearly every business is operating lean, rapid innovation is more important than ever to differentiate and stay competitive. New skills needed for knowledge jobs place a premium on having the right workers. And the global economy has created higher demand for advanced skills, turning up the heat even more on the pressure cooker. All of this means that, especially now, finding and keeping the right talent is critical for assuring an organization's survival -- and its ability to thrive when the economy begins to recover again. But even with the brightest and the best on staff, successful talent management strategy can't stop there. More than ever, attracting and retaining talent is about securing engagement and mindshare, and simply having people on the payroll doesn't guarantee that goal. Engaging and motivating workers are especially tough tasks today. Following widespread downsizing and restructuring, 75% of layoff survivors acknowledge that their productivity has declined, and on any given day as much as 76% of the workforce is looking for other employment opportunities.1 The workplace has a significant impact on these talent challenges. "Top-performing companies -- those with higher profits, better employee engagement and stronger market and brand position-- have significantly higher-performing work environments than average companies," according to research by global architecture and design firm Gensler.2 Yet a big gap remains between what many offices provide and what workers need. The Steelcase Workplace Satisfaction Survey, a global research tool designers have used with over 133 clients and nearly 23,000 respondents to understand a variety of workplace issues that impact employee satisfaction, shows that a work environment that helps attract and retain employees is important to workers, but it's also the single biggest issue not being met. In fact, it's been the most frequently cited unmet need each year since the Survey began in 2004.3

How the Workplace Can Attract, Engage & Retain Knowledge Workers

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Office Attraction

The workplace has long been employed as a tool to attract, engage, and retain talent, but how it does that continues to change. 1950s & 60s The chance for a private office, maybe even in a corner location, helps attract and motivate the man in the gray flannel suit. 1970s & 80s Signature buildings with big atriums, dramatic lobbies, and assigned cubicles for everyone are icons of successful, desirable employers. 1990s & 00s Dot-com companies popularize foosball and pool tables, casual dress codes, and more informal work environments. 2009 ­ Workers seek flexible, anywhere/ anytime workspace, technology and customization.

The reasons so many workplaces are a hindrance in the talent challenge are complex, but all fundamentally trace to significant but still often-overlooked shifts in how work is being done today. Understanding these changes is essential to planning high-performance work environments that attract, retain and help knowledge workers be productive and innovate. In this paper, we explore how workers and their behaviors have changed during the recent past and then share the findings of new primary research conducted by Steelcase that documents the latest shifts in worker attitudes and how these are, in turn, affecting the workplace. In particular, we explore the permeating influence of the youngest generation, Generation Y, whose ways of working and expectations of the workplace are now being adopted by workers of all ages, thereby influencing the workplace faster than any other generation and the talent challenge as a whole. Finally, we offer new strategies for planning workplaces to attract, engage, and retain knowledge workers who can continuously grow their capabilities and help carry their organizations forward. New work, new workplace Every organization has knowledge workers -- people charged with creating and evaluating knowledge, thinking creatively, analyzing and solving business problems, and helping the company innovate and grow. These workers, dubbed the "creative class" by author Richard Florida, total some 40 million workers, more than a third of the national workforce.4 They account for nearly half of all wage and salary income, almost as much as the manufacturing and service sectors combined, and their numbers are growing. As the ranks of the creative class grow, so do the number and diversity of the places where they work. Teams are distributed across time zones and routinely work together via phone, email, videoconference, shared files, and other technology. Team work dominates knowledge work today because collaboration is the basis for getting to new ideas faster, innovating, and staying ahead of the competition. The workplace, as a result, is changing -- or needs to --for an organization to

attract and retain talent. Individual workspaces are shrinking and the freed-up space is being used for more shared spaces that people can adapt to the work at hand, whether it's individual task work or collaborating with others both in person or via technology. The best workplaces easily adapt to these new ways of working. When workers can adapt their environment to their work, it saves money and time in reconfiguration and allows the organization to use space more efficiently. When the workplace better supports workers, business results improve, and so do worker attraction, engagement, satisfaction, and retention. Planning and managing this new workplace begins with understanding the types of knowledge work and the different kinds of knowledge that result from them. Four types of knowledge work Creative class workers--whether designers or architects, scientists, or consultants -- use four modes of knowledge work in their day-to-day business. These four modes, as described in the seminal book, The Knowledge-Creating Company, by Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, are essential to the process of building knowledge that in turn drives creativity and innovation5: · Focusing Concentrating and attending to a specific task; thinking, close study, contemplation, reflection, analysis, and other "head down" work best performed without interruption. · Collaborating Working with one or more people to achieve a goal, such as collectively creating content; listening, discussing, presenting information and ideas, brainstorming, etc. Ideally, all perspectives are equally respected, brought together to leverage the group's shared mind. · Learning Building knowledge through education or experience. Whether in a classroom or a conversation with peers, learning happens best by doing, building on what's already known. When people make their thinking visible to each another, learning is accelerated and becomes an integrated part of an organization's culture. · Socializing Talking, interacting, networking, mentoring, celebrating, sharing along interpersonal connections or "pathways"

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that lead to common bonds and values and build the essential element of trust on which learning, cooperation, and collaboration depend. More work is accomplished through these informal social networks than through organizational hierarchies.6 Social networks are vital to a company's health and growth, and form a true competitive advantage because of their ability to produce new knowledge and innovation. Considering the activities involved in these four modes of knowledge work, the importance of workplace support for them becomes clear. Adding proof to the premise, environments that best support these modes are found in the best companies -- companies rated "excellent" in seven of eight success factors (ranging from financial strength, developing quality products and services, attracting and retaining talent, to leadership in their industry), Gensler found. Further, considering how three of the four modes involve communication and collaboration with others, it's not surprising top companies spend significantly more time collaborating, socializing, and learning than average companies.7 Going forward, to be an employer of choice, organizations must provide workplaces that support all four work modes, a dramatic departure from the cubicle farms of the past. Especially since talent attracts talent, workplaces that support workers in the new ways of working also help recruit strong candidates to the talent pipeline.

Supporting knowledge development In the four work modes, creative class workers create and employ two types of knowledge: explicit and tacit. Explicit knowledge is the formal, systematic information typically found in procedures and manuals. Tacit knowledge is deeply personal, hard to formalize and share with others; it is learned only by experience and communicated indirectly through metaphor, analogy, and side-by-side doing. The difference between explicit and tacit can be compared to the difference between learning a foreign language by reading a grammar text or by listening and repeating the language with others. Tacit knowledge is accrued through experience and often conveyed the same way. For example, it's primarily tacit knowledge, gained through years of experience, that companies want their Baby Boomer workers to share with Generation X and Generation Y workers. Sharing tacit knowledge requires developing personal connections and trust, a kind of connective tissue between colleagues. Once established, it lays the foundation for genuine collaboration, and that increases the speed and quality of ideas in an organization. Planning and designing a better workplace for knowledge workers requires new solutions for the four types of work and the explicit and tacit knowledge that results from them. It also requires another key ingredient: better understanding and

support for the multi-generational workforce. This goes beyond simply accommodating the younger generation in the workforce, which has been the focus of many recent business articles and books, but fundamentally involves understanding how quickly this new generation's attitudes and behaviors are being adopted by other generations, and how this impacts the workplace. A confluence of generations Each generation has singular qualities. And each generation's workstyles and attitudes are changing. Collectively, the older generations are rapidly adopting many of the youngest generation's behaviors. Indeed, it can be argued, any worker's agility and ability to adapt to new ways of working is an indicator of their ongoing value in today's changing workplace. A quick review of each generation sets the stage for understanding what's happening: The Baby Boomers have been thoroughly researched and reported, but a few recent behaviors are key. One is that this largest generation in the workplace (76 million strong) isn't going to retire quickly. Thanks to the plunge in retirement accounts as well as improved health in general and a need for experienced people in business, Boomers are delaying retirement and working longer. This allows more time for them to mentor younger workers, effectively downloading their tacit knowledge, the accumulated wisdom of their working years.

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Secondly, there is timeliness to Boomers' tacit knowledge. Boston Consulting Group suggests Boomers can be of particular assistance in the current economic crisis because their generation remembers how they handled the last economic downturn.8 Mentoring, clearly, is part of the socializing work mode. Thirdly, Boomers easily acquire work styles and attitudes of their younger counterparts. Consider how many now use iPods and Facebook, technologies first adopted by younger generations. Whether it's children or co-workers who bring them along, Boomers have proven themselves capable and eager to be at the cusp of what's now and what's next. Generation X workers, who will take over leadership positions from the Boomers, missed the working years before "rightsizing" became part of everyday life. To this generation of 50 million people, layoffs, mergers, and reorganizations are an expected part of business. Over time, that's taken a toll on their loyalty and patience. They dislike corporate politics and bureaucracy, yet they take on responsibility gladly, especially if it comes with flexibility to manage work/ life balance. According to one source, Gen X managers "will need to be adept at a few things that earlier generations, with their more hierarchical management styles and relative geographical insularity, never really had to learn. One of those is collaborative decision-making that might involve team members scattered around the world... whom the nominal leader of a given project may never have met in person." The youngest workers, Generation Y (aka Millennials), are the fastest-growing segment of the workforce; 32 million are already working. Their short business track record invites speculation. From one perspective, they "seem to be presenting a particular challenge to employers everywhere... a `diva' generation: highmaintenance, out for themselves, lacking in loyalty, thinking only of the short term and their own place in it."10 Another view suggests, "This generation's best and brightest... possess significant strengths in teamwork, technology skills, social networking and multitasking. Millennials were bred for achievement, and most

will work hard if the task is engaging and promises a tangible payoff."11 New research, new findings To achieve a deeper understanding of Generation Y and their influence on the workplace, the Steelcase WorkSpace Futures team recently conducted a ninemonth study. Participants included 162 workers in nine U.S. companies -- ranging from regional firms with a few hundred employees to global corporations with over 100,000 employees -- within four major industries: IT & engineering, manufacturing, finance, and consulting. Researchers from Penn State University and Georgia Institute of Technology also collaborated in stages of this effort. The project employed a user-centered design process, beginning with foundations in a broad cut of secondary research. The team conducted observations using a variety of techniques and activities. Researchers synthesized the findings through the lens of the physical environment to develop space-planning solutions. The Steelcase research indicates that Gen Y's workstyle is influencing work and the workplace faster than previous generations, and several behaviors stand out in their portrait: · High-intensity work -- Gen Y easily uses two monitors and keyboards, frequently checks with peers for feedback and collaboration, shifts easily between focused work and other modes, and multi-tasks to unprecedented levels. This intense lifestyle is something they grew up with and now bring to the office. · Extremefocus -- Comfortable working with and among others, Gen Y workers can focus their attention and activity with laser-like precision on a specific task. It's not uncommon to see them working intently on a laptop or smart phone screen amid a chaotic work environment. They can settle quickly in a lounge chair or a corner of a project room, deploy ear buds, iPod, and a Zen-like focus to shut out distractions and get a job done. · Megamulti-tasking--Their lives have been packed schedules of school, sports,

clubs, and other activities, with a frenetic pace unknown to earlier generations. Technology, mass media, and the Internet have forced this generation to manage an ongoing torrent of information and communication. As a result, speed, change, and uncertainty are normal for Gen Y, and multitasking has become a necessity to cope with relentless information and activity. These workers become restless and bored quickly, and are constantly looking for the next challenge. · Peer-to-peernetworking -- Social networking (Twitter, Facebook, etc.) is like breathing for Gen Y. While Boomers have picked up on it and many now feel comfortable sending digital photos to a colleague for feedback, Gen Y has been checking in regularly with peers since high school. They keep a chat line open almost continuously. The Y factor: eight major shifts The Steelcase research project findings uncovered eight significant shifts happening in the workplace. Jumpstarted by Gen Y, these eight workplace shifts now represent basic changes in attitudes and behaviors of creative class workers across generations and across industries. Because they represent significant changes in the rules of engagement between employers and employees, they have important implications for attracting and retaining talent in a knowledge-intensive economy. Shift #1 From: Personal achievement through career To: Personal identification beyond work People formerly planned a single career, with regular advancement up the ladder in exchange for trade-offs. Roles and responsibilities were clear. Titles, pay, office size, and accoutrements signified achievements. Today, the corporate ladder has been replaced by a web or lattice of job changes and career shifts. Workers seek a clear vision of the organization's purpose and plan, and purposeful work that has meaning to their life. Workers are as loyal to the company as the company is to them.

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Shift #2 From: The workplace is my office To: The workplace is wherever I am The office used to be based on the organization chart and maximizing real estate. Most work happened in a personal workspace or other (meeting, conference) rooms in the same building. Work now happens anywhere, anytime, and work environments must be flexible, active, social, and technologyladen. Accumulating face time has been replaced by accomplishing results. Shift #3 From: Technology is a tool To: Technology is a part of me Under the old paradigm, technology was a helpful tool workers used as needed. Now, innovative technology offers provocative ways to communicate, collaborate, and manipulate the coin of the realm, knowledge. Technology tools even anticipate our needs: software fills in our thoughts before we can finish typing them, while Twitter, RSS feeds, and text messages continually tug at our sleeves, offering more information and ideas. Shift #4 From: Trust is developed in person To: Trust is developed both offline and online Trust was formed one way in the past: face-to-face. But shared online experiences offer faster ways to communicate and engage with others, and let us initiate and deepen relationships. The advantages of this virtual trust building ­ unprecedented speed, limitless contacts, and no real boundaries ­ are demonstrated continually on Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, etc. They aren't called social networks for nothing. Shift #5 From: Conformity To: Identity At one time, job security and employment for life were not unreasonable expectations. Today they are distant memories

for Boomers and unknown to younger workers. Career expectations and personal identity have shifted from decades with one company to a need for autonomy, the right location, and interesting projects. Workers desire to make an impact through work and the collective success of their project team. Companies are admired less for the tenure of their workers than for commitment to identifiable ideals such as sustainability, diversity, and other best practices. Shift #6 From: Training To: Growth The creative class looks at a career like a Swiss Army knife: multi-faceted and quick-changing. Workers today are less likely to be scheduled by their boss for specific job training and more willing to take charge of their career skills, with a longterm view of their own personal growth and development. Instead of learning skills in formal training seminars, they are more likely to learn in peer-to-peer knowledge trading, blogs and forums, and online sites. Shift #7 From: Work and life are separate To: Work and life are one The clear separation between work (office, meetings, transactions) and life (family, play, social activities) has shifted to a blurring of work and personal lives, if not a fully realized 24/7 work/life. Since work often intertwines with personal life (nighttime email, off-hours phone calls, online meetings, etc.), there's increasing demand for supporting personal needs through the workplace, such as onsite health and fitness facilities, flexible scheduling, telecommuting, etc. Shift #8 From: Serial collaboration To: Continuous connection From scheduled meetings, formal agendas, and leader-led discussions, business collaboration has shifted to a continuous series

of connections with colleagues, suppliers, clients, and other creative class workers who are both co-located and distributed. Social capital that was once built through infrequent collaboration is now built through networks, both in-person and digital. These are major shifts in the thinking and behavior of the creative class as a whole, with huge implications for how well a company attracts, engages, and retains talent. Comprehensively, we term them "the Y factor." Where knowledge workers once placed primary importance on a company's size, brand image, and history, the emphasis is shifting to how well the company can support a worker's preferred workstyle, how quickly it can adapt to changing work and market demands, and how well it supports work/ life integration. Workers are evaluating how much they can learn and grow in a job as closely as they examine compensation and benefits. For many organizations, the workplace must change dramatically if the company wants to attract, engage, and retain today's creative class worker. Planninganddesigningthenew workplace Steelcase researchers and designers have developed a set of workplace planning strategies, then prototyped and tested them in actual use. They begin with an overarching concept about a range of settings and extend to planning considerations for workplaces that will attract, engage, and retain creative class workers today. In contrast to the past when offices were individually owned and occupied and focused work was the primary work mode, today workers are networked across geography and time zones, and require a range of shared settings that connect them with others who are nearby, as well as those who sometimes visit and those based elsewhere and are present only virtually. Such a distributed workforce requires a "palette of place," which in the workplace means a range of settings where all four knowledge work modes are supported. Some of these workspaces will be onsite at the business,

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others may be in satellite workplaces, client spaces, home offices, third places, etc. Given the shifts that have occurred in attitudes, we believe that the extent to which a workplace reflects these new design strategies is an indicator of how successfully it will attract, engage, and retain today's most desirable workers: 1.Providespacesthatreflect"me" Creative class workers want to express their individuality and uniqueness. Led by Gen Y but embraced by all three generations, today's knowledge workers want spaces that reflect how they see themselves: as creative individuals. · Considerhowspacesendsmessages about a company's culture · Breakthebox:eliminatethecubeand Dilbertville · Leveragecolor,texture,finishes,and lighting · Supportemotionalconnections to the environment, e.g. allowing workers to store and display personal materials · Supportpersonalization,suchas mobile workspace tools and components, display of personal and team work and artifacts, and other materials that demonstrate individuality 2.Providesociallyconscious environments Generation Y is very aware of the impact of individual choices and their long-term effects on the world. From the food they consume to the establishments they visit, they vote with their patronage and deliberately seek out companies that reflect their values. These attitudes have found a receptive audience in older workers, such as Boomers who inaugurated Earth Day and Gen Xers who grew up in an age of shortages and consolidations. Today, most creative class workers are particularly interested in working for companies that are socially conscious and invest in both the local community and the world at large.

A Palette of Place

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· Makesureenvironmentalsustainability is an authentic part of the organization's mission; today's workers spot "greenwashing" from a distance · UseLEEDbuildingpractices · Createandselectproductsthataregood for both the user and the environment · Considerthe"triplebottomline measure" of the workplace: its economic, social, and environmental impacts and benefits · Useproductsthatpromoteenergy efficiency 3.Provideorganizationaltransparency A big challenge for organizations today is acculturating the workforce. Traditionally, over the course of a long career working in one building or campus, workers developed a nuanced understanding of an organization by living and breathing the culture. Today, knowledge workers want to know as much as possible about an organization before they set foot in the door, since careers may be limited to a few years or even a series of projects with a company. It's important to support an easy-access view into the organization and provide workspaces that communicate the culture, values, and mission of the company.

· Considerusinginfills,movablescreens, and other surfaces to reinforce the brand throughout the organization · Createteamhubspacesthatconnect to other project teams · Createspacestocelebratethediversity of functional teams and allow for views into the practice · Createorganizationalhubsand digital media to stream content about the organization · Considertheroleoftheworkspacein making thinking tangible; provide the ability to... - display and share vision, goals, and achievements - project content from a laptop or PC to a larger display for sharing - capture content easily, with portable and interactive white boards, etc. 4. Support personal growth through constant feedback and mentoring opportunities Creative class workers are highly educated and life-long l earners. They manage their own careers and continuously monitor the external situation against their own internal standards. To engage and retain them, organizations need to provide multiple

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options for continuing education and regular feedback on performance. For example, today's workplace offers an ideal opportunity to match experienced Boomers with Gen Y workers who are eager for mentors. To support sharing experiential tacit knowledge, mentoring spaces are a part of the palette of place in every high-performance work environment. · Providenon-hierarchicalandinformal collaboration settings · Providearangeofsettingswithvarying levels of privacy · Providesmallteamsettingsthat encourage sharing and feedback activities · Provideopenfloorplanstoencourage acculturation and learning, i.e. lower panel heights or bench applications

· Makemanagersmoreaccessiblethrough physical adjacencies and private offices with glass fronts · Createspacesthatcelebratepast successes 5. Reflect work-lifestyle integration The creative class has a strong desire for work-life balance. As a means to attract knowledge workers, companies are becoming increasingly creative in the amenities they provide, such as flexible workweeks, telecommuting and other emerging work strategies, and on-site services to make worker lives easier. · Integratephysicalwell-beingintodaily work activities, e.g. adjustable-height workstations, ergonomic seating, movable monitor supports, etc.

· Provideameanstogetawaywithout going away, e.g. decompression rooms or places for contemplation · Considerthemergingofworkand home by providing offices that feel more like living room spaces · Supportworkthatmaybeshiftedto home offices · Supportanactivelifestylebyproviding onsite fitness facilities 6.Matchcognitiveintensity The workplace is much more than simply dedicated "Me" and "We" spaces. The creative class requires a broader range of workspaces that provide the appropriate environmental experience for a particular task. In particular is the need for workers to choose places they can "amp up or down." For example, following an intense session of building content with a team, people often need a place to throttle down from all the sensory stimulation of conversation, content immersion, media, etc. People demonstrate this need after an intense work session by stopping into a café for refreshment, walking outdoors for a change of environment, etc. At times everyone needs environments with more ­ or less ­ visual and auditory stimulation. The key is allowing people to choose how much stimulation they need and their proximity to it. Being able to choose your space to amp up or down is a way to match cognitive intensity with space and personal requirements. · Providearangeofsettingstofitwork needs and mood · Considernoise,music,andlight-level interactions · Allowforimprovedconcentration through zoning, acoustical clouds, or signaling devices · Supportquick-switchingworktasks · Optimizeworkspacesformulti-tasking · Supportquickswitchingandmultitasking between different activities:

Workplace Shifts Overview

Steelcase researchers identified eight significant shifts happening in the workplace that result from the pervasive influence of Generation Y. Each calls for different space considerations and new best practices to successfully attract, engage and retain talent.

SHIFT FROM Personal achievement through a career The workplace is my office Technology is a tool Trust is developed in person Conformity Training Work & life are separate Serial collaboration

SHIFT TO Personal identification beyond work The workplace is wherever I am Technology is a part of me Trust is developed both offline and online Identity Growth Work & life are one Continuous connection

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- Adjacencies to different work processes - Allow for work and personal tools: physical and digital 7. Leverage social networks Despite the rapid increase in the development of broad social net-works, people still work in an office because of the power of place and the need to interact with colleagues. Yet the development of trust networks with colleagues is changing as speed and access to information increases. Workers are using social networking, which provides context to better understand the person with whom they're communicating, unlike traditional email systems that offer little information about the user.

There's opportunity to capitalize on different ways of forming bonds between people by providing both virtual and physical environments that support interactions with peers. · Providesocialcollaborativesettings that also support focused work · Leveragein-betweenspacesas impromptu gathering spaces for collaboration · Providetoolsforvideoconferencing and remote collaboration · Provideintegratedteamspacesto support co-located team collaboration · Supportbriefsporadicmeetingsat individual workspaces · Allowforthequickswitchbetween "Me" and "We" work

8. Design with technology in mind Since technology is not a means to an end for creative class workers but an extension of who they are, they desire continuous connection to people and information no matter where they are. · Providesmartfurnitureproducts with intuitive tech support · Supporttheincreaseinnumber and size of displays · Supportagreaterrangeofwork postures associated with use of mobile devices · Supportwork-specificsoftwareand hardware tools · Employsoundmaskingforopen workspaces · Supportmobiletechnologytools

What criteria will your company use to make strategic real estate decisions in the next 12 months? (1 = least important, 7 = most important)

Generational Diversity in the Workplace Environmental Sustainability Reinforce Culture & Brand Geography Employee Attraction & Retention Effectiveness / Productivity Efficiency / Cost Reduction

2.27 3.27 3.28 3.8 4.39 5.69 6.32

Source: Steelcase CoreNet study.

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The importance of place Considered together, these eight design considerations represent a significant change in workplaces for knowledge workers, and many companies realize the need and the opportunity. A recent study by CoreNet Global for Steelcase found that attracting and retaining talent was high on the list of criteria that real estate executives will use to make strategic real estate decisions in the next 12 months. It was exceeded only by efficiency/cost reduction and effectiveness/productivity criteria in driving workplace decisions.12 These executives have insight that a workplace that helps attract, engage, and retain knowledge workers is not an option for companies that want to lead and survive. By changing the "attract & retain" model to "attract and grow," organizations acknowledge how knowledge work has changed, how worker attitudes and behaviors are changing, and how the creative class -- of any generation -- can be supported to do what they do best: learn, create, and innovate. A high-performance workplace that attracts and grows these workers does require an investment ­ in understanding the shifts unfolding in the workforce and what today's workers value most, and then reinventing the workplace to fully accommodate them. It's an investment in strategic design and space planning, and, ultimately, in the talent that drives the organization. Jobs will be plentiful again. Attracting and growing talent, even now a challenge, will only become more difficult. Companies that create a high-performance workplace give themselves a clear competitive advantage ­ immediately today, and in the years ahead.

Acknowledgements Steelcase conducts ongoing research on work, workers, and the workplace, and this research forms the basis of our perspective on how the physical workplace can help attract, engage, and retain knowledge workers. We are grateful to our colleagues in the A&D industry for sharing their reactions, insights, and ideas about the issues discussed in this article. Several individuals contributed thoughtful perspective on these issues and helped shape this article. Our sincere thanks to: Bethany Davis, Workplace Concepts & Strategy, Nokia, New York, NY Roy Huebner, Executive Director, Wolcott Architecture & Interiors, Culver City, CA Corenet Global

Endnotes

"The 2009 Employee Engagement, Retention & Loyalty Seminars," The Conference Board, New York, NY, www.conference-board.org/retention, accessed June 18, 2009

1 2

Gensler 2008 Workplace Survey/United States

The Steelcase Workplace Satisfaction Survey, conducted continuously since 2004; data accessed June 30, 2009

3 4

www.creativeclass.com, accessed June 17, 2009

The Knowledge-Creating Company, Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, Oxford University Press, 1995

5

Rob Cross and Laurence Prusak, "The People That Make Organizations Stop ­ Or Go", Harvard Business Review, 2002, Vol. 80, No. 6

6 7

Ibid., Gensler

"A Longer Goodbye," by Claudia H. Deutsch, The New York Times, April 21, 2008

8

"When Gen X Runs the Show," by Anne Fisher, Time Magazine, May 25, 2000

9

"Work 2.0 Survey - My generation," Management Today, March 1, 2008

10

"The Millennial Generation Goes to Work," by Ron Alsop, The Wall Street Journal, October 21, 2008

11

Reducing the Portfolio and Maximizing the Use of Existing Space" research report; survey completed for Steelcase by CoreNet Global, April 2009

12

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