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LNG Issues in UK

Universita' di Padova ­ 22 June 2007

Cav Sandro Macchietto Prof of Process Systems Engineering Director Energy Futures Lab

www.imperial.ac.uk/energyfutureslab

UK & Gas

· Self sufficient · Physically isolated g p · Single operator (British Gas) · Net importer · Connected g · Deregulated

Supply & Demand

Demand

Domestic Supply

Gas Issues

· Supply/Demand

­ A il bilt price volatility, interoperability Availabilty, i l tilit i t bilit

· Infrastructure

­N t Network k

· Pipelines, LNG terminals

­ Storage

· Operational variability ­ short term · Seasonal ­ medium term · Strategic ­ long term

· Planning in a deregulated market

Gas Projects

~20% of demand 20%

~20% of demand 20%

???

LNG Projects

Project P j GAS INFRASTRUCTURE IMPORT Owner/ P O / Proposer Size Si Date D Status S Under U d Construction Interconnector from Balgzand to Bacton (the `BBL' pipeline) Dragon LNG terminal at Milford Haven BBL Potential capacity up to 44 Mcm/day First train up to y, p 16.5 Mcm/day, up to a maximum of 27 Mcm/day during peak periods 30 Mcm/day y 30 Mcm/day 11.3 Mcm/day 17 Mcm/day at plateau Phase 2 expansion for an additional 24 Mcm/day First gas planned December 2006 First gas Q4 2007 Under construction ­ on track for commissioning 1 December 2006 Under construction. Planning permission for g p pipeline and above ground installations ongoing Under construction. Under construction. Under construction Project approved by both UK and Norwegian Governments Engineering, Procurement and Construction Contracts have been awarded for Phase 2 Pre-planning epa g Yes Yes

Petroplus/BG/ Petronas

Yes

South Hook LNG terminal at Milford Haven Phase 1 South Hook LNG terminal at Milford Haven Phase 2 Gasport LNG terminal at Teesside Statfjord Late Life project; delivery via FLAGS pipeline Isle of Grain LNG import and storage facility; expansion of existing site

Q Qatar Petroleum Exxon-Mobil Qatar Petroleum Exxon-Mobil Excelerate Energy Statoil

/ /

Winter 2007/2008 2009 First gas planned Q1 2007 First gas planned 2007/08 Phase 2 due for completion in Q4 2008

Yes Yes Yes

National Grid

LNG terminal at NG te a Terminal, Teesside Canvey Island LNG

No sea Norsea

O Oil

Co oco Conoco Philips ps

To be confirmed o co ed

First gas planned st p a ed 2012/2013 To be confirmed

Calor

5.4 Bcm

Planning refused

permission

Technology can change th T h l h the playing field -1

LNG Terminal & Regass plant

Traditional ship p

$800m

On-board Re-gass. (Excelerate) $250m

$80m

More flexible source destination networks source-destination Price driven global market, spot market (more like oil)

Technology can change th T h l h the playing field - 2

· LNG storage is expensive ( 162C) (-162C)

Concrete LNG tanks?

Proposed in academic papers in 1970s... Risk due to permeability of concrete ?

Courtesy of

LNG t k model-based d i tanks: d lb d design

A m b ie n t te m p e ra tu re r H e a t fro m e n v ir n m e n t ro O u te r w a ll P e rlite in s u la tio n Rte es lin e r n t b la n k e t e l ilie l S Gas junction Gas pillow

Mass & heat transfer due to surface vaporisation Compressor Empty Fill Recycle

Liquid

Steel liner Plain concrete

LNG Tank Ground base

100 m

Ground foam Electric blanket

Ground base

Deep ground temperature at given geographic location

Predict heat gain from environment; dynamics of tank g ; y "breathing" to optimise amount of insulation, power supply to electric blanket, ... Is electric blanket necessary ?

Courtesy of

All-concrete All concrete LNG tank modelling in gPROMS

· Detailed modelling of permeation mechanism h i ­ including partial vaporisation of liquid NG in concrete pores Couple to focussed experimental programme ­ use model-based design of g experiments ­ estimate key concrete pa a ete s o small samples parameters from s a sa p es Predict LNG loss for large-scale tank

·

·

substantially cheaper tank! b t ti ll h t k!

Courtesy of

Thank Th k you

s. [email protected]

Educational Outputs M.Sc. Courses Research Training

The Energy Futures Lab

Energy E Supply Chain Methods & Impact

Energy Sources

Energy Demand

Cross-Cutting Themes Urban Energy Systems Integrated Clean Fossil Fuels Bio energy Bio-energy Energy-wise Products & Services

Fossil Fuels Energy Vectors Transport Systems Systems modelling Future Nuclear F t N l Optimised Transmission O ti i d T i i Building Design B ildi D i Economics & Policy Renewable Energy Storage Personal Systems Risk Transition Strategies Conversion Technology Demand Management Information technologies Monitoring & control services Environmental impact

Societal Objectives

Environment Competitiveness Security of supply Social impacts

Industrial Relevance

Direction & steering g Collaborative projects Feasibility & prototyping Technology transfer

Information

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