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EDGE, HSPA, LTE ­ Broadband Innovation

Peter Rysavy, Rysavy Research September 2008

Full white paper available for free download at www.3gamericas.org

1

Key Conclusions (1)

· Persistent innovation created EDGE, which was a significant advance over GPRS; HSPA and HSPA+, which are bringing UMTS to its full potential; and is i now d li i LTE th most powerful, wide-area wireless t h l delivering LTE, the t f l id i l technology ever developed. GSM/UMTS has an overwhelming global position in terms of subscribers subscribers, deployment, and services. Its success will marginalize other wide-area wireless technologies. In current deployments, HSPA users regularly experience throughput rates well in excess of 1 megabit per second (Mbps), under favorable conditions, on both downlinks and uplinks. Planned enhancements will increase these peak user achievable throughput rates with 4 Mbps on commercial networks user-achievable rates, being commonly measured.

·

·

2

Key Conclusions (2)

· HSPA Evolution provides a strategic performance roadmap advantage for incumbent GSM/UMTS operators. HSPA+ with 2x2 MIMO, successive interference cancellation, and 64 Q d t i t f ll ti d Quadrature A lit d M d l ti (QAM) i Amplitude Modulation is more spectrally efficient than competing technologies including Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) Wave 2 with 2x2 MIMO and Evolved Data Op o ed a a Optimized ( ed (EV-DO) Revision B. O) e s o The LTE Radio Access Network technical specification was approved in January 2008 and is being incorporated into 3GPP Release 8, which is close to completion. Initial deployments are likely to occur around 2010. The 3GPP OFDMA approach used in LTE matches or exceeds the capabilities of any other OFDMA system. Peak theoretical rates are 326 Mbps in a 20 MHz channel bandwidth. LTE assumes a full Internet Protocol (IP) network architecture, and it is designed to support voice in the packet domain. LTE has become the technology platform of choice as GSM/UMTS and CDMA/EV-DO operators are making strategic long-term decisions on their next-generation platforms. In June of 2008, after extensive evaluation, LTE was the first and only technology recognized by the Next Generation Mobile Network alliance to meet its broad requirements.

·

·

3

Key Conclusions (3)

· GSM/HSPA will comprise the overwhelming majority of subscribers over the next five to ten years, even as new wireless technologies are adopted. The deployment of LTE and its coexistence with UMTS/HSPA will be analogous d l t f d it i t ith ill b l to the deployment of UMTS/HSPA and its coexistence with GSM. 3GPP is now studying how to enhance LTE to meet the requirements of IMT-Advanced in a project called LTE Advanced. UMTS/HSPA/LTE have significant economic advantages over other wireless technologies. WiMAX has developed an ecosystem supported by many companies, but it will still only represent a very small percentage of wireless subscribers over ill till l t ll t f i l b ib the next five to ten years.

·

·

·

4

Key Conclusions (4)

· EDGE technology has proven extremely successful and is widely deployed on GSM networks globally. Advanced capabilities with Evolved EDGE can double d d bl and eventually quadruple current EDGE th t ll d l t throughput rates. h t t With a UMTS multiradio network, a common core network can efficiently support GSM, WCDMA, and HSPA access networks and offer high efficiency for both high and low data rates as well as for both high- and lowrates, traffic density configurations. In the future, EPC/SAE will provide a new core network that supports both LTE and interoperability with legacy GSM/UMTS radio-access networks. Innovations such as EPC/SAE and UMTS one-tunnel architecture will "flatten" the network, simplifying deployment and reducing latency. Circuit-switched, voice over HSPA, then moving to Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) over HSPA will add t voice capacity and reduce P t l (V IP) ill dd to i it d d infrastructure costs. In the meantime, UMTS/HSPA enjoys high circuitswitched voice spectral efficiency, and it can combine voice and data on the same radio channel.

·

· ·

5

Wireline and Wireless Advances

100 Mbps 10 Mbps

FTTH 100 Mbps ADSL2+ 25 Mbps LTE 10 Mbps ADSL 3 t 5 Mb to Mbps HSPA+ Mbps HSPA 5 Mb HSDPA 1 Mbps UMTS 350 kbps EDGE 100 kbps GPRS 40 kbps p

1 Mbps

ADSL 1 Mbps

ISDN 100 kbps 128 kbps

10 kbps 2000

6

2005

2010

Femto Cell Capacity Increase

Macro-Cell Coverage Aggregate femto cell femto-cell capacity far exceeds macro-cell capacity for same amount of spectrum Femto-Cell Coverage

7

Broadband Approaches

Strength Mobile broadband (EDGE, HSPA, LTE) Constant connectivity Broadband capability across extremely wide areas Good G d access solution f l ti for areas lacking wireline infrastructure Capacity enhancement options via FMC Excellent voice communications Wireline broadband (e.g., DSL, DOCSIS, FTTH) High capacity broadband at very high data rates Evolution to extremely high throughput rates Expensive to deploy new networks, especially in developing economies lacking infrastructure Weakness Lower capacity than wireline approaches Inability to serve highbandwidth applications such as IP TV

8

Deployments as of August 2008

· Over 3.2 billion GSM subscribers · Most GSM networks now support EDGE · More than 350 commercial EDGE operators · 251 million UMTS customers worldwide across 236 commercial networks, · 211 operators in 90 countries offering HSDPA t i ti ff i services · Additional 47 operators committed to the technology

9

UMTS/HSPA Voice/Data Traffic

20,6616 18,0789 15,4962 12,9135 10,3308 10 3308 7,7481 5,1654 2,5827 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 08 08 08

10

Traffic Growth

700 600

500

Aggressive 3G/4G Data Traffic Growth

400

300

Conservative 3G/4G Data Traffic Growth 1 corresponds to 2007 2G Data Traffic

200

100

2G Data Traffic Growth Voice Traffic Growth

Source: AT&T AO - 12/17/07

20 0 15 10 5 0 2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

11

11

Wireless Approaches

Approach

TDMA

Technologies Employing Approach

GSM, GPRS, EDGE, Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronics Industry Association (TIA/EIA)-136 TDMA CDMA2000 1xRTT CDMA2000 1xRTT, EV-DO, WCDMA, HSPA, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 802.11b 802.16/WiMAX, 3GPP LTE, IEEE 802.11a/g/n, IEEE 802.20, Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) UMB 3GPP2 UMB, Enhanced Broadcast Multicast Services (EBCMCS), Digital Video Broadcasting-H (DVB-H), Forward Link Only (FLO) y( )

Comments

First digital cellular approach. Hugely successful with GSM GSM. New enhancements being designed for GSM/EDGE. Basis for nearly all new 3G networks. Mature, efficient, and will dominate wide-area wireless systems for the remainder of this decade. Effective approach for broadcast systems, higher bandwidth radio systems, and high peak data rates in large blocks of spectrum spectrum. Also provides flexibility in the amount of spectrum used. Well suited for systems planned for y p the next decade.

CDMA

OFDM/OFDMA

12

Characteristics of 3GPP Technologies (1)

Technology Name N GSM Type Characteristics Typical Downlink D li k Speed Typical Uplink S U li k Speed d

TDMA

Most widely deployed cellular technology in the world. P ld Provides voice and id i d data service via GPRS/EDGE. Data service for GSM networks. An k enhancement to original GSM data service called GPRS. Advanced version of EDGE that can double and eventually quadruple throughput rates. 70 kbps to 130 kbps 30 kb 70 kbps to 130 kbps 30 kb

EDGE

TDMA

Evolved EDGE TDMA

150 kbps to 500 kbps expected

100 kbps to 500 kbps expected

13

Characteristics of 3GPP Technologies (2)

Technology Name UMTS Type CDMA Characteristics 3G technology providing voice and data capabilities Current capabilities. deployments implement HSPA for data service. Data service for UMTS networks. An enhancement to original UMTS data service service. Evolution of HSPA in various stages to increase throughput and capacity and to lower latency. New radio interface that can use wide radio channels and deliver extremely high throughput rates. All communications handled in IP domain. Typical user rates may exceed 10 Mbps. LTE Advanced OFDMA Advanced version of LTE designed to meet IMT-Advanced requirements. requirements Typical Downlink Speed 200 to 300 kbps Typical Uplink Speed 200 to 300 kbps

HSPA

CDMA

1 Mbps to 4 Mbps >5 Mbps expected

500 kbps to 2 Mbps >3 Mbps expected

HSPA+

CDMA

LTE

OFDMA

> 10 Mbps expected

> 5 Mbps expected

14

2008 EDGE DL: 474 kbps UL: 474 kbps HSPA DL: 14.4 Mbps UL: 5.76 Mbps In 5 MHz

2009

2010 Evolved

EDGE DL: 1.89 Mbps UL: UL 947 kb kbps

2011

2012

2013

E EDGE

HSPA

Rel 7 HSPA+

DL: 28 Mbps UL: 11.5 Mbps In 5 MHz

Rel 8 HSPA+

DL: 42 Mbps UL: 11.5 Mbps In 5 MHz

LTE

DL: 326 Mbps UL: 86 Mbps In 20 MHz

CDMA2000 0

LTE

LTE (Rel 9)

LTE Advanced (Rel 10)

EV-DO Rev A

DL: 3.1 Mbps UL: 1.8 Mbps In 1.25 MHz

EV-DO Rev B

DL: 14.7 Mbps UL: 4.9 Mbps In 5 MHz

UMB

UMB

DL: 280 Mbps UL: 68 Mbps In 20 MHz

UMB Rel 2

Fixe ed WiMA AX M Mobile W WiMAX

Fixed WiMAX

Wave 2 DL: 46 Mbps UL: 4 Mbps 10 MHz 3:1 TDD

Rel 1 5 1.5

IEEE 802 16m 802.16m

15

Notes: Throughput rates are peak theoretical network rates. Radio channel bandwidths indicated. Dates refer to expected initial commercial network deployment except 2008 which shows available technologies that year. No operator commitments for UMB.

3GPP Releases (1)

· Release 99: Completed. First deployable version of UMTS. Enhancements to GSM data (EDGE). Majority of deployments today are ( ) j y p y y based on Release 99. Provides support for GSM/EDGE/GPRS/WCDMA radio-access networks. · Release 4: Completed. Multimedia messaging support. First steps p g g pp p toward using IP transport in the core network. · Release 5: Completed. HSDPA. First phase of IMS. Full ability to use IP-based transport instead of j p just Asynchronous Transfer Mode ( y (ATM) ) in the core network. In 2007, most UMTS deployments are based on this release. · Release 6: Completed. HSUPA. Enhanced multimedia support through p pp g Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services (MBMS). Performance specifications for advanced receivers. WLAN integration option. IMS enhancements. Initial VoIP capability.

16

3GPP Releases (2)

· Release 7: Completed. Provides enhanced GSM data functionality with Evolved EDGE. Specifies HSPA Evolution (HSPA+), which includes higher order modulation and MIMO. Provides fine tuning and incremental improvements of features from MIMO fine-tuning previous releases. Results include performance enhancements, improved spectral efficiency, increased capacity, and better resistance to interference. Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) enables efficient "always-on" service and enhanced uplink UL VoIP capacity as well as reductions in call set-up delay for PoC. Radio enhancements to HSPA include 64 QAM in the downlink DL and 16 QAM in the uplink. Also includes optimization of MBMS capabilities through the multicast/broadcast single-frequency network ( g q y (MBSFN) function. ) Release 8: Under development. Comprises further HSPA Evolution features such as simultaneous use of MIMO and 64 QAM. Includes work item for dual-carrier HSPA (DC-HSPA) where two WCDMA radio channels can be combined for a doubling of throughput performance. Specifies OFDMA based 3GPP LTE Defines EPC. performance OFDMA-based LTE. EPC Release 9: Expected to include HSPA and LTE enhancements. Release 10: Expected to specify LTE Advanced that meets the requirements set by p j ITU's IMT-Advanced project.

·

· ·

17

FDD Bands for 3GPP Technologies

Operating band Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4 Band 5 Band 6 Band 7 Band 8 Band 9 Band 10 Band 11 Band 12 Band 13 Band 14 Band name 2.1 GHz 1900 MHz 1800 MHz 1.7/2.1 GHz 850 MHz 800 MHz 2.6 GHz 900 MHz 1700 MHz Ext 1.7/2.1MHz 1500 MHz

Lower 700 MHz Upper 700 MHz

Upper 700 MHz, public safety/private

Total spectrum 2x60 MHz 2x60 MHz 2x75 MHz 2x45 MHz 2x25 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x70 MHz 2x35 MHz 2x35 MHz 2x60 MHz 2x25 MHz 2x18 MHz 2x10 MHz 2x10 MHz

Uplink [MHz] 1920-1980 1850-1910 1710-1785 1710-1755 824-849 830-840 2500-2570 880 915 880-915 1749.9-1784.9 1710-1770 1427.9 - 1452.9 698-716 777-787 788-798

Downlink [MHz] 2110-2170 1930-1990 1805-1880 2110-2155 869-894 875-885 2620-2690 925 960 925-960 1844.9-1879.9 2110-2170 1475.9 - 1500.9 728-746 746-756 758-768

18

TDD Bands for 3GPP Technologies

Operating band Band 33 Band 34 Band 35 Band 36 Band 37 Band 38 Band 39 Band 40 Total spectrum 20 MHz 15 MHz 60 MHz 60 MHz 20 MHz 50 MHz 40 MHz 100 MHz Frequencies [MHz] 1900-1920 2010 2025 2010-2025 1850-1910 1930-1990 1910-1930 2570-2620 1880-1920 2300-2400

19

Expected Features/Capabilities

Year 2008 Features HSUPA seeing significant deployment momentum in networks and device availability. First HSUPA networks with 5.8 Mbps peak uplink speed capability. HSPA devices with 7.2 Mbps downlinks widely available. Various operators offering FMC based on UMA. Operators announcing commitments to femto cell approaches. Greater availability of FMC 2009 Networks and devices capable of Release 7 HSPA+, including MIMO, boosting HSPA peak speeds to 28 Mbps Enhanced IMS-based services (for example, integrated voice/multimedia/presence/location) 2010 Evolved EDGE capabilities available to significantly increase EDGE throughput rates HSPA+ peak speeds further increased to peak rates of 42 Mbps based on Release 8 LTE introduced for next-generation throughput performance using 2X2 MIMO Advanced core architectures available through EPC/SAE, primarily for LTE but also for HSPA+, providing benefits such as integration of multiple network types and flatter architectures for better latency performance Most new services implemented in the packet domain over HSPA+ and LTE 2011 and later 2012 LTE enhancements such as 4X2 MIMO and 4X4 MIMO LTE Advanced specifications completed. LTE Advanced potentially deployed in initial stages.

20

Peak Rates Over Time

Downlink Speeds 100 Mbps

MIMO/64QAM 41M MIMO 2x2 28M

DL LTE(20MHz) 300M

DL LTE(10MHz) 140M

20 Mbps

UL LTE (10MHz) 50M UL LTE (10MHz) 25M HSDPA 14.4M

10 Mbps

HSUPA/16QAM 11M HSDPA 7.2M HSDPA 3.6M HSUPA 5.6M

10 Mbps Uplink Speeds

HSDPA 1.8M

HSUPA 1.5M

1 Mbps

DL R'99-384k UL R'99 384k

· HSPA DL and UL peak throughputs expected to double every year on average 1 Mbps · Limitations not induced by the technology itself but time frames required to upgrade infrastructure and transport networks, obtain devices with corresponding capabilities and interoperability tests

100 kbps 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

21

100 kbps

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Relative Adoption of Technologies g

LTE

Subs scriptions

UMTS/HSPA

GSM/EDGE

1990

22

2000

2010

2020

2030

Radio Resource Management 1xRTT/1xEV DO 1xRTT/1xEV-DO versus UMTS/HSPA

Speech S h Blocking Unavailable Hi h U il bl HighSpeed Data Capacity Efficient All Effi i t Allocation of R ti f Resources Between Voice and Data

Three 1.25 MH Channels Hz

EV-DO One 5 MHz Ch hannel High-Speed Data Voice

1xRTT

1xRTT

23

Throughput Comparison g

Downlink Peak Network Speed Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Uplink Peak Network Speed Peak And/Or Typical User Rate

EDGE (type 2 MS) EDGE (type 1 MS) (Practical Terminal)

473.6 kbps 236.8 kbps 200 kbps peak 70 to 135 kbps typical

473.6 kbps 236.8 kbps 200 kbps peak 70 to 135 kbps typical 473.6 kbps 947.2 kbps

Evolved EDGE (type 1 MS) Evolved EDGE (type 2 MS)

1184 kbps 1894.4 kbps

Blue Indicates Theoretical Peak Rates Green Typical Rates,

24

Throughput Comparison ( ) g (2)

Downlink Peak Network Speed Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Uplink Peak Network Speed Peak And/Or Typical User Rate

UMTS WCDMA Rel'99 UMTS WCDMA Rel'99 (Practical Terminal)

2.048 Mbps 384 kbps 350 kbps peak 200 to 300 kbps typical

768 kbps 384 kbps 350 kbps peak 200 to 300 kbps typical 384 kbps 384 kbps > 5 Mbps peak 700 kbps to 1.7 Mbps 1 7 Mb typical 2 Mbps > 1.5 Mbps peak 500 kbps to 1.2 Mbps 1 2 Mb typical 350 kbps peak

HSDPA Initial Devices (2006) HSDPA HSPA Initial Implementation

1.8 Mbps 14.4 14 4 Mbps 7.2 Mbps

> 1 Mbps peak

25

Throughput Comparison ( ) g (3)

Downlink Peak Network Speed

HSPA Current Implementation HSPA HSPA+ (DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM) HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO, DL 16 QAM, UL 16 QAM)

Uplink Peak And/Or Typical User Rate Peak Network Speed 5.76 Mbps 5.76 Mbps 11.5 Mbps > 5Mbps typical expected 11.5 11 5 Mbps > 3 Mbps typical expected Peak And/Or Typical User Rate

7.2 Mbps 14.4 Mbps 21.6 Mbps 28 Mbps

HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO, DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM) LTE (2X2 MIMO)

42 Mbps 173 Mbps > 10 Mbps typical expected

11.5 Mbps 58 Mbps > 5 Mbps typical expected

LTE (4X4 MIMO) ( )

326 Mbps p

86 Mbps p

26

Throughput Comparison ( ) g (4)

Downlink Peak Network Speed CDMA2000 1XRTT CDMA2000 1XRTT CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev 0 CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev A 153 kbps 307 kbps 2.4 Mbps 3.1 Mbps > 1 Mbps peak > 1.5 Mbps peak p 600 kbps to 1.4 Mbps typical CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B (3 radio channels MHz) CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B Theoretical (15 radio channels) Th ti l di h l ) Ultra Mobile Broadband (2X2 MIMO) Ultra Mobile Broadband (4X4 MIMO) 9.3 Mbps 73.5 Mbps 140 Mbps 280 Mbps 5.4 Mbps 27 Mbps 34 Mbps 68 Mbps Peak And/Or Typical User Rate 130 kbps peak Uplink Peak Network Speed 153 kbps 307 kbps 153 kbps 1.8 Mbps 150 kbps peak > 1 Mbps peak 300 to 500 kbps p typical Peak And/Or Typical User Rate 130 kbps peak

802.16e WiMAX expected Wave 1 (10 MHz TDD DL/UL=3, 1X2 SIMO) 802.16e 802 16e WiMAX expected Wave 2 (10 MHz TDD, DL/UL=3, 2x2 MIMO) 802.16m

23 Mbps

4 Mbps

46 Mbps

4 Mbps

TBD

TBD

27

28

Thro oughput [Mbps s] 0.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 1.0 10

10 0% 95 % 90 % 85 % 80 % 75 % 70 % 65 % 60 % 55 % 50 % 45 % 40 % 35 % 30 % 25 % 20 % 15 % 10 % 5% 0%

Throughput Distribution

HSDPA Performance in 7.2 Mbps Network

Good Coverage Bad Coverage

Median bitrate 3.8 Mbps

Median bitrate 1.8 Mbps

-106 dBm

Mobile

Performance measured in a commercial network

29

Median bitrate 1.9 Mbps 1 9 Mb

HSUPA Performance in a Commercial Network

Mobile

100 90 80

Median bitrate 1.0 Mbps

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

0

70

700

770

840

280

420

490

140

210

350

560

630

910

980

1120

1260

1330

1050

30

1190

1400

LTE Throughput in Test Network g

Base station located at x. L1 Throughput Max: 154 Mbps Mean: 78 Mbps Min: 16 Mbps User Speed Max: 45 km/h Mean: 16 km/h Min: 0 km/h Sub-urban area with lineof-sight: less than 40% of the samples Heights of surrounding buildings: 15-25 m 20 MHz Channel 2X2 MIMO

100 meters

154 123 97 74 54 37 23 12

Latency of Different Technologies

700 600 500 Millise econds 400 300 20 0 100

32

GPRS Rel'97

EDGE EDGE WCDMA Evolved HSDPA Rel'99 Rel'4 Rel'99 EDGE

HSPA

LTE

Performance Relative to Theoretical Limits

6 Shannon bound Shannon bound with 3dB margin HSDPA EV-DO IEEE 802.16e-2005 802 16 2005 5 Ach hievable Efficiency (bps/Hz)

4

3

2

1

0 -15 15

-10 10

-5 5

0 5 Required SNR (dB)

10

15

20

33

Downlink Spectral Efficiency

2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 15 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 11 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

Future improvements LTE 4X4 MIMO Future improvements UMB 4X4 MIMO Future improvements Rel 1.5 4X4 MIMO

Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz/sector) 5+5 MHz E 5

LTE 4X2 MIMO LTE 2X2 MIMO HSPA+ SIC, 64 QAM HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO HSDPA MRxD, Equalizer

UMB 4X2 MIMO UMB 2X2 MIMO Rel 1.5 4X2 MIMO Rel 1.5 2X2 MIMO Rev B Cross-Carrier Scheduling Rev A, MRxD, Equalizer

WiMAX Wave 2 WiMAX Wave 1

HSDPA EV-DO Rev 0

UMTS R'99

34

UMTS to LTE

CDMA2000 to UMB

WiMAX

Uplink Spectral Efficiency y

Future Improvements

Spec ctral Efficie ency (bps/Hz/sector 5+5 MHz r)

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

HSUPA Rel 6 UMTS R'99 R 99 to Rel 5 LTE 1X2 Receive Diversity HSPA+ Interference Cancellation, 16 QAM LTE 1x4 Receive Diversity

Future Improvements UMB 1X4 Receive Diversity Future Improvements Rel 1.5 1X4 Receive Diversity

UMB 1X2 Receive Diversity EV-DO Rev B, Interference Cancellation

Rel 1.5 1X2 Receive Diversity WiMAX Wave 2 WiMAX Wave 1

EV-DO Rev A EV-DO Rev EV DO R 0

35

UMTS to LTE

CDMA2000 to UMB

WiMAX

Voice Spectral Efficiency y

500 450 Erlangs, 10+10 MH 1 Hz 400 350 300 250 200 150 10 0 50

36

Interference Cancellation AMR 5.9 kbps Rel 7 VoIP AMR 5.9 kbps Rel 7, VoIP AMR 7.95 kbps UMTS R'99 AMR 7.95 kbps UMTS R'99 AMR 12 2 kb 12.2 kbps Interference Cancellation EVRC-B 6 kbps EVRC-B 6 kbps EV-DO Rev A EVRC 8 kbps 1xRTT EVRC 8 kbps WiMAX Wave 2 EVRC 8 kbps Future Improvements LTE AMR 5.9 kbps LTE VoIP AMR 7.95 kbps Future Improvements UMB VoIP EVRC-B 6 kbps

Future Improvements Rel 1.5 EVRC-B 6kbps Rel 1 5 1.5 EVRC 8 kbps

UMTS to LTE

CDMA2000 to UMB

WiMAX

Subscriber Growth

37

Throughput Requirements

· Microbrowsing (for example, Wireless Application Protocol [WAP]): 8 to 128 kbps · Multimedia messaging: 8 to 64 kbps · Vid telephony: 64 to 384 kbps Video t l h t kb · General-purpose Web browsing: 32 kbps to more than 1 Mbps · Enterprise applications including e-mail, database access and VPNs: 32 kbps to more access, than 1 Mbps · Video and audio streaming: 32 kbps to 2 Mbps

38

GPRS/EDGE Architecture

Mobile Station Mobile Station Mobile Station Base Transceiver Station Base Transceiver Station

Circuit-Switched Traffic Base Mobile Station Switching Controller Center IP Traffic Home Location Register g

Public Switched Telephone Network

GPRS/EDGE Data Infrastructure

Serving GPRS Support Node

Gateway GPRS Support Node

External Data Network (e.g., Internet)

39

Example of GSM/GPRS/EDGE Timeslot Structure

4.615 ms per frame of 8 timeslots 577 S per timeslot 0

1 TCH 1 TCH

2 TCH 2 TCH

3 TCH 3 PDTCH

4 TCH 4 PDTCH

5 PDTCH 5 PDTCH

6 PDTCH 6 PDTCH

7 PDTCH 7 PDTCH

Possible BCCH carrier configuration Possible TCH carrier configuration

BCCH 0 PBCCH

BCCH: Broadcast Control Channel ­ carries synchronization, paging and other signalling information TCH: Traffic Channel ­ carries voice traffic data; may alternate between frames for half-rate PDTCH: Packet Data Traffic Channel ­ Carries packet data traffic for GPRS and EDGE PBCCH: Packet B d PBCCH P k t Broadcast Control Ch t C t l Channel ­ additional signalling f GPRS/EDGE used only if needed l dditi l i lli for GPRS/EDGE; d l d d

40

EDGE Modulation and Coding Schemes

Modulation and Coding Scheme MCS-1 MCS 2 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS 5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS 8 MCS-9 Modulation GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK 8-PSK 8 PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8-PSK 8 PSK 8-PSK Throughput p g p per Timeslot (kbps) 8.8 11.2 11 2 14.8 17.6 22.4 22 4 29.6 44.8 54.4 54 4 59.2

41

Evolved EDGE Objectives

· A 100 percent increase in peak data rates. · A 50 percent increase in spectral efficiency and capacity in C/Ip p y p y limited scenarios. · A sensitivity increase in the downlink of 3 dB for voice and data. · A reduction of latency for initial access and round-trip time thereby round trip time, enabling support for conversational services such as VoIP and PoC. · To achieve compatibility with existing frequency planning, thus facilitating deployment in existing networks networks. · To coexist with legacy mobile stations by allowing both old and new stations to share the same radio resources. · To avoid impacts on infrastructure by enabling improvements through a software upgrade. · To be applicable to DTM (simultaneous voice and data) and the A/Gb mode interface. The A/Gb mode interface is part of the 2G core interface network, so this goal is required for full backward-compatibility with legacy GPRS/EDGE. 42

Evolved EDGE Methods in Release 7

· Downlink dual-carrier reception to increase the number of timeslots that can be received from four on one carrier to 10 on two carriers for a 150 percent increase i th ti in throughput. h t · The addition of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), 16 QAM, and 32 QAM as well as an increased symbol rate (1.2x) in the uplink and a g new set of modulation/coding schemes that will increase maximum throughput per timeslot by 38 percent. Currently, EDGE uses 8-PSK modulation. Simulations indicate a realizable 25 percent increase in user-achievable peak rates. · The ability to use four timeslots in the uplink (possible since release). · A reduction in overall latency. This is achieved by lowering the TTI to 10 msec and by including the acknowledge information in the data packet. These enhancements will have a dramatic effect on throughput for many applications. applications · Downlink diversity reception of the same radio channel to increase the robustness in interference and to improve the receiver sensitivity. Simulations have demonstrated sensitivity gains of 3 dB and a decrease in required C/I of up to 18 dB for a single cochannel interferer interferer. Significant increases in system capacity can be achieved, as explained below.

43

Evolved EDGE Two-Carrier Operation

Slot N Rx1 Rx2 Tx (1) Slot N + 1 (Idle Frame) Slot N + 2 Slot N + 3

Neighbor Cell Measurements Uplink Timeslot Downlink Timeslot

44

Optimization of Timeslot Usage Example

Each Receiver Changes Tuned Frequency Between its Slots Rx1 Rx2

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

5 Timeslot Allocation "Scavenged" from Different Frequency Carriers

Idle Frame

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

Tx NCM Neighbor Cell Measurements Uplink Timeslot Downlink Timeslot

45

Evolved EDGE Theoretical Rates

· Type 2 mobile device (one that can support simultaneous transmission and reception) using HTCS 8 B as the MCS and HTCS-8-B a dual-carrier receiver can achieve the following performance: ­ Highest data rate per timeslot (layer 2) = 118.4 kbps ­ Timeslots per carrier = 8 ­ Carriers used in the downlink = 2 ­ Total downlink data rate = 118.4 kbps X 8 X 2 = 1894.4 kbps · This translates to a peak network rate close to 2 Mbps and a user-achievable data rate of well over 1 Mbps!

46

Evolved EDGE Implementation

47

UMTS Multi-Radio Network

GSM/EDGE

Packet-Switched Networks UMTS Core Network (MSC, HLR, SGSN, SGSN GGSN)

WCDMA, HSDPA

Circuit-Switched Networks

Other e.g., WLAN

Other Cellular Operators

Common core network can support multiple radio access networks pp p

48

High Speed Downlink Packet Access

· · · · High speed data enhancement for WCDMA/UMTS Peak theoretical speeds of 14 Mbps Current devices support 7.2 Mbps throughput Methods used by HSDPA ­ High speed channels shared both in the code and time domains ­ Short transmission time interval (TTI) ­ Fast scheduling and user diversity ­ Hi h Higher-order modulation d d l ti ­ Fast link adaptation ­ Fast hybrid automatic-repeat-request (HARQ)

49

HSDPA Channel Assignment Example

User 1 U User 2 U User 3 U User 4 U

Channelizatio Codes on

2 msec Time

50

Radio resources assigned both in code and time domains

HSDPA Multi-User Diversity

User 1 S Signal Quali ity High data rate

User 2

Low data rate

Time

User 2 User 1 User 2 User 1 User 2 User 1

Efficient scheduler favors transmissions to users with best radio conditions

51

HSDPA Terminal Categories

HS-DSCH Category Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 Category 8 g y Category 9 Category 10 Category 11 Category 12

52

Maximum number of HS-DSCH codes 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5

L1 Peak Rate (Mbps) 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.8 3.6 3.6 7.2 7.2 10.2 14.4 0.9 09 1.8

QPSK/ 16QAM Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both Both QPSK QPSK

Soft Channel Bits 19200 28800 28800 38400 57600 67200 115200 134400 172800 172800 14400 28800

High Speed Uplink Packet Access

· · · · 85% increase in overall cell throughput on the uplink Achievable rates of 1 Mbps on the uplink Reduced packet delays to as low as 30 msec Methods: ­ An enhanced dedicated physical channel ­ A short TTI, as low as 2 msec, which allows faster responses to changing radio conditions and error conditions ­ Fast Node B-based scheduling, which allows the base B based scheduling station to efficiently allocate radio resources ­ Fast Hybrid ARQ, which improves the efficiency of error processing

53

HSUPA Rates Based on Category

HSUPA Category

1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6

Codes x Spreading

1 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2 x SF2 2xSF2 2xSF4 2 SF2 + 2 SF4 2xSF2 + 2xSF4

TTI

10 10 2 10 10 2 10 10 2

Transport Data Rate Block Size

7296 14592 2919 14592 20000 5837 20000 20000 11520 0.73 Mbps 1.46 Mbps 1.46 Mbps 1.46 Mbps 2 Mbps 2.9 Mbps 2 Mbps 2 Mb Mbps 5.76 Mbps

54

HSPA+ Objectives

· Exploit the full potential of a CDMA approach before moving to an OFDM platform in 3GPP LTE. p · Achieve performance close to LTE in 5 MHz of spectrum. · Provide smooth interworking between HSPA+ and LTE, thereby facilitating the f ilit ti th operation of b th t h l i ti f both technologies. A such, operators As h t may choose to leverage the EPC/SAE planned for LTE. · Allow operation in a packet-only mode for both voice and data. · Be backward-compatible with previous systems while incurring no performance degradation with either earlier or newer devices. · Facilitate migration from current HSPA infrastructure to HSPA+ infrastructure.

55

HSPA Throughput Evolution

Technology Downlink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 14.4 21.1 Uplink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate

HSPA as defined in Release 6 Release 7 HSPA+ DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM Release 7 HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO, DL 16 QAM, UL 16 QAM QAM Release 8 HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM HSPA+ 2X2 MIMO, Dual Carrier (anticipated in Release 9)

5.76 11.5

28.0

11.5

42.2 84

11.5 11.5

56

HSPA/HSPA+ One-Tunnel Architecture

Traditional HSPA Architecture GGSN User Plane Control Plane RNC Node B SGSN

HSPA with One-Tunnel Possible HSPA+ with Architecture One-Tunnel Architecture GGSN SGSN RNC Node B Node B GGSN SGSN

57

CS Voice Over HSPA

Scheduler prioritizes voice packets CS mapped to R99 or HSPA bearer depending on terminal capability Transport queues etc

CS R99

AMR adaptation possible

AMR p adapt. IuCS

Combined to one carrier

HSPA scheduler

HSPA

IuPS

PS R99

NodeB

58

RNC

Smooth Migration to VoIP over HSPA

1.4 1.2 1

VoIP CS CS + VoIP

0.6 06 0.4 0.2 02 0 0 Power reserved for PS traffic (W) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Rela ative Cap pacity

0.8

PS Evolution

59

LTE Capabilities

· · · · · · Downlink peak data rates up to 326 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth Uplink p p peak data rates up to 86.4 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth p p Operation in both TDD and FDD modes. Scalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz, covering 1.4, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz Increased spectral efficiency over Release 6 HSPA by a factor of two to four Reduced latency, to 10 msec round-trip time between user equipment and the base station and to less than 100 msec transition time from inactive to station, active

LTE Configuration Downlink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 172.8 326.4 326 4 Uplink (Mbps) Peak Data Rate 57.6 86.4 86 4

Using 2X2 MIMO in the Downlink and 16 QAM in the Uplink Using 4X4 MIMO in the Downlink and 64 U i i th D li k d QAM in the Uplink 60

LTE OFDMA Downlink Resource Assignment in Time and Frequency

User 1 User 2 User 3 Frequency User 4

Time Minimum resource block consists of 14 symbols and 12 subcarriers

61

LTE Advanced Ideas

Evolution of current OFDMA approaches. High-order Hi h d MIMO (e.g., 4X4). ( 4X4) Wider radio channels (e.g., 50 to 100 MHz). Optimization in narrower bands (e.g., less than 20 MHz) due to spectrum constraints in some deployments. deployments · Multi-channel operation in either same or different frequency bands bands. · Ability to share bands with other services. · · · ·

62

IP Multimedia Subsystem

IMS

Home Subscriber Server (HSS) ( ) DIAMETER Call Session Control Function (CSCF) (SIP Proxy) Media Resource Gateway Control SIP Application Server

SIP

Media Resource Function Control

UMTS/HSPA Packet Core Network

DSL

Wi-Fi

Multiple Possible A M li l P ibl Access N Networks k

63

Efficient Broadcasting with OFDM g

LTE will leverage OFDM-based broadcasting capabilities

64

Evolved Packet System

GERAN Rel'7 Legacy GSM/UMTS SGSN UTRAN

One-Tunnel Option

Control

MME

PCRF

Evolved RAN, e.g., LTE

User Plane

Serving Gateway

PDN Gateway

IP Services, IMS

EPC/SAE Access Gateway Non 3GPP IP Access

65

Evolved Packet System Elements

· Flatter architecture to reduce latency · Support for legacy GERAN and UTRAN networks connected via SGSN. · Support for new radio access networks such as LTE radio-access LTE. · The Serving Gateway that terminates the interface toward the 3GPP radio-access networks. · Th PDN gateway th t controls IP d t services, d The t that t l data i does routing, allocates IP addresses, enforces policy, and provides access for non-3GPP access networks. · The MME that supports user equipment conte t and s pports ser eq ipment context identity as well as authenticates and authorizes users. · The Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) that manages QoS aspects aspects.

66

Conclusion

· Through constant innovation, the EDGE/HSPA/LTE family provides operators and subscribers a true mobile broadband advantage advantage. · EDGE is a global success story. · Evolved EDGE will achieve peak rates of over 1 Mbps. · HSDPA offers the highest peak data rates of any widely available wide widearea wireless technology, with peak user-achievable rates of over 4 Mbps in some networks. · HSUPA has increased uplink speeds to peak achievable rates of 1 Mbps. · HSPA+ has peak theoretical rates of 42 Mbps, and in 5 MHz will match p LTE capabilities. · LTE will provide an extremely efficient OFDMA-based platform for future networks. p · EDGE/HSPA/LTE is one of the most robust portfolios of mobilebroadband technologies and is an optimum framework for realizing the potential of the wireless-data market.

67

Information

Microsoft PowerPoint - EDGE HSPA LTE Rysavy 2008 PPT [Compatibility Mode]

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