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VitremerTM Tri-Cure Glass Ionomer System

Technical Product Profile

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 5 Figure 1. Setting Reaction of Conventional Glass Ionomers .................................. 5 Figure 2. Setting Reaction of Vitrebond Light-cured Glass Ionomer...................... 7 Figure 3. Setting Reactions of Vitremer Tri-Cure Glass Ionomer........................... 8 Composition ...................................................................................................................... 9 Properties ........................................................................................................................ 10 Fracture Resistance ................................................................................................... 10 Figure 4. Fracture Resistance .............................................................................. 11 Fracture Toughness ................................................................................................... 11 Figure 5. Fracture Toughness .............................................................................. 11 Compressive Strength ............................................................................................... 11 Figure 6. Compressive Strength........................................................................... 12 Figure 7. Compressive Strength vs. Time ............................................................ 12 Diametral Tensile Strength ....................................................................................... 12 Figure 8. Diametral Tensile Strength ................................................................... 13 Figure 9. Diametral Tensile Strength vs. Time..................................................... 13 Flexural Strength....................................................................................................... 13 Figure 10. Flexural Strength ................................................................................ 14 Fluoride Release........................................................................................................ 14 Figure 11. Cumulative Fluoride Released: Function of Vitremer P/L Ratio ......... 14 Figure 12. Cumulative Fluoride Released: Vitremer Cure Mechanism ................ 15 Figure 13. Cumulative Fluoride Released: Vitremer vs. Conventional Glass Ionomers..................................................................................................... 15 Figure 14. Cumulative Fluoride Released: Vitremer vs. Competitive Products .... 15 Caries Inhibition........................................................................................................ 16 Figure 15. Vitremer Ionomer............................................................................... 16 Figure 16. Geristore ............................................................................................ 16 Figure 17. Fluorocore .......................................................................................... 16 Figure 18 VariGlass ............................................................................................ 16 Adhesion ................................................................................................................... 17 Figure 19. Effect of Primer on Vitremer Adhesion to Bovine Enamel and Dentin....................................................................................... 17 Figure 20. Adhesion to Bovine Enamel ............................................................... 18 Figure 21. Adhesion to Bovine Dentin ................................................................ 18 Figure 22. Adhesion to Extracted Human Teeth .................................................. 19 Figure 23. Adhesion of Vitremer to Bovine Dentin ............................................. 19

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.)

Solubility ................................................................................................................... 20 Figure 24. Water Leachable Content ................................................................... 20 Figure 25. Lactic Acid Erosion............................................................................ 20 Radiopacity ............................................................................................................... 21 Figure 26. Comparison of Radiopacity ................................................................ 21 Surface Roughness.................................................................................................... 21 Figure 27. Surface Roughness ............................................................................. 22 pH Change................................................................................................................. 22 Figure 28. pH Change ......................................................................................... 22 Setting Characteristics .............................................................................................. 23 Use.................................................................................................................................... 23 Shade Selection ......................................................................................................... 23 Priming...................................................................................................................... 24 Dispensing................................................................................................................. 24 Mixing ....................................................................................................................... 24 Placement .................................................................................................................. 24 Curing........................................................................................................................ 25 Finishing and Polishing ............................................................................................ 25 Finishing Gloss ......................................................................................................... 25 Use as a Liner............................................................................................................ 25 Competition..................................................................................................................... 26 Comparison Table ............................................................................................... 27 Questions and Answers.................................................................................................. 28 Instructions for Use........................................................................................................ 31

INTRODUCTION

We have chosen to open this technical product profile with a rather technical and historical discussion of glass ionomer technology. It is not meant to be an overwhelming chemistry lesson but rather a logical perspective and framework in which to introduce the latest advancement in glass ionomer technology from 3M Dental Products, the Vitremer Tri-Cure Glass Ionomer System. Glass ionomer cement technology was invented by Wilson and co-workers in the U.K. in the 1970s. The original cements have undergone several modifications depending on the particular products. However all conventional cements have the following essential components: · · · · an ionic polymer which is a polycarboxylic acid a fluoroaluminosilcate (FAS) glass powder water tartaric acid.

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The above components are formulated to provide a powder and a liquid portion. In use the two are combined and a chemical reaction takes place to provide a set cement. The chemistry of the setting reaction of the conventional cements is shown schematically in Figure 1. The acid groups of the polymer attack the FAS glass releasing simple and complex positively charged metal ions. These ions react with the carboxylic acid groups of the polymer in an acid-base setting reaction. This acid-base setting reaction can be readily followed by spectroscopic techniques, e.g. FTIR (Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy) since the carboxylic acid groups are transformed to carboxylate anions. A very important by-product of this setting reaction is the sustained release of fluoride ions believed to be responsible for caries resistance.1 Water plays two important roles in the overall setting. Firstly, it provides for ion transport needed for the acid-base setting reaction and fluoride release. Secondly, water is also chemically Setting Reaction of Conventional Glass Ionomers bound in the H O 2 + H+ Step 1 cement and thus Glass COOH COOH COOH CO2 CO2 CO2 it provides for the ultimate stability of the set cement. H2O Step 2 An important H+ + Fluoroalumino Al+3 , AlF +2, AlF2+ etc. silicate glass feature of glass ionomer cements + Step 3 Al+3 , AlF +2, AlF2+ etc. is that since the CO2 CO2 CO2 release of fluoride is a direct response of the process of the FCO2 CO2 CO 2 + setting reaction, Al Al its release in true CO2 CO2 CO 2 glass ionomers does not lead to

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Figure 1

Swift E. Effects of Glass Ionomers on Recurrent Caries. Operative Dentistry 1989;14:40-43.

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degradation of the set material. The acid-base reaction can continue indefinitely and hence the release of fluoride also continues for prolonged periods in a sustained manner. Tartaric acid is also added to most conventional cements to help in modifying the working time and provide a hard setting material under oral conditions. Since the conventional glass ionomer setting reaction begins immediately upon mixing the powder and liquid, this reaction can be regarded as a selfcure reaction. The conventional glass ionomers gained popularity because they offer important advantages. 2,3 These advantages are: · · · sustained fluoride release biocompatibility good adhesion and clinical retention.

Fluoride has long been known to have a caries-preventive effect.4 The cariostatic effect of glass ionomer cement is reported in a five year clinical study by M. Tyas. 5 A review has also been published by E. Swift.6 The conventional glass ionomer systems however suffer from certain disadvantages. These disadvantages are: · · · short working time long set time technique sensitivity --susceptibility to early moisture contamination --prone to dessication after setting · brittleness

The foregoing disadvantages had limited the clinical application of these otherwise excellent materials. In order to overcome the limitations of the conventional glass ionomers and yet preserve their benefits, 3M introduced the concept of light-cured glass ionomer cements to the dental community. VitrebondTM light cure glass ionomer liner/base revolutionized the glass ionomer technology. The setting reaction of this true glass ionomer is depicted in Figure 2.

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Phillips RW. Glass Ionomers: Boosting Amalgam's Value. JADA 199 Wilson AD, McLean JW. Glass-Ionomer Cement. Chicago, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co. Inc. 1988:126-128. 4 Ibid. 5 Tyas M. Cariostatic Effect of Glass Ionomer Cement: A Five-Year Clinical Study. Australian Dent J 1991;36:236-9. 6 Swift, p. 40.

Figure 2

Setting Reactions of Vitrebond Light-Cured Glass Ionomer

Step 1

COOH COOH COOH H O 2 Glass CO2 CO2 CO2

7

+

H+

Step 2

H+ + Fluoroalumino silicate glass

H O 2

Al+3 , AlF +2, AlF2+ etc.

Step 3

CO2 CO2 CO2

+

Al+3 , AlF +2, AlF2+ etc.

CO2 Al CO2

CO2 Al CO2

CO 2 CO 2

+

F-

Step 4

HEMA Light

CO2 Al CO2

CO2 Al CO2

CO2 CO 2

Two types of setting reactions take place in a true light cured glass ionomer: (1) the acid-base reaction between the fluoroaluminosilicate glass and the polycarboxylic acid, the same reaction as in a conventional glass ionomer, and (2) a light-activated free radical polymerization of methacrylate groups of the polymer and HEMA (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate). Since the rate of the second reaction, the photo-polymerization reaction, is much faster than the first, the setting time of the cement is much shorter than conventional systems. This curing reaction gives these materials extended working time and optimal physical properties. The benefits of a light-curing glass ionomer are now well recognized. However, they suffer from a disadvantage inherent in all light-curing systems. All light-curing systems allow the penetration of visible light to only a limited depth. Hence layering techniques are necessary which make the procedure time-consuming in deeper filling and core buildup applications. It is essential therefore to use proper light-curing techniques including layering of the material, adequate cure time and use of a good curing light. Conventional glass ionomers do not have this drawback since the acid-base reaction is not dependent on light. It may be thought that since the acid-base reaction also proceeds in true light-cured glass ionomers this would be sufficient to give a dark set. However, all light-cured glass ionomers have constituents with methacrylate groups in them. In the absence of light, these methacrylates would essentially remain uncured. Hence even in these systems it would be essential to incrementally place the material and light-cure in order to obtain a thoroughly cured material. In a liner/base system like Vitrebond liner/base, this is not a problem since the application calls for only a thin layer of material. However, in application as a filling material or core build-up the need for incremental curing is a major drawback. The new Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer system overcomes the disadvantages of light cured glass ionomers while maintaining all their advantages. To this end the Vitremer chemistry contains a third mode of cure. The schematic of the cure reactions of Vitremer tri-cure system is shown in Figure 3.

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Figure 3

Setting Reactions of Vitremer Tri-Cure Glass Ionomer

+

COOH COOH COOH H2O

Fluoroaluminosilicate Glass

1

Acid-Base Reaction

CO2 Al CO2 CO2 CO2 Al CO 2 CO 2

+

F-

2 Free Radical

Light Cure

Light HEMA Redox Catalysts HEMA

3

Free Radical Dark Cure

CO2 Al CO2

CO2 Al CO2

CO2 CO 2

CO2 Al CO2

CO2 Al CO2

CO2 CO 2

The third reaction is a dark cure of the methacrylate groups of the polymer system and HEMA. This relatively fast reaction is initiated by a patented system (US Patent 5,154,762) of water-activated redox catalysts which allows the methacrylate cure to proceed in the dark. This reaction produces high physical properties in areas where light access is not possible or is questionable. This dark methacrylate cure is a unique feature of 3M tri-cure-based materials and ensures uniform cure throughout the glass ionomer restorations resulting in enhanced physical properties even when placed in bulk. In summary, the Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer system has the following three distinct curing reactions: 1. Acid-base glass ionomer reaction (initiated when powder and liquid are mixed and can proceed in the dark) 2. Photoinitiated free radical methacrylate cure (initiated when the powder/ liquid mix is exposed to light and occurs only where light penetrates) 3. Dark cure free radical methacrylate cure (initiated when powder and liquid are mixed and can proceed in the dark) The 3M Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer system offers the best features of conventional glass ionomers and light cure systems without the disadvantages of either.

COMPOSITION

The Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer system is indicated for use as an esthetic restorative filling material and as a core buildup material. It is comprised of the tri-cure glass ionomer powder, the glass ionomer liquid, a dentin/enamel primer and a finishing gloss.

Powder

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The Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer powder is composed of a radiopaque, fluoroaluminosilicate glass. It also contains microencapsulated potassium persulfate and ascorbic acid which make up the patented redox catalyst system that provides the methacrylate cure of the glass ionomer in the absence of light. The powders further contain small amounts of pigments to provide shades appropriate for the products' intended uses. Four Vita shades, namely A3, A4, C2 and C4, a Pedo shade (lighter than a Vita B1) intended for pediatric restorations and a blue shade, designed specifically for core buildups to contrast tooth shades, are available. The glass ionomer liquid is a light sensitive, aqueous solution of a polycarboxylic acid modified with pendant methacrylate groups. It contains the copolymer also used in the Vitrebond liquid, water, HEMA and photoinitiators. It is similar in composition to the Vitrebond liquid but differs in the concentrations of the components. In use, Vitremer liquid and Vitremer powder are combined within a 45­second period and will form a set cement by the multiple setting reactions described above. The glass ionomer mixture is a true glass ionomer having the major benefits attributed to this category of dental materials, i.e. adhesion to tooth structur and fluoride release. The Vitremer primer is a one part, visible light­cure liquid specifically designed for use with the tri-cure glass ionomer. It is composed of the Vitrebond copolymer, HEMA, ethanol and photoinitiators. The components of the primer are similar to those of the Vitremer liquid. The relative amounts of each are different however, and the primer's viscosity is significantly lower. The primer is acidic in nature. Its function is to modify the smear layer and adequately wet the tooth surfaces to facilitate adhesion of the glass ionomer. In use, the primer is applied with a brush for 30 seconds to both dentin and enamel and air dried. Ethanol present in the primer, aids the drying step. The primer is then light cured for 20 seconds. Adequately air drying followed by light curing of the primer before placement of the glass ionomer enhances adhesion of the glass ionomer to tooth structure particularly when the glass ionomer is placed in bulk thicknesses exceeding those that can be penetrated by light. The Vitremer finishing gloss is a single component, light cure dental resin. It is the same as Light Cure Enamel Bond Resin #5515. Its use is optional. Its function is to provide a surface coating over a final restoration to level any surface irregularities if needed. It is not recommended for use over core buildups.

Liquid

Primer

Finishing Gloss

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PROPERTIES

Following is a discussion of the properties of the Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer system. Much of the information will be presented in graphic form. Data will be presented for Vitremer, Vitremer TC and/or Vitremer SC. Vitremer and Vitremer TC refer to the product when it has cured by all three of its curing mechanisms. Vitremer SC refers to the product when it has cured only by its two self-cure mechanisms, i.e. with no light exposure. Performance of the product is at its best when light cured. However, the properties achieved with the self-cure mechanisms only are significant and especially important when one considers use of the product in thicknesses greater than those which light can penetrate. Comparisons will be made with the major products competitive to the new Vitremer product. These are: · Conventionally setting glass ionomer restorative products: --Ketac-Fil (ESPE) --Fuji II (GC International) · Light cure glass ionomer restorative product: --Fuji II LC (GC International) · Conventionally setting glass ionomer products used as core buildups and in pediatric applications: --Ketac-Silver (ESPE) --Miracle Mix (GC International) · Other: --VariGlass VLC Multipurpose Glass Ionomer (L.D. Caulk) As will become evident through the course of this profile, VariGlass is not a true glass ionomer. Therefore, data for it will be shaded differently in most of the bar graphs that follow to differentiate it from the other products which are true glass ionomers. Unless stated otherwise, all test specimens are stored wet until tested.

Fracture Resistance

The fracture resistance of a variety of materials indicated for use as core buildups was determined by Dr. John O. Burgess, University of Texas, San Antonio, TX. Cores of the materials were constructed on dentin with pins. Force was applied to the cores at a 45° angle and the fracture resistance determined. Dr. Burgess's data are presented as Figure 4. The fracture resistance of Vitremer ionomer is significantly greater than that reported for the conventionally setting and light cure glass ionomers, the amalgam, (Tytin) and the composite products tested. When crowns were placed over the various core materials and then subjected to the same type of test, fracture resistance values for all the materials were similar.

Figure 4

Fracture Resistance

2000 1750 1500 1250 1000 750 500 250 0

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Fracture Toughness

Fracture toughness is a measure of a material's resistance to the propagation of a crack after a crack has been initiated. Shown as Figure 5, the 24-hour fracture toughness values for the Vitremer ionomer and Fuji II LC are significantly greater than those of the major conventionally setting glass ionomers as well as a variety of composite products tested dry. Tested wet, the composites would be expected to show somewhat higher values though not equaling or exceeding that of the Vitremer ionomer.

Figure 5 Fracture Toughness

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

Compressive Strength

Shown graphically as Figure 6, 24­hour compressive strength values for Vitremer ionomer in the tri-cure and in the self-cure modes are greater than those of the conventionally setting ionomers and equivalent to the light cure products. Viewed as a function of time in Figure 7, it can be seen that the Vitremer compressive strength values at ten minutes are already about equivalent to those of the conventional ionomers at one hour. At one hour, they are greater than or equivalent to those of the others at one day.

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Figure 6

Compressive Strength

250

200

150

100

50

0

Figure 7

Compressive Strength vs. Time

300

200

100

Vitremer TC Vitremer SC Fuji II Ketac-Fil Ketac-Silver Miracle Mix

MPa

0 10 min 1 hr 1 day 1 wk 1 mo 3 mo

Time

Diametral Tensile Strength

As illustrated in Figure 8, the 24-hour diametral tensile strengths of Vitremer ionomer in the tri-cure and self-cure modes greatly exceed those of the conventional restorative and core buildup ionomers and are significantly different from them. They are not statistically different from the Fuji II LC and VariGlass products though their average values are greater than or equivalent to these products. Graphed as a function of time in Figure 9, it is evident that the tensile strength of Vitremer ionomer in the tri-cure mode is superior even at ten minutes to those of the competitive conventional materials at one hour, and at one hour is significantly greater than that which the others achieve even at three months.

Figure 8

Diametral Tensile Strength

50

13

40

30

20

10

0

Figure 9

Diametral Tensile Strength vs. Time

50

40

30

Vitremer TC Vitremer SC Ketac-Fil

MPa

20

Ketac-Silver Fuji II MIracle Mix

10

0 10 min 1 hr 1 day 1 wk 1 mo 3 mo

Time

Flexural Strength

Flexural strength was determined in a three­point bend test. Twenty-four hour results are shown in Figure 10. The data indicate that the Vitremer ionomer is less brittle than the major conventionally setting ionomers and VariGlass restorative. Fuji II LC is similar to the Vitremer product by this particular measure.

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Figure 10

Flexural Strength

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Fluoride Release

Fluoride released from Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer is measured in vitro in buffer solution using a fluoride­ion­specific electrode. The release of fluoride over time is not affected by variations in the powder/liquid ratio as illustrated by Figure 11, nor adversely affected by the cure mechanisms or coating of the cured material as indicated by Figure 12. Cumulative fluoride released from the Vitremer product, the major conventionally setting glass ionomers, the Fuji II light cure glass ionomer and some other products claimed be glass ionomers is shown as Figures 13 and 14 respectively. While the minimum amount of fluoride release required to produce a cariostatic effect has not been established, the near total lack of such release from Geristore (DenMat) and Fluorocore (L.D. Caulk), both products that carry claims of fluoride release, and the limited release from the VariGlass product are noteworthy.

Figure 11

Cumulative Fluoride Released: Function of Vitremer P/L Ratio

ug Fluoride/g Sample

2000

1500

1000

P/L =2.2/1 P/L =2.5/1 P/L =2.8/1

500

0 0 50 100 150

Days

Figure 12

ug Fluoride/g Sample

Cumulative Fluoride Released: Vitremer Cure Mechanism

2000

15

1500

1000 Self-Cure Tri-Cure, Varnished Tri-Cure 500

0 0 50 100 150

Days

Figure 13

ug Fluoride/g Sample

Cumulative Fluoride Released: Vitremer vs. Conventional Glass Ionomers

1500

1000 Vitremer Fuji II Ketac-Fil Miracle MIx Ketac-Silver 500

0 0 50 100 150

Days

Figure 14

ug Fluoride/g Sample

Cumulative Fluoride Released: Vitremer vs. Competitive Products

2000

1500

1000

Vitremer TC, Varnished Fuji II LC VariGlass, Rest. Geristore Fluorocore

500

0 0 50 100 150

Days

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Caries Inhibition

Erickson and Glasspoole have conducted numerous in vitro investigations of secondary caries inhibition. To date, they have found that the only materials inhibiting to lesion formation by this test method are the true glass ionomer compositions. In a most recent study, they found Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer to be caries inhibiting. The Vitremer ionomer was placed after application and light-curing of the Vitremer primer as is recommended for clinical use. A zone of inhibition adjacent to the material can be seen in the polarized light micrograph reproduced here as Figure 15. The response of this new product is like that seen repeatedly with the conventionally setting glass ionomer, Ketac-Fil. By contrast and as can be seen in Figures 16 and 17 respectively, Geristore and Fluorocore showed no zones of inhibition. In fact, early wall lesion formations are evident indicating leakage between the cavities and these restorations. While the artificial lesion produced adjacent to the VariGlass product was shallower than those adjacent to the other products tested, the VariGlass restorative did not exhibit the inhibition typical of the true glass ionomers, as can be seen in Figure 18.

Figure 15 Figure 16

zone of inhibition

no inhibition

Figure 17

Figure 18

no inhibition

no inhibition

The fluoride release data cited above and the results of this investigation indicate that Geristore, Fluorocore and VariGlass do not function as glass ionomers. They do not provide the benefit of fluoride release leading to in vitro caries inhibition associated with glass ionomers and expected by the dental profession.

Adhesion

It should be stated at the outset that adhesion values of the glass ionomers are generally lower than those of adhesive/composite systems. Glass ionomers typically fail cohesively within the ionomer and thus adhesion is not necessarily true bond strength. Further, their inherent lower rigidity compared with composites significantly affects shear bond values. However, the glass ionomers have been shown to be highly retentive clinically. Therefore their use as effective restorative materials should not be ruled out on the basis of in vitro bond strength data. Adhesion is evaluated in the 3M Dental Products Laboratory by potting bovine or human teeth in methyl methacrylate, then grinding and polishing these to expose enamel or dentin. The enamel or dentin surfaces are then treated in accordance with manufacturers' instructions for bonding. A teflon mold 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height is placed over the treated surface. The test material is mixed, placed in the mold to form a button and cured. The light­cure materials are cured by light exposure and the self-cure materials allowed to set for their recommended set times at 37°C and 80% RH. They are then placed into water at 37° C before shear bond strength is determined at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. in an Instron universal testing machine. The effect of Vitremer primer on the adhesion of Vitremer ionomer to enamel and dentin is presented in Figure 19. A significant decrease in bond strength occurs when the primer is not used. Thus, Vitremer ionomer is recommended for use with the primer.

Figure 19 Effect of Primer on Vitremer Adhesion to Bovine Enamel and Dentin

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Primer No Primer

Enamel Dentin

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Unless otherwise noted in the following discussion, Vitremer adhesion values have been determined on primed dentin and enamel; i.e. the Vitremer primer was applied to the particular substrate for 30 seconds, air dried and light cured for 20 seconds before placement of the ionomer button. For the conventionally setting glass ionomer products, enamel and dentin surfaces were treated with the polyacrylic acid solutions recommended by the respective manufacturers for the recommended time and then rinsed and dried before placement of the ionomers.

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The average bond strength of Vitremer ionomer to bovine enamel is 10.3 MPa in the tri-cure mode and slightly lower in the self-cure mode. These values are greater than those of the conventional glass ionomers as is shown in Figure 20 and somewhat less than those obtained with the Fuji II LC and VariGlass products though not significantly so. For the Fuji II LC product, the enamel surface was scrubbed with GC Dentin Conditioner, a polycarboxylic acid solution, rinsed and dried prior to placing the ionomer in accordance with GC's recommendations. For the VariGlass product, the enamel was etched for 30 seconds with a phosphoric acid gel, rinsed and air dried. A coating of Universal Bond 3 Primer was then applied and air dried followed by placement of the VariGlass material in accordance with Caulk's recommendations for bonding to enamel.

Figure 20 Adhesion to Bovine Enamel

20

15

10

5

0

The average bond strength of Vitremer ionomer to bovine dentin is 5.5 MPa in the tri-cure mode and somewhat less in the self-cure mode. These values are compared with those of competitive products in Figure 21. Though they are greater than the others, they are not statistically so in some cases. For the Fuji II LC samples, the dentin surfaces were conditioned in the same manner as that for enamel adhesion testing and for the VariGlass samples, Universal Bond 3 Primer was applied and air dried before placement of the restorative material all in accordance with manufacturers' recommendations.

Figure 21 Adhesion to Bovine Dentin

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Though not included in Figure 21, adhesion of Fuji II LC to dentin was evaluated where the ionomer was not light cured but allowed to cure only by its self-cure, i.e. its glass­ionomer, acid-base setting reaction. Bond strength values were zero. Most of the samples failed before they could be placed in the universal testing machine. Similar testing of the VariGlass product could not be accomplished because VariGlass has no self-cure. It can be set only by light exposure. This is another significant indicator that the material does not function as a glass ionomer. The performance of these two competitive products is highly dependent upon proper light-curing technique. This demands the operator's close attention to the thickness of materials placed, cure times, light access to the materials, distance of the light from the materials, light intensity output and depth of cure of the selected shade to mention some factors. The assurance provided by a material that will not only light cure but will also undergo significant self-cure as with the Vitremer ionomer, is not afforded users of the Fuji II LC and VariGlass products. Figure 22 shows the adhesion values of Vitremer ionomer to human tooth structures. It is interesting to note that adhesion of the ionomer in the tri-cure mode to human dentin is significantly greater than that to bovine dentin.

Figure 22 Adhesion to Extracted Human Teeth

12

Enamel

19

10

Dentin

8 6 4 2 0

Adhesion values following aging to three months and thermal cycling compared with 24­hour adhesion values are shown in Figure 23. Thermal cycling was done from 5­55° C for 630 cycles. No significant difference in adhesion values was found.

Figure 23 Adhesion of Vitremer to Bovine Dentin

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 24 Hour 3 Months Thermal Cycle

Tri-Cure Mode Self-Cure Mode

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Solubility

The solubility of glass ionomers is commonly determined in vitro by two tests, water leachable content in accordance with ISO Specification 7489 and lactic acid erosion in accordance with ISO Specification 9917. For the former, discs of the test materials are made up, cured, held at 37° C and 90% relative humidity for one hour and then placed in water. After 23 hours, the amount of solid material leached from the samples is determined and reported as a percentage of the sample. The specification calls for an upper limit of 0.7% for Type II, i.e. restorative glass ionomers. For immediate values, the test procedure was the same except the one­hour dwell time at temperature and humidity was eliminated. Tested by both protocols, the Vitremer ionomer falls well below the test limit as shown in Figure 24.

Figure 24 Water Leachable Content

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

23 Hour Immediate

The lactic acid erosion test involves a jet impingement of lactic acid solution against the test material. The Vitremer ionomer exhibits very minimal erosion as indicated in Figure 25. The conventionally setting glass ionomers are significantly more soluble by this protocol. The negative numbers shown for Fuji II LC and VariGlass indicate that these products swell slightly in the acid solution.

Figure 25 Lactic Acid Erosion

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50

Radiopacity

Radiopacity is determined in accordance with ISO Specification 4049. By this specification, the radiographic density of a test material is compared and normalized to that of a 2 mm thickness of aluminum. A value of one or more indicates that a material is radiopaque and a value of less than one indicates that a material is radiolucent. Vitremer ionomer is radiopaque. A comparison of its radiopacity is shown with other dental filling materials in Figure 26. The radiopacity of Vitremer ionomer is most similar to that of the former P-30 7,8 product, a material judged by Norwegian investigators, Tveit and Espelid to allow detection of caries and defects adjacent to it.

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Figure 26

Comparison of 1.8 Radiopacity 1.6

1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Surface Roughness

Surface roughness measurements have been made after polishing with SofLex discs and after tooth brushing the polished surfaces of Vitremer ionomer, the major conventional restorative ionomers and representative composite restoratives. The glass ionomer products were coated with an unfilled resin after polishing in accordance with manufacturers' instructions. Data is graphed in Figure 27. While the surfaces of the Vitremer ionomer are not as smooth as that of the microfill Silux Plus, they are smoother than those of the conventional glass ionomer restoratives tested and comparable by this test to APH, a composite used for esthetic anterior restorations.

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Espelid I, Tveit AB, Erickson RL, Keck SC, Glasspoole EA. Radiopacity of Restorations and detection of Secondary Caries. Dent Mater 1991;7:114-117.

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Tveit AB, Espelid I, Erickson RL, Glasspoole EA. Vertical Angulation of the X-ray Beam and Radiographic Diagnosis of Secondary Caries. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1991;19:333-5.

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Figure 27

Surface Roughness

1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Polished Brushed

Numerous evaluations of the Vitremer ionomer have been conducted with U.S. dentists. Overall, they have found the surface smoothness very acceptable and in fact, remarkable for a glass ionomer. In the European evaluation reported to date, 94­97 percent of the dentists have indicated that the smoothness of the material is acceptable.

pH Change

Figure 28 is a plot of the change in pH of the Vitremer ionomer and two conventional restorative glass ionomers. The pH of Vitremer ionomer is higher, i.e. less acidic at the onset of mixing than that of the other ionomers at ten minutes.

Figure 28 pH Change

5

4

pH

3

2

Vitremer Ketac-Fil Fuji II

1

0

200

400

600

Time seconds

Setting Characteristics

Shown by the following table are the working time/setting characteristics of the Vitremer ionomer compared in general, with the conventionally setting glass ionomers.

Conventional Glass Ionomer Working Time Setting Time 1-2 mins. 4-7 mins Vitremer Tri-Cure Mode 3 mins. 40 secs.(light) Vitremer Self-cure Mode 3 mins. 3.5-4.5 mins.

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USE

The Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer system is indicated for use as an esthetic restorative filling material for: · · · · · Class III and Class V restorations Restoration of cervical erosion/abrasion lesions Restoration of root caries lesions Class I and Class II restorations in primary teeth Temporary repair of fractured teeth

It is also indicated for: · · Filling defects and undercut areas in crown preparations As a core buildup where at least half the coronal tooth structure is remaining to provide structural support for the crown

The basic procedure for a dentist using the system as a restorative filling material and as a core buildup is as follows: · · · · · · Apply primer for 30 seconds, air dry Light cure--20 seconds Place ionomer mix Light cure--40 seconds Finish If desired, apply gloss, light cure 20 seconds (not indicated for core buildups)

While the full instructions for use of the product have been included for your reference and study at the end of this profile, let us review some of the key procedural steps.

Shade Selection

As with composite systems, shade selection for an esthetic restoration should be made when the teeth are fully wet, before isolation. For core buildups, while any shaded powder can be used, the blue shade provides contrasting color to tooth structure, a feature dentists like, and it has greater depth of cure than the darker shades such as A4 and C4.

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Priming

The primer is quite fluid so should be dispensed into a well rather than onto a pad. It is applied to both enamel and dentinal surfaces for 30 seconds. We recommend that the tooth surfaces be kept wet with the primer for the full application time. If pins have been placed for a core buildup, the primer should also be applied to the pins. After application, the primed surfaces are not to be rinsed but must be dried using an air syringe and then light cured for 20 seconds. The primed surfaces will still appear shiny after the air drying and after the light curing steps. Using the primer as instructed is critical to achieving optimal adhesion of the glass ionomer to tooth structure. It should not be eliminated from the procedure.

Dispensing

The standard powder/liquid ratio of 2.5/1 by weight can be obtained with an equal number of level powder scoops and liquid drops. Based on our evaluations, we expect that 2 scoops of powder and 2 drops of liquid will be an adequate amount of material for most restorative filling applications and 4 scoops to 4 drops, an adequate amount for most core buildups. These are only guidelines as users will determine appropriate amounts for specific applications as they become familiar with the product. We recommend that a separate mix be made for each restoration to be placed. This is based solely on our experience with some evaluators who placed multiple restorations from a single mix and then had inadequate working time to contour them. Again, experience with the product will become the user's best guide.

Mixing

We instruct the user to mix all of the powder into the liquid within 45 seconds using a cement spatula. Some new users may have difficulty mixing the Vitremer ionomer as it is a fairly high powder­to­liquid ratio and the liquid is fairly viscous. The resulting mix is relatively thick. Use of a large cement spatula will facilitate mixing. For some, incrementally mixing the powder into the liquid will ease mixing. Many evaluators have done this intuitively. Evaluations conducted with experienced dental assistants indicate that the ionomer does mix differently than other materials they are more accustomed to mixing but they were able to mix the material within the recommended time period. Working time at a room temperature of 73° F (23° C) for the standard powder/liquid ratio is 3 minutes from the start of mix. Excessive time spent mixing will reduce the working time.

Placement

We recommend placement of the ionomer mix with a syringe system. Most of our evaluators reporting on their experiences with the material found this placement technique to be acceptable and have used it. Some preferred to use plastic placement instruments for some applications. The material can be placed in bulk, i.e. in thicknesses greater than those through which light can penetrate. Placement in layers with a separate light cure of each layer is not required. However, should a dentist prefer to use a layering technique, this can be done.

Curing

A 40­second light exposure will cure the A3, C2, Pedo and Blue shades to a depth of 2.5 mm and the A4 and C4 shades to a depth of 2mm. The self-cure set time for all the shades is 4 minutes from the start of mix at oral cavity temperature.

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Finishing and Polishing

The ionomer can be finished or prepared in the case of a core buildup, immediately after light curing or completion of self-curing. We recommend that the instruments used for these functions be used wet.

Finishing Gloss

A light­cure finishing gloss is part of the Vitremer system. Its use is optional and, if desired, can be applied after restoration has been finished and polished. It then would be light­cured for 20 seconds. It is not recommended to apply the finishing gloss to core buildups. The air­inhibited surface on the gloss would adversely affect the set of some impression materials. In summary, it can be seen that the Vitremer ionomer system is a relatively fast and easy system to use.

Use as a Liner

More fluid consistencies than the standard powder/liquid ratio have been evaluated with dentists for use of the Vitremer ionomer as a cavity liner. Of these, a ratio of 0.8/1 by weight was found to be the most desirable although the handling and amount of material dispensed for this application are not optimal. The Vitremer ionomer has not been specifically manufactured for use as a liner. However, if a dentist wants to use it as a liner, and will accept the lessthan-optimal handling characteristics and tolerate the anticipated waste, performance of the material is expected to be quite acceptable. Adhesion to dentin was determined to be excellent even without application of the primer. While Vitrebond liner/base remains the material of choice for lining applications, as it was developed specifically for these uses, the use of Vitremer ionomer as a liner could be recommended at the 0.8/1 powder/liquid ratio (1 scoop powder/3 drops liquid). No application of the primer would be required in this use. The material would be dispensed, mixed within a 45­ second period, applied to dentin in a thin layer (0.5 mm or less) and light cured for 30 seconds.

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COMPETITION

Considerable information on products competitive with the Vitremer ionomer system has been presented in the discussion of properties. Most of the data are summarized in the following table for your convenience. Additional comments relative to the advantages of the Vitremer ionomer compared with the competitive products in general and specifically will follow. The advantages of the Vitremer ionomer system compared in general with composites used as restorative filling materials and as core buildups are: · · · · · Bulk placement versus the time­consuming need to place and cure the light­cure composites in increments Bond to tooth structure--no need for the application of a separate adhesive Fluoride release supported with in vitro artificial caries inhibition Moisture compatibility Toughness

The advantages of the Vitremer ionomer system compared in general with amalgams used as restorative filling materials and as core buildups are: · · · · · Esthetics Bond to tooth structure Allows for more conservative cavity preparations Fluoride release supported with in vitro artificial caries inhibition Immediate finishing

The advantages of the Vitremer ionomer system compared in general with the conventionally setting glass ionomers used as restorative filling materials and as core buildups are: · · · · · · Easier to use--longer working time and rapid set by light exposure Tougher Less brittle Esthetic Better bond strength to tooth structure as measured in vitro Less sensitive to moisture contamination and dehydration

The advantages of the Vitremer ionomer system compared with the light­ cure glass­ionomer restorative is: · · Bulk placement Adhesion to dentin in the absence of light.

At present, Fuji II LC is the dominant if not only light­cure glass­ionomer restorative filling material commercially available. The product is a true glass ionomer showing the characteristic composition and setting reaction for this

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28

category of dental materials. Its major disadvantrage is that it must be placed and light cured in increments to achieve adhesion to dentin. By contrast, Vitremer ionomer can be placed in bulk and yet achieve bonding to dentin. Bulk placement affords the user easier, more rapid placement. The advantages of the Vitremer ionomer system compared with the products claimed to be glass ionomers or fluoride-releasing, eg. Geristore, VariGlass, Fluorocore are: · Fluoride release supported with in vitro artificial caries inhibition

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

As with every new product, many questions about it arise. In this section, we will address some of the anticipated questions and provide answers in a format we hope will be helpful to you. Q. What does "redox" mean? A. Redox means the same as oxidation-reduction. It is a chemical reaction in which one of the reactants is reduced (gains one or more electrons) and another is oxidized (loses one or more electrons.) The redox catalysts contained in the Vitremer powder react in this manner when the powder is mixed with the aqueous Vitremer liquid. This reaction initiates the methacrylate cure of the ionomer mix in the absence of light. Q. Is the Vitrebond copolymer the same as the Vitrebond liquid? A. No. The Vitrebond copolymer is the modified polycarboxylic acid which is contained in the Vitrebond liquid. Q. Is the Vitremer liquid the same as the Vitrebond liquid? A. No, but they are very similar in their constituents. They both contain the Vitrebond copolymer, HEMA, water and photoinitiator systems. However, the Vitremer liquid has a higher concentration of the Vitrebond copolymer and lower concentrations of HEMA and water. Q. Can the Vitrebond liquid be substitued for the Vitremer liquid in the Vitremer System? A. No, this is not recommended. Q. What are the similarities and differences between Vitremer primer and ScotchbondTM Multi-Purpose Primer? A. They both contain a like concentration of Vitrebond copolymer and HEMA. However, the Vitremer primer also contains ethanol as a drying aid and photoinitiators so that it can be light cured. The Scotchbond MultiPurpose primer has no ethanol and also no photoinitiator system and thus is not light curable. Q. When the solubility tests were done, was the Vitremer ionomer glazed? A. No, the samples were not glazed. Q. What is the standard powder/liquid ratio? A. The standard powder to liquid ratio is 2.5 to 1 by weight. This ratio can be obtained with an equal number of level scoops of powder and drops of

liquid. Because of variablity inherent in the dispensing system employed, a range of ratios likely will be obtained by users. Also, dental teams tend to mix powder/liquid systems to their particularly desired consistencies and they appreciate this flexibility. The following table shows some key properties of the Vitremer glass ionomer at three powder/liquid ratios. It can be seen that while mean values may differ by mix ratio, excellent properties are achieved across the range. It should be noted too that powder/liquid ratios below 2.2/1 are quite fluid and were found to be undesirable by evaluators for use as restorative filling materials and as core buildups. Powder/liquid ratios greater than 2.8/1 are very thick and difficult to mix and thus undesirable.

2.2/1 Shear bond strength, MPa Compressive strength, MPa Diametral tensile strength, MPa 8.7 (2.3) 209.7 (8.4) 37.8 (0.9) 2.5/1 9.8 (1.8) 225.5 (3.0) 39.9 (1.3) 2.8/1 6.5 (1.9) 232.4 (7.7) 30 (2.4)

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Q. How does the Vitremer ionomer handle? A. When mixed at the standard powder/liquid ratio of 2.5/1, the mix is nicely thick and putty-like. Current users of the capsulated glass­ionomer products may find the Vitremer somewhat thicker in consistency by contrast. Compared with composite, the Vitremer ionomer may be perceived to be somewhat softer and, depending upon which composite is used, slightly sticky. Q. Does Vitremer ionomer bond to itself? A. Yes, adhesion studies indicate that the bond strength of Vitremer ionomer to cured, non-contaminated Vitremer ionomer is about 8 MPa. Q. Does Vitremer ionomer bond to itself when it has been contaminated by saliva? A. Yes. Adhesion studies indicate that additional Vitremer ionomer can be added to cured Vitremer ionomer that has been contaminated by saliva. The contamination should be rinsed away, the ionomer surface dried and then additional material placed. Q. Has the new tri-cure ionomer been subjected to histological examination? A. Histological examinations of the Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer were conducted at the Forsyth Dental Center, Boston, MA under the direction of Dr. I. Leon Dogon and at the University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL under the direction of Dr. Charles F. Cox. They were conducted with and without a primer in monkeys in accordance with ISO Standard 7405. This protocol involves sacrificial periods at three to five days, one month and three months. Results from the studies were that the tri-cure glass ionomer revealed no adverse pulpal reaction at any of the sacrificial periods. The investigators from Forsyth presented results of their study at the International Association for Dental Research meeting in Glasgow, Scotland in June, 1992, abstract number 68.

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Q. By what mechanism does the Vitremer ionomer bond to tooth structure? A. The mechanism of adhesion of glass ionomers to dentin and enamel is not well understood and although several hypotheses have been advanced the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. On the basis of infrared and adsorption studies, Wilson and co-workers have suggested that initially there is an wetting of the tooth by the polycarboxylic acid of the cement mix. This is followed by ionic bonding between the matrix polyacid and calcium ions from the hydroxyapatite.9 Further credence to this hypothesis is offered by the titrimetric work of Iloka et al. 10 An additional theory is that the polyacrylates bond to the collagen molecules of dentin. However there is no evidence to support the latter hypothesis. In light cure glass ionomers, the additional possibility of some penetration into the dentinal tubules cannot be ruled out based on confocal microscopy studies.11, 12 The 3M Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer system is based on the foundation of Vitrebond chemistry. In a clinical study, Powell et al.13 have reported that the Vitrebond system used as a liner and covered with composite, had 100% retention in Class V situations over the course of three years. In general, glass ionomers have performed well in terms of clinical retention compared with composite-based systems even though in any comparison of in vitro bond strength values, the adhesive bonding agents fare better. Since purely resin-based dentin bonding agents are believed to bond by purely mechanical interlocking, only the adhesion of glass ionomers to tooth substrates must involve some additional mechanism. It is also interesting to note from studies by Prati et al that hydrostatic intrapulpal pressure does not affect the bond strength of Vitrebond to dentin.14 The reason for this is that the water-soluble polycarboxylic acid of Vitrebond is able to absorb any water exuding from the dentin and therefore negate its effect in debonding the overlying layers. One of the fundamental rules in obtaining a good adhesive bond is to bring together two surfaces that are equivalent in their surface energies. The other rule is that the adherend must intimately wet the substrate to which it has to bond. In the Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer system, the acidic, low viscosity primer modifies the smear layer and wets the tooth structure so as to provide a constant surface which is ideally receptive to the glass ionomer mix. The acidic polymer of the primer has strong inherent attraction for the dentin and enamel surfaces. Photocuring the primer crosslinks the methacrylate groups of the polymer and provides an integral surface that is ready for the placement of the ionomer mix. As is evident from SEM studies,.once the Vitremer mix is placed on the primer the polyacid of the primer reacts with the fluoroaluminosilicate glass of the glass ionomer mix. The primer thus becomes a part of the overall glass ionomer restoration.

9

Wilson, pp 85-88. IIoka A, Araki Y, Matsuda K, Ohno H. Adhesion Mechanism of Polyelectrolyte Cements to Tooth Structure. Dental Materials J 1989;8:236-242. 11 Watson TF. A Confocal Microscopic Study of Some Factors Affecting the Adaptation of a Light-cured Glass Ionomer to Tooth Tissue. J Dent Res 1990;69:1531-1538. 12 Lin A, McIntyre NS, Davidson, RD. Studies on the Adhesion of Glass-ionomer Cements to Dentin. J Dent Res 1992;71:1836-1841. 13 Powell LV, Johnson GH, Gordon GE. Clinical Evaluation of Class V Abrasion/Erosion Restorations. J Dent Res [Abstract no. 1514]. 1992;72:705. 14 Prati C, Pashley DH, Montanari G. Hydrostatic Intra-Pulpal Pressure and Bond Strength of Bonding Systems. J Dent Res [Abstract no. 63]. 1990;69:116.

10

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE

Vitremer TM Tri-Cure Glass Ionomer System Core Buildup/Restorative General Information. The Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer system is comprised of shaded glass ionomer powders, the glass ionomer liquid, the primer and a finishing gloss. Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer is a two part, powder/liquid composition. The powder is a radiopaque, fluoroaluminosilicate glass. The liquid is a light sensitive, aqueous solution of a modified polyalkenoic acid. Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer provides the major benefits of glass ionomer cements--adhesion to tooth structure, fluoride release and biocompatibility. Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer will set by exposure to visible light. It also has two self-curing mechanisms to provide a relatively rapid set where light does not penetrate and thus allows for bulk placement. Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer is recommended for use with Vitremer primer, a one part, visible light cure cavity primer. Its function is to adequately wet the bonding surfaces to facilitate adhesion of the glass ionomer. In use, the primer is dispensed, applied, air dried and light cured. Adequately air drying and then light curing the primer separately before placement of the glass ionomer maximizes adhesion of the glass ionomer to tooth structure particularly when the glass ionomer is placed in bulk. To maximize the final esthetics of a Vitremer restoration, application of the Vitremer finishing gloss is recommended. The finishing gloss is a single component, light cure, unfilled dental resin.

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Indications

The Vitremer Tri-Cure Glass Ionomer System is indicated for: · · · · · · · Class III and Class V restorations. Restoration of cervical erosion/abrasion lesions. Restoration of root caries lesions. Class I and Class II restorations in primary teeth. Temporary repair of fractured teeth. Filling defects and undercut areas in crown preparations. As a core buildup where at least half the coronal tooth structure is remaining to provide structural support for the crown.

Precautions for Dental Personnel and Patients

Vitremer Tri-Cure Glass Ionomer System Primer, Liquid and Powder/Liquid Mix

Primer and Liquid contain HEMA (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate). HEMA is severely irritating to the eye and is a known contact allergen. A small percentage of the population is known to have an allergic response to acrylate resins. To reduce the risk of allergic response, minimize exposure to these materials. In particular, exposure to uncured resin should be avoided. Use of protective gloves and a no-touch technique is recommended. If skin contacts Primer, Liquid or Powder/Liquid mix, wash skin immediately with soap and water. Acrylates may penetrate commonly used gloves. If glove contacts Primer, Liquid or Powder/Liquid mix, remove and discard glove, wash hands immediately with soap and water and then reglove.

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Primer, Liquid and Powder/Liquid mix may cause eye irritation upon contact and may be mildly irritating to oral soft tissue upon contact. Avoid contact with eyes and oral soft tissue. If accidental contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water. If irritation persists, consult a physician.

Glass Ionomer Finishing Gloss

The Finishing Gloss contains BisGMA and TEGDMA. A small percentage of the population is known to have an allergic response to acrylate resins. To reduce the risk of allergic response, minimize exposure to these materials. In particular, exposure to uncured resins should be avoided. If accidental contact with eyes or prolonged contact with oral soft tissue occurs, flush with large amounts of water. If skin contact occurs, wash skin with soap and water.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE

As An Esthetic Restorative and as a Core Buildup 1. Shade selection. For esthetic restorations, select the desired powder shade using the Vitremer shade guide. For core buildups, the blue shaded powder will provide contrasting color to tooth structure and is recommended for this application. The other Vitremer powder shades may also be used for core buildups if desired. 2. 3. Isolation. Rubber dam is the preferred method of isolation. Gingival retraction and cotton rolls may also be used. Cavity preparation. Remove caries. Prepare cavity with minimal tooth reduction and with rounded internal line angles. Finish cavosurface margin to a butt joint. If no preparation is required, clean surfaces to be restored with a plain pumice/ water slurry. Rinse and dry cavity. 4. 5. Retention. For core buildups, multiple missing cusps may require placement of pins for retention. Pulp protection. If there is no exposure or near exposure of the pulp, no liner is required. The Vitremer tri-cure glass ionomer system is not recommended for direct pulp capping. 6. 7. Matrix placement. Place a matrix appropriate for the restoration if desired. Priming. Dispense a few drops of the Vitremer primer into a well. Using a brush, apply primer for about 30 seconds to enamel and dentin surfaces to be bonded. Replenish primer as needed to assure that the surfaces are kept wet with the primer for the recommended application time.For core buildups with pins, apply primer to pins as well. Dry the primer using an air syringe for about 15 seconds. Do not rinse. After drying, the primed surfaces will remain shiny in appearance. Light cure the dried primed surfaces for 20 seconds using a 3M curing unit or other dental visible light curing unit of comparable intensity. The light cured surfaces will appear glossy.

NOTES:

33

· ·

By adequately drying and separately light curing the primer, maximum adhesion of the glass ionomer to tooth structure can be obtained. The primer is light sensitive and contains alcohol. Minimize ambient light exposure and evaporation by dispensing just prior to use and replacing vial cap immediately after dispensing.

8.

Dispensing powder and liquid. The Vitremer powder jars contain protective seals. Remove seal completely before use. Unscrew cap, peel off seal and discard. Replace cap. The standard powder/liquid ratio of 2.5/1 by weight can be obtained with an equal number of level powder scoops and liquid drops. Additional powder may be incorporated to obtain a thicker consistency mix. Two scoops of powder and 2 drops of liquid will provide an adequate amount of material for most esthetic restorations. Four scoops of powder and 4 drops of liquid will provide an adequate amount of material for most core buildups. Using a separate mix for each restoration to be placed is recommended. Shake the jar to fluff the powder before dispensing. Insert the scoop into the jar, overfill it with loosely packed powder and withdraw it against the plastic leveler to remove excess powder and obtain a level scoop. Dispense the desired number of powder scoops onto the mixing pad. To best obtain a proper liquid drop size, hold the Vitremer liquid vial vertically with the dropper tip down and without the tip contacting the mixing pad. Squeeze the vial to dispense the desired number of liquid drops onto the mixing pad.

NOTES:

· ·

The glass ionomer powders are sensitive to high humidity. Store with jar caps securely tightened and away from high humidity. The glass ionomer liquid is light sensitive. Protect it from ambient light by dispensing just prior to use and replacing vial cap immediately after dispensing.

9.

Mixing. Using a cement spatula, mix the powder into the liquid. All of the powder should be incorporated into the liquid within 45 seconds. Working time of the standard powder/liquid ratio is 3 minutes from the start of mix at a room temperature of 73°F (23°C). Higher temperatures will shorten working time. Lower temperatures will lengthen working time. Back load a delivery tip by pressing it over the mixed glass ionomer, insert piston flush with the back of the tip and place tip into a 3M dispenser.

10. Placement. Placement of the material in a dry field is recommended. Syringe the mixed glass ionomer into the cavity keeping the syringe tip immersed in the material to minimize air entrapment. Contour the restoration using a plastic matrix or appropriate placement instrument. For core buildups, syringe the glass ionomer into undercut areas, around pins, around posts and fill the preparation. Condensing the glass ionomer with a damp cotton pledget held with a cotton pliers rather than using a metal plugger can prevent incorporating surface voids in the material.

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11. Curing. Light cure the glass ionomer by exposing its entire surface area to visible light from a 3M curing unit or other dental visible light curing unit of comparable intensity according to the chart below. Shade A3, C2, Pedo, Blue A4, C4 Thickness 2.5 mm 2.0 mm Exposure Time 40 secs. 40 secs.

For core buildups where a metal matrix band has been placed, light cure the glass ionomer from the occlusal for 40 seconds. Thicknesses of the Vitremer shades greater than indicated in the chart can be placed and light cured in increments or be allowed to self-cure. Self-cure set time is 4 minutes from the start of mix at oral cavity temperature. For core buildups, any soft axial areas may be light cured or allowed to self-cure following matrix removal. 12. Finishing. Immediately after curing, the glass ionomer restoration can be contoured using conventional rotary instruments under water spray. The Sof-Lex disc system used wet and Sof-Lex strips are recommended for polishing. Immediately after curing, the glass ionomer core buildup can be prepared using conventional rotary instruments with water spray.

NOTES:

· · ·

The prepared glass ionomer core buildup is compatible with conventional impressioning materials. The prepared glass ionomer core buildup should be kept wet with saliva or lubricated to prevent bonding to chemical-cure provisionals. The prepared glass ionomer core buildup will not bond with temporary luting cements.

13. Finishing Gloss application. To maximize esthetics, apply the Vitremer finishing gloss to the polished restoration. Rinse and gently dry the restoration. Dispense a drop of the finishing gloss into a clean well or onto a clean mixing pad. Using a brush, apply a coating of the finishing gloss over the glass ionomer restoration and light cure for 20 seconds with a 3M curing unit. For core buildups, application of the finishing gloss is not necessary.

NOTES:

·

The finishing gloss is a light sensitive material. Protect it from ambient light by dispensing just prior to use and replacing vial cap immediately after dispensing.

Storage and Use

1. 2. 3. Shelf life at room temperature is 36 months. See outer package for expiry date. The glass ionomer system is designed to be used at room temperatures of approximately 70-75°F (21-24°C). The glass ionomer primer, liquid and finishing gloss are light sensitive materials. Protect them from ambient light exposure by dispensing just prior to use and replacing vial caps immediately after dispensing. The Vitremer glass ionomer powders are sensitive to high humidity. Store with jar caps securely tightened and away from high humidity.

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4.

WARRANTY

3M will replace such product that is proved to be defective. 3M does not accept liability for any loss or damage, direct or consequential, arising out of the use of or the inability to use these products. Before using, the user shall determine the suitability of the product for its intended use and user assumes all risk and liability whatsoever in connection therewith.

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Dental Products Laboratory 3M Center, Building 260-2B-13 St. Paul, MN 55144-1000

Printed in U. S. A. ©1992 3M 70-2008-5301-1

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