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The Tragedy of

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Romeo and Juliet

by is D William Shakespeare Literature Guide Developed by Kristen Bowers yin Solutions LLC for Secondary p

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LY ISBN-10: 0-9816243-8-3 N ISBN-13: 978-0-9816243-8-9 O E © 2010 Secondary Solutions LLC. All rights reserved. PL who has purchased this Guide may photocopy the materials in this publication A classroom teacher for his/her classroom use only. Use or reproduction by a part of or an entire school or school system, AM tutoring centers and like institutions, or for commercial sale, is strictly prohibited. No by for-profit S part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, translated or stored, in any form, including

digitally or electronically, without the express written permission of the publisher. Created and printed in the United States of America.

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

About This Literature Guide ............................................................................................ 4 How to Use Our Literature Guides .................................................................................. 5 From the Author of this Literature Guide ....................................................................... 6 Standards Focus: Elements of Drama .............................................................................8 Standards Focus: Literary Techniques ............................................................................ 9 Exploring Expository Writing: Author Biography ......................................................... 10 Working with Shakespeare's Language ......................................................................... 13 Appreciating Shakespeare's Language ......................................................................... 15 Glossary of Terms from Romeo and Juliet .................................................................... 17 Exploring Expository Writing: Theater in Shakespeare's Time ..................................... 21

Comprehension Check: Shakespeare`s Theater .................................................................................................... 23 Comprehension Check: Author Biography ............................................................................................................11 Notes for the Teacher................................................................................................................................................ 7

Shakespeare's Style ....................................................................................................... 24

The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter ............................................................................................................24 Sonnet Quiz .............................................................................................................................................................26

Pr List of Allusions ............................................................................................................. 27 n Vocabulary List .............................................................................................................28 io Act One .......................................................................................................................... 29 ut rib ist D Act Two.......................................................................................................................... 43 d an g in Act Three ....................................................................................................................... 55 py Co Act Four .........................................................................................................................68 LY N O E Act Five .......................................................................................................................... 79 PL AM S

Scene Guide .............................................................................................................................................................29 Comprehension Check ............................................................................................................................................ 32 Standards Focus: Dialogue, Monologue, and More .............................................................................................34 Standards Focus Characterization ........................................................................................................................ 37 Assessment Preparation: Context Clues............................................................................................................... 40 Scene Guide .............................................................................................................................................................43 Comprehension Check ............................................................................................................................................ 45 Standards Focus: Figurative Language ............................................................................................................... 47 Standards Focus: Character Analysis ...................................................................................................................50 Assessment Preparation: Word Usage ................................................................................................................. 54 Scene Guide ............................................................................................................................................................. 55 Comprehension Check ............................................................................................................................................ 57 Standards Focus: Plot Development ..................................................................................................................... 59 Standards Focus: Conflict ...................................................................................................................................... 61 Assessment Preparation: Colons, Semi-Colons, and the Dash ............................................................................64 Scene Guide ............................................................................................................................................................ 68 Comprehension Check ............................................................................................................................................ 70 Standards Focus: Irony and Pun .......................................................................................................................... 71 Standards Focus: Foreshadowing ......................................................................................................................... 74 Assessment Preparation: Vocabulary Extension ................................................................................................. 78

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Act One Quiz ................................................................................................................. 88 Act One Vocabulary Quiz ...............................................................................................89 Act Two Quiz ................................................................................................................ 90 Act Two Vocabulary Quiz............................................................................................... 92 Act Three Quiz ............................................................................................................... 93 Act Three Vocabulary Quiz ............................................................................................ 95 Act Four Quiz ................................................................................................................ 96 Act Four Vocabulary Quiz ..............................................................................................98 Act Five Quiz.................................................................................................................. 99 ©2010 Secondary Solutions LLC -2Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

Scene Guide ............................................................................................................................................................. 79 Comprehension Check ........................................................................................................................................... 80 Standards Focus: Character Analysis ................................................................................................................... 81 Standards Focus: Theme ....................................................................................................................................... 84 Assessment Preparation: Vocabulary in Context ................................................................................................ 86

Act Five Vocabulary Quiz ............................................................................................. 101 Final Test .....................................................................................................................102 Final Test: Multiple Choice ..........................................................................................106 Final Test: Vocabulary--Part One ................................................................................ 112 Final Test: Vocabulary--Part Two ................................................................................ 113 Teacher Guide .............................................................................................................. 114

Sample Agenda ...................................................................................................................................................... 114 Summary of the Play ............................................................................................................................................ 117 Vocabulary with Definitions ................................................................................................................................ 119 Pre-Reading Activities ......................................................................................................................................... 120 Journal Ideas/Discussion Topics .........................................................................................................................122 Post-Reading Activities and Alternative Assessment ........................................................................................ 124 Essay/Writing Ideas ............................................................................................................................................ 126 Project Rubric A ................................................................................................................................................... 129 Project Rubric B ................................................................................................................................................... 130 Response to Literature Rubric ............................................................................................................................. 131 Answer Key ............................................................................................................................................................133

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

From the Author of this Literature Guide

To students, and often to teachers themselves, Shakespeare can be as daunting and intimidating as learning a foreign language. Students (and teachers alike) can be overwhelmed by the antiquated diction, unusual syntax, and unfamiliar meter. Teachers can be further overwhelmed with responsibility of introducing these fundamentals to students--especially when met with hostile, or at the very least, indifferent ears. One of the pitfalls to trying to teach a required text that you are not wild about is the fact that most will try to rush through as fast as possible, to avoid answering questions, or to say you tried teaching it, recommending that it be removed from your district`s list of required literature. I encourage you to face your fears. With this Guide, you will be able to understand Shakespeare`s Romeo and Juliet and you will be able to teach your students even the most subtle nuances and seemingly difficult passages. But how do we as teachers overcome our own intimidation and insecurities (or worse, hatred or fear) of Shakespeare? First, don`t try to hide the fact that you, like your students, often feel overwhelmed or intimidated. Start a discussion about it. Let them know that there will be questions they will ask that you may not know the answers to. Encourage them to learn with you. In the beginning, you may honestly have to fake it til you make it. There is nothing wrong with this--and again, this Guide will help you through it. It must be noted that mention of sexual references, including sexual innuendo and puns, etc. has been deliberately left out of this Guide. I struggled greatly with this, opting to appeal to a wider audience than offend or turn off anyone. Unfortunately, mentioning this idea of innuendo is usually what piqued my students` attention before teaching the play, and happens to be one of my favorite aspects of Shakespeare. I giggled furtively each time I announced to my students, Trust me, if your parents or our administration really understood all of Romeo and Juliet, you probably wouldn`t be reading it in this class. Of course, that always got their attention, and sort of challenged them to try to understand what the adults in their lives didn`t. If you feel comfortable discussing the sexual innuendo and exploring the bawdy humor in class that is your choice, and I commend you for your courage. Resources abound on the Internet that can help you interpret and explain these concepts. For those who don`t feel comfortable, or are limited by the restrictions of educational or social systems, don`t fret. You will still get so much out of this story, still be able to understand each scene in full, and will still cultivate new fans of the Bard.

O E for your fortitude, and for purchasing this Guide. By the time I applaud you for teaching, PL you have finished teaching Romeo and Juliet, not only will you have a better grasp of the text, but anM A arsenal you trust with which to teach it. Students may surprise you how much they actually liked the story, and understood it. You may also be surprised by how much S you have learned and grown as a teacher.

Good luck to you!

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

Notes for the Teacher About this Romeo & Juliet Literature Guide

Be sure to read over the Table of Contents to familiarize yourself with all the resources available in this Romeo & Juliet Literature Guide. As mentioned on page 5, not all activities and worksheets in this Guide must be used. They are here to help you, so that you have some options to work with. Feel free to use all or only some of the worksheets and activities from this Guide. Here are a few notes about this Guide: 1. It is highly recommended that all reading of the play be done in class as a whole group. Interpreting Shakespeare can be very intimidating to most students and having a teacher there to guide them can help allay those fears. 2. The Dover Thrift Edition of Romeo and Juliet (ISBN 0-486-27557-4, ©1993) and the Arden Shakespeare Complete Works (ISBN 978-1904271031, ©1998) were both consulted for this Guide. There were variations in line numbers, spelling and punctuation throughout. 3. Definitions for vocabulary (pg. 119) are given in the form of the context of the play and may not necessarily be the most common or modern usage. 4. Both the Scene Guide activities and Comprehension Check questions are there to help your students get the most out of the play. Depending upon your students and their needs, you may opt to have them only take notes, or only do the Comprehension Check questions, or alternate between the two. Because of the difficulty of Shakespeare`s works, it is recommended that students do both, despite the repetition. 5. Post-Reading Activities and Alternative Assessment ideas are located on pages 124-125. Again, these are suggestions only. These project ideas can be used in addition to a written test, or in place of it. Project rubrics are located on pages 129-130. Please note that the rubrics are slightly different: Project Rubric A is recommended for projects that have a small written element that does NOT have to be researched. Project Rubric B is recommended for projects that include a research component in which sources must be cited. 6. Essay/Writing Ideas are located on pages 126-128. Often, having students choose ONE topic from 2-3 essay topics that you have chosen ahead of time, in addition to their written test, works well. Many of these options can also work as a process essay during your teaching of Romeo and Juliet. 7. Journal Ideas and Discussion Topics (pages 122-123) have also been provided, should you want to include a journal-writing component or discussion panel. Suggestions about when to give prompts have been provided. 8. If you feel uncomfortable or uncertain about interpreting Shakespeare, you might consider using Spark Notes No Fear Shakespeare/Romeo and Juliet along with your teacher`s guide.

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Standards Focus: Elements of Drama

Drama is a form of literature designed to be performed in front of an audience. There are two main types of drama: comedy and tragedy. Like fiction, dramatic works have a plot, characters, setting, conflict, and one or more themes. It is essential to know the elements of drama when reading a dramatic work. 1. 2. 3. 4. act: a division within a play, much like chapters of a novel aside: lines that are spoken by a character directly to the audience cast of characters: a list of characters presented before the action begins chorus: a person or group of people who act as a narrator, commentator, or general audience to the action of the play 5. comedy: a humorous work of drama 6. dialogue: conversation between two or more characters 7. drama: a work of literature designed to be performed in front of an audience 8. foil: a character who is nearly opposite of another character; the purpose of a foil (or character foil) is to reveal a stark contrast between the two characters, often the protagonist and antagonist 9. monologue: a long speech spoken by a character to himself, another character, or to the audience 10. scene: a division of an act into smaller parts 11. soliloquy: thoughts spoken aloud by a character when he/she is alone, or thinks he/she is alone 12. stage directions: italicized comments that identify parts of the setting or the use of props or costumes, give further information about a character, or provide background information; in Shakespeare`s plays, stage directions can also appear in brackets, parenthesis, and/or half-brackets 13. tragedy: a serious work of drama in which the hero suffers catastrophe or serious misfortune, usually because of his own actions 14. tragic hero: a protagonist with a fatal flaw which eventually leads to his demise

Y Lfrom the list above, create a 10-question Multiple-Choice Activity: Using the words N quiz. You must use the information/definitions from this page, but you may also add O your own knowledge to create your questions. Be sure to create an answer key and E piece of paper. For example: keep it on a separate PL The two main types of drama are: AMand monologues a. S plays c. histories and biographies b. comedies and tragedies d. monologues and soliloquies

When you have finished, give the quiz to a partner and take his or her quiz. Then, check each other`s answers, and turn in your quizzes, your answer key, and your scores to your teacher. Your teacher can even find the best questions and use them on a real quiz.

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Standards Focus: Literary Techniques

Other important elements of drama, especially Shakespeare`s dramatic works, are literary techniques used by the author that make the writing more entertaining and enjoyable. The following is a list of other important elements to know before reading Shakespeare`s plays.

1. alliteration: repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words or stressed

syllables (i.e. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers) 2. allusion: a literary reference to a well-known work of art, music, history or literature (i.e. At lovers` perjuries, they say Jove laughs. (Act II, Sc. 2), a reference to Jove [another name for Jupiter, Roman king of the gods]) 3. blank verse: non-rhyming poetry, usually written in iambic pentameter. Most of Shakespeare`s plays are written in this form, which is very close to normal speech rhythms and patterns. Often Shakespeare will deviate from this form in order to make a point about the character`s state of mind or for other emphasis, like a change in the mood. 4. comic relief: in a tragedy, a break in the seriousness for a moment of comedy or silliness 5. double entendre: a word or phrase with more than one meaning, usually when the second meaning is risqué 6. dramatic irony: when the audience or reader knows something that the characters in the story do not know 7. euphemism: a substitution of a more pleasant expression for one whose meaning may come across as rude or offensive (i.e. He passed away, rather than He died.) 8. figurative language: writing or speech that is not meant to be taken literally; often used to compare dissimilar objects; figurative language includes metaphor, simile, personification, and hyperbole 9. foreshadowing: hints of events to occur later in a story 10. iamb: a unit in poetry consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable 11. iambic pentameter: a 10-syllable line divided into 5 iambic feet (one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable). This is the basic rhythm of Shakespeare`s verse. 12. imagery: language which works to evoke images in your mind (i.e. And with thy bloody and invisible hand / Cancel and tear to pieces that great bond / Which keeps me pale.) 13. irony: a contradiction between what is expected and what actually is--or appearance versus reality; includes verbal irony, situational irony, and dramatic irony 14. metaphor: a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is replaced by another, often indicating a likeness or similarity between them (i.e. Life`s but a walking shadow, a poor player...) 15. oxymoron: when two opposite terms are used together (i.e. O heavy lightness!) 16. personification: attributing human characteristics to non-human objects 17. prose: normal speech rhythm; Shakespeare often wrote certain characters speaking either in all verse or all prose, indicating some personality trait of the character. If the character deviates from its normal form, be aware of a changing state of mind...often prose signals a character slipping into insanity! 18. pun: a play on words, especially those that sound alike, but have different meanings (i.e. Ask for me tomorrow and you will find me a grave man) 19. rhyming couplet: two rhyming lines at the end of a speech, signaling that a character is leaving the stage or that the scene is ending 20. simile: a figure of speech comparing two unlike things that is often introduced by like or as (i.e. My love is like a red, red rose)

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Exploring Expository Writing: Author Biography William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare is widely believed to have been the greatest playwright in history. His plays are continually produced and students around the world read his works in school. Shakespeare is known for his ability to depict the depth of human character and his skill in illustrating issues to which for hundreds of years, people around the world can relate. Shakespeare`s father, John Shakespeare, was a wealthy business owner and active citizen of Stratford-upon-Avon in England. He married Shakespeare`s mother, Mary Arden, in 1557, and they had William on April 23, 1564.

on iEngland and During the sixteenth century, waves of the Black Plague ravaged ut Margaret, died William was lucky to have survived. Two of his sisters, Joan and rib escaped the from the affliction. William`s younger brother, Gilbert, fortunately isat tradesman. Later, John deadly epidemic and had a long and successful career as D and Mary Shakespeare had four more children: Joan (named after their firstborn), d who eventually followed in Anne (who died at age eight), Richard, and Edmund, an William`s footsteps as an actor. g in of six or seven at the Stratford grammar Shakespeare began his education at the age school, known as the King`s New School of Stratford-upon-Avon. His lessons were py learned in English. Shakespeare was taken primarily in Latin, but William also likely Co due to his father`s financial problems at out of school at about the age of thirteen, this time. It is believed that William continued his studies on his own, however, educating himself as much as possible. The events of William`s life between the age LY in London as an actor, is generally unknown. of thirteen and when he emerged N However, it is recorded that in 1582, at the age of eighteen he married Anne O Hathaway, who was eight years older than him and pregnant at the time. E L Pfirst child, Susanna, was born in 1583. In 1585, twins Hamnet and Shakespeare`s Judith were born. In 1596, Hamnet died of unknown causes. The loss was said to AM William deeply. Shakespeare`s grief and loss is said to be expressed in have affected S his writing.

Little is known about Shakespeare`s life during the years of 1585 to 1592, before he appeared as an actor in London. It is believed he spent this time perfecting his craft as an actor and playwright. By 1592, Shakespeare was already an established and respected actor in London. Productions of Henry IV and The Comedy of Errors were performed by Pembroke`s Men, a popular acting troupe who often performed for Queen Elizabeth. In 1594, Shakespeare joined another acting troupe, Lord

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Appreciating Shakespeare's Language

Shakespeare was meant to be seen and heard as a performance--not necessarily intended to be read. Therein lies the first problem to reading Shakespeare in a classroom. Shakespeare used an extensive array of vocabulary, including archaic language, an unfamiliar grammatical structure, and a backward arrangement of words in his sonnets and plays. The combination of these elements can make reading Shakespeare difficult for most people. The trick to reading Shakespeare`s works is to try to get the idea or gist of what the characters are saying, rather than trying to figure out what every single word means. Early Modern English: While Shakespeare did speak an earlier form of English than we currently do, it was still considered modern English--which should make reading his work less intimidating than reading Chaucer, for example, who spoke an even earlier form of English. Shakespeare used a few words and conventions that have disappeared, such as hath instead of has and doth instead of does. In fact, these words were disappearing from use in his time and he used them mainly for dramatic and linguistic affect. The same is true for thee, thou, and thy, which were rarely used in his time, but Shakespeare felt were appropriate to convey certain messages in his works. With this in mind, try to pay attention to when and why Shakespeare seems to choose to use language that is slightly archaic: he may have a reason for it. For instance, thee, thou, and thy, are more formal forms of the pronoun you (just like usted, in Spanish, is a formal form of tu); sometimes in Shakespeare`s language, a shift from you to thou--or the other way around--is a signal to the audience. According to the The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, ed. David Crystal (CUP: 1995), pg. 71:

During Early Modern English, [the language of Shakespeare's time] the distinction between subject and object uses of ye and you gradually disappeared, and you became the norm in all grammatical functions and social situations. Ye continued in use, but by the end of the 16th century it was restricted to archaic, religious, or literary contexts. By 1700, the thou forms were also largely restricted in this way. By the time of Shakespeare, you had developed the number ambiguity it retains today, being used for either singular or plural; but in the singular it also had a role as an alternative to thou / thee. It was used by people of lower rank or status to those above them (such as ordinary people to nobles, children to parents, servants to masters, nobles to the monarch), and was also the standard way for the upper classes to talk to each other. By contrast, thou / thee were used by people of higher rank to those beneath them, and by the lower classes to each other; also, in elevated poetic style, in addressing God, and in talking to witches, ghosts, and other supernatural beings. There were also some special cases: for example, a husband might address his wife as thou, and she reply with you.

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Of particular interest are those cases where an extra emotional element entered the situation, and the use of thou or you broke the expected conventions. Thou commonly expressed special intimacy or affection; you, formality, politeness, and distance. Thou could also be used, even by an inferior to a superior, to express such feelings as anger and contempt.

Shakespeare's Vocabulary: Another point of frustration for Shakespeare`s reader is his choice of words. Remember that Shakespeare was an artist and his words were his tools; if he spoke the way everyone spoke, or used the same words in the same way that everyone else did, his art would not be distinctive and we would probably not read still read his works today. Also, keep in mind that Shakespeare had a vocabulary of about 29,000 words: almost twice that of an American college student today. More importantly, words such as dwindle and assassination are actually Shakespeare`s invention and had never been used before him.

Words, Words, Words: Not only did Shakespeare use new words, he liked to use them in clever ways and often in a strange order. Think about how Yoda speaks in the Star Wars movies. We understand exactly what he says, even though the word order sounds mixed up to our ears. This is exactly what Shakespeare does at times, which can make reading Shakespeare difficult.

is D By reading and translating the following lines into modern English, see if you can d Shakespeare often rearranged figure out what Shakespeare meant. Remember that an rhythm fit iambic pentameter. wording or left out words in a sentence to make the g in Saw you him today? Fear me not. py Why call you for a sword? Right glad I am he was not at this fray. Co Come you this afternoon. Y Dost thou not laugh? L N O Verse and Prose: Though Shakespeare sometimes writes in prose (ordinary speech), he is most famous for his verse, or poetry. The most common form of verse E he used was iambic pentameter, which means each line contains 5 iambs, or a total PLAn iamb is a unit of verse consisting of an unstressed syllable of ten syllables. M followedA a stressed syllable. Shakespeare also uses rhymes (end rhymes) both at by the end of lines and within them (internal rhyme). Sometimes Shakespeare employs S blank verse, which is unrhymed poetry, usually in iambic pentameter.

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Glossary of Terms from Romeo and Juliet

The following is a comprehensive list of words and phrases found in Shakespeare`s Romeo and Juliet. These are terms and expressions that audiences in Shakespeare`s time would have had no problem understanding, however today, many of these words are out of use. It is also important to remember that Shakespeare is also credited with creating over 2,000 words! Making things even more confusing is that Shakespeare left out letters, replacing them with an apostrophe, left out words, and even rearranged word order. However, if you need help understanding what a word means, this list is here to help. `havior: behavior `scape: escape `tis: it is `twere: it were `twill: it will `twixt: between `zounds: expression of surprise or excitement a'dwells: lives abbey: a Christian monastery or convent a-bed: to bed abroach: to set on foot; begin adieu: expression meaning good bye ado: to do afeard: afraid affray: to frighten away affright: to frighten afore: before alack: an expression of sorrow alas: an expression of pity an: if anon: at once; soon aqua-vitae: a solution of alcohol; usually a type of brandy art: are athwart: cross attend: listen; pay attention attending: listening aught: anything a-weary: weary, tired ay: yes bad'st: asked; requested bade: asked; requested bandy: word play bear: hold; withstand

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d te bedeck: adorn with; decoratei b beetle-brows: prominent ieyebrows h with befits: fits with; goes along ro beggar-maid: a young woman beggar P beggary: meanness n begot: past participle of beget; born; io gave birth to t u behold: look; see ib a morning prayer song; Benedicite: tr sMorning Good Di bepaint: color bescreen'd: hidden nd

beseech: beg beseeming: seeming beshrew: curse bestrides: step or walk betake: take bethink: think; consider betimes: at once betossed: disturbed betroth'd: engaged bid: to wish; ask bite your thumb: an expression of insult blaze: rekindle bon jour: French for good day or hello bootless: without result; useless break with: discuss; break the news to bred: born; began brow: forehead by and by: an expression meaning in a minute by my fay: an expression meaning in faith

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Exploring Expository Writing: Theater in Shakespeare's Time

Shakespeare is often misunderstood or underappreciated by the modern reader. Many have suggested that this is due to the popular approach to his works; that is, reading them as merely a text when they are, in actuality, much more. Shakespeare wrote for the theater--his theater--with the intent that his work would reach the stage. Thus, when his works are read as one might read a story, many feel that there are gaps in the story, as indeed there are. Under the circumstances, Shakespeare intended these gaps to be filled by the action on the stage. Difficult conversations would be made more coherent through the gestures and facial expressions of the actors. Even the audience would contribute to the story through their reactions. Drama is meant to be ephemeral, not static, so trying to force a dramatic work to be read like a book may result in frustration. To help you understand what you read, it is important that you understand some aspects of the theater in Shakespeare`s time.

17th Century drawing of the Globe Theater

Much has changed since Shakespeare lived over five hundred years ago, and the theater is no exception. If a person from the present time were to walk into a theater in London during the 16th century, he would be met with a very different sight than what he is used to. A stage in the 1500s consisted of a platform that rose about five feet from the ground, much like the theaters of today. One would notice, however, that unlike the auditorium seating we have come to expect, the seating arrangement consisted of space along three sides of the stage where spectators might stand, and three stories, each with its own gallery, where others might sit. The

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people who stood closest to the stage, called groundlings, were often a rowdy and difficult group who would have paid a mere penny to see the show. The people who sat in seats along the balconies of each story would have paid a penny more, and were generally the more educated, better behaved, upperclass citizens. The Globe, where many of Shakespeare`s plays were staged, is believed to have been very large and elegant, with pillars, arches, and other impressive architectural features. It has been computed that an average-sized theater of the time might have held anywhere from 2,000 to 3,000 spectators--huge compared to many community and professional theaters of today. Behind the stage was the tiring house that served as a versatile backdrop for the shows and where the actors would prepare for the performance. Most scenes would have been staged

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Shakespeare's Style The Sonnet Form and Iambic Pentameter

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 As an imperfect actor on the stage Who with his fear is put beside his part, Or some fierce thing replete with too much rage, Whose strength's abundance weakens his own heart. So I, for fear of trust, forget to say The perfect ceremony of love's rite, And in mine own love's strength seem to decay, O`ercharged with burden of mine own love's might. O, let my books be then the eloquence And dumb presages of my speaking breast, Who plead for love and look for recompense More than that tongue that more hath more express'd. O, learn to read what silent love hath writ: To hear with eyes belongs to love's fine wit.

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10 stage part rage

Rhyme Scheme A B A

the

Now You Try It! Using the rhyme scheme and form of a Shakespearean sonnet, write your own sonnet about new love, lost love, a beautiful day, a terrible day, or anything you wish! Draw the same grid as above on a separate piece of paper to plan and organize the sonnet. Then share it with the class for an exercise in public speaking and performance.

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Shakespeare's Style Sonnet Quiz

Directions: Write true or false on the line before the True or False? questions. Write the letter of the best response to the multiple choice questions on the line provided. 1. 2. True or False? Shakespeare wrote about 60 sonnets. A Shakespearean sonnet has how many lines? a. 10 b. 14 c. 12 d. 16

3. 4.

True or False? An iamb consists of one unstressed and one stressed syllable. The last two lines of a Shakespearean sonnet are called: a. iambic pentameter b. unstressed pair c. rhyming couplet d. stressed doublet True or False? Pentameter means that a line is written in 2 iambs. A line in a Shakespearean sonnet has approximately: a. 8 syllables b. 10 syllables c. 12 syllables d. 14 syllables True or False? Shakespearean sonnets always follow the same rhyme scheme. song.

5. 6.

7. 8.

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PTrue or False? The word sonnet comes from a word meaning little

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Romeo and Juliet List of Allusions

Act One Aurora (Aurora`s bed): the goddess of dawn in Roman mythology Cupid: the god of erotic love in Roman mythology Dian (Dian`s wit): Diana, goddess of the hunt in Roman mythology Ethiop (Ethiop`s ear): a person from Ethiopia, a country in Africa holy palmer's kiss: a palmer is a Christian pilgrim who brought back a palm leaf as a symbol of his journey to the holy land Lammas-eve: July 31, the evening before Lammas Day, (August 1) which is the festival of wheat harvest Lammas-tide: Lammas Day, August 1, which is the festival of wheat harvest Pentecost: a feast day of the Christian calendar; seven weeks after Easter Sunday poor John: a small, shriveled-up fish Queen Mab: a fairy queen Spanish blades: Spanish swords Tartar's painted bow of lath: a colorful cross-bow prince of cats: Tybalt is called the Prince of Cats; the name Tybalt comes from a trickster tale about a fox prick-song: music that has been written down passado: a forward thrust in fencing or swordfighting punto reverso: a backhanded thrust in fencing or swordfighting hai: a thrust that goes straight through Jesu: Jesus Petrarch: Francesco Petrarca, an Italian poet and scholar Laura: the subject of love poetry by Petrarch Dido: the founder and first queen of Carthage Cleopatra: the last queen of Egypt Helen: in Greek mythology, the daughter of Zeus; her abduction brought about the Trojan War Hero: a priestess of Aprhodite; lover of Leander Thisbe: In Roman mythology, Pyramus and Thisbe were famous lovers who were forbidden to be wed because of their parents` rivalry Jacks: rowdy young men

Act Two Venus: the Roman goddess of love purblind son and heir, young Adam Cupid: a reference to Cupid, who is the son of Venus King Cophetua: according to legend, King Cophetua was the king of a colony in Africa. He falls in love at first sight with a beggar maid Jove: (also called Jupiter) king of the gods in Roman mythology Echo: in Roman mythology, a nymph who loved the sound of her own voice Titan (Titan`s fiery wheels): also called Helios, Titan is the sun personified; he was often depicted driving a chariot of fire Saint Francis: may refer to a number of Roman Catholic Saints Jesu Maria: an expression similar to Oh, my goodness blind bow-boy's butt shaft: the blunt end of Cupid`s arrow

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Act Three Easter: a Christian celebration of the resurrection of Jesus alla staccato: in a staccato singing manner Phebus: in Latin, a name given to either the god Appollo or the sun Phaethon: the son of Helios who tried to drive his father`s chariot Cynthia's brow: the moon Saint Peter: a leader of the early Christian church; one of the twelve apostles Act Four angelica: a term of endearment, angel Act Five infectious pestilence: Black Death, or Black Plague, a plague beginning in the 14th century that killed nearly half of Europe`s population and continued until the 18th century

Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Name ________________________________________ Period _______

Romeo and Juliet Vocabulary List

Act One 1. augmenting 2. bliss 3. despair 4. endure 5. foes 6. foolish 7. quarrel 8. quench 9. tormented 10. valiant 11. vile 12. woe Act Two 1. cease 2. conjure 3. desire 4. excels 5. frank 6. gracious 7. haste 8. heir 9. infinite 10. inquire 11. jests 12. vanity Act Three 1. brawl 2. effeminate 3. eloquence 4. exiled 5. gallant 6. garish 7. merciful 8. plague 9. predicament 10. reconcile 11. submission 12. vengeance Act Four 1. array 2. bear 3. beguile 4. dismal 5. distraught 6. lament 7. martyr 8. pensive 9. pestilent 10. shroud 11. solace 12. treacherous Act Five 1. aloof 2. ambiguities 3. apprehend 4. flattering 5. impeach 6. meager 7. morsel 8. poverty 9. prosperous 10. provoke 11. sepulcher 12. will

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Act One Scene Guide

For each act, you will be completing a Scene Guide to help you understand and follow the important elements of your reading. For each scene, complete each section fully. Use short phrases or words to keep your note-taking short and succinct. The chart below will assist you in completing the activity. The Act One Prologue section has been completed for you as an example. Example Characters

In this section, list the major characters who are a part of the action. It is not necessary to list minor characters who are not involved in the plot. In this section, list the important action that takes place in the scene. Ask yourself whether this scene raises a problem or provides a solution to a previous problem. Almost all scenes will work in this way, either bringing up a problem, or proposing a solution to some earlier problem. Sometimes, problem after problem is presented without a solution until the very end. In this section, explain how or why you answered problem or solution. What issues are raised? Are some problems solved, and others still an issue? Explain your choice here.

Action

Problem or Solution?

How or Why?

Characters

Action

Problem or Solution?

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O The enemies who have been E Chorus tells the audience about twoare doomed, and how their L fighting for years, a pair of lovers who

deaths will be the only thing that will end the fighting between the two families. problem The Chorus presents us with the entire plot of the play, letting us know from the start that the story is a tragedy and will not end well. The play begins with the problem being presented--lovers who have to die to bring peace. Now the audience will see how the story actually unfolds.

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Chorus

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Prologue

How or Why?

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Act One Comprehension Check

Directions: To give you a comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the play, answer the following questions using complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper. Be sure to use your Scene Guide to help you. Prologue 1. In what poetic form is the Prologue presented? 2. What goal does the Chorus have at the end of the Prologue?

Scene One 1. What two families are feuding? 2. In what town is the story set? 3. Who tries to stop the fight in Scene 1? Who wants to keep fighting? 4. What background information does the Prince give about the feuding families? 5. What is the penalty for further fighting? Why do you think he chooses such a harsh penalty? 6. What do we learn about Romeo`s behavior from the conversation between Benvolio and Romeo`s parents? What does Benvolio vow to do? 7. Why is Romeo so upset? 8. When describing his feelings to Benvolio, Romeo uses oxymorons in lines 170-177 and 184-188. Why do you think he speaks this way? 9. What is Benvolio`s advice to Romeo? Scene Two 1. How old is Juliet? 2. Why has Paris come to visit Capulet? What is Capulet`s response? 3. How does Romeo find out about the Capulet party? 4. Why does Benvolio suggest Romeo go to the party? Why does Romeo finally decide to go? Scene Three 1. What is Juliet`s response to her mother about the idea of marriage? What does she mean? 2. What do the Nurse and Lady Capulet want for Juliet?

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1. What kind of mood is Romeo in before the boys go to the party? What is Mercutio`s advice? 2. How do the boys plan to disguise themselves at the party? 3. Who is Queen Mab? What is she responsible for? Name three things Mercutio says she does to people when they are asleep. 4. What problem does Romeo mention immediately before the boys enter the party? What does Romeo decide to do about this? Why is this important?

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Act One Standards Focus: Dialogue, Monologue, and More

By now, you should have read all or at least a good portion of Act One of Romeo and Juliet. Chances are, you may be finding the way Shakespeare wrote a bit confusing or even overwhelming. This exercise will take you through some of the unique aspects of dramatic literature: dialogue, soliloquies, monologues, asides, and stage directions. This will help you understand more about how dramatic literature is constructed, making it easier for you to understand the action of the play. To review: aside: a character`s lines are spoken directly to the audience dialogue: conversation between two or more characters monologue: a long speech spoken by a character to himself, another character, or to the audience soliloquy: thoughts spoken aloud by a character when he/she is alone, or thinks he/she is alone stage directions: italicized comments that identify parts of the setting or the use of props or costumes, give further information about a character, or provide background information

isOne, a) identify the type of Directions: For each of the following quotes from D Act quote (aside, dialogue, monologue, soliloquy, or stage directions); b) describe the d n function and importance of this particular quote in the context of the play. Scene acan use your text for help. Two and line numbers have been given so that you g examples have been done for you. Theren i may be more than one answer in a few cases, as in Example #2. py Ex 1. (Scene 1, after chorus, before lines are spoken) Co Enter Sampson and Gregory, with swords and bucklers, of the house of Capulet. Y a. stage directions b. These stage directions give the actors and director directions about who NL which props. In this case, Sampson and Gregory, should enter and with O carrying swords and shields, walk onto the stage. E L Ex 2. (SceneP Lines 44-48) 1, Abram: Do you bite your thumb at us, sir? AM Sampson: I do bite my thumb, sir. S Abram: Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?

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Sampson: [aside] Is the law of our side if I say ay? Gregory: No a. dialogue and aside b. In this dialogue, Abram and Sampson are about to get into a fight. This little argument about biting thumbs eventually becomes a very big street brawl. In the aside, Sampson discreetly asks Gregory if they be spared trouble if they caused the fight by biting his thumb. Gregory tells him no, reminding him that they can get in trouble for fighting. This is important because the other

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Name ________________________________________ Period _______ characters are not meant to hear Sampson ask the question; only Gregory and the audience are supposed to hear. 1. (Scene 1, Lines 81-88) Prince: Rebellious subjects, enemies to peace, Profaners of this neighbour-stained steel,-Will they not hear? What, ho! you men, you beasts, That quench the fire of your pernicious rage With purple fountains issuing from your veins, On pain of torture, from those bloody hands Throw your mistemper'd weapons to the ground, And hear the sentence of your moved prince. a. b.

2. (Scene 5, after line 127) Exeunt Capulet, Lady Capulet, guests, gentlewoman, and masquers. a. b.

3. (Scene 1, Lines 163-168) Benvolio: What sadness lengthens Romeo`s hours? Romeo: Not having that which, having, makes them short. Benvolio: In love? Romeo: Out. Benvolio: Of love? Romeo: Out of her favor where I am in love.

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4. (Scene 5, Lines 53-59) Tybalt: This, by his voice, should be a Montague. Fetch me my rapier, boy. [Exit boy] What dares the slave Come hither, cover'd with an antic face,

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Act One Assessment Preparation: Context Clues

In most assessments, you must infer (make an educated guess) the meanings of words by looking at context clues, or clues within an entire line, sentence, or paragraph. You must look at how the word is used in order to make an inference. Directions: For each vocabulary word from Act One, first indicate the part of speech in which the vocabulary word in bold appears (noun, verb, etc.) in the lines from the text. Then write an original definition for the vocabulary word based upon the clues. (If you need further clarification, read a few lines before and after the vocabulary word). Finally, look up the word and write down the dictionary definition. How accurate is your inference? Ex. Many a morning hath he there been seen, With tears augmenting the fresh morning`s dew (Sc. 1) a. Part of Speech: verb b. Inference: adding to

1.

2.

u ib or more substantial r c. Definition: v. adding to something to make it larger st She is too fair, too wise; wisely too fair, Di To merit bliss by making me despair (Sc.1) d an a. Part of Speech: g b. Inference: in py c. Definition: Co Y O, then, dear saint, letL do what hands do; lips N They pray, grant thou, lest faith turn to despair. (Sc. 5) O E a. Part of Speech: PL b. Inference: AM S c. Definition:

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3. It fits, when such a villain is a guest: I'll not endure him. (Sc. 5) a. Part of Speech:

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Act Three Standards Focus: Plot Development

Plot is the related series of events that make up a story. In other words, plot is the action that makes up a story. There are several parts of a plot: exposition--the beginning of the story that gives background information on characters and previous action rising action (also called complication)--the beginning of the action that will lead to a high point in the story climax--the turning point of the story falling action--the action that occurs after the climax, before everything is wrapped up in the story resolution (also called dénouement [day ­ new ­ mawh])--the ending of the story; all major conflicts are resolved Part A Directions: By Act Three, quite a bit of the plot of Romeo and Juliet has been revealed. Below are important events of Acts One--Three of Romeo and Juliet. First, arrange the events in chronological order (the order in which they occurred.) on the lines below the plot events. HINT: USE A PENCIL IN CASE YOU MAKE A MISTAKE AND NEED TO FIX SOMETHING! The first event has been done for you. Romeo and Juliet spend their wedding night together. Capulet threatens to disown Juliet if she doesn`t marry Paris. Paris asks Capulet for Juliet`s hand in marriage. Romeo asks Friar Lawrence to marry him and Juliet. Tybalt officially challenges Romeo to a duel. The Chorus declares star-crossed lovers will kill themselves. Romeo kills Tybalt. Romeo and Juliet declare their love for each other and decide to get married. Prince Escalus warns that anyone who fights will be put to death. Romeo learns of his banishment. Romeo refuses to fight Tybalt. The nurse advises Juliet to marry Paris, although she is already married to Romeo. Romeo and Juliet are married. Romeo and Juliet learn that their families are enemies. The Chorus tells about the Capulet/Montague fight. The servant accidentally tells Romeo and Benvolio about the Capulet party. Romeo and Juliet meet. Capulet decides Paris will marry Juliet on Thursday. Tybalt kills Mercutio.

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Events in Chronological Order: 1. The Chorus tells about the Capulet/Montague fight.

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Act Five Assessment Preparation: Vocabulary in Context

Directions: For this exercise, answer each question or statement using complete sentences and as much detail as possible. Note: vocabulary words may appear in a different part of speech in the question or statement. An example has been done for you. Ex. If someone is being aloof with you, how might they behave?

If someone is being aloof, they might avoid eye contact, look away often, turn their back, or stand far away. 1. What kinds of ambiguities do you face in your life?

2. What might a police officer do to try to apprehend a suspect?

3. If you had to say something flattering about your teacher, what would you say?

4. Have you ever been impeached for something you did not do? Explain.

5. How would you feel if you were given a meager amount of allowance each week? Why?

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6. What kind of animal might find a morsel a satisfying meal?

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Romeo and Juliet Act One Vocabulary Quiz

Directions: Match each vocabulary word with the correct definition or synonym. Write the letter of the answer on the line provided next to the vocabulary word.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

augmenting bliss despair endure foes foolish quarrel quench tormented valiant vile woe

a. lose all hope or confidence b. an argument c. strong and worthy of honor d. tolerate; put up with e. wicked; disgusting f. deep sorrow; grief

g. extinguish; put out

h. adding to; increasing

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i. enemies; opponents j. inflicted with pain or torture small; unimportant

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l. eternal happiness

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Romeo and Juliet Literature Guide

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Romeo and Juliet Act One Quiz

Part A Directions: Match the characters on the left with the description or quote on the right. Write the letter of the correct answer on the line provided next to the character`s name. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Benvolio Tybalt Lady Capulet Capulet Lady Montague Montague Romeo Rosaline Count Paris Juliet Mercutio Nurse The Prince Chorus a. holds Montague back from joining the fight b. wants to marry Juliet c. orders the families to end their feud

d. hates Hell, all Montagues and [Benvolio] e. Capulet`s niece f.

servants to the house of Montague

Sampson and Gregory

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PAbraham and Balthasar

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h. Lord Capulet`s enemy l. in love twice in this act m. servants to the Capulets n. wants Juliet to marry Paris o. the host of the party p. tries to get Romeo to examine other beauties

g. What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend

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Directions: Answer the following questions on the back of this paper or on a separate paper using complete sentences. 17. Why is Romeo depressed at the beginning of the Act? What event finally changes his mood? 18. Explain how the Montague boys found out about the Capulet party. 19. What does Paris want? How does Capulet feel about this? How does Lady Capulet feel? How does Juliet feel? 20. Explain Romeo and Juliet`s behavior towards each other when they first meet. How do they find out their families are enemies?

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