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441 Central Park Avenue, PO Box 644 Hartsdale, NY 10530-0644 914-479-8800 tel 914-725-7733 fax [email protected] Stephan Hittmann President

911 FUND,


30 March 2009 Chief Jairo Larrarte Aya Bomberos Aeronáuticos y Sanidad Aeroportuaria Aeropuerto Internacional El Dorado Bogotá, Colombia Chief Jairo Soto-Gil Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos Av. 15 Oeste No. 10-40 Bajo Aguacatal Cali, Colombia Chief John Villada-Bedoya Cuerpo de Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado Calle 38 Sur No. 44-108 Envigado, Colombia Dear Chiefs Larrarte, Soto-Gil and Villada-Bedoya: Thank you for your extraordinary hospitality during the recent visit of 911 FUND representatives to Colombia. We'd also like to thank Giovanni Villamil, Juan Carlos Calcedo and Juliana Llano for their assistance and tireless support in making this visit a reality. We were privileged to meet with you and your esteemed personnel. You indeed have much to be proud of, as was evidenced by the high level of morale and enthusiasm by everyone with whom the team met. The team was welcomed like family and made to feel like royalty, and none of the team members will ever forget the friendships made during the visit. The trip was an important opportunity to review your operations and better understand your needs. We applaud your recognition of the challenges to be met, and your willingness to identify and address emerging needs. Although many of your fire and emergency operations are performed in ways that are similar to our own, we believe there are several areas where we can learn from each other and mutually benefit.

The 911 FUND is an approved 501(c)3 not-for-profit charity NYS Charities Bureau Registration #21-1321 Federal tax ID #20-2057218

As promised, we have summarized our observations and recommendations in the attached report, which we will also translate into Spanish and forward to you in the near future. We look forward to receiving your reaction to this report, and whether you agree with the recommendations presented and the priorities identified. Upon this confirmation, we will begin assembling equipment to donate, identify apparatus to donate, and identify firefighters to return to Colombia to provide training and/or other consultation where needed. Where these services are provided, arrangements for transportation from the US for apparatus, equipment and subsequent training missions by 911 FUND personnel who come to Colombia will be your responsibility. We seek no payment for any of the services we provide. Our goal in donating this equipment and/or training is to continue this collaboration in the realization of our shared goals of reducing firefighter risk, enhancing civilian health and safety, and minimizing property loss from fire. Looking forward to hearing from you, we offer our continued best wishes for your safety, and that of your firefighters. Sincerely,

Stephan Hittmann ____________________________on behalf of___________________________ Chief Donald R. Austin, Los Angeles Fire Department Chief Kwame Cooper, Los Angeles Fire Department Capt. Ricardo E. Garcia, Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department FF Stan Aviles, Fire Department of the City of New York Ms. Grisela Bernal, 911 FUND

911 FUND Report of Observations and Recommendations from our February 2009 visit to:

Bomberos Aeronáuticos y Sanidad Aeroportuaria - Aeropuerto Internacional El Dorado

Bogotá, Colombia

Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos

Cali, Colombia

Cuerpo de Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado

Envigado, Colombia

30 March 2009

Respectfully Submitted, Chief Donald Austin, Los Angeles Fire Department Chief Kwame Cooper, Los Angeles Fire Department Capt. Ricardo E. Garcia, Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department FF Stan Aviles, Fire Department of the City of New York



Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................... 2 3 4 9 9 14 16 17 20 20 22 23 23 32 34 36 37 39 42

History and Background of the 911 FUND Introduction Section 1:

...................................................................................................................................................................... Aeropuerto Internacional El Nuevo Dorado Overview ......................................................................

........................................................................................................................................... ..........................

Airport Expansion / Recent Aircraft and Apparatus Accidents Emergency Medical Services Recommendations Section 2:


........................................................................................................................ ................................................................

Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos de Cali Overview / Assistance Requested Recommendations


........................................................................................................................ ................................................................

Section 3:

Cuerpo de Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado Overview

......................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................

Recommendations Appendix 1: Appendix 2: Appendix 3: Appendix 4: Appendix 5: Appendix 6: Acronyms Itinerary

........................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................... .............................................. .............

Strategic Planning and the Strategic Planning Process

Emergency Preparedness / Training / Exercises and Sample Schedule After Action Reports


911 FUND Questionnaire completed by the Bomberos Aeronáuticos Y Sanidad Aeroportuaria - Aeropuerto Internacional El Dorado .......................... 911 FUND Questionnaire completed by the Cuerpo de Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado ...........................................................................................................


Appendix 7:



History and Background of the 911 FUND

Created in the aftermath of the tragedy that occurred on September 11th, 2001, the 911 FUND was born from the personal, hard-won experience and first-hand knowledge of New York City firefighters and emergency personnel, all-of-whom worked on September 11th at the World Trade Center, and for countless days thereafter. As we watched brother and sister firefighters commit their efforts, and in 343 cases their lives, to the rescue of 25,000 innocent civilians, we became convinced of the need to enhance our systems of emergency management and preparedness, and to share this understanding, along with our skills and lessons-learned, domestically and with friends and allies the world over. Ever since September 11th, we have worked to acquire fire trucks, ambulances and related equipment, then to donate it, along with training, to governments, fire departments, emergency responders and industry, as part of a continuing effort to build preparedness, reduce risk, enhance civilian safety, and minimize property loss from fire and other types of disasters, be they natural or man-made. Firefighters routinely put themselves in harms way to protect the citizens of all nations. Service, solidarity, fraternity, brotherhood, and a willingness to accept risks and make sacrifices is the common bloodline of firefighters worldwide. That said, however, our experience is that firefighters world-wide have profound training and equipment deficiencies, yet typically assume the same risks as those taken by American firefighters. The training, equipment and/or apparatus that we donate are gifts that keep on giving, while adhering to the best principles and highest traditions of the international fire service. Over the past few years, we've donated dozens of fire appliances and/or ambulances, as well as millions of dollars of equipment and/or training to Argentina, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Panama, Peru, Spain, etc. Transportation of donated equipment and apparatus has typically been provided for free or at minimal cost by freight forwarders and shipping companies who share our common goals and values. All of our efforts in support of the 911 FUND are voluntary and unpaid. We neither request nor accept financial contributions for the work that we do, and 100% of the training and equipment that we provide is given free-of-charge to firefighters and emergency first responders. Specific activities of the 911 FUND have included: x x Conducting needs assessments to help address critical safety and security issues. Donating equipment (turnout gear, SCBA, tools, etc.), fire trucks and ambulances to those with the greatest need.





Providing training in fire operations, dispatch, emergency vehicle operations, fire prevention, fire safety education, arson investigation, code enforcement, hazardous materials, special operations, emergency medical services, leadership, instructor development, etc. All training is customized to the needs of the respective department, reflects one or more topics of importance to them, and is typically provided by senior firefighting and/or medical personnel who have extensive hands-on expertise in the respective subject area. Working with governments, industry, fire departments and emergency responders in critical safety and security areas, including maximizing inter-agency communication and cooperation/mutual aid, response to NBC and WMD events, maritime and homeland security, strategic planning involving natural disasters and/or acts of terrorism, etc. Advising governments and fire departments alike on upgrades to or building and operating new training facilities, including preliminary site and equipment needs, operational costs, staff and curricula needs, etc.


The following report is drawn from 911 FUND participation in the following: 1. An initial visit to Bogotá, Palmira and Cali (to the Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos) during March 2008 to meet with government and fire department representatives. Training in High Angle, Rope and Technical Rescue Operations at the Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos in Cali during July 2008, and the donation of 20 Level B HazMat suits to the Escuela Interamericana. Participation in the Congreso Internacional de Bomberos in Bogotá during October 2008, during which time meetings were held with the Aeropuerto Internacional El Nuevo Dorado, Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos de Cali, and Cuerpo de Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado regarding their history, staffing, training, workload, equipment, apparatus and future needs. Meetings with the Aeropuerto Internacional El Nuevo Dorado and a tour of its facilities during February 2009 to discuss staffing, training, workload, equipment and apparatus, as well as their perception of current and future needs. Meetings with the Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos de Cali (in Bogotá) during February 2009 to discuss staffing, training, workload, equipment and apparatus, as well as their perception of current and future needs. A visit to Envigado for meetings with the Cuerpo de Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado during February 2009 to discuss staffing, training, workload, equipment and apparatus, as well as their perception of current and future needs.








Discussions with representatives of the USAID/OFDA Disaster Preparedness and Response Program, Partners for the Americas and independent research on the Colombian Fire Service.

The following report is divided into three sections, namely: (a) Aeropuerto Internacional El Nuevo Dorado; (b) Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos de Cali; and (c) Cuerpo de Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado. Within each section is an overview of the department, observations, a list of outstanding issues from our perspective as well as some that were brought to our attention, our recommendations and in some cases topics for further discussion. Subsequent to these sections is a list of Acronyms used in the report (Appendix 1), the itinerary for this visit (Appendix 2), copies of documents provided to us (Appendices 6 and 7), and other material. We cannot stress strongly enough that these observations and/or recommendations are not in any way intended as criticism of any individual or organization. They are, rather, a starting point upon which we hope to develop an expanding dialogue with you, other officials in government and industry, and the communities you serve. As we have repeatedly said, our goal in this effort is to further our relationship with your departments, communities and indeed all of Colombia. We approach this report from the perspective that taking action now can save lives, prevent injury and minimize property damage in the event of an emergency. While some of the following may be blunt, it is intended to provide a sober awareness of the potential emergencies that face us all, and the need for adequate preparation to enable fire departments to respond promptly and effectively. Some may prefer not to hear this message, pretending that the emergencies faced are neither immediate nor threatening. Regrettably, however, aircraft accidents and other large-scale emergencies are an infrequent but often deadly reality. There may also be those, who, in their acquiescence, hope that by doing nothing, everything will be just fine. Deep down, we all share a natural instinct that blocks the idea that anything so unthinkable as an airplane crash or large-scale emergency could happen to us. To stay alert means acknowledging that horror such as this could be just around the corner, while we strike a balance between preparing for such unthinkable events without giving way to unreasoned fear. The most negligent, unprofessional words anyone could ever say are: "It will never happen here!" Imagine the firefighter saying: "There will never be a fire in this building and we don't need PPE, SCBA, communication equipment, sprinklers or fire extinguishers." We would be morally, indeed criminally negligent if we didn't prepare for such a possibility. Creating and maintaining safe environments is everybody's business, and emergency planning must consider the utter chaos that frequently accompanies such situations. Good plans are as much about how the plan will be carried out, as they are about what steps needs to be taken. Too often, plans reside solely in binders and on shelves, rather than fresh in the minds of those who are destined to react once an emergency occurs.


Merely saying the word "emergency" evokes potential visions of unspeakable suffering. By committing themselves to ongoing training, accesss to appropriate equipment and the implementation of a well-defined plan, firefighters and fire department leadership can mitigate the potentially disastrous effects of virtually any emergency. Management is never put more strongly to the test than during an emergency where the objectives are immediate and so are the results. What you and those around you do or don't do will have longlasting implications, with successful response to any emergency requiring skill, solid planning, preparedness through training and retraining, appropriate equipment, sound execution, good information management and superior communication. The recommendations being made come from experienced firefighters who are the best-of-thebest, and who have extensive experience observing chaos at its worst. That in mind, we strongly encourage you to: x Treat plans as life-saving devices. Unshelf them regularly, make sure they are in proper order, and that the intended users know how they work. Have a well-defined chain-of-command. Plans must also address who will take over if the IC or person in charge of a critical component is absent or incapacitated. Ensure that key individuals know their specific roles. Have portable documentation to assist staff in executing their roles. Remember to include volunteers and substitutes in the planning and training process. These individuals may have to fulfill specific essential roles during an emergency. Devise a way to identify key staff to law enforcement and other emergency responders on scene. Safety vests with various colors signifying different positions are an effective and inexpensive way of accomplishing this.


x x x



Practice, practice, practice.

Complacency is often justified as a "rational" response to the reality that major emergencies are statistically unlikely to directly involve us, and as such, there are those who may be loathe to spend hard-fought dollars on what could be seen as "frivolous" equipment and training that may only occasionally be put to use. Though some are understandably uncomfortable saying it openly, most of us in the world of emergency response see the likelihood of a major emergency happening as more a question of when, not if.


As with most challenges, there is no single or simple solution to making communities safe. While even the best planning can't guarantee everyone's complete and absolute safety, prevention (from both ends of the spectrum, i.e., threat assessment to crisis recovery) is the goal, and being prepared for the unpreventable is today an integral part of airport, community, firefighter and public safety. Fires and other emergencies have the potential to disrupt operations, cause casualties, and damage or destroy public and private property alike. That being the case, our approach in preparing this report is based on several assumptions, namely:

x x

Firefighters and fire departments are society's first line of defense against emergencies, hazards and/or disasters. It's possible for a large-scale emergency to occur at any time. In some cases, dissemination of warning to the public and implementation of increased readiness measures may be possible. Most emergencies, however, occur with little or no warning, and action is required immediately to save lives and protect property. Following any emergency, there may be any number of injuries of varying degree to firefighters and/or others. Rapid and appropriate response reduces the number and severity of these injuries. Outside assistance is available in most emergencies. Since it takes time for external assistance to arrive on scene, it's essential that fire departments be prepared to carry out the initial response on an independent basis until external resources arrive. Proper mitigation actions can prevent or reduce injuries and/or fatalities. Detailed emergency planning, training of staff, and conducting periodic emergency drills and exercises will improve each community's readiness to deal with emergency situations.




Complacency, therefore, is simply not an option, and denial could be deadly. The goal of this report, which we hope is adopted by the leadership and staff at each of the fire departments and in each of the communities we visited, is to assume the responsibility and adopt the creed:

If not me, then who? If not now, then when?

That said, every study has its limitations. In this case, and pursuant to discussions with the fire department personnel with whom we met, the following topics have been excluded: x Staff comfort levels with the implementation of any of the recommendations we have made.



Addressing how organizations or communities recover from traumatic events and deal with the psychological aftermath of a major emergency. Cost implications (i.e., for equipment/installation and maintenance/operations) associated with the recommendations being made. (We believe, however, that all recommendations should be viewed from a cost/benefit perspective.) A range of other topics including but not limited to how each department identifies and quantifies the risks its personnel take, personnel issues, promotional standards, operational issues, dispatch and communications within each department, etc.



In closing, we also see the following points as meriting further consideration: x The need for ongoing training (beyond that which we have recommended), seminars, workshops, tabletop exercises and/or games involving fire department staff and the community. This is especially important as change and circumstances warrant, and are intended to orient staff to new or updated plans, policies or procedures. The need to provide expanded and/or periodic updates to this report.


The 911 FUND stands ready to be of assistance in any way possible in reviewing, refining and/or implementing any of the recommendations we have made.


Section One Bomberos Aeronáuticos y Sanidad Aeroportuaria - Aeropuerto Internacional El Dorado Bogotá, Colombia

The following observations are based on our October 2008 and February 2009 visits to the Aeropuerto Internacional El Nuevo Dorado ("El Nuevo Dorado"), as well as presentations made by and discussions with El Nuevo Dorado Fire Department personnel. Supplementing this is the information included in the 911 FUND Questionnaire completed by the Bomberos Aeronáuticos y Sanidad Aeroportuaria - Aeropuerto Internacional El Dorado (Appendix 6).


El Nuevo Dorado is Colombia's largest and most important airport. El Nuevo Dorado's IATA code is "BOG", and its ICAO code is "SKBO". Serving as the primary international and domestic gateway for the country, El Nuevo Dorado is a Level 10 airport according to ICAO standards (FAA equivalent of an Index E airport) that accounts for 49% of the country's total air traffic. It is, in addition, the world's third largest airport, covering 1,705 acres. Given its political and economic importance, and located just nine miles from the center of Bogotá, construction began in 2008 on the "Trans Milenio" rapid bus system to link El Nuevo Dorado to the center of the city. El Nuevo Dorado serves as the main hub for Avianca (the national flag carrier of Colombia), as well as Aero República, Aires, Easyfly and other important cargo companies. It is also the largest Latin American airport in cargo volume (578,812 tons moved during 2008), and Latin America's fourth busiest airport in passenger traffic (13,456,331 passengers transported during 2008). Managed since 2007 by OPAIN (a private consortium of Colombian construction and engineering firms working in partnership with Swiss Flughafen, Zurich AG), El Nuevo Dorado operates under contract to Aeronautica Civil, the civil aeronautics agency of the Colombian government. Under this contract, OPAIN will operate El Dorado until 2027. OPAIN employs all of the fire officers and firefighters at El Nuevo Dorado who provide ARFF, terminal fire protection, life safety and wildlife control. In terms of the Fire Department's leadership, it is our understanding that Chief Larrarte was hired by OPAIN in 2006 to assist with the transfer of firefighting operations from the civil authorities to OPAIN. Overseeing all Fire Department operations, Chief Larrarte is an extremely bright and articulate fire officer with an excellent command presence. In addition to his airport


responsibilities, as a certified arson investigator who received extensive training in this area, he is also called upon to investigate the cause and origin of suspicious fires throughout Colombia.

6 Feb 2009 meeting

Fire Chief Jairo Larrarte

911 FUND Team with Chief Larrarte

Under his command, a total of 57 firefighters (down from a prior total of 63) are assigned to El Nuevo Dorado's two fire stations. The Department employs three female firefighters, and all firefighters work a 12-hour shift with 24 hours off. Exclusive of personnel and capital costs, OPAIN provides the Fire Department with an annual operating budget of approximately $500,000 to support their training and purchase supplies and equipment.


ARFF Station 1 SW of runways

ARFF Station 2 at center of the AOA

The relatively small size of the Department's budget merits further discussion given El Nuevo Dorado's expansion, when compared with the training, operational and funding support often provided to fire departments with similar responsibilities that are government-funded and by definition revenue-neutral. Since OPAIN is a for-profit business, we believe this creates a unique opportunity for the El Nuevo Dorado Fire Department to fulfill its mission to do good, and for OPAIN to fulfill its mission to do well by viewing this relationship from a cost/benefit perspective when factoring in the risks and potential downside to underfunding so important a Department. That said, the firefighters at El Nuevo Dorado appear to be well qualified and highly motivated with a wide variety of skills. Firefighters were individually recruited from fire departments throughout Colombia, as well as from the Aeronautica Civil. As a result of their training, experience and skill level, OPAIN has contracted with the municipality of Bogotá to extend the El Nuevo Dorado Fire Department's span of responsibility to an 8 km response radius from the airport (a mixture of developed and undeveloped land). As such, they provide emergency response, fire suppression and structural protection, and (in theory at least) participate in the joint establishment of an ICS for Fire, HazMat and WMD events when necessary. The first mutual aid fire response to El Nuevo Dorado is a small volunteer (under-equipped) fire department from a nearby community, and second due is the Bogotá Fire Department. Neither of these departments has participated in joint training with El Dorado over the past few years, which would create a significant operational issue in any large-scale or long-term joint response. El Nuevo Dorado's firefighting staff has a very low turnover rate. That however is not the case for staff assigned to the airport from Colombia's various security agencies (police, customs, immigration and narcotics), where the turnover rate is routinely quite high. To minimize potential corruption, security staff are typically reassigned every few months. An example of this was the fact that during the past 18 months, three different security chiefs were assigned to the airport. This constant turnover, although understandable, presents training, operational and ICS issues, which we address in the section on Recommendations.


The El Nuevo Dorado Fire Department responds to approximately 1800 Alert II and III incidents annually (+/- five per day) on the airport's two parallel runways. (These runways are 12,467' long and 148' wide.) In addition to Alert II and III responses, the workload consists of fueling operation standbys, and the Department responds to HazMat cargo, airfield injuries and other emergencies. Although the airport has a fire hydrant system that reportedly produces 25-45 psi, this isn't enough pressure to mount a large-scale aircraft or structural fire operation, especially one of lengthy duration. This problem should be resolved when construction is complete, as additional hydrants and increased water pressure will be available. A water hazard (comprised of three retention ponds located in soft soil off-road terrain) has been installed at the north end of the runway. No plan has been developed for a rescue scenario in the wetland area, and the Department doesn't have an adequate rescue watercraft. The Department is well-equipped with apparatus, tools and specialized equipment, with the exception of the rescue watercraft just mentioned. In terms of HazMat, the Department has limited capability. A trailer with equipment, including Level A Entry suits, was donated to the Department and is stored at Fire Station 2. On scene operations are limited to rapid extraction of victims and the identification and establishment of a "hot zone". The Department has virtually no atmospheric testing equipment, and it is unclear who (if anyone) has the capacity to conduct atmospheric testing and/or handle the clean-up and restoration. The team witnessed an Alert II response while at the ARFF fire station. Fortunately the emergency was avoided, but it was an excellent opportunity for the team to observe an actual airport response. In this response, the ambulance was staffed and waiting in its normally parked location to be called to the incident. Noticeably missing, however, was an airfield operations supervisor co-locating with the fire incident commander. Although unverified, it was assumed that they were in radio contact as there is (only a single) emergency radio frequency available.


Alert II Response

The instructional materials used in the training of airport firefighting personnel is a blend of internally-produced curricula, material provided by USAID/OFDA (PRIMAP, which is HazMat for First Responders; ICS basic and intermediate; etc.), and commercially-produced materials. The Colombian Air Force operates CATAM AFB (a military installation) adjacent to El Nuevo Dorado, using its runways as needed. Although CATAM has its own ARFF response capability, staff from CATAM and El Dorado participate in virtually no joint training. The limitation on the Fire Department's ability to perform live drills (doing so occasionally at 4:30 AM for one hour at a time), and the infrequency of joint training is a serious concern, both of which must be fully and immediately addressed. A diagram of Aeropuerto Internacional El Nuevo Dorado appears below:


Airport Expansion / Recent Aircraft and Apparatus Accidents

In August 2006, the Colombian government awarded OPAIN a $650 million (USD) contract to expand and modernize El Nuevo Dorado. Construction began in September 2007 and should be completed ahead of the 2013 scheduled completion date. The effect of this reconstruction will be to dramatically increase El Nuevo Dorado's size and capacity. Newly constructed terminals are being designed to meet current life safety codes, which will be a major improvement over the current terminals that lack numerous safeguards. (Two examples of current inadequacies that were brought to our attention are: (a) The hose cabinets are often inoperative, and with the standpipe system connected to the house system, in a recent attempt to test the dry system, when it was charged water came out of the airport's toilets; and (b) No AED's are located in the terminals, and people in cardiac arrest must wait for EMS to arrive before medical treatment can begin.) Key points in the expansion plan include: x An increase in passenger load from the current 13 million per year to an estimated 21 million per year when the new terminal is completed in 2013. (Airline companies have already submitted bids for additional gates, and although airline traffic will increase gradually, every expectation is that El Nuevo Dorado will experience this increase in capacity sooner than later.) A new international terminal and modernization of the current terminal (which will then serve as the future domestic terminal) with 1,441,018 square feet for passengers, 16 gates, 144 check-in counters and 58,924 parking spaces. A new cargo terminal with 731,945 square feet for storage, 75,347 square feet for offices and 26 parking positions for aircraft. A new six-story, 48,437 square feet office building annexed to the new international terminal. A new maintenance area covering 947,224 square feet. A new hydrant system for the international terminal to provide a reliable source of water airside and landside. A new five-bay two-story fire station (begun in Fall 2008) with a scheduled completion date of July 2009. All buildings to be earthquake-resistant.


x x x x x x

As construction is completed, new facilities are being opened. In March 2008 the new check-in area and baggage handling system came on-line. In July 2009 the new fire station will open. In September 2009 the new national and international cargo terminal will open, and the demolition of the current national cargo terminal will be completed. And so on.


5-Bay ARFF Station under construction

As part of this expansion, three new fire trucks have been approved for purchase next fiscal year. These trucks were identified as a 3,000 gallon Rosenbauer pumper, a Panther ARFF truck with Snozzle, and a quick-response mini-pumper. At 3:55 AM on 7 July 2008, a Kalitta Air Boeing 747-209B cargo aircraft en route to Miami reported a fire in one of its engines. Unable to return to El Dorado, the plane crashed shortly after departure in the nearby village of Madrid, Colombia. One of the plane's engines hit a farmhouse, killing an adult and two children; luckily the crew of eight survived. The initial response came from volunteer fire departments in neighboring communities. The El Nuevo Dorado Fire Department arrived on scene 15-20 minutes after the crash and assisted in fire suppression operations. Time didn't permit a full discussion of the command structure at the incident, how long the El Nuevo Dorado Fire Department operated on scene, what role El Nuevo Dorado personnel played given their expertise in this type of emergency, etc., all of which are topics for further investigation.



A private ambulance company, also under contract to OPAIN, provides EMS services to El Nuevo Dorado. This company employs EMS staff (i.e., a physician, several nurses and EMT-level staff), and uses four of its own ambulances. (Our understanding is that the equipment used and the skilllevel of EMS staff is first-rate.) While EMS is a component of El Nuevo Dorado's emergency response capability, their primary focus is person-specific medical response in and around the airport's terminals, more than response to a larger-scale aircraft emergency. Among the EMS-related concerns that were identified include the following: x x The physician who oversees EMS reports to OPAIN management, not to the Fire Department, and chain-of-command problems result therefrom. EMS staff often change shift-to-shift, depending on whom the contractor assigns. That being the case, the Fire Department has no idea what level of aviation-environment experience, if any, EMS staff may have. In the event of an aircraft emergency, the Fire Department has no way of knowing how many ambulances/transport vehicles would be assigned, where they would come from, their ETA on scene, how well they would be integrated into the emergency operation, etc. Within approximately three miles of El Dorado is a hospital with a certified Level II Trauma center. No mass casualty exercises have taken place with this hospital, and understandable concern was expressed about the need to enhance communication and relationships between all players.





Our visit identified needs in several areas, some raised by Chief Larrarte and his staff, and some reflect our own observations. We have integrated immediate, intermediate and longer-term recommendations and grouped them in six areas. While we have no way of knowing which or how many of these issues have been discussed with OPAIN management, given El Nuevo Dorado's growth and the fact that all firefighters need to be trained to Level 10 (airport rating), now is the ideal time to embark on strategic organizational planning, a management overview and operational assessment of the El Nuevo Dorado Fire Department as it looks ahead to so many new facilities coming on-line in the near future. We also see the fast-approaching completion of new airport facilities as additional justification to accelerate the strategic planning process and implement the recommendations being made. (See Appendix 3 for information about Strategic Planning and the Strategic Planning Process.) We applaud Chief Larrarte's vision for the Fire Department, the loyalty to its personnel, support given to him by OPAIN, and his commitment to grow the Department in a fiscally responsible manner. That said, the reality is that Chief Larrarte operates in something of a vacuum, and would benefit from having fire service professionals with ARFF and airport experience at larger and busier airports with whom to share his ideas in an ongoing way to ensure that he and the Department are prepared to meet the challenges that undoubtedly lie ahead. Our recommendations, therefore, involve a blend of procedural, training and equipment needs, as well as the identification of certain topics that we believe merit further consideration. We recommend that assistance be provided to the El Dorado Fire Department in the following areas: 1. Strengthening the AEOP by: x Reviewing the AEOP for adequacy and completeness with all supervisory-level personnel to ensure an effective unified command during airport emergencies. x Joint-training with rotating police, customs, immigration, military and narcotics staff on their responsibilities under the AEOP by using current material to provide a mandatory briefing to all newly-assigned staff prior to their assuming command. x Having all coursework translated into Spanish. (Working in tandem with El Dorado staff, the Department could benefit from access to an outside instructor who has had practical experience under ICS.) x Introducing advanced Incident Command / Unified Command Training. x Training El Dorado staff in setting up the ICS structure for MCIs. x Conducting drills and tabletop exercises in an ongoing way for foam operations, structural firefighting, etc. (See Appendix 4 for definitions of different types of Emergency Preparedness Exercises and a sample Emergency Preparedness / Training / Exercise Schedule). x Improving radio interoperability.



Increasing Tactical and Strategic Awareness Training for Firefighters and EMS staff by: x Conducting drills and tabletop exercises in an ongoing way for foam operations, structural firefighting, etc. (See Appendix 4 for definitions of different types of Emergency Preparedness Exercises and a sample Emergency Preparedness/Training/Exercise Schedule). x Obtaining permission from Aeronautica Civil and OAPIN for ARFF trucks to freely move about the airport's taxiways to better familiarize staff with how to maneuver around operating aircraft during emergencies. (The air traffic control tower currently restricts movement of ARFF trucks to fueling operation standbys and emergency responses. Most of the paved surfaces on the AOA are taxiways or runways, with very few service roads, which may be a reason for this restriction. In the US, ARFF movement on taxiways is limited to emergency responses, but many large airports have agreements with the local FAA tower to allow unrestricted movement on taximways, and similar agreements can be reached to modify current AOA driving protocols.) x Approaching DHL or Fed-Ex for a training aircraft from their B-727 retiring aircraft program. x Introducing Basic Incident Command Training (ICS 100, 200, 300). x Providing classroom and hands-on training in structural firefighting, firefighter search and rescue, trench rescue, structural collapse, vehicle extrication, rapid intervention, ARFF, live-fire pit for foam application training, MCIs, etc. x Developing joint training on ICS, Fire, HazMat and WMD events to enhance communication, relationships and interoperability during an emergency with: (a) Police, customs, immigration, military and narcotics staff (this is especially important for newlyassigned staff prior to their assuming command); (b) Firefighting personnel at CATAM AFB; (c) the Bogotá Fire Department; (d) volunteer fire departments from nearby communities; and (e) local hospitals, especially for MCIs. x Introducing and utilizing AARs to document the performance of exercise-related tasks and make recommendations for improvements. (See Appendix 5 for an explanation of the AAR planning process and descriptions of the seven elements of an AAR.) Increasing Leadership Development for Officers by: x Introducing training in the following areas: (a) Crisis Management, CISM and Human Resource management; (b) HazMat, WMD and water rescue events; and (c) developing an officer promotion and advancement program (to include basic leadership characteristics and expectations, selection process for leaders, developing confidence and trust, etc.). x Reviewing the skill levels of all supervisory personnel to ensure that they are adequately prepared for their current responsibilities. (Having "inherited" some staff from the previous authority and then hiring others, some new staff are more experienced than longer-term staff, some of whom have remained in supervisory roles. It's our understanding that firefighters may not have confidence in the skills of certain officers, and/or certain officers may not have confidence in their own skills. Unless corrected, this is clearly a recipe for disaster.)




Integrating Fire and EMS by: x Addressing the operational benefits of merging the two services under the El Nuevo Dorado Fire Department, which enables EMS personnel to be hired by the Fire Department instead of having EMS outsourced. (An integrated fire/EMS/life safety approach at the airport provides the greatest level of public safety during an aircraft accident, which necessitates an integrated and seamless EMS and ARFF response.) Reviewing the El Nuevo Dorado Fire Department's Staffing and Organizational Structure by: x Determining if the Department is appropriately staffed and configured to meet the airport's future expansion. x Reviewing all job descriptions and agreements between the government and OPAIN to determine what (if any) limitations exist on any Fire Department reorganization. x Reviewing the current budget for adequacy and flexibility. Building or acquiring the following: x An airport training site with ARFF live-fire capability. (It's our understanding that none currently exist in Colombia.) x An EVOC to enhance driver skills. x A training aircraft at or near El Nuevo Dorado for Fire Department use, the importance of which cannot be overstated. (While the military and police recently conducted a hostage takedown drill on an aircraft to which the Fire Department was invited, this was not a fire-related emergency.) x A rescue watercraft at El Nuevo Dorado for Fire Department use. x Fire station apparatus doors similar to those used in the US. (Any number of manufacturers would provide the necessary specifications.) x Equipment to plug in the apparatus to keep the engine block warm. (At an elevation of 8300 feet, it often gets quite cold at night. During the Alert II response witnessed by the team, incomplete combustion exhaust was obvious, and staff repeatedly raised the need for engine block heaters.) x Additional HazMat equipment, including atmospheric testing equipment. x Instructional materials to assist with training in the priority areas identified.



Off-hour relationship building


Section Two Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos Cali, Colombia Overview / Assistance Requested

Having visited the Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos (Colombia's National Fire Academy) in Cali during March 2008, then providing several days of training in HazMat, High Angle, Rope and Technical Rescue Operations at the Academy during July 2008, this was a follow-up meeting to determine the Academy's current and future needs. The Academy itself is an outstanding facility with hands-on training capabilities for a variety of emergencies, including fire suppression, confined space rescue, auto extrication, gas leaks, repelling, migratory bees, etc. Over 80 years old, the Academy is widely recognized throughout Colombia as one of the country's best training institutions. Cali itself is a modern city with a large population and over 300 high rise buildings that are ten floors or higher. Cali's tallest building is 44 floors, with most of the high rise buildings being residential, only meeting minimum safety requirements, e.g., most buildings having one stairwell. Everyone at the Academy appeared to have a genuine interest in learning as much as possible, and all personnel have been trained to a HazMat awareness level, at a minimum. During the July 2008 visit, a chemical spill of an unknown toxic material provided the team with an opportunity to accompany Academy personnel and provide a first-hand look at how Cali's HazMat team responded to a HazMat emergency that was occuring 25 miles away. The spill involved a tanker truck with a broken discharge valve that was leaking its contents on the road. The first unit on scene was a local engine company that was trained to the awareness level. A safety zone was being established, and hose lines were being stretched and charged (one of which burst, ergo the need for additional hose testing). The firefighters then took up defensive positions and established a safety zone, confirming that no one entered the contaminated zone until they were sure that the HazMat team from Cali was on scene. Every precaution was taken to insure the safety of both firefighters and civilians, some of whom were employees of the company involved. The spill was approached slowly and carefully, with every precaution being taken. The one piece of equipment that would've been beneficial was a pair of binoculars, but the HazMat team was able to stop and contain the spill, then transfer the remaining material onto a receiving station. Our February 2009 visit was held at the Club Militar in Bogotá, and the meeting focused on specific requests from the Academy for training and apparatus needs to assist them in their preparation of


firefighters who come to the Academy from departments throughout Colombia. Since the Academy is responsible for training, not frontline response, their needs reflect this mission. The meeting began with a discussion about Cali's fire department, which is a large and prominent combination department with paid firefighters who are responsible for initial response, supplemented by a volunteer force. In recent years, firefighters have formed labor unions, demanding that Colombian labor laws be applied to them. This has resulted in changes in shift length, hours, night differential pay, etc. Among the issues discussed was the apparent friction that exists between management and the firefighter's union, and the need for assistance in reducing this friction wherever possible. We then discussed the Academy's most pressing needs in the following four areas: 1. 2. Apparatus, specifically a ladder truck with which to conduct aerial training. Training in the following areas: x Arson investigation. (Chief Larrarte is a certified Arson Investigator, and access to his skills should be considered.) x High-rise firefighting. x Developing pre-fire plans and a program in fire safety education especially in schools. (One approach to this might be to emulate Envigado's "Semillero de Bomberitos" Program.) x Higher-level training and certification of HazMat technicians. x Search and rescue of civilians. x Search and rescue of a down or unconscious firefighter. (The team made the point that a down firefighter may be the result of a medical condition, not necessarily a firerelated injury. This type of rescue is of profound importance, and we were especially pleased that the Academy wants to improve its skills in this area.) x Special operations training, including breaking and breaching, trench operations, heavy rigging, as well as shoring and cribbing. x Collapse operations, with emphasis on building construction and types of collapse, stages of collapse rescue, tools, shoring, void entry with breaching and debris removal with saws, torches, air bags, etc. x Confined space, especially in terms of safety to the rescuer. (Having a cache of struts and wood timbers, with proper training, would greatly minimize the risk to rescue personnel. Firefighter removal techniques and a method to monitor atmospheric conditions are also needed. Monitoring for lower explosive levels, lower oxygen and carbon monoxide levels, and patient packaging techniques and equipment are critical safety issues in this area.) x Forcible entry, using tools such as haligans, mauls, heavy axes, etc.





Mask confidence training by running search drills with blacked-out face pieces, setting off PASS alarms during these drills, using search lines, etc., so that mask confidence becomes second-nature. Training from agriculture or forestry experts) in how to contain emergencies involving migratory bees, which is a growing concern for Colombian firefighters, and serves as a revenue source for the Academy. Other training, including: Auto extrication, communication on the fire ground, engine operations, hose stretches, ladder skills, lock-out tag-out, monitoring of firefighters during operations, removal techniques (trapped firefighters, man in a machine, under a train, elevator rescue, etc.), roof operations, ropes and knots, SCBA procedures (reduced profile, quick escape, mask confidence, etc.), simple entries with a safety line, etc., all of which require minimal equipment and must be mastered before emphasizing any advanced training. Training in these areas must be coordinated with access to and use of the appropriate equipment, which we would be happy to recommend.


ICS and tabletop exercises. (See Appendix 4 for definitions of different types of Emergency Preparedness Exercises and a sample Emergency Preparedness / Training / Exercise Schedule). Labor relations and bridge building with labor unions.



The 911 FUND will begin looking for a ladder truck to donate to the Academy, presuming that shipment can then be arranged by the Academy or by others in Colombia. We also stand ready to assist in training, in developing ICS skills and in running tabletop exercises. Helping with labor relations remains somewhat vague, and will require additional clarification.


Section Three Cuerpo de Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado Envigado, Colombia Overview

Founded in 1995, the Envigado Fire Department was established by local business leaders who formed a Board of Directors to oversee the Department's operations. The Board still governs the Department, which now operates under contract to the municipality of Envigado for the provision of fire prevention, fire suppression and related services (including HazMat, collapse, search and rescue, canine search and rescue, brush/forest firefighting, etc.). Envigado is a fairly affluent suburb just south Medellín, the second largest city in Colombia. Envigado's population is approximately 190,000 and its structures are primarily non-combustible, built of concrete, block and tile construction. The city itself has numerous high-rise buildings, the tallest being 13 floors. Only commercial buildings above seven floors are required to have a sprinkler system. The majority of high-rise buildings have only one stairwell which, if contaminated during a fire, creates massive problems for both firefighters and anyone trying to escape.

On the first day of the visit when the 911 FUND team arrived at the fire station, Envigado Fire Department members, dressed in their red uniforms and standing proudly at attention, greeted the team with a formal line-up as a sign of respect. They sung the Colombian National Fire Service anthem, "Himno Del Bombero," as they do everyday at the start of their tour. Their commitment to the fire service was absolutely palpable.


One of the Department's founding members, Capt. Montaya, remains an instructor, and he greeted us on our arrival. The history of the Department, their various programs and the types of incidents to which they respond were then described in several excellent PowerPoint presentations. While the presentations were occurring, the Department responded to nine emergencies, one of which was a working fire in a residential structure. Relevant dates in the Department's history were presented as follows: 1995: 1996: 1997: 1998: Department created. First group of volunteers began training. First apparatus acquired (a vegetable truck converted to a fire apparatus). First firefighter fatality (occurred when the rear tires slipped off the edge of a muddy road causing the truck to roll downhill. First group of Department personnel paid their own expenses to attend the Texas A&M Firefighting School, the program being delivered in Spanish. 1999: Department received a 1978 fire truck with a 250 gallon water tank. First "in-house" training class of 40 volunteers (training provided over an eight month period). 2000: First EVOC training provided. 2001: Department moved to its current location. 2002: Last significant equipment donation. 2005: Department received a 4X4 vehicle to be used for search and rescue operations. The funding for the Department comes from the municipality, donations, fees for certain categories of response, training provided to industry, fire extinguisher servicing, and fire prevention inspections, which is the Department's major source of income after expenditures. The Department has one ambulance and provides EMS but isn't funded for it, which understandably consumes a large percentage of their budget. The Department is, however, hoping to negotiate fees for the provision of EMS in their next contract with the municipality. Staffed by a combination of paid and volunteer firefighters, the Chief and Deputy Chief are elected by the Board, regardless of rank. Both the current Chief and Deputy Chief were formerly Lieutenants, while several of their subordinates are Captains. Surprisingly, however, no friction has developed because of this. In addition to the Chief and Deputy Chief, the Department's paid staff include approximately twenty firefighters, two drivers, two EMS staff, a small number of administrative and training staff, and a housekeeper who is responsible for cleaning and catering for officers and visitors. The Department also has approximately 70 volunteers, all of whom must be either full-time students or gainfully employed. Two paid firefighters and two volunteers work together on a 24hour tour, and during major events, these staff are supplemented by additional volunteers and paid firefighters who respond, as needed.


Firefighters are trained "in-house" with Department-produced curricula, commercially-produced material and material provided by USAID/OFDA, including HazMat for First Responders (PRIMAP), Forestry Firefighting (COSIF), Collapse Structure Search and Rescue (BREC), and ICS basic and intermediate. Envigado's training program is highly regarded and other departments throughout Colombia. routinely recruit gaduates of their Academy. A new class of 30-40 trainees is held every two years, and a current class of 32 volunteers was just beginning an eight-month training program. The program starts at 1800 hours after these volunteers finished school or work. Beaming with pride and an obvious desire to serve their community, we were impressed that these volunteers appear as committed to the fire service as any fire service professional in the US.

First class for volunteer firefighters

The Department also has a four-day intensive training program for rural citizens on fire prevention, and how to respond quickly to fires in areas where it's time-consuming and/or difficult for larger departments to reach. The Department provides community youth education through its much-acclaimed "Semillero de Bomberitos" Program, which promotes leadership, moral values and instruction in fire safety education to school age children. Similar in concept to the Fire Explorer Program in the US, the Program has five instructors and a psychologist, with 26 children (ranging from six to 17 years old) currently enrolled. The Department has a Canine Search and Rescue Program, with six advanced trained dogs, six intermediate-level trained dogs and four pups. Although they have no certification, their objective is to increase the probability of locating victims, and expressed great interest in being cross-trained with a USAR Team, if possible.


In 2003, the Department began training in fighting forest fires and responding to other environmental emergencies. Eight firefighters are permanently assigned to this unit, four of whom are specialists in forest fires. For major emergencies they integrate their manpower, and draft water from rivers, wherever possible. Training for forestry fires is held annually, even though they lack many of the basic tools. Many of the tools that do exist have been donated following an annual firefighter forestry challenge event in Cali, with firefighters from Europe and surrounding countries participating. Covering an area of 79 km, the Department has one station located near the center of the city. Formerly a shoe factory, the station, which also serves as the Department's headquarters, is barely adequate in size, lacking room for large apparatus, additional apparatus or maintenance facilities. The station has a dispatch room, training area, dormitory and kitchen, with three interconnected shipping containers used for live-fire training.

Fire training at headquarters

Training in ropes and knots


A second station was briefly opened along the highway to the International Airport in Medellín to provide coverage for the surrounding area. Unable to sustain the expense, the station closed and its personnel and equipment were returned to the headquarters station. The municipality recently gave the Department a parcel of land near an industrial part of the city on which to build a new headquarters station, but no construction funding was allocated. They are hoping for funding in the next fiscal year. Given the size of the department's coverage area, their workload and the need for a second station, the team made several suggestions as to why it was important for the Department to occupy the land, thus preventing the municipality from reallocating it. Among the suggestions made, until funding becomes available for construction, were: x x To staff an ambulance at this location during peak traffic times, since vehicular accidents in this part of the city are commonplace. To relocate the live fire containers from headquarters to this location and conduct live fire training at this site. A derivative benefit of such a move would be to create more space at headquarters for operational, administrative and/or instructional use. To schedule a grand opening at the new site and use the event as a fundraiser for the Department (e.g., a car wash with live radio broadcasting; pancake breakfast equivalent; to highlight the "Semillero de Bomberitos" Program, which was so well received by the community that initial Program participants were restricted to the children of volunteer firefighters; etc. This Program has tremendous potential for expansion, but has been limited in size due to concern that its growth would overwhelm Department staff.)


Such an event would also serve as an excellent opportunity to invite the Mayor and other political leaders for exposure and through which enhanced lines of communication could be opened.

Site of the new fire station

In terms of apparatus, the Department has less apparatus today then it did when it was founded. When founded, the Department purchased two standard pumpers, one of which was destroyed in


an accident in which two firefighters died, and the other was decommissioned after excessive use. The Department has since acquired a 1978, 250 gallon mini-pumper, and a homemade mini-pumper with an ultra high pressure pump and a 65 gallon tank mounted on the bed of a Toyota Hilux 4x4 pickup, both of which are pictured below.

The water tanks on both mini-pumpers are replenished during operations by connecting a garden hose from domestic service to the tank, which is generally adequate in the majority of responses that don't involve large fire loads. Given the density of Envigado, the numerous multi-story residential structures, the scarce hydrants that do exist (connected to a six inch main) and the fact that hydrants are largely unreliable, there is a real and immediate need for a ladder truck and a larger pumper.

Fire attack supply line being deployed

Supply line connected to laundry room


Fire attack line - high pressure water hose

It works!

In recent years the Department has had three major fires that resulted in significant structural and financial losses, which demonstrated the inadequacy of their current apparatus. Even with this recognition, however, the Department hasn't been able to leverage their positive publicity into additional funding and/or the acquisition of better apparatus.

Portable large volume pump

First responding engine, Toyota pickup

In terms of equipment, the Department has 10 SCBAs (tanks are refilled at a local dive shop since the Department doesn't have its own compressor) that work but have been very heavily used, with badly worn straps and buckles. Their bunker gear, hoses, nozzles, etc., are also quite worn, heavily patched and in need of replacement. Much of this equipment was obtained through donations, but nothing has been acquired in recent years. Their last large donation was 10 sets of forestry equipment donated by USAID/OFDA.


Turnout storage area

Example of poor condition of turnout gear

In terms of communications, the Department is sorely lacking. Their current equipment consists of several radios, one repeater, one PBX with 3 lines, and one VHF channel. The Department's workload is quite significant (see Appendix 7), and in 2008 they reported: x x x x x x x 3250 emergencies in total 1084 traffic accident responses with 1243 injuries 1014 public emergencies with 958 injuries 38 construction accident responses with 46 injuries 195 residential EMS responses with 203 injuries 9 firefighter injuries 1565 safety inspections

A recurrent issue in our discussions was the Department's lack of funding, and their inability to generate political support and/or access. On the last day of the visit, the team had an impromptu meeting with the newly elected Chairman of Envigado's Municipal Council (arranged by his secretary, who is a friend of the Chief). At the conclusion of the meeting, the Chairman suggested that the Chief present the 911 FUND's recommendations at an upcoming Council meeting (they meet 4-6 times annually), which he thought would serve as an excellent opportunity for the Department to gain exposure and political leverage in their efforts to generate additional funding. The Chief and Deputy Chief appeared uncomfortable, however, with the idea of making such a presentation. We see this as an important opportunity that should be embraced, and the


Department should be working hard to develop these relationships and look for opportunities to build bridges to local politicians, including the Mayor. To prepare for such a meeting, the team suggested that the Chief and his staff hold several brainstorming sessions (using a SWOT [in English] or a FODA [in Spanish] analysis approach, both of which we define below) to help in the organization of such a presentation. x x x Strengths (Fortaleza), from an internal perspective, i.e., how the Department motivates its personnel, both paid and volunteers. Weaknesses (Debilidades), also internal, i.e., what training and equipment is needed by the Department to effectively protect Envigado. Opportunities (Oportunidades), from an external perspective, i.e., how the Department can gain greater public exposure via print, television and radio; how to expand the "Semillero de Bomberitos" Program; how to expand fire prevention inspection revenue; etc. Threats (Amenazas), also external, i.e., how to address the Department's needs, given its expanding workload when offset by a shrinking or stagnant budget.


Upon completion of these brainstorming sessions, a course of action (i.e., presentation priorities and strategies to be developed, implemented and reassessed for effectiveness over time) to improve the Department should become clearer. The Chief and his staff should then role-play mock presentations to the Council, followed by a Q&A period.

The importance of preparing for this meeting cannot be overstated, since Envigado is a community with strong Mayoral control. While the Council makes recommendations to the Mayor, he apparently has the influence to implement them as he sees fit, which is all-the-more reason to develop this relationship. (When it was announced that the 911 FUND team would be visiting Envigado, the Chief tried (unsuccessfully) to schedule a meeting with the Mayor, but never received a response.)



Let us say at the onset that the 911 FUND is prepared to be of assistance by supporting the Fire Department in the development of its thinking and/or the acquisition of the items identified below. Given the information provided to us, and in anticipation of the Chief's upcoming presentation to the Municipal Council of Envigado, we make the following recommendations regarding our perceptions of the Department's greatest needs: 1. Apparatus, specifically: x 1000 gallon pumper x 3000 gallon tanker x Aerial/Ladder truck x HazMat equipped response vehicle x 4x4 brush truck Equipment, specifically: x Turnout gear x 1 1/2" and 2 1/2" hose with nozzles x Communications and dispatch equipment x Compressor to refill SCBAs Training on the following topics: x Technical assistance in administration and resource acquisition x HazMat, collapsed structure and EVOC training x Arson investigation x High-rise firefighting x Developing pre-fire plans Construction of a new headquarters fire station on the land provided. Strategic Planning (see Appendix 3 for information about Strategic Planning and the Strategic Planning Process), the goals of which include helping the Department to: x Expand its funding. x Build effective and enduring political relationships. x Develop a vision and a mission statement (Describe the vision for the future, define the steps being taken by the Department to meet future challenges, etc.). x Expand the role of EMS, which is an area of opportunity to exploit in the Department's favor. x Expand its network to other fire departments in Colombia and throughout South America for collaboration, training, etc.



4. 5.




Develop the means by which personnel from Envigado are trained domestically (in either Envigado or Cali), vis-à-vis sending them to Texas which, if nothing else, is infinitely more expensive. Enhance its image, visibility and importance through expanded PR and media coverage by collaborating with local radio, print and television stations to deliver public safety messages, announce fire prevention campaigns, etc. This effort should supplement the media coverage they currently receive for their response to fires, rescues at mudslides and traffic accidents, animal rescues, etc. (A recent newspaper article written by a volunteer firefighter/columnist discussed this very point, and was proudly shown to us. In addition, Firefighter Llano has an extensive PR background and is interested in devoting more time to a media campaign on behalf of the Department. These are examples of the types of opportunities that should be cultivated.)


Revisiting traditional responsibilities, by: x Incorporating volunteers into its fire safety outreach efforts. (This would allow increased school visits, the effect of which is to keep the Fire Department on the forefront of the publics' mind.) x Delegating more authority to the volunteers in the Fire Department, who offer a wealth of talent and motivation. (One example of how volunteers could be more effectively used would be to turn the entire responsibility for PR over to them to develop a strategy and course of action. They could hold their own brainstorming sessions then present the Chief with several options. We see the volunteers as a force multiplier given the many issues facing the Department.)

The Envigado Fire Department and the 911 FUND team


Appendix 1 Acronyms

AAR AED AEOP AFB ALS AOA ARFF BLS BREC CATAM CISM COSIF DAS EMS EMT EOC ETA EVOC FAA FF FODA HazMat HVAC IATA IC ICAO ICS Index E MCI MOU NBC OFDA OPAIN PASS PPE PR PRIMAP Q&A After Action Report Automated External Defibrillator Airport Emergency Operations Plan Air Force Base Advanced Life Support Airfield Operation Area Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting Basic Life Support Collapse Structure Search and Rescue Comando Aéreo de Transporte Militar Critical Incident Stress Management Forestry Firefighting Administrative Department of Security Emergency Medical Services Emergency Medical Technician Emergency Operations Center Estimated Time of Arrival Emergency Vehicle Operators Course Federal Aviation Authority Fire Fighter Fortaleza, Oportunidades, Debilidades, Amenazas Hazardous Materials Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning International Air Transport Association Incident Commander International Civil Aviation Organization Incident Command System

(see below for full definition)

Multiple Casualty Incident Memorandum Of Understanding Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance Operadora Aeroportuaria Internacional Personal Alert Safety System Personal Protective Equipment Public Relations Primera Respuesta a Incidentes con Materiales Peligrosos Question and Answer



Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus El Nuevo Dorado International Airport Standard Operating Procedures Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Transportation Security Administration Table Top Exercise United States Agency for International Development Urban Search And Rescue United States Dollars Weapons of Mass Destruction

_________________________________________ Index E definition from CFR 14 Part 139,

Sec. 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An Index is required by paragraph (c) of this section for each certificate holder. The Index is determined by a combination of: (1) The length of air carrier aircraft expressed in groups; and (2) The average daily departures of air carrier aircraft. (b) For the purpose of Index determination, air carrier aircraft lengths are grouped as follows: (1) Index A includes aircraft less than 90 feet in length. (2) Index B includes aircraft at least 90 feet but less than 126 feet in length. (3) Index C includes aircraft at least 126 feet but less than 159 feet in length. (4) Index D includes aircraft at least 159 feet but less than 200 feet in length. (5) Index E includes aircraft at least 200 feet in length. (c) Except as provided in §139.319(c), the Index required by §139.319 is determined as follows: (1) If there are five or more average daily departures of air carrier aircraft in a single Index group serving that airport, the longest Index group with an average of 5 or more daily departures is the Index required for the airport. (2) If there are less than five average daily departures of air carrier aircraft in a single Index group serving that airport, the next lower Index from the longest Index group with air carrier aircraft in it is the Index required for the airport. The minimum designated Index shall be Index A.


Appendix 2 Itinerary

5 February 2009 6 February 2009 Participants:

Arrival in Bogotá Meetings with Aeropuerto Internacional El Dorado Chief Jairo Larrarte Aya, Aeropuerto Internacional El Dorado Capt. Giovanni Villamil, Aeropuerto Internacional El Dorado Chief Donald R. Austin, Los Angeles Fire Department Chief Kwame Cooper, Los Angeles Fire Department Capt. Ricardo E. Garcia, Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department FF Stan Aviles, Fire Department of the City of New York Ms. Griselda Bernal, 911 FUND

7 February 2009 Participants:

Meetings with Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos de Cali Chief Jairo Soto-Gil, Escuela Interamericana de Bomberos de Cali Chief Donald R. Austin, Los Angeles Fire Department Chief Kwame Cooper, Los Angeles Fire Department Capt. Ricardo E. Garcia, Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department FF Stan Aviles, Fire Department of the City of New York Ms. Griselda Bernal, 911 FUND

8 February 2009 9 February 2009 Participants:

Travel to Envigado Meetings with Cuerpo de Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado Chief John Villada-Bedoya, Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado Capt. Juan Carlos Calcedo, Bomberos Voluntarios de Envigado Chief Donald R. Austin, Los Angeles Fire Department Capt. Ricardo E. Garcia, Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department FF Stan Aviles, Fire Department of the City of New York Ms. Griselda Bernal, 911 FUND

10 February 2009

Departure for United States


Appendix 3 Strategic Planning and the Strategic Planning Process

Fires, other types of emergencies or major disasters are largely unpredictable, as is the unpredictability of how those affected will react. To remain proactive, fire departments should develop an emergency response structure, integrated with the other response organizations that exist, the result of which can positively affect emergency management by helping to create a common nomenclature and understanding of these events prior to, during and following an emergency. The most expedient way of doing this is for the fire department leadership to undertake a risk-based review of its operations and responsibilities as the basis for producing a risk management plan. Such a plan would assist the department as it embarks upon a long-term strategic planning process. By identifying current and potential risks in or near its response area, fire departments are better able to refine and improve their continuity of operations plan, which includes the ongoing: x x x x Evaluation of the effectiveness of current prevention programs and response capabilities. Identification and definition of specific capabilities that the department needs to achieve and sustain, depending on relevant risks and threats, for all types of emergencies. Development of standards, policies and procedures to address both prevention and intervention. Identification of opportunities for improvement in all areas, including recruiting, hiring, training, large-scale exercises, supervising and equipping staff, in the facilities available for use, in interagency operations, in directing triage and pre-hospital care operations, etc. Determination of resource requirements to meet current and evolving needs. Initiation of multi-year planning whereby emergency and response planning on the local level works seamlessly with national response protocols, and the society at large is educated in emergency prevention, response and recovery. Availability of these documents to the public to see and understand, with an acknowledgement that these are living documents that are periodically updated as need and experience dictate.

x x


The need for a Strategic Plan and the Strategic Planning Process are driven by each department's responsibility to protect lives and property while it expands its focus through an ongoing program of self-examination. It's essential, therefore, that each department embarks upon a multi-year strategic planning process and implementation schedule to identify its core values, scope of responsibilities, appropriate organizational structure, and its goals and objectives, all-the-while evaluating and prioritizing new initiatives. To the extent that it hasn't yet been undertaken, a department-wide working group should immediately be convened to produce a two-year Strategic Plan, i.e., from 2010 through 2011. Following a straight-forward and standardized format, the Strategic Plan should reflect the department's major goals and objectives, include a description of the benefits of each, a method to define and record benchmarks to track levels of accomplishment, then identify the responsibility center for each goal


and objective. On perhaps a quarterly basis, the department should produce a "Scorecard" to review its progress in each area. In the first quarter of 2012, the department should produce a "Final Scorecard," and initiate the strategic planning process for the following two years. The process begins with a detailed review of personnel in every category, including: Firefighters and officers; EMT's and supervisory personnel; dispatchers; administrative personnel; trades people (mechanics, carpenters, etc.); volunteers; etc. Required also is a detailed quantification of the fire and medically-related services that the department provided during the previous calendar year, quantified as follows: Fires extinguished; nonfire and medical emergencies; fires investigated for potential arson; fire inspections (fire code related and field inspections); fire safety events; etc. We believe that the successes and lessons-learned from the strategic planning process can have a tremendously positive impact on the operational and organizational development within each department. While the process is an intensive major commitment, it's well worth the effort. It requires fire department's to conduct a detailed introspective assessment of its roles and direction to ensure that their oversight bodies, the public they serve, and perhaps most importantly firefighters themselves, understand and embrace departmental priorities in these increasingly complex and challenging times.


Appendix 4 Emergency Preparedness Exercises

(Seminars, Workshops, Tabletop Exercises, Games, Drills or Full-Scale Exercises) It's imperative that emergency preparedness exercises be conducted on a regular basis. Highconsequence emergency scenarios test contingency planning and emergency preparedness. Wherever feasible, exercises and refresher training should include fire department staff, EMS, law enforcement, other first responders and community partners. Information provided during these sessions should include updates on plans, procedures as well as changes in the duties and responsibilities of all participants. Discussions should also center on any new materials that might be needed or revisions to current materials or procedures, with input from all staff being strongly encouraged. Forming the basis for coordinated planning, it's strongly recommended that exercises to test various emergency scenarios be held on a monthly basis. Exercises are either discussion-based or operations-based, and are defined as follows: 1. Discussion-based exercises familiarize participants with current plans, policies, agreements and procedures, or may be used to develop new plans, policies, agreements and procedures. The four types of discussion-based exercises are: x Seminars: A seminar is an informal discussion designed to orient participants to new or updated plans, policies or procedures. Workshops: A workshop resembles a seminar, but is employed to build specific products, such as a draft plan or policy (e.g., to develop an Annual Training and Exercise Plan). Tabletop Exercises: A TTX involves key personnel discussing simulated scenarios in an informal setting. Tabletop exercises are scenario-driven, can be real time or informational, generally focus on the emergency management team's roles and responsibilities, and are used to practice emergency skills and build confidence in the EOC process. Games: A game is a simulation of operations that typically involve two or more teams, usually in a competitive environment, using rules, data and procedures designed to depict an actual or assumed real-life emergency.





Operations-based exercises validate plans, policies, agreements and procedures, clarify roles and responsibilities, and identify resource gaps in an operational environment. The two types of operations-based exercises are:



Drills: A drill is a coordinated, supervised activity usually employed to test a single, specific operation or function, and should be based on a department's SOP. Full-Scale Exercises: A full-scale exercise involves some or all of the fire department's personnel in a "boots on the ground" simulation of an actual emergency. Full-scale exercises are real-time exercises that include props, equipment and special effects. They are used to practice all aspects of your emergency operations plan and to build teamwork and communication between every area of the department's organization. Full-scale exercises require a high degree of training, organization and planning.



Emergency Preparedness / Training / Exercise Schedule

(Seminars, Workshops, Tabletop Exercises, Games, Drills or Full-Scale Exercises) Sample Exercises must contain the following: x x

Instructions that participants should be encouraged to follow. A Description of Pre-Exercise Activities. Participants should review the exercise, then confirm

that each staff member understands their role in response to this type of emergency. Inspect and inventory all emergency supplies and equipment, adding or replacing any items as necessary. A Description of the Sample Exercise. A Post-Exercise Evaluation (AAR). Exercise Examples No. of Type of Participants Activity 10 Seminar 12 Drill 40 Exercise No. of Participants ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ Type of Activity _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

x x

Date of Activity Sep 2010 Oct 2010 Nov 2010 Date of Activity ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

No. 1 2 3

Weather Conditions Very hot Heavy rain Clear Weather Conditions __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

Subject of Activity Aircraft accident Hurricane HazMat release Subject of Activity _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Activity Location El Dorado Entire town Industrial park Activity Location ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

No. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___


Appendix 5 After Action Reports

The purpose of the AAR is to document the performance of exercise-related tasks and to make recommendations for improvements. Developed by a lead evaluator and an exercise planning team, a draft of the AAR should be forwarded to key participants for review no more than 30 days after the exercise is held, and corrective actions emanating from AAR recommendations should be adopted as needed. A final AAR with adopted recommendations, revised procedures, etc., should be completed within 60 days of the exercise. AARs generally contain the following seven elements: 1. An Executive Summary, used to summarize the information contained in the AAR to highlight the way in which the report will assist the fire department to strive for preparedness excellence. The Executive Summary should include: x A brief overview of the exercise. x The major strengths demonstrated during the exercise. x The areas that require improvement. An Exercise Overview, used to describe: x The specific details of the exercise. x All agencies and organizations that participated in the exercise. x How the exercise was structured. x How the exercise was implemented and carried-out. The Exercise Goals and Objectives, used to list the goals and objectives of the exercise. These are developed during the exercise planning and design phase and are used to define the scope and content of the exercise. The Exercise Events Synopsis, used to provide an overview of the scenario to facilitate exercise play and the actions taken by the players in response to a simulated emergency. Activities are presented in the general sequence and timeline that they occur, and provide participants with an overview of what happened and when. It's also used to analyze the effectiveness of the response, especially time-sensitive actions. It also provides a means of looking at the ramifications of one or more actions not happening when expected on actions taken by others and on the overall purpose. The Exercise Events Synopsis should include: x The synopsis. x The modules for the exercise. x A timeline of events for each element of play.






An Analysis of Mission Outcomes, used to analyze how well the participants as a whole achieved the expected outcomes to a simulated event. The focus here is on the outcomes rather than the processes. Mission outcomes include but aren't limited to: x Prevention/deterrence. x Emergency assessment. x Emergency management. x Hazard mitigation. x Public protection. x Victim care. An Analysis of Critical Task Performance, which briefly reviews performance of individual tasks determined to be critical in response to the simulated event. For tasks not performed as expected, the write-up should describe: x What happened or didn't happen. x The root causes for the variance from the plan. x Recommendations for improvement with a list of the action steps required to ensure that the recommendation is followed. A Conclusion, used as a summary of all sections of the AAR, to include: x Participants demonstrated capabilities. x Lessons learned for improvement and major recommendations. x A summary of what steps should be taken to ensure that the concluding results will help to further refine plans, procedures and training for this type of emergency.



Subsequent to the written Conclusion of each exercise and the completion of the AAR, a plan of improvement should be developed to identify specific actions that the fire department needs to take to address recommendations contained in the report. Such a plan will list the recommendation, action and party responsible charged with implementing the recommendation.




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