Read Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela text version

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela

TRAILER From the darkness of prison to the light of presidency; he is the Voice of Africa.

RUNTIME: 11 NINUTES 25 SECONDS COUNTRY: SOUTH AFRICA FILMING LOCATION: SOUTH AFRICA LANGUAGE: ENGLISH SOURCE: A24

SCRIPT Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, better known as Mandela today, was born on July 18th, 1918 in Mvezo, a tiny village 800 miles east of Cape Town. His passion for equality and democracy started at a very young age. Mandela was a part of the Thembu people of the Xhosa nation. They lived in the foothills of the Drakensburg Mountains but moved in the sixteenth century. Their history dates back to the eleventh century. Nelson Mandela's father was a chief of the Thembu tribe as was his grandfather. His mother was Nosekeni Fanny who came from the Right Hand of the Thembu tribe. Mandela's father settled disputes between royals and this was what he, himself, was being groomed for from a very early age. Soon after Mandela's birth his family moved to Qunu because his father had a dispute with the Magistrates. Mandela recalls his time spent here as some of his best.

The first school Mandela attended was Weslayan Methodist School where his teacher named him Nelson on his first day. In 1927 his father, Henry Mandela died of lung disease. Soon after Mandela was taken to Great Place, Mqhekezweni, in the care of

Acting Paramount Chief of the Thembus, Jogintaba David Dalindyebo who thought that he would have a better life with the chance of education.

In 1934 Mandela was circumcised and welcomed into manhood. He then matriculated from Clarkebury Missionary School. It was here that Mandela found that his royal lineage had no effect; he was an equal against all and in many cases was also less able than them.

Mandela graduated from Healdtown (a strict Methodist college) in 1938 and then moved to Fort Hare (South Africa's first university for Black Africans). Here he experienced his first political victory as well as his first political defeat through the various student committees he established and became a part of.

Soon after the completion of his studies at Fort Hare towards the end of 1940, Mandela returned to Great Place only to find out that a bride had been chosen for him. He felt trapped and ran away with his cousin, Justice. They had a long journey and many experiences in their attempt to reach Johannesburg. In 1941 Mandela and Justice finally reached Johannesburg and found work at Crown Mines. Mandela was made mine policeman. However, when their true circumstances were discovered they were asked to leave the mine and return to Great Place. They refused to leave but were still unaccepted at the mine.

Mandela then met Walter Sisulu through his cousin, Garlick Mbekeni. He started work at the Sidelsky & Eidelman law firm. Through his work he met Gaur Redebe, an African National Congress (ANC) party member and also Nat Bregman, Mandela's first white friend and a member of the Communist Party. During this time Mandela also studied during the evenings through a correspondence course with the University of South Africa (now UNISA) to complete his first degree. Mandela met many people, black and white as he grew more and more into the urban life of South Africa. All these people he met contributed in some way to giving him a better understanding of what his African brethren were going through under the control of the

ruling white. One of the main understandings he gathered was that he found his struggle to be the struggle of all Africans entrapped in South Africa regardless of their tribal roots.

In 1941 Chief Jogintaba visited Johannesburg and made peace with Mandela. Mandela learnt the importance of listening when he was at Great Place with the Chief because when the Chief used to settle disputes between people or when he had meetings he would always listen to the people first and then state his thoughts. In the same year Mandela had a love affair with a Swazi girl, Ellen Nkabinde and later fell in love with Didi, a friend's daughter but never acted.

The following year Mandela moved to Witwatersrand Native Labour Association (WNLA) Compound and met Africans from all over the continent. In the winter he found out that the Chief had died; this made him feel guilty as he thought that the distress he had put him through may have sent him to an early grave. By the end of the year Mandela was awarded his BA.

In August 1943, Mandela joined the ANC as an activist and marched with them in the Alexandra bus boycott to protest the rising fares from 4p to 5p. After nine days the fares were reduced back to 4p. This was Mandela's first political activity with the ANC. Soon after that he was articled as a clerk in the law firm. Thereafter he went to Witwatersrand University to study a Bachelor of Law Degree. Nelson Mandela married Evelyn Mase in 1944. She was Walter Sisulu's cousin. Their first child, Madiba Thembekile was born in 1945. Two years later in 1947 Mandela was elected as the secretary of the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL). He also became a member of Transvaal ANC executive. In 1948 Mandela and Evelyn had their second child, a daughter. She died after nine months. In the same year Mandela failed his LLB law degree and instead took the qualifying exam that would enable him to practice as an attorney.

In 1949 Nelson Mandela was co-opted onto the executive of the ANC but was unable to attend the meeting. Sisulu became Secretary General and Tambo was put on the executive board. The following year Nelson and Evelyn had their second son, Makgatho. In 1951 Mandela became president of the ANCYL.

The first black law firm was opened in 1952 by Mandela and Tambo. Soon after, Nelson became president of Transvaal ANC. He was then banned under the Suppression of Communism Act and was prohibited from holding office within the ANC and banned from attending any meetings. He was also restricted to the district around Johannesburg. Mandela was one of the fifty two people that had been banned by the government.

Nelson Mandela then created and implemented the M-Plan stating that the ANC could operate from underground cells in order to prevent it being detected. In this, the banned members of the ANC could also meet up and banned leaders could continue leading as more people were recruited and information circulated. In 1955 Mandela drove to Kliptown to participate in the Congress of the People. He witnessed the adoption of the Freedom Charter. Evelyn left Mandela in the same year. The pair did not see eye to eye and she became obsessed with religion as he was with politics. On 5th December 1956 the South African government arrested 155 people as a result of the Freedom Charter. The president of the ANC, Chief Albert Luthuli and Nelson Mandela were also arrested. A trial of High Treason began; they were charged with "high treason and a countrywide conspiracy to use violence to overthrow the present government and replace it with a communist state." Nelson Mandela married Winnie Madikizela on 14th June 1958. He was still on trial at this point. Winnie gave birth to a daughter who she was named Zenani. In 1956 the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) was formed. The ANC and the PAC were rivals. And much to Mandela's dismay, his friend and mentor Gaur Redebe joined the PAC.

1960, 21st March, the Sharpville Massacre took place. 700 shots were fired and over 60 Africans killed with hundreds wounded. 28th March was mourning day, during which a stay-home protest by the ANC was put into affect; thousands turned out burning their passes and Mandela was one of them. South Africa was put under a state of emergency. In the same year Winnie and Mandela had their second daughter, Zindziswa. On 29th March 1961 his trial came to an end and he was released. He then went underground to evade arrests and bans; he was dubbed "The Black Pimpernel". In June of 1961 Mandela proposed his idea of a military unit to the ANC committee; he was given the go ahead to lead this action. The ANC and the PAC set up military wings and Mandela headed the Umkhonte we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) with the aim of targeting state buildings and not injuring people. In 1961 the ANC and the PAC were banned under the Unlawful Organizations Act. In June the same year, the ANC executive stated that those who wished to participate in Mandela's campaign would not be stopped by the ANC.

Mandela sneaked out of South Africa in 1962 in order to attend a conference of African Nationalist Leaders in Addis Ababa and to learn more about military procedures. He visited numerous African countries and also went out of Africa, to London. He was then called back to South Africa and arrested on 5th August, sentenced to 5 years in prison. 1964 carried Mandela's life changing experience; on Friday 12th June he was sentenced to life imprisonment and held at Robben Island. His mother died in 1968; he was not allowed to attend the funeral. In 1969 his eldest son died in car accident; he was not allowed to attend the funeral. In 1979 Mandela was given an offer by the Minister of Police, Jimmy Kruger: renounce struggle and settle in Transkei and we will release you. Mandela refused.

Three years later in 1979, while still in prison, Mandela was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Human Rights Award in India. In August 1985 Mandela was taken to hospital due to having an enlarged prostrate gland. When he was taken back to prison he was placed in

solitary confinement. In May, 1988, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis but taken back to prison after being treated in hospital.

In August 1989 after Botha resigned as president, F.W de Klerk took over as president. On 10th October Klerk announced that Sisulu and seven other political prisoners imprisoned with Mandela were to be freed. On February 10th 1990 Mandela was finally released; he toured Africa, Europe and North America meeting world leaders and thanking all for supporting him. He reassured everyone that he was still a committed member of ANC. On August 6th the Pretoria Minute was signed in order to suspend armed struggle. The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) was created on 20th December 1991 and consisted of negotiations between the government, the ANC and other South African parties. A by-election was held and the right-wing Conservative party won. Klerk announced that a referendum was to be held for all the whites asking if they supported the policy change put out by the government, 69% voted yes. Mandela and Winnie separated on 13th April 1992 as her life became too muddy with arrests, prison sentences and charges of assault and kidnapping. It was not a good phase for Mandela and the politics of the ANC. On 26th September 1992 the Record of Understanding was signed by Mandela and Klerk. In 1993 Mandela and Klerk were awarded a joint Nobel Peace Prize. South Africa's first multiracial elections were held in 1994. ANC won with a 62% majority of votes. A Government of National Unity (GNU) was formed based on an idea outlined by Joe Slovo; the GNU could last for up to five years as a new constitution was drawn. On 10th May 1994 Mandela made a presidential speech from Union Building, Pretoria:

"We have at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender, and other discrimination. Never, never, and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another... let freedom reign. God Bless Africa!" Mandela's struggle finally had the chance to bear the fruits of success and the people of South Africa had a chance to experience true freedom and equality amongst blacks and whites.

Nelson Mandela published his autobiography in 1994. He divorced Winnie in 1996 after a long separation; he then started a relationship with Graca Machel, the widow of Mozambique's former president. In 1997 Mandela stepped down as the ANC leader and was succeeded by Thabo Mbeki. On his birthday in 1998 Mandela married Graca after much persuasion by Archbishop Desmond Tutu.

Nelson Mandela relinquished his post of president in 1999 and the following year he was appointed as the mediator of the Burundi Civil War. In 2001 he was diagnosed with prostrate cancer.

At present Nelson Mandela resides in his home town of Qunu and prefers to keep out of the public eye. He enjoys spending time with friends and family. He has voiced his support in the war against HIV/AIDS and has encouraged people to take action. He has also supported many other causes and gained recognition throughout the world. He has been and will always be a hero for everyone in Africa.

SHOTLIST

01:00 VARIOUS STILL PHOTOGRAPHS OF NELSON MANDELA WITH MUSIC ABOUT HIM IN THE BACKGROUND

01:20 VILLAGE WHERE NELSON MANDELA GREW UP

01:37 STILL PHOTOGRAPH OF NELSON MANDELA WHEN HE WAS YOUNG

01:43 NELSON MANDELA ITV (ENGLISH) "Useless and futile for us to continue talking peace and non-violence against a government whose reply is only savage attacks on an unarmed (?)

01:56 NELSON MANDELA LEAVING THE COURT IN ONE OF THE WHITE TRUCKS

02:07 VARIOUS SHOTS OF VIOLENCE AND PROTESTORS IN SOUTH AFRICA 02:40 PIETER WILLEM BOTHA ­ PRIME MINISTER AND FIRST PRESIDENT OF SOUTH AFRICA 02:47 PIETER WILLEM BOTHA MAKING A SPEECH (ENGLISH) "I'm not prepared to lead white South Africans and other minority groups on a road to abdication and suicide. Listen my friends, listen, destroy white South Africa and our influence in this subcontinent of Southern Africa and this country will drift into fractioned strife chaos and poverty."

03:23 WHITE SOUTH AFRICAN POLICEMEN

03:26 POLICEMEN BEATING PROTESTORS

03:34 VARIOUS SHOTS OF NELSON MANDELA AND WINNIE WHEN HE WAS RELEASED FROM PRISON

03:58 VARIOUS SHOTS OF NELSON MANDELA VISITING AMERICA AND HUGGING REVEREND JESSE JACKSON

04:13 NELSON MANDELA AND WINNIE MANDELA WITH RONALD REAGAN

04:24 NELSON MANDELA MAKES A SPEECH DURING THE ANC VOTING PERIOD (ENGLISH) "What I feel is beyond words, I am excited that after many years of struggle in which our people have been involved are now going to be rewarded. It is a great moment indeed and I share the feelings and the hopes and the dreams of many South Africans for this opportunity. It is not only blacks, that is African colours and Indians who are excited over this election. It is also the whites, democratic whites in this country who feel a relief that the entire South Africa should have an opportunity of taking part in a democratic election."

05:14 VOTERS LINING UP TO VOTE

5:30 VARIOUS SHOTS OF PEOPLE VOTING 5:39 VARIOUS SHOTS OF NELSON MANDELA VOTING

6:35 NELSON MANDELA MAKES A SPEECH AFTER VOTING (ENGLISH) "I again repeat that I have, throughout my life as I pointed out in the rivonier (?) trial, I have fought very firmly against white domination. I fought very firmly against black domination. I cherish the ideal of a new South Africa where all South Africans are equal."

07:02 CROWDS CELEBRATING

07:11 FLAG OF THE NATIONAL PARTY BEING BROUGHT DOWN

07:40 CROWDS CHEERING AND CELEBRATING 07:46 SOUTH AFRICAN FLAG BEING HOISTED

08:08 CROWDS CHEERING

08:15 NELSON MANDELA DANCING

8:20 NELSON MANDELA BEING INAUGURATED IN 1994

08:28 VARIOUS SHOTS OF STREETS

08:49 NELSON MANDELA WALKING TO PARLIAMENT AS HE MARKS 100 DAYS IN PARLIAMENT

09:00 NELSON MANDELA IN PARLIAMENT

09:05 NELSON MANDELA MAKES A SPEECH IN PARLIAMENT (ENGLISH) "We should congratulate all South Africans for the reconciliatory spirit with which they have handled the transition and for their patience as the new government found its feet. Yet there are problems that need urgent attention such as violence Eastland and natal, the wanton killing of security force members, abuse and kidnapping of children and various other crimes. Let us harness the nation's energy to more rapidly develop and reconstruct our country. In this way our society will experience meaningful and last reconciliation. I thank you."

10:16 NELSON MANDELA ARRIVES AT A STADIUM WHERE CELEBRATIONS ARE GOING ON

10:21 NELSON MANDELA DANCING AT THE PODIUM 10:29 NELSON MANDELA MAKING A SPEECH AT A LUNCHEON (ENGLISH) "A person who does what all others can do is an ordinary person. A person who does what no other person can do is exceptional. But a person who does what no other person has ever done is a national asset, is a genius, is an institution. South Africa today, wants men and women, who strive, to do what no other person has done, we require this for our

country. It is your wish, every one of you, that when your last days on earth come we should be able to say here lies a man or woman who has done his or her duty on earth. And if you strive to do what no other person has done we will be able to say here lies a person who did his duty on earth."

END

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