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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

Chapter 32 Using Student Perceptions in Development, Validation and Application of an Assessment Questionnaire Rekha Koul and Darrell Fisher Science and Maths Education Centre, Curtin University of Technology 1. Introduction This paper reports on a two-stage study aimed at developing, validating and applying an instrument that can be used to assess secondary students' perceptions of assessment. In the first stage, following a review of literature, a six-scale instrument of 48 items was trialed with a sample of 470 students from grades eight, nine and ten in 20 science classrooms in three Western Australian schools. Based on internal consistency reliability data and exploratory factor analysis, refinement decisions resulted in a five-scale instrument that was named the Student Perceptions of Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). The scales of the SPAQ are Congruence with Planned Learning, Authenticity, Student Consultation, Transparency and Diversity. In the second stage, the SPAQ was used with an attitude scale, and an academic efficacy scale. This survey was administered to a larger sample of nearly 1,000 students from 40 science classes from the same grades as in the first stage. Statistical analyses confirmed the validity and reliability of the SPAQ. The mean score ranged from 2.16 for the scale of Student Consultation to 3.17 for the scale of Congruence with Planned Learning on a four point Likert type scale. Cronbach Alphas ranged from 0.62 to 0.83. Significant correlations (p < 0.01) were found among all the scales used in the instrument, for example, Congruence with Planned Learning was positively related with all the other scales of SPAQ. Despite the growth in emancipatory conceptualizations of classrooms that embrace a constructivist epistemology, little contemporary evidence exists to support the view that students are genuinely involved in decision-making about their assessment tasks. That is, forms of Assessment and specific assessment tasks employed in schools are overwhelmingly decided by teachers and administrators. Furthermore, even though reports like The Status and Quality of Teaching and Learning in Australia (Goodrum, Hackling, and Rennie, 2001) have asserted that assessment is a key component of the teaching and learning process, teachers tend to utilize a very narrow range of assessment strategies on which to base feedback to parents and students. In practice, there is little evidence that teachers actually use diagnostic or formative assessment strategies to inform planning and teaching (Radnor, 1996). Teachers feel that they need to `sacrifice learning with understanding for the goal of drilling students in the things for which they will be held accountable' (Hobden, 1998). Historically, teachers have received substantial levels of advice on assessment practices. Harlen (1998) advises teachers that both oral and written questions should be used in assessing students' learning. The inclusion of alternative assessment strategies, such as teacher observation, personal communication, and student performances, demonstrations, and portfolios, have been offered by experts as having greater usefulness for evaluating students and informing classroom instruction (Dorr-Bremme and Herman, 1986; Stiggins, 1994). Tobin (1998) asserted that assessment can be used to provide opportunities for students to show what they know. Reynolds, Doran, Allers and Agruso (1995) argued that for effective learning to

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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

occur, congruence must exist between instruction, assessment and outcomes. This paper represents context-specific investigation of this congruence. An effective assessment process should involve a two-way communication system between teachers and their students. Historically, teachers have used testing instruments to transmit to the student and their parents what is really important for the student to know and do. While this reporting tends to be in the form of a grade, the form and design of the assessment can send subtle messages on what is important. There has been a substantial amount of research into types of assessment but very little research into students' perceptions of assessment (Black and Wiliam, 1998; Crooks, 1988; Plake, 1993, Popham, 1997). Use of Student Perceptual Data: Until the late 1960s, a very strong tradition of trained observers coding teacher and student behaviors dominated classroom research. Indeed, it was a key recommendation of Dunkin and Biddle (1974) that instruments for research on teaching processes, where possible, should deal with the objective characteristics of classroom events. Clearly, this low-inference approach to research which often involved trained observers coding teacher and student behaviours was consistent with the behaviourism of the 1960s. The study of classroom psychosocial environments broke this tradition and used student perceptual data in the late 1960s. Since then, the strong trend in classroom environment research has been towards this high-inference approach with data collected from both the teachers and students. Walberg (1976) supports this methodological approach where student learning involves student perceptions acting as mediators in the learning process. Walberg (1976) also advocates the use of student perception to assess environments because students seemed quite able to perceive and weigh stimuli and to render predictively valid judgments of the social environments of their classes. Classroom Learning Environment: Recent reviews (e.g., Fraser, 1998, 1994) show that science education researchers have led the world in the field of classroom environment research over the last three decades, and that this field has contributed much to understanding and improving science education. For example, classroom assessments provide a means of monitoring, evaluating and science teaching and curriculum. A key to improving student achievement and attitudes is to create learning environments that emphasize those characteristics that have been found to be linked empirically with student outcomes. The WIHIC questionnaire brings parsimony to the field of learning environment by combining modified versions of the most salient scales from a wide range of existing questionnaires with additional scales that accommodate contemporary educational concerns (e.g., equity and cooperation, Fraser, 1998). Based on the previous studies, developed this new learning environment instrument. The WIHIC questionnaire has been used to measure the psychosocial aspects of the classroom learning environment in various contexts since its development. In certain cases, the questionnaire has been adapted without any modifications, while as in other cases modifications were made to suit the specific context. Until now, the original questionnaire in English has been translated into Chinese for use in Taiwan and Singapore and Korean for use in Korea .

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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

Academic Efficacy: Over the past two decades the broad psychological concept of self-efficacy has been the subject of interest (Bandura, 1997; Schunk, 1995) Within this field, one particular strong area of interest is that of academic efficacy, which refers to personal judgments of one's capabilities to organize and execute courses of action to attain designated types of educational performances (Zimmerman, 1995). Research studies have provided consistent, convincing evidence that academic efficacy is positively related to academic motivation (e.g. Schunk and Hanson, 1985), persistence (Lyman, Pretice-Dunn, Wilson and Bonfilio, 1984), memory performance (Berry, 1987), and academic performance (Schunk, 1989). 2. Aim The overall aim of the study was to investigate relationships among students' perceptions of their assessment tasks, classroom learning environments, academic efficacy and attitude to science in years eight, nine and ten. The following objectives were derived from this aim. Objectives 1. to develop and validate an instrument to assess students' perceptions of assessment tasks for use with middle school students; 2. to investigate associations between students' perceptions of assessment tasks and their attitudes towards science. 3.to investigate gender and year level differences in students' perceptions of assessment tasks in science classes; 3. Instruments and Procedure Used The study was carried out in phases over a period of three years using a multimethod research approach: 1.In the first phase Perceptions of Assessment Tasks (PAT) a six-scale instrument of 48 items from a 55 item questionnaire developed by Schaffner, Burry, Cho, Boney and Hamilton (2000) was administered to 470 students from grades eight, nine and ten in 20 science classrooms in three Western Australian schools. Close-ended interviews were conducted with 40 students to provide further data on the validation of the instrument. Internal consistency reliability data and exploratory factor analysis, refinement decisions resulted in a five-scale instrument that was named the Student Perceptions of Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ).

2.In second phase based on The SPAQ was used with an attitude scale, and a self-

efficacy scale. This survey was administered to a larger sample of nearly 1,000 students from 41 science classes from the same grades as in the first phase. Students' Perceptions of Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) The SPAQ contains 30items assigned to internally consistent scales, namely, Congruence with Planned Learning, Authenticity, Student Consultation, Transparency and Diversity. Table 1 shows a description of the scales with sample items.. Responses to the SPAQ items are recorded on a four point Likert type format of Almost Never, Sometimes, Often, and Almost Always. Validation statistics along with confirmatory factor analysis performed on the data collected are presented in results section

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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

Two outcome scales namely Attitude to Science and Academic Efficacy were also employed in the present study. Attitude to Science was assessed on an 8-item scale adopted from the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA: Fraser, 1981). Responses were recorded on a four-point format ranging from 1 (Disagree) to 4 (Agree). Perceived Academic Efficacy refers to students' judgments of their ability to master academic tasks that they are given in their classrooms. A 6-item scale using items developed by Midgley and Urdan (1995); Midgley, Maehr, Hicks, Roeser, Urdan, Anderman and Kaplan (1997); Roeser, Midgley and Urdan (1996) was used to assess perceived academic competence at science class work. Items were modified to elicit a response on academic efficacy in science. All items in the Academic Efficacy scale had a four-point response format with anchors of 1 (Disagree) and 4 (Agree). Table 1 Description and Example of Items for Each Scale of the Students' Perceptions of Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Attitude Scale and Academic Efficacy. Scale SPAQ Congruence with Planned Learning Authenticity Description Extent to which assessment tasks align with the goals, objectives and activities of the learning programme. The extent to which assessment tasks feature real life situations those are relevant to the learner. The extent to which students are consulted and informed about the forms of assessment tasks being employed. The extent to which the purposes and forms of assessment tasks are welldefined and clear to the learner. Item My assignments/tests are about what I have done in class. I find science assessment tasks are relevant to what I do outside of school. I have a say in how I will be assessed in science.

Student Consultation Transparency

Diversity

Attitude to Science

! am clear about what my teacher wants in my assessment tasks. The extent to which all students have an I have as much equal chance at completing assessment chance as any other tasks. student at completing assessment tasks. The extent to which students are I enjoy the activities interested in, enjoy and look forward to we do in science. lessons in that subject. Even if science is hard, I can learn it.

Academic Efficacy Students' judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action to attain designated types of educational performances.

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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

4. Results Validation of the SPAQ The validity and reliability information of the instrument developed in this study are presented in Table 2. To determine the degree to which items in the same scale measure the same aspects of students' perceptions of assessment tasks, attitude to science and academic self efficacy, a measure of internal consistency, the Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was used. For the scales of the SPAQ, the highest alpha reliability of 0.83 was for the scale of Authenticity, and the lowest of 0.63 for the scale of Diversity. The scale of student Attitudes to Science had an alpha reliability of 0.85 and the scale of Academic Efficacy of 0.9. Since all the reliabilities for the scales of SPAQ were consistently above 0.63 the instrument developed was considered reliable for use. Mean scores ranging from 2.56 for the scale of Diversity to 3.17 for the scale of Congruence with Planned Learning on a four point Likert type scale confirmed that students generally have a positive perception of their assessment tasks. The scale of Student Consultation had the lowest mean of 2.16 confirming that students generally do not have a large say in their assessment tasks. The ability of the SPAQ to differentiate between classes is important. The instrument's ability to differentiate in this way was measured using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The eta2 statistics was calculated to provide an estimate of the strength of the association between class membership and the dependent variables as shown in Table 2. The eta2 statistic for the SPAQ, indicates that the amount of variance in scores accounted for by class membership ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 and was statistically significant (p<0.001) for all scales. It appears that the instrument is able to differentiate clearly between the perceptions of students in different classrooms. Table 2. Scale Mean, Standard Deviation, Internal Consistency (Cronbach Alpha Reliability) and Ability to Differentiate between Classrooms (ANOVA Results) for the SPAQ, Attitude to Science and Academic Efficacy. Scale SPAQ Congruence with Planned Learning Authenticity Student Consultation Transparency Diversity Attitude to Science Academic Efficacy n= 960 students in 20 classes Mean 3.17 2.24 2.16 3.06 2.56 2.56 2.96 *p<0.001 St. Dev 0.51 0.64 0.58 0.63 0.54 0.8 .76 Alpha reliability 0.76 0.83 0.71 0.83 0.63 0.85 0.9 ANOVA (eta2) 0.13* 0.17* 0.19* 0.14* 0.12* 0.28* 0.13*

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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

Correlations Table 3 presents the significant simple correlations (p < 0.01) that were found among all the scales used in the instrument, for example, Congruence with Planned Learning was positively related to and was positively associated with all the other scales of SPAQ. Table 3. Inter-Scale Correlation for the Scales of the SPAQ Scale

Congruence with Planned Learning Authenticity Student Consultation Transparency Diversity Student Attitudes Academic Efficacy

Congruence with Planned Learning Authenticity Student Consultation Transparency Diversity Student Attitudes Academic Efficacy

1

.290**

.288**

.501**

.336**

.324**

.339**

1

.502** 1

.328** .421** 1

.393** .483** .502** 1

.457** .256** .394** .390** 1

.362** .218** .463** .438** .640** 1

n= 960 students in 40 classes

**p<0.01

Student Attitudes One of the aims of the study was to investigate associations between students' perceptions of assessment tasks and their attitude to science classes. These associations were explored using simple and multiple correlation analyses. The results of the analyses are shown in Table 4. For all the scales of the SPAQ, associations are positive and statistically significant.

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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

Table 4 Associations between Scales of SPAQ and Attitude to Science in Terms of Simple Correlations (R), Multiple Correlations and Standardized Regression Coefficient ( ) Scale Congruence with Planned Learning Authenticity Student Consultation Transparency Diversity Multiple Correlations R = 0.55* R2 = 0.3 Attitude to Science Class r 0.32** 0.45** 0.25** 0.39** 0.39** 0.10*** 0.35*** -0.17*** 0.18*** 0.18***

*p<0.0001, **p <0.01, *** p<0.05 n=960 The multiple correlation (R) between the set of SPAQ scales and attitude to science class was 0.55. The R2 value which indicates the proportion of variance in attitude to science class that can be attributed to students' perceptions of their assessment tasks was 30%. To determine which of the SPAQ scales contributed most to this association, the standardized regression coefficient () was examined for each scale. It was found that the scales of Congruence with Planned Learning, Authenticity, Transparency and Diversity were positively and significantly associated; where as scale of Student Consultation was negatively and significantly associated with attitude to science. Academic Efficacy Next associations between students, perceptions of assessment tasks and their academic efficacy in science classes were considered. These associations were explored using simple and multiple correlation analyses. The results of the analyses are shown in Table 5. For all the scales of the SPAQ, associations are positive and statistically significant. The multiple correlation (R) between the set of SPAQ scales and academic efficacy was 0.56. The R2 value, which indicates the proportion of variance in academic efficacy that can be attributed to students' perceptions of their assessment tasks given by the teacher, was 32%. To determine which SPAQ scales contributed most to this association, the standardized regression coefficient () was examined for each scale. It was found that the scales of Congruence with Planned Learning, Authenticity, Transparency and Diversity were positively and significantly associated, whereas the scale of Student Consultation was negatively and significantly associated with academic efficacy. The standardized regression coefficient results are very similar to the results for associations with attitude to science.

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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

Table 5 Associations between Scales of SPAQ and Academic Efficacy in terms of Simple Correlations (R), Multiple Correlations and Standardized Regression Coefficient ( ) *p<0.0001, **p <0.01, *** p<0.05 n=960 Gender Differences Differences between the students' perceptions of their science assessment tasks and the gender of the students also were analysed. The gender differences in students' perceptions of classroom learning environment were examined by splitting the total number involved in the study into female (387) and male (572) students. Table 6 Item Mean and Standard Deviation for Gender Differences in Students' Perceptions of their Assessment Tasks Measured by the SPAQ Scales, their Attitude to Science and Academic Efficacy Scale Congruence with Planned Learning Authenticity Student Consultation Transparency Diversity Student Attitudes Academic Efficacy * p<0.01 Gender Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Item Mean 3.21 3.14 2.18 2.28 2.12 2.19 3.07 3.06 2.54 2.58 2.52 2.58 2.88 3.01 Mean Std. Difference Deviation (F-M) 0.07 0.5 0.5 -0.1 -0.07 0.01 -0.04 -0.06 -0.13 0.67 0.61 0.58 0.58 0.62 0.65 0.54 0.54 0.81 0.78 0.77 0.74 t 1.8 -2.42 -1.87 0.03 -0.89 -1.16 -2.56*

females (n=387); males (n=572)

To examine the gender differences in students' perceptions of assessment tasks in science classes, the within-class gender subgroup mean was chosen as the unit of analysis which aims to eliminate the effect of class differences due to males and females being unevenly distributed in the sample. In the data analysis, male and female students' mean scores for each class were computed, and the significance of gender differences in students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviour and science classroom were analysed using an independent t-test. Table 6 presents the

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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

scale item means, female and male differences, standard deviations, and t-values. Except for the scale of Academic Efficacy no statistically significant differences were found between female and male students. In this study male students perceived themselves to be academically more efficient than did their female counterparts. Year Level Differences Associations between perceptions of assessment and students, on the basis of the year level, were examined. To examine the year level differences in students' perception of the assessment tasks in the science classes, the year level mean was chosen as the unit of analysis in order to eliminate the effect of class differences due to the strength of various groups being unevenly distributed in the sample. In the data analysis, mean scores for each of the three year level groups were computed. Table 7 shows the scale item means and F values for the scales of the SPAQ with the perceptions of students from the three year level groups. The purpose of this analysis is to establish whether there are significant differences in the perceptions of students according to their year levels. Table 7 Item Mean for Year Level Differences in Students' Perceptions of Assessment Tasks Measured by the SPAQ Scales, Attitude to Science and Academic Efficacy Scale Congruence with Planned Learning Authenticity Student Consultation Transparency Diversity Student Attitudes Academic Efficacy *p<0.05, **p<0.01 As can be seen in Table 7, the differences in the perceptions of students about their science assessment on five of the seven scales are statistically significant. The scales in which there were significant differences were Congruence with Planned Learning, Authenticity, Student Consultation, Diversity and Student Attitudes. Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05) revealed that for the Congruence with Planned Learning scale the Year 8 group of students was dominant and had statistically significant higher means while the Year 10 group of students had the lowest mean for the scales of Student Consultation.Thus confirming that student perceptions of their assessment changed with each year level. Year 8 3.24 2.32 2.34 3.1 2.62 2.65 2.99 n=343 Year 9 3.14 2.24 2.15 3.09 2.58 2.44 2.96 n=328 Year 10 3.12 2.15 1.95 2.99 2.47 2.6 2.91 n=285 F Value 5.64* 5.13* 37.05** 2.48 6.21** 6.38** 0.83

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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

5. Conclusion In this study a new instrument, the Students' Perception of Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was used in conjunction with attitude and academic efficacy scales. This study demonstrates that the SPAQ is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used with confidence by researchers and teachers. Schools interested in adopting an emancipatory approach to their assessment may find the results of this study very interesting. For the SPAQ scales, there were no statistically significant differences in students' perceptions based on their gender. Statistically significant differences were found for the scales of Congruence with Planned Learning, Authenticity, Student Consultation, Diversity and Student Attitudes for the year level differences. For associations between the scales of SPAQ with Attitude to Science and Academic Efficacy only the scale of Student Consultation had negative significant associations. The remaining four scales had positive and statistically significant associations. References Aldridge, J.M., Fraser, B.J., & Huang, T.I. (1998). A cross-national study of perceived classroom environments in Taiwan and Australia. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association, San Diego. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. Berry, J.M. (1987). A self efficacy model of memory performance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York. Black, P., & William, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education, 5(1), 7-74. Chionh, Y. H., & Fraser, B.J. (1998). Validation and use of the 'What is Happening in this Class' (WIHIC) questionnaire in Singapore. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American educational Research Association, San Diego, CA. Cronbach, D.J. (1951). Coefficient Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334. alpha and internal structure of tests.

Crooks, T.J. (1988). The impact of classroom evaluation practices on students. Review of Educational Research, 58, 438-481. Denzin, N.K., & Lincolin, Y.S. (1994). Introduction: Entering the field of qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Lincolin, Y.S. (Eds). Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 1-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. De Vellis, R. F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and application. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

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Dorr-Bremme, D. & Herman, J. (1986). Assessing student achievement: A profile of classroom practices. Los Angeles, CA: Center for the Study of Evaluation, University of California, Los Angeles. Dunkin, M.J. & Biddle, B.J. (1974). The study of teaching. New Yok: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Fraser, B. (1994). Research on classroom and school climate. In D. Gabel (Ed.), Handbook of research on science teaching and learning (pp. 493-541). New York: Macmillan. Fraser, B.J. (1998). Science learning environments: Assessments, effects and determinants. In B.J. Fraser & Tobin, K.G. (Eds). International handbook of science education (pp. 527-564). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kulwer. Fraser, B.J., Fisher, D.L. & McRobbie, C.J. (1996). Development, validation and use of personal and class forms of a new classroom environment instrument. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association, Chicago. Goodrum, D., Hackling, M. & Rennie, L. (2001). The status and quality of teaching and learning in Australian schools. Canberra: DETYA. Harlen, W. (1998). Teaching for understanding in pre-secondary science. In B. Fraser & K. Tobin (Eds). International handbook of science education (pp. 183198). Dordrech, the Netherlands: Kulwer. Hobden, P. (1998). The role of routine problems in science teaching. In B. Fraser & Tobin, K. (Eds), International handbook of science education (pp. 219-232). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kulwer. Kim, H., Fisher, D. & Fraser, B. J. (2000). Classroom environment and teacher interpersonal behaviour in secondary classes in Korea. Evaluation and Research in Education, 14, 3-22. Lyman, R. D., Prentice-Dunn, S., Wilson, D. R. & Bonfilio, S. A. (1984). The effect of sucess or failure on self-efficacy and task persistence of conduct-disordered children. Psycology in the Schools, 21, 516-519. Midgley, C., Maehr, M., Hicks, L., Roeser, R., Urdan, T., Anderman, E.M. & Kaplan, A. (1997). Manual for the patterns of adaptive learning survey. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan. Midgley, C. & Urdan, T. (1995). Predictors of middle school students' use of selfhandicapping strategies. Journal of Early Adolescence, 15, 389­411. Plake, B.S. (1993). Teacher assessment literacy: Teachers' competencies in the educational assessment of students. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 6, 21-27.

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Popham, W.J. (1997). Consequential validity: Right concern-wrong concept. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. 16(2), 9-13. Radnor, H. (1996). Evaluation of key stage3 assessment in 1995 and 1996 (research report). University of Exceter. Reynolds, D.S., Doran, R.L., Allers, R.H. & Agruso, S.A. (1995). Alternative assessment in science: A teacher's guide. Buffalo, NY: University of Buffalo. Roeser, R.W., Midgley, C. & Urdan, T. (1996). Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents' self-appraisals and academic engagement: The mediating role of goals and belonging. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 408­422. Schaffner, M., Burry-Stock, J.A., Cho, G., Boney, T. & Hamilton, G. (2000, April). What do kids think when their teachers grade? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Schunk, D. H. (1989). Self-efficacy and cognitive skill learning. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds), Research on motivation in education (Vol. 3, pp. 13-44). San Diego, CA: Academic. Schunk, D. H. (1995). Self-efficacy and education and instruction. In J. E. Maddux (Ed.), Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application (pp. 281-303). New York: Plenum. Schunk, D. H., & Hanson, A. R. (1985). Peer models: Influence on children's selfefficacy and achievement. Journal of Educational Psycology, 77, 312-322. Stiggins, R. (1994). Student-centered classroom assessment. New York: Macmillan College Publishing Co. Walberg, H. J. (1976). Psychology of learning environments: Behavioral, structural, or perceptual? Review of Research in Education, 4, 142-178. Zimmerman, B. J. (1995). Self-efficacy and educational development. In A. Bamdura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in changing societies (pp. 202-231). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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