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Role, objectives and expectations of Commercial Data Providers in the Aeronautical Data Chain

Data Quality Workshop 15 Dec 2009 Corporate HQ of Airports Authority of India New Delhi

Werner Kurz, Director International Relations, Jeppesen

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 1

The Role of Commercial Data Providers

Data provided within the scope of Annex 15 is in most cases not directly suitable for use in air and ground based applications. Commercial data providers are needed to make the data usable for cockpit needs,

There are generally four tiers of AIM stakeholders, each with different roles, responsibilities, obligations and needs.

End user Commercial Service Provider

An organization, generally a corporation, that creates valueadded services from the ,,official" facts, data and information about the State aviation system. Pilots, aircraft operators, ATS organizations, flight support organizations and othe entities that use aeronautical information to support safe, effecient and orderly flight operations.

State Designated Service Provider

An organization, often referred to as an ANSP, which has been designated by a State to fulfill some of the State obligations for AIS/AIM provision. ANSPs are often ,,corporatized" organizations.

State Civil Aviation Authority

State government organization responsible for the safety, regularity and effeciency of national and international aviation within its borders.

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 2

Actors from End to End

Upstream Data Operation

Downstream Data Operation

End User

Airports Airlines CNS Infrastructure IAIP NOTAMs PIB etc. Commercial Database Providers FMS Database Processors


Airspace designers

AIS Organization

ATC Other Airspace Users



Industy Standards

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 3

Actors from End to End

... a more complex picture

Air Traffic Service Provider Met Service Provider Comm Service Provider SAR Service Provider Procedure & Airspace Designer


Aeronautical Data Tailoring Requirements

Aeronautical Information Service


Other State Sources, Geographical Institute, Equipment Services


End-User e.g. Airlines, Aircraft owners

FMS Data Application Integrator e.g. Thales, SI

Simulation Data Application Provider

Data Service Provider e.g. Jeppesen, LIDO, EAG

End-User e.g. Airlines, Aircraft Owner Flight Planning Data Application Provider

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 4

The aeronautical data chain

How does aeronautical data get into the cockpit?

Ø It is a long supply chain which involves a multitude of actors. Ø The data originated at an aerodrome has to go through at least 5 individual units to get to the end-product in an aircraft. Ø The Data Originators (e.g. aerodrome, navaid owner, airspace designers etc.) supply their information into the AIS. Ø The AIS produces the AIP which may be a paper or an electronic copy. Ø The AIP produced by the AIS is then processed by the Data Houses (e.g. Jeppesen, EAG, Lufthansa Systems etc.). Ø They take the data which is required from the AIPs, to then format it, ready for packing. Ø Once the information is there, it is passed to the Data Packers (e.g. Honeywell, Garmin, Rockwell Collins, Smiths etc.). Ø The Data Packers pack the data for the specific FMSes of the different aircraft.

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 5

The aeronautical data chain

...... The Data Integrity Challenge

Ø If at any point in the aeronautical data chain, e.g in the transformation of the formats of the information, things go wrong, integrity of the information might get lost. Ø If the Data Originator and AIS do not provide a very clear and very understandable set of information, it can lead to ambiguity which also means that data integrity might get lost. Ø Loss of integrity leads to that Data Packers packing the FMS data for the aircraft in a different format or with different instructions or simply wrong and as a result the aircraft will not fly the route that is planned by the Data Originator. Ø The aeronautical information is required to be accurate, very precise and totally unambiguous so that the required data integrity can be maintained along the entire data chain. Any loss of data integrity bears the risk that the aircraft will fly different tracks and even worse it could fly into the ground. Ø The best data integrity is useless if the data is processed too late or incomplete.

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 6

Let's recall some Definitions

· QUALITY A degree or level of confidence that the data provided meets the requirements of the data user in terms of accuracy, resolution and integrity (ICAO Annex15) ­ Accuracy: a degree of conformance between the estimated or measured value and the true value, ­ Resolution: a number of units or digits to which a measured or calculated value is expressed and used ­ Integrity: a degree of assurance that aeronautical data and its value has not been lost or altered since the data origination or authorized amendment.

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 7

Data Integrity

Integrity means -How good ist the data

F F F Critical 10-8 Essential 10-5 Routine 10-3

-----------------------Critical data: ? There is a high probability when using corrupted critical data that the continued safe flight and landing of an aircraft would be severely at risk with the potential for catastrophe. Essential: ...low... Routine: ...very low...

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 8

ICAO Annex 15 -required Integrity Levels

CRITICAL · Runway threshold, runway holding position etc.

Require an integrity value of 10-8 1 error in 100 mio data records

ESSENTIAL · Coordinates of en-route navaids, aerodrome elevation, significant obstacles in approach / take-off area etc.

Require an integrity value of 10-5 1 error in 100 tsd ...

ROUTINE · FIR points, Aircraft stands, Airway segments etc.

Require an integrity value of 10-3 1 error in 1000 ...

Do we achieve these requirements ?

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 9

Downstream data operation

... Data received every AIRAC cycle

Global commercial data provider work together with 200+ ANSPs

Source Management

Ü Source documents comes in 24 different languages Ü Each AIRAC Cycle Jeppesen receives in average

· · · · More than 800 Source Documents More than 20,000 Pages of Source (paper & electronic) More than 75,000 Notice To Airmen (NOTAM) More than 1,500 NOTAMs affect Charts or NavData

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 10

Downstream data operation ... Digital Transformation and Integration

ANSPs Average number of ,,products" issued by 200+ AIS/AIM offices per AIRAC cycle: · 20,000+ source pages (paper & PDF) · 75,000+ NOTAMs

Embedded Digital Information Solutions

Data Integrators

Assemble Translate Aeronautical Data Preparation Select Format Process

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 11

Downstream data operation ... Digital Transformation and Integration

ANSPs AIS/AIM Offices ý 14,600 Airports ý 89,200 Airport Details ý 10,600 Airport Comms ý 28,600 Navaids ý 4,600 ILS Approaches ý 6,300 VOR Approaches Data Integrators

Assemble Translate

ý 3,600 NDB Approaches ý 7,100 RNAV Approaches ý 17,500 Departures ý 13,200 Arrivals ý 72,000 Terminal Waypoints ý 3,400 High Airways ý 3,000 Low Airways ý 2,800 High/Low Airways

Aeronautical Data Preparation

Select Format Process

Approximate scope of a global database

ý 22,600 Enroute Waypoints

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 12

Downstream data operation

... FMS process, only one process of many

AIP source

Source Management Data Coding Verification Edits (on-line, Graphic, human, etc) ARINC 424 Data Extract ARINC 424 Data Avionics Edit Edit Reports FMS Data Extract FMS Data Pack FMS Data Report ARINC 424 Data QC

Commercial Data Providers

FMS Database Data Verify Aircraft Load

FMS Database Prossesors

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 13

Downstream data operation

... FMS process, only one process of many

Graphical editing tool

FMS Data Extract

FMS Data Report


Data Coding

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 14

Downstream data operation

... FMS process, only one process of many

The goal is to get the data coded for the FMS and with all the correct information into the cockpit in time before the effective date.

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 15

Downstream data operation

... and now just one of the problems

Ø A State AIS realized after publishing a Terminal RNAV procedure that the lat/long coordinates of a procedure waypoint are incorrect. Ø Can the State simply put out a NOTAM to correct the wrong coordinate and let everybody know ? Ø No !! The aircrew are inhibited from changing the navigation database. The aircrew physically can not touch the database to change a number. Ø Once the data has been sent out in a 28 day cycle there is a high probability that the data can not be changed. It is going to go into the aircraft. Ø Therefore, if we are into an AIRAC cycle and there is an error in a procedure the data houses got to NOTAM it as not for use to correct it in the next AIRAC cycle.

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 16

Downstream data operation

... Quality checks Commercial Data Provider perform quality checks

· · · · · · · · · · · · (E.g. bearing & distance checks) Outbound course Inbound course Route distance Origin fix latitude and longitude Destination fix latitude and longitude Enroute identifier Sequence number Navaid or waypoint identifier Boundary code Magnetic variation Station declination

But what happens with the findings ? Can data houses just correct what they believe is wrong ?

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 17

Downstream data operation

... Quality checks Requirements for Data Providers

· All discovered inconsistencies must be reported back to the originator of the source (national AIS office)

Commercial data provider


If originator doesn't respond, provider can make corrections C BUT - Provider now considered Data Originator originator Close cooperation and coordination between Data Originator, the AIS/AIM office and Commercial Data Provider is therefore mission critical.

AIS/AIM office


Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 18

Downstream data operation

... another challenge

The impact of late information is very high if aircraft operation depends on FMS and on-board navigation databases

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 19

AIRAC Adherence

Aviation data is constantly changing. Airspace structures and routes are revised, navigation aids change, SIDs and STARs are amended, runway and taxiway information changes. It is essential, for both efficiency and safety, that Pilots, Air Traffic Controllers, Air Traffic Flow Managers, Flight Management Systems and Aviation Charts all have the same data set. But how can this achieved ? The answer is AIRAC. What is AIRAC ? AIRAC stands for Aeronautical Information Regulation And Control and steps from the ICAO Annex 15 ­ AIS documents. It defines a series of common dates and an associated standards aeronautical infromation publication procedures for States. In short it defines that in all instances, information provided under the AIRAC system shall be published at least 42 days in advance of the effective date with the objective of reaching recipients at least 28 days in advance. Whenever major changes are planned a publication date of at least 56 days in advance of the effective date should be used.

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 20

AIRAC adherence


Data origination Publication Date Data due to recipients Effective Date

Variable time

14 Days Shipping 42 Days

7-10 Days 28 Days

Avionics packing & aircraft load

0 Days

ICAO recommendation 56 days or more in case of major changes

ýTime window for commercial data provider to do their job

Opportunity to improve timeliness

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 21

AIRAC Adherence

INFORMATION TO BE NOTIFIED BY AIRAC (per Annex 15, chapter 6 and appendix 4)

PART 1 (Standard)

1. The establishment, withdrawal of, and premeditated significant changes (including operational trials) to: 1.1 Limits (horizontal and vertical), regulations and procedures applicable to: a) flight information regions; b) control areas; c) control zones; d) advisory areas; e) ATS routes; f) permanent danger, prohibited and restricted areas (including type and periods of activity when known) and ADIZ; g) permanent areas or routes or portions thereof where the possibility of interception exists. 1.2 Positions, frequencies, call signs, known irregularities and maintenance periods of radio navigation aids and communication facilities. 1.3 Holding and approach procedures, arrival and departure procedures, noise abatement procedures and any other pertinent ATS procedures. 1.4 Meteorological facilities (including broadcasts) and procedures. 1.5 Runways and stopways.

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 22

PART 2 (Recommendation)

2. The

establishment and withdrawal of, and premeditated

significant changes to: 2.1 Position, height and lighting of navigational obstacles. 2.2 Taxiways and aprons. 2.3 Hours of service: aerodromes, facilities and services. 2.4 Customs, immigration and health services. 2.5 Temporary danger, prohibited and restricted areas and navigational hazards, military exercises and mass movements of aircraft. 2.6 Temporary areas or routes or portions thereof where the possibility of interception exists.


1. Satellite based RNAV and RNP procedures are replacing conventional procedures which require significantly higher data integrity than available today, 2. Aircraft are becoming more and more database driven, even with conventional procedures, 3. Data quality assurance downstream depends on the level of data quality being provided upstream, 4. Manual Processes need to be automated to achieve higher data integrity, 5. Late information increasingly and negatively impacts safe and efficient air, 6. It is mission critical all actors in the data chain work closely together.

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 23

Together, we support global aviation

Copyright © 2008 Jeppesen - Slide 24


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