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New Zealand national curriculum exemplars: mist or must for teachers?

Paper presented to NZARE/AARE Conference Auckland 2003 Tuesday 2nd December 2003

Poskitt, J., M. Brown, N. Maw & K. Taylor

Massey University New Zealand



This paper focuses on research data arising from the implementation of New Zealand national curriculum exemplars (NCEs). The research is part of a longitudinal action research study begun in 2000, at the early stages of exemplar development, and continuing until December 2004. During 2003 the research focus has been on school use of the NCEs, and this paper examines the confusions (mist) and clarity (must) provided for teachers. Issues surrounding implementation relate to ambiguity over their purpose, the extent to which exemplars need to be adopted or adapted, variation in understanding and use in the classroom and the ongoing professional development needs of teachers.


Since 1962 the New Zealand Ministry of Education has commissioned numerous reports on the state and direction of assessment in New Zealand education. Four main threads are evident through the policy documents: · Strong links between assessment, the quality of programmes and the improvement of learning · The need for quality tools to support classroom practice · The emphasis on professionalism of teachers (reflected in references to supporting their ability to make sound professional judgements and to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching and learning programmes) · Emphasis on the concept of self-managing schools and notions of accountability (Parsons, 2002) During the 1960s and 1970s Department of Education reports focused on educational standards and the role of assessment in that concern (The Currie Commission Report, 1962; Improving Learning and Teaching Report, (1974). These trends were endorsed in the 1976 Towards Partnership (McCombs Report) with additional encouragement for teachers to use a variety of assessments, and consideration of issues of fairness in assessment. Several reports followed, Educational Standards In State Schools (1986), The Quality of Teaching (1986), The Curriculum Review (1987), Royal Commission on Social Policy (1988), exhorting the use of quality assessments and the need to support teachers in high quality classroom practice. In 1989 the then Department of Education published a document titled Assessment for Better Learning: A Public Discussion Document, (Department of Education, 1989) in order to seek public feedback and critique on a variety of assessment issues and principles. An important theme was the use of assessment to identify student strengths and to guide improvement; a trend that continued through Tomorrow's Standards: The report of the Ministerial Working Party on Assessment for Better Learning (1990) and the New Zealand Curriculum Framework (1993), the foundational policy for learning and assessment in New Zealand schools. In 1998, the Green Paper Assessment for Success in Primary Schools highlighted a gap in the availability of achievement information in the primary years and thus proposed the development of "exemplars of student work referenced to the achievement objectives for all curriculum statements" (1998:19). The need for NCEs occurred in a context of moving away from proposed national testing to improving the quality of teaching and learning. Thus exemplars (along with Assessment Resource Banks, asTTle and assessment professional development programmes (Assessment


for Better Learning 1995-2001) and Assess to Learn (from 2002), became part of an educational strategy to contribute to effective curriculum, pedagogical and assessment practices. A preliminary literature review on the development and use of exemplars recommended that the New Zealand Ministry of Education, "involve teachers at all stages in the development process, use authentic student material and review material on a regular basis" (Peddie, Hattie and Vaughan, 1999:1). Based on these recommendations, development of national exemplars began in November 2000 with five curriculum teams (English, Mathematics, Science, Technology and the Arts), a Maori medium team and an independent research team. Social Studies, Health and Physical Education joined the development in 2002, and further Maori medium teams in 2003. Curriculum teams had representatives from throughout New Zealand of curriculum experts drawn from schools, School Support Services, Colleges of Education, Universities and private consultancy businesses. All curriculum teams worked with schools, offering professional development support in order to produce authentic samples of student work (Poskitt et al, 2002a). Student work samples were moderated at various meeting levels: school level, regional clusters of teachers, curriculum team and Advisory Group meetings to select examples to be annotated and analysed in preparation for publication. "An exemplar is an authentic example of student work annotated to illustrate learning, achievement, and quality in relation to the levels (1 ­ 5) described in the relevant national curriculum statement. Each exemplar highlights significant features of that work and important aspects of students' learning." (MOE, February 2002:1) All NCEs contain the following features: background/context, annotated authentic sample(s) of student work, teacher/student conversations, curriculum links, and where to next. Accompanying matrices provide an overview of the curriculum and key concepts illustrated in the exemplars as progressing from initial to sophisticated learning in relation to levels one to five of the national curriculum statements. (Readers can access NCEs at Written English and Maths exemplars were released to schools in April 2003, and oral, visual language and the Arts distributed in October 2003. Remaining national curriculum exemplars are to be released during 2004. Methodology An action research project has accompanied the development and implementation of national curriculum exemplars from December 2000 to December 2004 (see Poskitt et al, 2002a). This paper focuses on the implementation phase from July to November 2003, with particular attention to the written English and mathematics NCEs. All state and integrated schools in New Zealand were invited by letter to participate in the national research. Regional representation occurred, involving schools from north of Auckland to Southland, large urban to rural two-teacher schools and across the decile range. Thirty primary and five secondary schools became involved, resulting in 71 primary teacher interviews and 15 secondary school interviews. Structured interviews were conducted, ensuring consistency amongst the information collected by the four research team members. Schools selected staff for interviewing based on range of teaching experience and class levels, and teacher usage of NCEs. Data were coded and analysed using an inductive analysis process.


Teacher interview data only, is referred to in this paper. It is acknowledged that while this is a representative sample of New Zealand schools, it is only a small sample. Validation of the teacher interview trends is being sought by a questionnaire sent to schools in November 2003. Findings are therefore illuminative, but to be treated with caution.


In analysing the teacher interview data we found there were a number of confusions amongst teachers in relation to the purpose of NCEs, understanding of levels, and issues related to adopting and adapting NCEs. Each of these aspects is now discussed. Purpose of national curriculum exemplars According to the Ministry of Education (2002:1) exemplars will: · "Signal important features of student work to watch for, collect information about, and act on to support growth in learning · Provide students, teachers and parents with a basis for discussing important qualities, aspects of indicators of learning · Provide reference points that will support teachers' professional judgements about the quality of their students' work." Our interview data revealed the following understandings of teachers in relation to the purposes of NCEs (refer to table one below). Table One: Teacher understanding of the purpose of national curriculum exemplars What is your understanding of the purpose of exemplars? Influence learning and teaching (57) 18 Models/samples of student work 8 Where to next? Next steps 7 Models for teaching 5 Linking learning, teaching and assessment 5 Planning 3 Highlighting key aspects of learning 2 Models for learning 2 Expanding teaching strategies/ideas 2 Engaging teachers in professional development 2 Identify gaps in school programmes 2 New Zealand context 1 Goal setting Inform teacher judgements (43) 15 National standards 14 Benchmarks 8 Consistency of judgements 5 Confidence in making judgements 1 Targeting (help set targets) Assessment (31) 15 Formative (including criteria/success criteria) 8 Assessment tool 3 Moderation 3 Self-assessment 4

2 Reporting Influence teacher expectations (18) 9 Raise 9 Affirm/communicate Level achievement (15) 15 Identifying level/best-fit model of achievement Clarify the curriculum (7) Clearly teachers recognised the first identified purpose stipulated by the Ministry of Education, that is, identification of important features of student work. Teacher response to, and appreciation of, guidance in these dimensions was evident throughout the interview questions. Teachers appreciated having models of student work as a basis for informing their learning and teaching judgements. One teacher phrased it this way in the interview: "Exemplars are examples for teachers to refer to for surface and deeper features to bring understanding; to gauge where children are at, to use with children to help them identify features and then identify where they are at."OI5JP5/8/03 In discussing the written English exemplars, teachers seemed to understand the integral role of exemplars to assessment, learning and teaching. Teachers often mentioned more than one purpose, as the quote above signifies. Whilst for some teachers `making assessment judgements' was a significant purpose for using NCEs, the influence on subsequent learning and teaching was more prevalent, seen in coding such as formative assessment, where to next, models for teaching and learning, planning and reflection on current practice within classroom and school programmes. Hence, the MOE's first stated purpose for using NCEs seems to be achieved. The MOE's second stated purpose of providing a basis for teacher, student and parent discussions about important features of student work barely featured for participating teachers. There was brief mention of reporting to parent but not engagement in discussions about learning, as indicated in the following excerpt from an interview: "NCEs provide an accurate view of where children should be at (teachers can be isolated in judging levels), to use for planning, teaching towards and reporting to parents." CP4JP18/8/03 During the interviews we asked teachers in what ways they had, or intended to, use NCEs with parents and Boards of Trustees. A summary of that information is recorded below in Table Two. Few teachers signalled intentions or actual use of NCEs in a partnership role with parents. Whilst teachers mentioned in other questions the modelling possible from the student/teacher conversations and ideas for questioning students, the role of exemplars in influencing discussions amongst teachers, students and parents was not as explicitly stated as that of the MOE. At this point in time, NCEs were thought of as reporting to or educating parents, not as a basis of discussions with parents about learning progress. This is an area in need of further exploration in research for 2004. Whilst Biddulph et al (2003) signal the importance of school/family and community partnerships in influencing student


achievement this is not yet evident in the use of NCEs. This may have significant implications for professional development, in terms of assisting schools to develop links between educative theory, partnerships with parents and students, and the role of NCEs in supporting these links. Table Two: Ways national curriculum exemplars have been used with parents In what ways have you, or might you, use the exemplars with parents and or BoT? Parents (48) 33 Reporting 15 Parent education Board of Trustees (19) 11 Reporting to 8 Informing 30 Not yet 6 No plans to The third stated MOE purpose of NCEs refers to the provision of reference points to support teachers' professional judgements about the quality of their students' work. Table One contains evidence that teachers see reference points as a key purpose of NCEs, mentioning aspects like national standards, benchmarking, consistency of teacher judgements, moderation and allocating levels to work. These aspects require explication, but are beyond the scope of this current paper. In summary, the teachers interviewed showed understanding of the purpose of NCEs in terms of identifying significant features of student work to influence subsequent learning and teaching and for providing reference points for their professional judgements. However, further research and possibly professional development is required if NCEs are to be used as a basis of discussions with parents. Understanding of levels Table one signals the value of national curriculum exemplars for 15 teachers in terms of identifying the level or `best fit' models of achievement for their student work. This notion of relativity to levels described in the relevant national curriculum statements was referred to on page 2 of this paper in reference to the MOE's definition of exemplars. As seen in the tables provided, teachers commented on the contribution of the exemplars to their clarity, confidence and professional reasoning in allocating curriculum levels to student work. However, for some teachers the allocation of levels was less clear. There were comments about differentiation within levels, relating levels to year groups and teachers needing more assistance in translating notions of progression where exemplars were not provided for particular curriculum levels: "I wonder in the future whether the levels might be further differentiated, as we become more sophisticated with them. It would be helpful to have an indication as to whether the work is medium, or high within the level ­ for they will be used as moderation (such as capable or very capable)." LP1JP6/8/03


"I would like levels tagged to year groups (especially for reporting). CP2JP18/8/03 "Gaps (such as no L2 explanations) make it difficult for matching your judgements of student work" CS1JP29/7/03 "L1 material needs to be at a starting point for new entrants ­ the English exemplars do not show where some kids do start from and what to do next with them." CS2JP29/7/03 The notion of differentiation within levels was made problematic for teachers by the division of level one into three stages for written English and mathematics NCEs. Every secondary teacher interviewed also expressed a wish for differentiation within levels four and five material to be in line with NCEA allocations of credit, merit and excellence. Considerable debate did occur during the development of exemplars as to how to level work: to what extent did work relate to the level of the achievement objectives in the curriculum statement, were exemplars to provide examples of exemplary work, `midpoint' work or a range? A consensus was reached during exemplar development phases that exemplars contained authentic student work as the result of good learning and teaching. The expectation therefore was that the work ought to be obtainable for all New Zealand students who were provided with effective teaching. Nevertheless, this principle does not overcome the reality that the curriculum is somewhat arbitrarily divided into levels. Comparisons with international curricula will show that learning is represented in different sequence and emphasis across countries. Some may argue that this ambiguity relates to varying theories of learning, and hence varying philosophies about curriculum design, such as linear and spiral curricula and notions of how learning occurs, such as transmission and socio-constructive theories. Whatever the explanation, it is evident that for some teachers further professional development is needed on understanding the curriculum levels, relating to learning notions of progression, identifying key concepts of learning in each curriculum area and judging student work in relation to NCEs. Issues related to adopting/adapting national curriculum exemplars As implicated in the above section, some teachers had difficulty adapting exemplars where they perceived there were gaps in levels (i.e. exemplars not provided in a particular aspect of English for each level), gaps in genre (they were used to components of English being categorised as genre and some teachers had difficulty making transfers to other ways of conceptualising English), or in making connections across various assessment initiatives, namely asTTle, or in understanding fundamental concepts in written English and how the concepts might be deepened with students in other contexts: "A list of ideas for other contexts (like getting hurt) to which all kids can relate and inspires them to write would be useful information ­ just a list of possible context topics." WB1JP9/9/03 "I am not sure why they did not cover recounts ­ not sure of the logic with personal and character writing. I understand the various purposes of writing ­ a letter can be written for different purposes such as to persuade, inform or as a personal note, but young children do a lot of recounts ­ probably that is what they


mean by character and personal writing. Why is there no narrative? asTTle did look at narrative writing". WT1JP8/9/03 "I need professional development on... transfer of key concepts across aspects that are not exemplified, and focusing on the where to next." CP1JP18/8/03 "I need more detailed transactional writing components ­ need it broken down into report writing etc." OI4JP5/8/03 "I would like them to fill the gaps in the missing exemplars and to have all genre represented." OI5JP5/8/03 A key characteristic of quality teaching is the responsiveness of a teacher to student learning processes (Alton-Lee, 2003). However, teachers need in-depth content knowledge, awareness of how students learn and the individual needs of students in order to be responsive to students during the learning process. Not only do teachers need to be able to understand the content knowledge, they need to have sufficient grasp in order to translate it in accessible ways for students to learn. As Thomas and Ward (2001, p. 51) state, "Teachers' subject matter and pedagogical knowledge are critical factors in the teaching of mathematics for understanding. The effective teacher of mathematics has a thorough and deep understanding of the subject matter to be taught, how students are likely to learn it, and the difficulties and misunderstandings they are likely to encounter." Moreland, Jones and Chamber (2001) conducted a study in technology revealing the central importance of teacher conceptual and procedural knowledge in order for meaningful feedback to be given to learners. When teachers were uncertain about the body of technological knowledge their intended learning outcomes were vague, feedback to students was general and diverted to social and managerial aspects, and the focus was on covering topics within the curriculum rather than on progression of student learning. After a negotiated professional development intervention process participating teachers changed to: deliberately providing students with opportunities to develop technological understandings, cueing and focussing student attention to facilitate transfer from one subject to another, provision of student feedback related to technology learning (procedural and conceptual rather than managerial aspects), and more task-related feedback. Consequently student tasks were selected according to development of these aspects rather than coverage of the curriculum. Perhaps an inability to transfer key concepts to other contexts or types of writing is indicative of patchy conceptual knowledge on the part of some teachers interviewed. Many teachers claimed that NCEs had made an impact on their awareness, understanding, depth of knowledge and confidence in the curriculum. How deep their knowledge is, and in what ways they can transfer their understandings to influence student learning remains to be researched during 2004. It is apparent however, that ongoing professional development is needed in the content of curriculum areas as well as associated pedagogical practices if quality learning and teaching is to occur through the use of NCEs.



Teacher interview data revealed a range of ways in which NCEs were used in schools, the contribution exemplars made to teacher understanding about the English curriculum document, and the linkages forged between formative assessment and quality learning and teaching. Each of these dimensions is now discussed. Range of ways national curriculum exemplars have been used Teacher interview data and classroom observations revealed a range of ways in which NCEs in written English were used during 2003. Table three summarises the teacher interview data. In brief, teachers used NCEs to focus their learning and teaching, to inform their judgements of student work, to inform next step learning and teaching, and as models to guide student learning. Senior managers tended to use exemplars to validate judgements, and to inform strategic planning and professional development needs of their staff. Table Three: Range of ways of using national curriculum exemplars in 2003 In what ways are you (or other people in your school) using the exemplars? Teachers (87) 29 Focusing teaching and learning 25 Assessing writing 11 Moderating student work 7 Reporting achievement (portfolios) 7 Providing examples/models 3 Reviewing programmes 2 Adjusting teacher expectations 2 Grouping students 1 Setting benchmarks Students (46) 25 Next step learning 20 Goal setting/self-assessment 1 Analysis of matrix Senior managers (31) 12 Assessment 6 Moderating student work 5 Developing/reviewing achievement standards 1 Diagnostic testing 10 Informing professional development 8 Informing strategic plan 1 Reporting to BoT Other comments (24) 22 Not using with children yet 2 Organisational Two brief excerpts from the teacher interviews illustrate the richness of exemplar use. Sample one "At a staff meeting we read out (without names) samples of student's writing. As the teacher read it out the other teachers identified features in the writing and allocated levels to the writing. Afterwards I worked on the details (analysed child's work for use of present tense, sequence of ideas, introduction and conclusion). I taught class 9

lessons on those aspects, and targeted individual children who needed more attention on those points. Halfway through the term I collected another sample of work so I could see progress in their use of introductions and conclusions." WT2JP8/9/03 Sample two "I used a the exemplar, My First Try. We read what the boy had written (I enlarged it on the whiteboard). It particularly appealed to the boys. We picked out four teaching points: impact, varying sentence beginnings, use of feelings and punctuation. We went over those teaching points everyday. At the end of the writing I analysed their work for aspects that make writing more interesting. Children lay on the floor with crayons and newsprint and jotted down their ideas for writing (I used stimulus planning questions like when, who with, how did you feel, colours...) Kids shared their ideas in small groups and asked one another questions to encourage them to record more details. They looked at how to make the beginning exciting. It took about a week of planning and talking before we started the writing." B2JP9/9/03 These couple of examples indicate that NCEs have been used in a range of ways, particularly to influence ongoing learning and teaching, for assessment purposes and to guide programme adjustments. Contribution of NCEs to teacher curriculum knowledge We asked teachers "What difference have, or might, the exemplars make to your knowledge of the curriculum?" A summary of the responses is provided in Table Four. Table Four: Contribution NCEs made to teacher curriculum knowledge What difference have, or might, the exemplars make to your knowledge of the curriculum? Clarified (56) 28 Curriculum documents 17 Emphasising deeper features 7 Deeper content knowledge 4 Understanding of progression Linkage of teaching, learning and assessment (29) 8 Assessment methods/feedback to students 8 Teaching 5 Changed 3 Affirmation 3 Planning 1 Relationship between national and school exemplars 1 Helpful with less experienced teachers. Awareness (13) 8 Need to change teacher practice/expectations 2 Need to change school-wide practice 1 Student needs 1 Linking reading to writing 1 Common language for teachers to use Other (10) 8 Little 2 Too early to say


Teachers commented most frequently that use of NCEs had clarified their understanding of the English curriculum statement. They realized the importance of key learning (deeper features of writing), linkages between assessment, learning and teaching and increased awareness of aspects of their programmes or practice that needed change. In effect, teachers were referring to better alignment of resources, teaching and school practices, one of the characteristics of quality teaching identified in Alton-Lee's research (2003). The role of exemplars in helping teachers make closer alignments between curriculum, pedagogical processes and the learning needs of their students may be a significant finding in this research, for ERO (2001) reported on a lack of curricular alignment as a key concern across many curricular areas. Moreland and Jones (2000) commented in their research on the paucity of content knowledge of teachers in technology and the detrimental effect that had on teacher's capacities to provide descriptive feedback to students or scaffolding for continuing learning. If this exemplar implementation finding is validated through further research in 2004 it could become a significant channel through which to assist teachers in improving quality learning and teaching. Linkages between formative assessment, quality learning and teaching as a result of using exemplars. Feedback gained through the national consultation in 2002 (Poskitt et al, 2002b) indicated that using NCEs encouraged teachers to engage in more focused discussion with students about their work, provide more specific feedback to students, clarify their expectations and success criteria with students (partly through the provision of models of other students' work), pinpoint aspects on which students needed to improve and begin to identify ways of moving students forward (Poskitt et al, 2002:10). The findings from the national consultation seem to be validated by data from the implementation interviews. These concepts are of significance in the literature relating to educative theories that impact positively on student learning, as outlined by Stipek (1998, Hattie (1999), Schunk (2001), Black et al (2002), and Clarke et al (2003). Many teachers in the study stated that using NCEs provided them with strategies, resources and processes for using assessment data to inform next step learning. Various features of NCEs, namely the `student/teacher conversations', `where to next' and the matrices provided links to ongoing conceptual learning ­ bridging assessment and quality learning and teaching. Monitoring implementation in 2004 will provide data on the extent and depth of the impact of NCEs on quality teaching.

Recommendations for professional development

Throughout the above sections on mist and must, the reader will have discerned professional development needs of the sample of New Zealand teachers we interviewed. In the mist section we examined the MOE's three key purposes for NCEs, of which only two seemed to be operationalised by participating teachers. The need for development of educative partnerships with parents was highlighted. Maybe this aspect will become more prevalent in 2004 as teachers and students grow in familiarity and confidence with the NCEs and hence engage in learning discussions with parents, but for other teachers support and guidance will be needed. Implicit professional development needs were mentioned in the excerpts from teacher interviews and summary tables: notions of best fit judgements in allocating levels to student work, how to transfer key concepts to other contexts and curriculum areas, 11

how to develop next learning steps for students, and deeper content knowledge to draw upon in order to extend student learning. More fundamental aspects were mentioned by one teacher: "An introductory booklet would be great to have! Maybe the MOE could consider providing seminars to introduce us to the format and framework of exemplars ­ familiarisation of them, then workshops with schools sharing benchmarks and ideas for using exemplars." TE2JP26/8/03 A framework for the NCEs was a common request of interviewed teachers who had received no professional development on exemplars. They seemed to need some bridging across various national assessment tools (namely, asTTle, ARBs, NCEA). Beyond the more surface aspects, such as explanation of genre use, teachers seemed to need more in-depth curriculum content knowledge. Although for many teachers interviewed, using the NCEs clarified their curriculum and conceptual knowledge and provided pedagogical strategies for sharing the knowledge with students, requests for further references and ideas for transferring concepts to other contexts seems to signify a relatively shallow grasp of conceptual understandings. This may have implications for pre-service education, in-service provision, and particularly the need for in-depth work in schools by advisers. If this is the case for English and mathematics, core curriculum areas in which considerable investment has been made by the MOE through Literacy Leadership/Enhancement programmes, and the Numeracy projects, what are the likely implications for other curriculum areas such as Social Studies, Science and Technology? It would seem that a concerted professional development programme is likely to be needed across the curriculum for New Zealand primary teachers if the potential of NCEs is to be realized in quality learning and teaching. Collaborative partnerships between advisers, researchers or consultants and the schools may be needed with a dual focus on content knowledge and effective pedagogical processes. Within school approaches can occur when schools view themselves as "centres of inquiry, where teachers and administrators pose questions, pinpoint problems, study, reflect, and collaborate to discover possible answers" (Robb, 2000: 19). Time is an essential requirement, along with a culture of a community of learners amongst teachers, support for informal networks amongst teachers through provision of mentors, peer partnerships or study groups, quality learning circles based on cycles of observation, conferring, study, discussions and action planning, consultant-facilitated study groups and administrative support. Mitchell and Cubey (2003) argue that professional development associated with changed pedagogical practice offers theoretical and content knowledge to teachers, provides a range of alternative practices and focuses teacher understanding on student's experiences and understandings in order to influence their learning. Effective professional development programmes seem to result from partnerships between teachers and advisers or researchers who gather data for discussion and analysis, and stimulate challenging debate about alternative practices. Whatever the combination of externally or internally provided professional development for individual schools, the pivotal elements seem to relate to deepening teacher theoretical and pedagogical understandings. While some teachers and schools


participating in the research study were able to use NCEs with minimal professional development, for other teachers provision of professional development seems critical to the uptake and effective use of NCEs. Professional development is essential to clear the mist, and enable more teachers to view NCEs as a must vehicle in the journey to quality teaching and student learning.


Alton-Lee, A. (2003) Quality teaching for diverse students in schooling: best evidence synthesis. Report prepared for the Ministry of Education Bell, B. & Cowie, B. (2001) Formative assessment and science education Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers Biddulph, F., J. Biddulph & C. Biddulph (2003) The complexity of community and family influences on children's achievement in New Zealand: best evidence synthesis. Report prepared for the Ministry of Education. Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B. and Wiliam, D. (2002) Working inside the black box. London: Kings College. Clarke, S. Timperley, H. and Hattie, J. (2003) Unlocking formative assessment: Practical strategies for enhancing pupil's learning in the primary and intermediate classroom. Auckland: Hodder Moa Beckett. Currie, G. (1962) Report of the Commission on Education in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Government Printer. Department of Education (1974) Improving Learning and Teaching Report Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Education Department of Education (1986) Educational Standards In State Schools Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Education Department of Education (1986) The Quality of Teaching. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Education Department of Education (1987) The Curriculum Review. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Education Department of Education (1988) Royal Commission on Social Policy Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Education Department of Education (1989) Assessment for Better Learning: A Public Discussion Document Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Education Education Review Office (2001) ERO Reviews: Future Directions: Analysis of responses. Hattie, J. (1999) Influences on student learning Inaugural lecture at the University of Auckland, New Zealand August 2. McCombs. (1976) Towards PartnershipReport Wellington: Department of Education Ministerial Working Party on Assessment for Better Learning (1990) Tomorrow's Standards. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media Ministry of Education (1993) The New Zealand Curriculum Framework. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media Ministry of Education (1994) Assessment: policy to practice. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media Ministry of Education (1998) Green Paper Assessment for success in primary schools. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media Ministry of Education (1999) Curriculum Update 39 Wellington, Learning Media. Ministry of Education (2002) The National Exemplars Trial Booklet. Wellington: Learning Media 13

Moreland, J. & Jones, A. (2000) Emerging assessment practices in an emergent curriculum: implications for technology International Journal of Design and Technology Education. 10, 283-305 Moreland, J., Jones, A. & Chambers, M. (2001a) Enhancing student learning in technology through enhancing teacher formative interactions set 3 Parsons, R. (2002) Personal communication August, 2002 Ministry of Education employee Peddie, R., Hattie, J., & K. Vaughan (1999) The use of exemplars in outcomes-based curricula: an international review of the literature Report to the Ministry of Education Auckland: Auckland Uniservices Ltd. Poskitt, J., Anthony, G., Brown, M. & Taylor, K. (2002a) Milestone Report to the Ministry of Education: National Consultation on Draft National Exemplars Palmerston North: Massey University Poskitt, J., Anthony, G., Brown, M. & Taylor, K. (2002b) Research on the development of national exemplars: implications for teacher education in New Zealand. Paper presented at the TEFANZ Conference, Wellington New Zealand, 29th August. Robb, L. (2000) Redefining staff development: a collaborative model for teachers and administrators. Heinemann: Portsmouth, USA Schunk, D. (2001) Social cognitive theory and self regulated learning in Zimmerman, J. and Schunk, D. (Eds) Self regulated learning and academic achievement: theoretical perspectives (pp.125-151). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Stipek, D. (1998) Motivations to Learn: From Theory to Practice. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. Thomas, G. & Ward, J. (2002) An evaluation of the early numeracy project 2001. Wellington: Ministry of Education



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