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ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into force on 30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policies designed: to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy; to contribute to sound economic expansion in member as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development; and to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations. The original Member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The following countries became Members subsequently through accession at the dates indicated hereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969), Australia (7th June 1971), New Zealand (29th May 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994), the Czech Republic (21st December 1995), Hungary (7th May 1996), Poland (22nd November 1996), Korea (12th December 1996), and the Slovak Republic (14th December 2000). The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of the OECD Convention).

The original version of this book was published under the name: "English-Russian Glossary of Terms Used in Environmental Enforcement and Compliance Promotion"

© OECD 2003, 2004

Permission to reproduce a portion of this work for non-commercial purposes or classroom use should be obtained through the Centre français d'exploitation du droit de copie (CFC), 20, rue des Grands-Augustins, 75006 Paris, France, Tel. (33-1) 4407 4770, Fax (33-1) 4634 6719, for every country except the United States. In the United States permission should be obtained through the Copyright Clearance Center, Customer Service, (508) 750-8400, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, or CCC Online: www.copyright.com. All other applications to reproduce or translate all or part of this book should be made to OECD Publications, 2, rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France.

The translation of this publication into Georgia and its printing was executed by the Regional Environmental Centre (REC) for the Caucasus. REC Caucasus is an independent, not-for-profit, non-advocacy foundation established to work for environment and sustainable development in the Caucasus region. Web-address: www.rec-caucasus.org

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-- - ,

O

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1 , 14 1960 . 30 1961 ., () , : ; - , , , ; . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . , , : (28 1964 .), (28 1969 .), (7 1971 .), (29 1973 .), (18 1994 .), (21 1995 .), (7 1996 .), (22 1996 .), (12 1996 .) (14 2000). ( 13 ).

: "English-Russian Glossary of Terms Used in Environmental Enforcement and Compliance Promotion"

© OECD 2003. 2004 : Centre français d'exploitation du droit de copie (CFC), 20 rue des Grands-Augustins, 75006, Paris, France, . (33-1) 4407 4770, (33-1) 4634 6719 - , . Copyright Clearance Center, Customer Service, (508) 750-8400, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 CCC Online: http://www.copyright.com/. : OECD Publications, 2, rue André Pascal, 75775 PARIS CEDEX 16, France. () . , , , . : www.rec-caucasus.org

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garemosdacviTi kontrolis sferoSi gamoyenebul terminTa inglisur-rusul-qarTuli ganmartebiTi leqsikoni meore gamocema O

ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizacia

5

ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizacia konvenciis 1 muxlis Sesabamisad, romelsac xeli moewera 1960 wlis 14 dekembers q. parizSi da ZalaSi Sevida 1961 wlis 30 seqtembers, ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizacia (OECD) xels uwyobs politikis ganxorcielebas, romelic iTvaliswinebs: · ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis wevr-saxelmwifoebSi ekonomikisa da dasaqmebis mdgrad zrdasa da cxovrebis donis amaRlebas finansuri stabilurobis SenarCunebiT da am gziT msoflio ekonomikis ganviTarebis xelSewyobas; rogorc ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis wevr-saxelmwifoTa ekonomikuri zrdis gaZlierebas, ise arawevr-saxelmwifoebis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis procesis xelSewyobas; saerTaSoriso vaWrobis ganviTarebis aradiskriminaciul sawyisebze. xelSewyobas saerTaSoriso valdebulebaTa Sesabamisad, mravalmxriv,

· ·

ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis Tavdapirvel wevrebs warmoadgenen avstria, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, belgia, germania, dania, didi britaneTi, espaneTi, TurqeTi, irlandia, islandia, italia, kanada, luqsemburgi, niderlandebi, norvegia, portugalia, saberZneTi, safrangeTi, Sveicaria da Svecia. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis wevrebad SemdgomSi miRebul iqnen qvemoTCamoTvlili qveynebi, romelTa mierTebis TariRebi miTiTebulia frCxilebSi: iaponia (28 aprili, 1964 w.), fineTi (28 ianvari, 1969 w.), avstralia (7 ivlisi, 1971 w.), axali zelandia (29 maisi, 1973 w.), meqsika (18 maisi, 1994 w.), CexeTi (21 dekemberi, 1995 w.), ungreTi (7 maisi, 1996 w.), poloneTi (22 noemberi, 1996 w.), korea (12 dekemberi, 1996 w.), slovakeTi (14 dekemberi, 2000 w.). ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis muSaobaSi monawileobs evropis Tanamegobrobis komisia (ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis konvenciis muxli 13).

winamdebare wignis originaluri versia gamocemulia saxelwodebiT:

"English-Russian Glossary of Terms Used in Environmental Enforcement and Compliance Promotion"

@ OECD 2003, 2004 winamdebare naSromis nawilis arakomerciuli an saswavlo mizniT gamocemisaTvis nebarTvis misaRebad ganacxadi unda gaigzavnos Semdeg misamarTze Centre français d'exploitation du droit de copie (CFC), 20 rue des Grands-Augustins, 75006, Paris, France, tel. (33-1) 4407 4770, faqsi (33-1) 4634 6719 yvela qveynisTvis, aSS-s garda. aSS-Si unda mimarTon: Copyright Clearance Center, Customer Service, (508) 750-8400, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 an CCC Online: http://www.copyright.com. yvela sxva ganacxadi dokumentis an misi nawilis Targmanisa da gamocemis Sesaxeb unda gaigzavnos misamarTze: ... OECD Publications, 2, rue André Pascal, 75775 PARIS CEDEX 16, France. aRniSnuli gamocemis Targmani da beWvda ganxorcielda kavkasiis regionaluri ekologiuri centris (REC) mier. kavkasiis regionaluri ekologiuri centri warmoadgens damoukidebel, arakomerciul organizacias, romelic Seqmnilia kavkasiis regionSi garemosdacviTi problemebis gadawyvetisa xelSewyobisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Seqmnisa da ganviTarebis mizniT. eleqtronuli misamarTi: www.rec-caucasus.org

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FOREWORD

The countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) are reforming their environmental enforcement and compliance promotion strategies and tools, and the related institutions as part of the effort to strengthen environmental management systems in conjunction with their transition to democratic, market-based societies. This glossary is a contribution these efforts by defining the meaning of key terms used in environmental enforcement and compliance promotion systems in OECD and EECCA countries. Also it aims to facilitate a better dialogue among environmental officials and practitioners within the EECCA region and support a more effective transfer of international experience. This glossary, which was prepared by a team of experts from OECD and EECCA countries, is one of the environmental activities undertaken within the programme of work of the OECD's Centre for Co-operation with Non-Members. These activities are implemented within the OECD's Environment Directorate, under the umbrella of the Task Force for the Implementation of Environmental Action Programmes for Central and Eastern Europe (EAP Task Force), for which the Environment Directorate serves as secretariat. Financial support to develop and publish this volume was provided by the Netherlands and the European Commission. The views expressed in this publication are those of authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or its Member countries. The glossary is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.

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, , , () , . , , , , . , , . ( ), . . , , - . .

8

winasityvaoba

garemos dacvis sferoSi marTvis srulyofis mizniT warmarTuli saqmianobis farglebSi, romelic demokratiuli sazogadoebis Camoyalibebisa da sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlis procesis Semadgeneli nawilia, aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis qveynebi iswrafvian ganaxorcielon garemosdacviTi kanonaRsrulebisa da kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSewyobis sistemis strategiebis, meqanizmebisa da institucionaluri safuZvlebis reformireba. winamdebare ganmartebiTi leqsikoni asaxavs ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciisa (OECD) da aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis qveynebSi (EECCA) garemosdacviTi kanonaRsrulebisa da kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSewyobis sferoSi gamoyenebul ZiriTad terminebs, miznad isaxavs reformirebis procesis mxardaWerasa da regionSi dainteresebul mxareTa Soris dialogis ganviTarebisa da saerTaSoriso gamocdilebis ufro efeqturi gacvlis xelSewyobas. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis da ganviTarebis organizaciisa (OECD) da aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis qveynebis eqspertTa jgufis mier winamdebare ganmartebiTi leqsikonis Sedgena warmoadgens OECD-is arawevr-saxelmwifoebTan TanamSromlobis centris (CCNM) programis farglebSi mimdinare garemosdacviTi saqmianobis erT-erT mxares. am saqmianobas axorcielebs ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis garemos dacvis direqtorati centralur da aRmosavleT evropaSi garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa programis realizaciis specialuri samuSao jgufis (EAP TF) egidiT, romlis mimarT direqtorati samdivnos funqcias asrulebs. aRniSnuli naSromis SemuSaveba da gamocema SesaZlebeli gaxda niderlandebisa da evropis komisiis finansuri mxardaWeris wyalobiT. aRniSnul gamocemaSi moyvanili mosazrebebi asaxaven avtorTa Sexedulebebs da savaldebulo ar aris emTxveodes ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) an mis wevr-saxelmwifoTa Tvalsazriss. ganmartebiTi leqsikonis gamocema xorcieldeba ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) generaluri mdivnis gankargulebiT.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS / / sarCevi

FOREWORD .............................................................................................................................. .......................................................................................................................

winasityvaoba .......................................................................................

7 8 9

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 11 ................................................................................................................................

Sesavali .................................................................................................

13 15

CORPUS OF TERMS / / terminebi da

ganmartebebi ..........................................................................................

18

INDEX/ / terminTa saZiebeli.......................... BIBLIOGRAFHY / / literaturis saZiebeli ....

10

INTRODUCTION

Audience and Objectives This glossary is addressed to policy and lawmakers, inspectors, other government officials, NGO and academics, consultants, etc. - all those engaged with enforcement and compliance promotion activities. To a large extent, it is designed to create a shared East/West understanding of the environmental enforcement and compliance promotion terminology. However, the glossary may be helpful not only as an analytical document, but also as a means to help strengthen regional and international networking. It may also facilitate dialogue and cooperation among those working on environmental enforcement and compliance in OECD countries and in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia. At the same time, readers should understand what the glossary is not. It is neither a compilation of legal terms for direct transposition into domestic legislation nor an anthology of terms originating in national legislation or technical papers of the OECD and EECCA countries. Such a task is hardly possible to accomplish when one has to deal with a wide spectrum of terms and their interpretations in countries that have different social, economic and cultural backgrounds. How to use this glossary? In the main body of the glossary, entries have been compiled alphabetically by the English term. Russian and Georgian texts follows the English version. At the end of the glossary, an index of terms and acronyms can be found to facilitate their retrieval. The indices refer to the term for which a definition can be found in the main text. The words in italic characters within the text mean that a definition is also available for this term. The synonyms are formatted in bold italic characters. Where possible, web sites are indicated to enable readers to access more detailed information on certain topics. How the glossary was developed? The development of the glossary was challenging. Democratic changes and transition to a market economy in the EECCA region opened up new channels of communication. New notions enriched the enforcement and compliance terminology through these channels. At the same time, some terms used under the Soviet-type «command-and-control» system have acquired new connotations. Some other terms are specific to EECCA region and completely unknown in the OECD countries. Identifying and describing such terms required involving experts with a number of different backgrounds from OECD and EECCA countries. The project team, step by step, integrated in one document the knowledge accumulated during the last decades. The selection of terms followed one key criterion: each term had to be used in compliance promotion and enforcement or have significance for this field. As a result, the corpus of terms contains a mixture of policy, legal, management and technical terms. However, authors tried to focus on the vocabulary of environmental enforcers and not repeat the standard selection of environmental or environmental law terms. Since the glossary had to be user-friendly and address the needs of various target groups, any excessively technical terms were avoided. The original version of the glossary is English. Translation into Russian and Georgian was a difficult task, since several notions do not have a «routine» use thus miss definite terms. The OECD

11

Secretariat of the EAP Task Force 1 managed the process from its initial conception to the glossary's publication. The Secretariat will also disseminate the glossary and receive feedback from its users through the network of environmental policy makers and enforcement professionals, which was established in 1999 under the EAP Task Force auspices. The OECD Secretariat comprised the following experts (in alphabetical order): Ms Angela BULARGA - project manager, EAP Task Force Secretariat, Ms Marina EGOROVA - lawyer and environmental specialist, consultant to the Environmental Committee of the Russian Duma, Mr Rob GLASER - consultant, former head of the International Relations Department at the Dutch Environmental Inspectorate, Ms Irina KRASNOVA - lawyer, professor, Russian Academy of Civil Service (scientific editor of Russian version), Mr Stanislav KULD - translator, Ms Valentina KUZMICI - environmental expert, Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, Mr Krzysztof MICHALAK - head of environmental policy programme area, EAP Task Force Secretariat, Mr Valeriu MOSANU - environmental specialist, consultant to Moldovan State Environmental Inspectorate, Ms Anna POUSTYNTSEVA - corrector, Mr Norman SHERIDAN - lawyer and environmental specialist (and scientific editor of English version). Feedback Future developments might influence both the understanding of certain terms and the corpus of terms, which is expanding continuously. Therefore the glossary is intended to become a «living» document, with updates and additions. With this in mind, the authors will be grateful if comments are provided on selection and definition of terms. Please send your comments to the e-mail address [email protected] with a subject line «English-Russian- Georgian Glossary of Terms».

1 In 1993, at the «Environment for Europe» Ministerial Conference in Lucerne Environment Ministers established a Task Force to facilitate the implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP Task Force) and in particular to assist Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the EECCA countries in:

- - - -

integrating environmental considerations into the process of economic and political reform; upgrading institutional and human capacities for environmental management; broadening political support for environmental improvement, and mobilising and cost-effective use of financial resources.

12

, , , , , .. ­ , . , , . , . , , , . , . , , , . , , , . ? . . . , . , . . , -, . ? . , , , . , - , . . , . , , , . : , . , , . , , , 13

. . . , . , , 2. , , 1999 . ( ): ­ , , ­ , , ­ , , ­ , ( ), ­ , , ­ , ­ , , ­ , , ­ , ­ ( ). , , . , , , . , . , [email protected] : «English-Russian-Georgian Glossary of Terms».

2

1993 . « » ( ) , , () :

2

- - - -

; , ; .

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Sesavali mkiTxvelTa auditoria da gamocemis amocanebi mocemuli ganmartebiTi leqsikoni gaTvaliswinebulia garemosdacviTi politikis

SemmuSavebeli pirebisa da kanonmdebelTaTvis, inspeqtorebisa da saxelmwifo organoTa sxva Tanamdebobis pirTaTvis, arasamTavrobo organizaciebisa da a.S. da samecniero maTTvis, vinc sazogadoebis monawileobs xelSemwyob

warmomadgenelTaTvis, garemosdacviTi

konsultantebisaTvis da

yvela

kanonaRsrulebisa

kanonmdeblobis

moTxovnaTa

Sesrulebis

saqmianobaSi. ganmartebiTi leqsikonis erT-erTi ZiriTadi amocanaa am sferoSi gamoyenebuli terminologiis erTiani aRqmis uzrunvelyofa aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis qveynebSi.

ganmartebiTi leqsikoni SesaZloa sasargeblo iyos ara mxolod rogorc analitikuri dokumenti, aramed rogorc regionuli da saerTaSoriso igi xels Seuwyobs dialogisa da TanamSromlobis gaZlierebis damxmare instrumenti. gafarToebas ekonomikuri

urTierTTanamSromlobis

TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciisa (OECD) da aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis qveynebis garemosdacviTi kanonaRsrulebisa da kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis sferoSi moRvawe organizaciebsa da specialistebs Soris. amasTan, mniSvnelovania mkiTxvelTa mier imis gacnobiereba, rom winamdebare leqsikoni ar warmoadgens iuridiul cnebaTa krebuls, romlebic SesaZloa avtomaturad iqnen gadatanili erovnul kanonmdeblobaSi, an terminTa anTologias, romlebic gamoiyeneba ekonomikuri

TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciisa (OECD) da aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis calkeuli qveynis erovnul kanonmdeblobasa amgvari amocanis miRweva TiTqmis SeuZlebelia qveynebSi erTmaneTisagan gamoyenebul an teqnikur dokumentaciaSi. socialuri, mravalricxovan ekonomikuri terminTa da da

kulturuli

pirobebiT

gansxvavebul

ganmartebaTa farTo speqtris gamo.

rogor gamoviyenoT leqsikoni leqsikonis ZiriTad nawilSi cnebebi dalagebulia inglisuri terminebis Sesabamisad anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT. sargeblobis inglisur ganmartebas aseve mosdevs rusuli da qarTuli ZiriTad variantebi. teqstSi

leqsikoniT

gasaadvileblad,

mocemulia

leqsikonis

ganmartebul terminTa saZiebeli. teqstSi kursiviT gamoyofili sityva aRniSnavs, rom leqsikonSi mocemulia misi ganmarteba. msxvili kursiviT aRniSnulia sinonimebi. konkretul Temaze

dawvrilebiTi informaciis miRebis mizniT, sadac es SesaZlebeli iyo, miTiTebulia internetgverdebis misamarTebi.

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rogor iqmneboda leqsikoni ganmartebiTi leqsikonis SemuSaveba rTul amocanas warmoadgenda. demokratizaciisa da sabazro urTierTobebze gadasvlis Sedegad aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis regionSi Camoyalibda informaciis gacvlis axali arxebi, romelTa wyalobiT kanonaRsrulebisa da kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis sferoSi gamoyenebuli terminologiuri aparati axali terminebiT gamdidrda. amavdroulad, zogierTma terminma, romelic sabWoTa periodis mbrZanebluradministraciul sistemaSi gamoiyeneboda, axali mniSvneloba SeiZina. zogi termini mxolod regionis farglebSi gamoiyeneba da ucxoa ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis

organizaciis (OECD) qveynebisaTvis. amgvar terminTa gamovlenasa da aRweraSi monawileobdnen ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciisa (OECD) da aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis qveynebis sxvadasxva sferoebSi moRvawe eqspertebi. leqsikonze momuSave specialistTa jgufi Seecada erT dokumentSi ganezogadebina bolo aTwleulebis manZilze dagrovili codna. terminologiis SerCeva efuZneboda erTian kriteriums: leqsikonSi Setanili yoveli termini unda gamoiyenebodes kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSewyobisa da kanonaRsrulebis sferoSi, an unda ukavSirdebodes aRniSnul sferos. amis gamo, leqsikoni sakmaod mravalferovan politikur, iuridiul, mmarTvelobiTi da teqnikuri xasiaTis termins moicavs. amasTan, avtorebi Seecadnen yuradReba gaemaxvilebinaT garemosdacviTi

kanonaRsrulebis muSakTa mier gamoyenebul terminebze da Tavi aeridebinaT standartul terminTa ganmeorebisaTvis, romlebic garemos dacvas da garemosdacviT kanonmdeblobas Seexeboda. leqsikoni gaTvaliswinebulia mkiTxvelTa sxvadasxva miznobrivi jgufisaTvis, amitom masSi ar Sevida kerZo xasiaTis teqnikuri terminebi. leqsikonis pirvelsawyis teqsts inglisurenovani versia warmoadgens. rusul da qarTul enaze Targmani martiv amocanas ar warmoadgenda, vinaidan zogierTi cneba ar gamoiyeneba am enebSi da Sesabamisad, ar aris damkviderebuli terminologiur aparatSi. proeqtis xelZRvaneloba, mis yvela stadiaze, koncefciis formirebidan leqsikonis gamoqveynebamde, xorcieldeboda garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa programis realizaciis specialuri samuSao jgufis (EAP TF) samdivnos mier. samdivno aseve dakavebuli iqneba misi gavrcelebiTa da mkiTxvelTa auditoriis gamoxmaurebaTa SegrovebiT, risTvisac gamoiyenebs garemosdacviTi

kanonaRsrulebis sferos Tanamdebobis pirTa da specialistTa qsels, romelic Seiqmna 1999 wels garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa programis realizaciis specialuri samuSao jgufis (EAP TF) egidiT 3.

2F

3

1993 wels q. lucernSi Catarebul garemos dacvis ministrTa konferenciaze "garemo evropisaTvis", monawileebma Seqmnes garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa programis realizaciis xelSewyobisaTvis specialuri samuSao jgufi (EAP Task Force) kerZod, centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis (CEE), agreTve, aRmosavleT evropis, kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis qveynebis (EECCA) saqmianobis mxardasaWerad Semdegi mimarTulebebiT: garemosdacviTi faqtorebis ekonomikuri da politikuri reformebis procesebSi integrireba; garemosdacviTi saqmianobis marTvisaTvis saWiro institucionaluri da sakadro potencialis gazrda; garemosdacviTi saqmianobis srulyofis politikuri mxardaWeris konsolidacia; finansuri resursebis mozidva da efeqturi gamoyeneba.

- - - -

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leqsikonis Sedgenaze muSaobdnen Semdegi specialistebi (anbanuri rigiTobis mixedviT): anJela bularga - proeqtis xelmZRvaneli, garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa programis realizaciis specialuri ekologiuri samuSao jgufis samdivno, rob glazeri konsultanti, niderlandebis marina

inspeqciis

saerTaSoriso

urTierTobaTa

ganyofilebis

xelmZRvaneli,

egorova - iuristi da garemos dacvis specialisti, ruseTis federaciis saxelmwifo dumis garemos dacvis komitetis konsultanti, irina krasnova - iuristi, ruseTis saxelmwifo samsaxuris akademiis profesori (rusuli teqstis samecniero redaqtori), valentina kuzmiCi garemos dacvis specialisti, ruseTis federaciis bunebrivi resursebis saministro, stanislav kuldi - Tarjimani, kSiStof mixalaki - garemosdacviTi politikis xelmZRvaneli, garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa programis dacvis realizaciis specialisti, specialuri samuSao jgufis moldovis saxelmwifo samdivno, valeriu inspeqciis

moSanu

garemos

ekologiuri

konsultanti, ana pustinceva - koreqtori, norman Seridani - iuristi da garemos dacvis specialisti (inglisuri teqstis samecniero redaqtori).

mkiTxvelTa gamoxmaurebebi Semdgomma movlenebma SesaZloa gavlena iqonion rogorc calkeul terminTa ganmartebebze, ise mTel terminologiur aparatze, romelic mudmivad farTovdeba. amitom, avtorTa CanafiqriT, ganmartebiTi leqsikoni droTa ganmavlobaSi dinamiurad unda ganviTardes, TandaTan ganaxldes da gafarTovdes. avtorTa koleqtivi madlieri iqneba terminTa SerCevisa da gansazRvris Taobaze komentarebis miRebisTvis. gTxovT komentarebi gamoagzavnoT misamarTze: [email protected] da

3H4

miuTiToT werilis Tema: «English-Russian- Georgian Glossary of Terms».

17

CORPUS OF TERMS / / terminebi da ganmartebebi

18

A

19

ABATEMENT Reduction of the level of impact, or suppression of pollution. Often, pollution abatement is achieved by end of pipe or technological changes in the production process, but implementation costs, particularly for small firms, can be high. New industries, or industries new to a particular country, have the advantage of being able to consider investing in the latest available solutions, with waste minimisation and emission abatement technology fully integrated into processes. The flexibility of a process for improving pollution abatement varies among industrial sectors. In many companies, existing industrial capital may not allow much flexibility, and it can be difficult to accommodate even small changes in production processes. As a result, companies have tended to control emissions by use of «end-of-pipe' technology». , . « » , , , . , , , . . ABEL (COMPUTER MODEL) In environmental enforcement cases, the respondent may claim an inability to pay the penalty or afford environmental expenditure. Under the goal of fair and equitable treatment of the regulated community, the United States Environment Protection Agency (EPA) developed

. « ».

dabinZurebasTan brZola

dabinZurebis zemoqmedebis donis Semamcirebeli an dabinZurebis aRmkveTi RonisZiebebi. xSir SemTxvevaSi, dabinZurebis donis Semcireba miiRweva e.w. "milis boloze" zomebis gatarebiT an warmoebis procesSi teqnologiuri cvlilebebis ganxorcielebiT, rac, gansakuTrebiT mcire sawarmoebisaTvis, mniSvnelovan danaxarjebTanaa dakavSirebuli. ama Tu im qveyanaSi mrewvelobis axali dargebisa an axladSeqmnili sawarmoebis upiratesobas warmoadgens, dabinZurebasTan brZolis iseTi Tanamedrove xelmisawvdomi teqnologiebis investirebis SesaZlebloba, romlebic srulad arian integrirebulni sawarmoo procesebSi da uzrunvelyofen narCenebis minimizaciasa da emisiebis donis Semcirebas. dabinZurebasTan brZolis efeqtianobis amaRlebis SesaZleblobaTa TvalsazrisiT, mrewvelobis sxvadasxva dargebi teqnologiuri procesebis moqnilobis gansxvavebuli doneebiT xasiaTdebian. xSir SemTxvevaSi, arsebul samrewvelo simZlavreebs ar gaaCniaT sakmarisi moqniloba teqnologiur procesebSi umniSvnelo cvlilebis Sesatanadac ki. amis gamo, samrewvelo sawarmoebi, arc Tu ise iSviaTad, emisiebis marTvas axorcieleben "milis boloze" kontrolis teqnologiis gamoyenebis xarjze.

ABEL, a computer model for analysing the capacity of a company to afford compliance costs, the ability to pay a civil penalty or cleanup costs. Both the model and the companion ABEL User's Manual are available on EPA's enforcement and compliance Internet site (www.epa.gov/compliance/civil/programs/ econmodels). Other models that evaluate claims

20

of inability to pay are INDIPAY and MUNIPAY. See also the entry on BEN model. ABEL , , . , ABEL, , , . , (www.epa.gov/compliance/civil/ programs/econmodels). INDIPAY MUNIPAY. . BEN.

kompiuteruli modeli - ABELL

saitebze (www.epa.gov/compliance/civil/programs/econmode ls). gadaxdisuunarobis Sesaxeb ganacxadis Sesafaseblad agreTve gamoiyeneba kompiuteruli modelebi - INDIPAY da MUNIPAY. ixileT aseve kompiuteruli modeli - BEN.

ABET To encourage persons in wrongdoing, to entice wrongdoings against the law. In many legal systems a person who abets the commission of an environmental harm may also be held liable for that harm. , . , , , .

waqezeba

garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis darRvevaTa Sesaxeb saqmeebis ganxilvisas mopasuxes ufleba aqvs ganacxados jarimis gadaxdisuunarobis an garemosdacviT RonisZiebaTa ganxorcielebaze saxsrebis arqonis Taobaze. regulirebis obieqtebis mimarT samarTlianobisa da Tanasworuflebianobis uzrunvelyofis mizniT, aSS garemos dacvis saagentos (EPA) mier SemuSavebul iqna kompiuteruli modeli - ABEL, romelic saSualebas iZleva Semowmdes ramdenad SeuZlia ama Tu im kompanias uzrunvelyos kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesruleba, jarimis gadaxda an garemos dabinZurebis Sedegebis aRkveTasTan dakavSirebuli xarjebis dafarva. aRniSnuli kompiuteruli modeli da misi gamoyenebis saxelmZRvanelo xelmisawvdomia internetis qselSi, aSS garemos dacvis saagentos (EPA) kanonaRsrulebisa da kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis

21

kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebebis Casadenad dayolieba, ukanono qmedebebis Cadenisaken biZgeba. mravali qveynis kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, piri, romelic waaqezebs sxva pirebs garemosdacviTi danaSaulisaken, pasuxs agebs miyenebuli zianisaTvis.

ABNORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS Conditions identified by a company and/or the competent authority that are characterised by a malfunction or deviation from the standard operation of an installation or process. Abnormal operating conditions might result in damage to persons, the environment or property. Some examples of abnormal operating conditions may include, but are not limited to, disturbances or failures of abatement devices, the discharge into the environment of substance(s) that exceeds and deviates considerably from pre-set ranges and/or the prescribed emission limit values. In OECD countries, emission allowances are made in permit conditions for these circumstances, mostly for a certain time (hours) or for a number of times per year. The permit conditions also require the operator to immediately inform the competent authority of the incident of abnormal operation conditions and to carry out an investi-

gation into the circumstances of the incident, with recommendations so as to avoid a recurrence. , , . , . , ; , / . , ( ) . , , , , , .

eqspluataciis pirobebidan gadaxveva

zRudaven garemoSi emisiebs, romlebic mniSvnelovnad aRematebian dadgenil normebs da/an zRvrulad dasaSveb doneebs. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) wevr-qveynebSi gafrqveva-CaSvebis nebarTva gaicema amgvari viTarebis warmoqmnis albaTobis gaTvaliswinebiT, amasTan gansazRvrulia amgvari situaciebis xangrZlivoba (saaTebSi) an maTi maqsimaluri raodenoba wlis ganmavlobaSi. nebarTviT gaTvaliswinebuli pirobebis Sesabamisad, sawarmo valdebulia dauyovnebliv Seatyobinos uflebamosil organos eqspluataciis pirobebidan gadaxvevis Sesaxeb, Caataros am incidentis gamomwvevi mizezebis gamokvleva da SeimuSaos rekomendaciebi momavalSi misi ganmeorebis aRsakveTad.

AC IMPEL NETWORK A former network of environmental enforcement agencies, created for the benefit of the socalled «accession countries» (candidate countries for membership of the European Union). Its main role was to support those states to meet their obligations in the field of environmental legislation, specifically in terms of implementation and enforcement. In June 2002, the decision that AC-IMPEL members would join the IMPEL network was taken. AC IMPEL , - . , . 2002 . AC-IMPEL IMPEL

qseli - AC IMPEL

kompaniis da/an uflebamosili organos mier aRmoCenili garemoebebi (pirobebi), romlebic gamowveulia danadgaris muSaobis an sawarmoo procesis SeferxebiT an funqcionirebis standartuli parametrebidan gadaxveviT. eqspluataciis pirobebidan gadaxvevam SesaZloa ziani miayenos adamianTa janmrTelobas, garemos an materialur faseulobebs. eqspluataciis pirobebidan gadaxvevis SemTxvevebs Soris yvelaze xSiria im danadgarebis gaCereba an Seferxeba, romlebic uzrunvelyofen garemos dabinZurebis donis Semcirebas,

22

garemosdacviTi inspeqtoratebis adre arsebuli qseli, romelic Seqmnili iyo evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis kandidatsaxelmwifoTa dasaxmareblad. qselis ZiriTad amocanas warmoadgenda am

saxelmwifoTa mxardaWera maT mier garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis sferoSi, upirveles yovlisa ki, kanonaRsrulebT saqmianobSi maTi valdebulebebis Sesasruleblad. 2002 wlis ivnisSi miRebul iqna gadawyvetileba AC- IMPELis qselis IMPEL-is qselTan mierTebis Sesaxeb.

ACCIDENT Events occurring unintentionally or are unexpected, unwanted, and unforeseen, and causing damage, injury, etc. Accidents can result in pollutant discharges and physical effects on the environment (e.g., fire and explosions) which are neither expected nor allowed during the course of normal industrial operations. The basic differences between accidents and routine operations, in terms of their potential pressures on the environment and human populations, relate to the following general parameters: the toxicity of discharges, the volume and rate of release, and flammability and explosiveness. Much can be done to prevent accidents, e.g. good planning, management and control of the routine activities in question. Accidents are registered in the OECD countries usually either by the Ministry of Internal Affairs (major accident) or Fire-fighting organisations. The responsibility always lies on the permittee to inform the authorities immediately about the accident. The Ministries of Environment in general are not actively involved in the abatement of the consequences but can provide advice, take samples and carry out analyses both during the accident itself and in its aftermath. Advising on rehabilitation measures can also be another role of the Ministry of Environment. The competent authority and/or the public prosecution authority have responsibility for initiating prosecution in serious accidents and for enforcement of measures to prevent a recurrence and to ensure remedial action is taken, if required. Organisational aspects are described in the APELL brochures of UNEP. See also the entries on Natural hazards, the Seveso Directive, Social risk limits, Safety declaration of an industrial facility and Environmental emergency zone. , , 23

, . . (, ), . : , , . , , , , . ( ) . ( ) . ; , , , . . / ( ), , , , , . APELL, . . , , ,

avaria

winaswari ganzraxvis gareSe, gauTvaliswinebeli an moulodneli arasasurveli SemTxveva, romelmac SeiZleba gamoiwvios materialuri ziani, sxeulis dazianeba da sxva; avariam SesaZloa aseve gamoiwvios garemoSi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa moxvedra da garemoze fizikuri zemoqmedeba (m. S. xanZari an afeTqeba), rac sawarmos normaluri eqspluataciis pirobebSi dauSvebelia da ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli. garemoze da adamianTa janmrTelobaze zegavlenis TvalsazrisiT, ZiriTadi gansxvaveba avariul situaciasa da normalur eqspluatacias Soris ganisazRvreba iseTi parametrebiT, rogoricaa emisiebis moculoba, sixSire da toqsikuroba, aseve aalebisa da afeTqebis saSiSroeba. avariuli situaciebis Tavidan asacilebel mravalricxovan RonisZiebaTa Soris mniSvnelovania mimdinare sawarmoo procesebis saTanado dagegmva, marTva da kontroli. rogorc wesi, ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) wevr-qveynebSi avariebi registrirdeba Sinagan saqmeTa saministroebisa (gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani avariebis dros) da xanZarsawinaaRmdego organoebis mier. sawarmo, romelsac gaaCnia nebarTva, valdebulia dauyovnebliv acnobos uflebamosil organoebs incidentis Sesaxeb. garemos dacvis saministroebi uSualod ar arian CarTulni garemos dabinZurebis salikvidacio samuSaoebSi. maTi roli Semoifargleba rekomendaciebis gacemiT, sinjebis aRebiTa da laboratoriuli analizebis CatarebiT rogorc avariuli situaciebis, ise mis Semdgom periodSi. garemos dacvis saministros funqcias aseve warmoadgens rekomendaciebis gacema aRdgeniTi samuSaoebis ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb. zedamxedvelobisa da/an sagamoZiebo uflebamosili organoebis movaleobaa sarCelis aRZvra seriozuli avariis dros da kanonaRsrulebis RonisZiebaTa ganxorcieleba msgavsi situaciebis

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ganmeorebis Tavidan asacileblad da, aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, aRdgeniTi samuSoebis gansaxorcieleblad. organizaciuli aspeqtebi aRwerilia gaeros garemos dacvis programis (UNEP) mier gamocemul APELL-is broSurebSi. aseve ixileT stiqiuri ubedureba, sevezos

direqtiva, socialuri riskis zRvruli doneebi, deklaracia samrewvelo sawarmos usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb da sagangebo ekologiuri mdgomareobis zona.

ACCIDENTAL POLLUTION An unexpected occurrence or loss, either at a plant or on a transportation route, resulting in a release of potentially polluting material. The environment inspectors should be immediately informed of the event and the nature of the pollution, and will then decide how or whether to inform the public and other authorities of actions that they should take. Police, firefighting authorities and authorities charged with supervision of nature protection will combine efforts, as necessary, to manage the consequences of the accidental pollution. () . , , - . , .

zalpuri (avariuli) dabinZureba

potenciurad damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa emisia warmoebis an transportirebis procesSi momxdari gauTvaliswinebeli SemTxvevis an avariis Sedegad. garemos dacvis inspeqtorebi dauyovnebliv unda iqnen informirebulni aRniSnuli SemTxvevisa da dabinZurebis

savaraudo xasiaTis Sesaxeb, ris safuZvelzec miRebul iqneba gadawyvetileba saxelmwifo da sxva organoebis mxridan Sesabamisi zomebis gatarebis Taobaze. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, policia, xanZarsawinaaRmdego da garemosdacviTi organoebi, erToblivad axorcieleben avariis Sedegebis salikvidacio samuSaoebs.

ACCIDENT SITE The location of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss, either at a plant or along a transportation route, resulting in a release of hazardous or polluting materials. Measures to be taken at the accident site to prevent or reduce harmful effects on human health or the environment include: isolation of the accident site, informing the public and other authorities, management and control of the site, containment and neutralisation of any polluting materials released, and safety equipment for emergency workers at the accident site. See also APELL. , , . , , , , , , , , , . . APELL.

avariis adgili

janmrTelobasa da garemoze mavne zemoqmedebis Tavidan acilebis an Semcirebis mizniT, avariis adgilze saWiroa miRebul iqnes Semdegi zomebi: avariis adgilis izolireba, TviTmmarTvelobisa da sxva uflebamosili organoebis informireba, adgilze samuSaoTa xelmZRvaneloba da maT mimdinareobaze kontrolis ganxorcieleba, damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa gavrcelebis Tavidan acileba da maTi gauvnebelyofa, aseve, samuSaoTa usafrTxod warmoebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT saavario brigadebis Sesabamisi mowyobilobebiT aRWurva. aseve ixileT APELL.

ACCREDITATION Procedure used to show formally that an organisation is competent to do a specific task, or that a method is fit for a particular purpose. For instance, an analytical laboratory is accredited to do one or more specific analyses. National accreditation bodies exist in many countries. , , - , - . , . .

akreditacia

warmoebis an transportirebis procesSi gauTvaliswinebeli SemTxvevis, Seferxebis an avariis Sedegad saSiS an damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa garemoSi moxvedris adgili. adamianTa

25

procedura, romelic gamoiyeneba ama Tu im organizaciis mier ama Tu im saxis samuSaos Sesrulebis uflebamosilebis, an garkveuli meTodis ama Tu im miznisaTvis gamosayeneblad vargisianobis formaluri dadasturebisaTvis. magaliTad, analitikuri laboratoria SesaZloa akreditirebul iqnes erTi an ramdenime saxis analizis Casatareblad. mraval qveyanaSi moqmedeben erovnuli saakreditacio saagentoebi.

ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE The body of EU legislation is called, after the French term, the «acquis communautaire». The EU environmental legislation is often referred to as the «environmental acquis». ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE «acquis communautaire». «environmental acquis». ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE evrokavSiris sakanonmdeblo normebis erToblioba, romlis dasaxelebad gamoiyeneba franguli termini "acquis communautaire". evrokavSiris garemosdacviT kanonmdeblobas xSirad uwodeben "environmental acquis". ACCURACY An indication of how precisely an instrument measures a certain value of a process variable. It is the degree of variation in the measured value. E.g. if the limit value is set at 25 mg/l and the given accuracy of the measurement method is plus or minus 1 mg/l, then the measured value in practice might lie between 24 mg/l and 26 mg/l. If the outcome of the measurement is 26 mg/l, the set limit is still met and no violation established. Other authorities might state in their permit that any measurement above 25 mg/l is a violation of the permit. This means that the operator in actual fact has to operate the facility with a maximum of 24 mg/l. , . , 25 /, ±1 /, 24 / 26 /. , 26 /, , . 26

, , 25 /. , 24 /.

gazomvaTa cdomileba

sidide, romelic miuTiTebs gamzomi xelsawyos mier teqnologiuri procesis ama Tu im cvladi parametris gazomvis sizustes. magaliTad, Tu zRvrulad dasaSvebi koncentracia 25 mg/l-s Seadgens, xolo dadgenili cdomileba gazomvis gamoyenebuli meTodis Sesabamisad ± 1 mg/l-s Seadgens, gasazomi sididis realuri mniSvneloba dasaSvebia 24-26 mg/l Soris meryeobdes. Tu gazomvis Sedegad maCvenebelia 26 mg/l, dadgenili zRvruli mniSvneloba daculad iTvleba da darRveva ar fiqsirdeba. zog SemTxvevaSi, nebarTvaSi SesaZloa miTiTebuli iyos, rom normativis darRveva fiqsirdeba, Tu xelsawyos Cveneba 25 mg/l-s aRemateba. es niSnavs, rom danadgaris eqspluataciis pirobebSi, mocemuli parametris maqsimaluri mniSvneloba 24 mg/l-s ar unda aRematebodes.

ACOUSTIC QUALITY The acoustic quality is described in terms of the percentage of the population exposed to outdoor noise of given levels. In Western Europe, the major noise source in terms of the number of people disturbed is road traffic. Second and third come neighbourhood and aircraft noise. The noise level differs from city to city. The majority of the cities in Europe suffer from outdoor noise levels above 70 decibels during the day. See also Noise pollution/standards. , . , , . , , -

. . 70 . . /

akustikuri xarisxi

akustikuri xarisxi gamoixateba mosaxleobis procentiT, romelic garkveuli donis gare xmauris zemoqmedebas ganicdis. dasavleT evropaSi xmauris ZiriTad wyaros saavtomobilo moZraoba warmoadgens. meore da mesame adgili ukavia mezoblebisa da gadafrenili TviTmfrinavebis xmaurs. xmauris done sxvadasxva dasaxlebuli punqtisaTvis gansxvavebulia. evropis ZiriTad qalaqebSi gare xmauris done dRis saaTebis ganmavlobaSi 70 decibels aRemateba. aseve ixileT xmauriT

ADD-ON CONTROL DEVICE Air pollution control device such as carbon absorber which reduces the pollution in an exhaust gas. The control device usually does not affect the process being controlled and thus is «add-on» technology as opposed to a scheme to control pollution through making some alteration to the basic process. See also end-ofpipe technology. , , , , , . , , , , . . « ».

damatebiTi gawmendis mowyobiloba

dabinZureba/xmauriT mebi.

dabinZurebis

nor-

ACTIVE INGREDIENT In any pesticide product, the component that kills, or otherwise controls or targets pests. Pesticides are regulated primarily on the basis of active ingredients. , , . .

aqtiuri ingredienti

atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis SemzRudavi mowyobiloba, magaliTad, naxSiris absorberi, romelic amcirebs damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa Semcvelobas gamomuSavebul airebSi. mowyobiloba, rogorc wesi, zemoqmedebas ar axdens kontrols daqvemdeburebul procesze da axorcielebs mxolod damatebiT gawmendas, dabinZurebis Semamcirebeli im teqnologiebisagan gansxvavebiT, romlebic iTvaliswineben cvlilebebs ZiriTad sawarmoo procesebSi. aseve ixileT e.w.

"milis boloze" teqnologia.

kontrolis

nebismier pesticidSi Semavali komponenti, romelic anadgurebs mavneblebs an axdens maTze sxvagvar zemoqmedebas da maTi kontrolirebis saSualebas iZleva. pesticidebis gamoyenebis regulireba, upirveles yovlisa, maTi aqtiuri ingredientebis safuZvelze xorcieldeba.

ADMINISTRATIVE CHARGES Amount of money to be paid to the [environmental] authorities to cover costs of the services delivered. This can be the cost of the permit or authorisation for an operation. For example, the cost of a permit to carry out an activity might cover the administration costs of the inspection of the permit requirements. , [] 27

. , .

administraciuli mosakrebeli

fuladi Tanxa, romelic eqvemdebareba gadaxdas saxelmwifo (garemosdacviTi) organoebis sasargeblod maT mier gaweuli administraciuli xarjebis dasafaravad garkveuli momsaxurebis ganxorcielebisas. magaliTad, raime saqmianobisaTvis nebarTvis Rirebuleba SesaZloa Seicavdes nebarTvis pirobebis Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT inspeqtirebis Casatarebel xarjebs.

RonisZiebaTa erToblioba, romelic tardeba rogorc kanonmdeblobis darRvevaze sapasuxo reaqcia da mimarTulia damrRvevis mier kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili normebis dacvisaken. kanonaRsrulebis administraciuli zomebi gamoiyeneba, rogorc uSualod samarTaldamrRvevis, ise sxva pirTa mier axali samarTaldarRvevebis Cadenis profilaqtikis mizniT. (ixileT kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRveva). administraciuli sanqciebis magaliTebia: dabinZurebis aRmkveT RonisZiebaTa iZulebiTi finansireba, fuladi saxdelebi (jarima), nebarTvis an licenziis gauqmeba an maT pirobebSi cvlilebebis Setana. sinonimi:

administraciuli sanqciebi.

ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT RESPONSE The set of actions taken in response to a violation in order to bring the violator into compliance. The response must be such as to deter the violator and/or potential future violators for repeating the same offence (see non-compliance response). The following are examples of administrative sanctions that can be applied: executive coercion, penalty payment (fine), change in or cancellation of a licence or permit. Syn.: Administrative sanctions. , . / (. ). , , . .: .

kanonaRsrulebis administraciuli zomebi

ADMINISTRATIVE INSPECTION Official investigation and examination of a facility's administration in order to determine the compliance status of this facility from the administrative point of view. For instance, checking if all permits are valid, all monitoring obligations are fulfilled, and any analyses reported to authorities on time. It is a paper check that may lead to further investigations and enforcement action. These administrative inspections are generally less time consuming, and therefore more generally applied, but should not be seen as a replacement for on-site inspections. , : , , . . , , ,

28

.

administraciuli inspeqtireba

sawarmos administraciuli saqmianobis oficialuri gamokvleva misM mier administraciuli normebisa da miwerilobebis Sesrulebis Semowmebis mizniT. magaliTad, yvela saxis nebarTvis damadasturebeli dokumentebis, monitoringis Casatareblad arsebuli yvela moTxovnis Sesrulebis da nebismieri analizis Sedegebis uflebamosili organoebisaTvis droulad Setyobinebis Semowmeba. amgvari dokumentaluri Semowmebis Sedegebis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia miRebul iqnes gadawyvetileba Semdgomi gamokvlevisa da kanonaRsrulebis zomebis ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb. administraciuli inspeqtireba naklebad Sromatevadia da amitom ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba. amasTan, administraciuli inspeqtireba ar unda ganixilebodes obieqtis inspeqtirebis Semcvlel RonisZiebad.

ADMINISTRATIVE OFFENCE Unlawful actions or culpable failure to perform actions, by an individual or a legal entity, where administrative responsibility is applicable. Offences are considered administrative in nature if they incur a lower level of danger for society in comparison with criminal offences. Such infringements do not result in significant material damage or other damages or losses. For instance, these are: minor failure to comply with the levels of emission limit values; infringements of the rules relating to the handling of wastes; infringements of the procedure for environmental assessment; infringements of the laws concerning the protection of natural sites or their improper use; etc. Penalties for administrative offences include fines, injunctions and an obligation to clean-up. , . , 29

. . , , , , ; . . , , .

administraciuli samarTaldarRveva

fizikuri an iuridiuli piris ukanono qmedeba an danaSaulebrivi umoqmedoba, romelic iTvaliswinebs administraciul pasuxismgeblobas. samarTaldarRveva administraciuli xasiaTisaa, Tu igi sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulTan SedarebiT, sazogadoebisaTvis nakleb saSiSroebas warmoadgens. amgvar kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebebs ar sdevs mniSvnelovani ziani. magaliTad, aRniSnul samarTaldarRvevebs ganekuTvneba zRvrulad dasaSvebi emisiebis umniSvnelo darRveva, narCenebTan mopyrobis wesebis darRveva; garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebisa da nebarTvis gacemis proceduris darRveva; bunebrivi obieqtebis dacvis kanonmdeblobis an maTi gamoyenebis wesebis darRveva da a.S. administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis CadenisaTvis gaTvaliswinebulia iseTi sasjelis formebi, rogoricaa jarima, miweriloba da teritoriebis dabinZurebisagan gawmendis iZuleba.

ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER A legal document signed by an enforcement authority directing an individual, business, or other entity to take corrective action or refrain from an activity. It describes the violation and actions to be taken that can be enforced in court.

Such orders may be issued, for example, as a result of an administrative complaint whereby the respondent is ordered to pay a penalty. , () , - . , . , , , .

administraciuli miweriloba

, - . , ; .

administraciuli aqti SeTanxmebis Sesaxeb

kanonaRsrulebis organos Tanamdebobis piris mier xelmowerili iuridiuli dokumenti, romelic avalebs fizikur an iuridiul pirs aRmofxvras darRvevebi an Tavi Seikavos raime qmedebebisagan. dokumentSi miTiTebulia darRveva da mis aRmosafxvrelad gasatarebeli qmedebebi, romelTa iZulebiT Sesruleba SesaZloa dakisrebul iqnes sasamarTlo wesiT. amgvari miwerilobebi SesaZloa gamoices magaliTad, administraciuli sarCelis safuZvelze, rodesac mopasuxes jarimis gadaxda ekisreba.

ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER ON CONSENT A legal agreement signed by an enforcement authority and an individual, business, or other entity through which the violator agrees to pay for correction of violations, take the required corrective actions, or refrain from an activity. It describes the actions to be taken, may be subject to a fixed period, applies to civil actions, and can be enforced in court. , () , 30

iuridiuli SeTanxmeba xelmowerili erTis mxriv, kanonaRsrulebis organos da meores mxriv, fizikuri piris, kompaniis an sxva iuridiuli piris mier, romlis Sesabamisad, samarTaldamrRvevi acxadebs Tanxmobas gadaixados darRvevis gamosasworeblad saWiro Tanxa, TviTon ganaxorcielos gamosasworebeli RonisZiebebi an Tavi Seikavos ama Tu im qmedebisagan. dokumenti asaxavs gansaxorcielebel RonisZiebebs, SesaZloa moqmedebdes gansazRvruli drois manZilze da gamoiyeneba samoqalaqo sarCelebis mimarT. gadawyvetileba masSi asaxuli debulebebis iZulebiT Sesrulebis Taobaze SesaZloa miRebul iqnes sasamarTlos wesiT.

ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD In USA: an installation-specific file containing all technical documents, correspondence, news releases and other documentation that form the basis for official decisions made during the so called «Installation Restoration Programme» that deals with industrial contamination clean up. The file is normally maintained at the installation and is open for public inspection. : , , , , « » («Installation Restoration Prog-

ramme»), . .

administraciuli dosie

aSS-Si: konkretuli sawarmos Sesaxeb Sedgenili saqme, romelic Seicavs yvela teqnikur dokumentacias, werilebs, Setyobinebebsa da sxva dokumentebs. igi warmoadgens oficialur gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis safuZvels e.w. "sawarmos reabilitaciis programis" farglebSi, romelic iTvaliswinebs teritoriebis dabinZurebisagan gawmendis RonisZiebaTa ganxorcielebas. dosies warmoeba, rogorc wesi, xorcieldeba uSualod sawarmoSi da xelmisawvdomia sazogadoebisaTvis.

ADMINISTRATIVE TOOLS OF ENFORCEMENT The public authority in charge of administrative law enforcement has a number of enforcement instruments or tools at its disposal to exercise its functions. These include: supervision, application of administrative sanctions, and revoking permits. The authority may also impose penalties for every day an installation is in operation while not complying with the permit. , , , , . .

kanonaRsrulebis administraciuli instrumentebi

saxelmwifo organos, romelic uflebamosilia administraciuli wesiT ganaxorcielos kanonaRsrulebis RonisZiebebi, miniWebul funqciaTa aRsasruleblad gaaCnia mTeli rigi kanonaRsrulebis instrumentebi, maT Soris: sazedamxedvelo saqmianobis ganxorcieleba, administraciuli sanqciebis dakisreba da nebarTvebis gauqmeba. uflebamosil organos aseve SeuZlia daakisros jarima danadgaris muSaobis yovel dReze, romlis ganmavlobaSic irRveoda nebarTvis pirobebi.

AEWS Awareness Emergency Warning System. A warning system used in areas of high potential risk to warn installations that are potentially at risk in good time of a polluting incident, so that they can take timely preventative action. Examples include the river Rhine warning system and the river Danube warning system: in case of a spillage or polluting incident, the downstream users (such as abstractors of water for drinking water purposes) can be given warning and can take appropriate preventative action. These two systems were established jointly by the governments of the riparian countries and have as a basis common procedures and institutional arrangements. , , , . . : , , (, , ), . , 31

, .

sagangebo situaciebis adreuli Setyobinebis sistema (AEWS)

sistema, romelic gamoiyeneba maRali riskis zonebSi, raTa samrewvelo obieqtebi droulad iqnen informirebulni mosalodneli riskis Sesaxeb da SesZlon prevenciuli zomebis droulad gatareba. amgvaria md. reinisa da md. dunais adreuli Setyobinebis sistemebi: damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa avariuli daRvris an msgavs sagangebo situaciaSi, mdinaris dinebis qvemo welSi mdebare wyalmosargebleebs (magaliTad, sawarmoebs, romlebic axorcieleben wyalaRebas sasmeli wyalmomaragebis mizniT) gadaecemaT Setyobineba da eZlevaT SesaZlebloba gaataron Sesabamisi prevenciuli zomebi. zemoaRniSnuli sistemebi Seiqmna am mdinareTa auzebis qveynebis mTavrobaTa ZalisxmeviT da moqmedeben unificirebuli procedurebisa da organizaciuli sqemebis safuZvelze.

AGREEMENT ON COMPLEX USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES In Russia, this is the document that lays out the conditions and procedures for the use of natural resources. It contains the rights and obligations of the user of the natural resources and all other parties to the agreement, the size of payments for the use, and the procedures for dispute resolution and compensation. An agreement of this type is concluded between the user of natural resources and the executive bodies of the appropriate level of territorial and administrative power. The agreement is based on the conclusions of the state environmental review of intended economic and other activities and the licence for complex use of natural resources. : , 32

, , , . . .

SeTanxmeba kompleqsuri bunebaTsargeblobis Sesaxeb

ruseTSi: dokumenti, romelic adgens bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebis pirobebsa da procedurebs. igi aseve gansazRvravs rogorc bunebrivi resursebis momxmarebelTa, ise SeTanxmebis sxva mxareTa uflebebsa da movaleobebs, bunebaTsargeblobisaTvis gadasaxadis odenobebs, agreTve davebis gadawyvetisa da zianis kompensaciis procedurebs. am tipis SeTanxmeba ideba bunebrivi resursebis momxmarebelsa da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis Sesabamis teritoriul organoebs Soris. SeTanxmebas safuZvlad udevs dagegmili ekonomikuri an sxva saxis saqmianobis ekologiuri eqspertizis daskvna da licenzia kompleqsur bunebaTsargeblobaze.

AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION Pollution coming from farming wastes, including runoff and leachate of pesticides and fertilisers; erosion and dust from ploughing; improper disposal of animal manure (NH3 and PO4) and carcasses; crop residues, debris and air pollution (e.g. by N2O, NH3). Smells and odours from agricultural activities can also be considered as agricultural pollution. , , , , -

(NH3 PO4) , , (, N2O, NH3). , , .

sasoflo-sameurneo dabinZureba

cxovelis nakeli da sxva narCeni produqtebi Txevad an myar mdgomareobSi. sasoflo-sameurneo narCens aseve ganekuTvneba marcvleulis, bostneulisa da xilis kulturebis mosavlis narCenebi.

garemos dabinZureba sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobis narCenebiT, romelic aseve moicavs: dabinZurebas pesticidebisa da sasuqebis Semcveli zedapiruli wylis nakadebiTa da filtratebiT; niadagis erozias da xvnis procesSi warmoqmnil mtvers; dabinZurebas nakelis (NH3 da PO4) da Sinaur cxovelTa organizmebis narCenebis araorganizebuli ganTavsebis adgilebidan; dabinZurebas aRebuli mosavlis narCenebiTa da sxva saxis nagviT; aseve, atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebas, magaliTad, N2O, NH3-iT. sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobis Sedegad warmoqmnili sxvadasxva suni SeiZleba aseve miekuTvnos sasoflo-sameurneo dabinZurebis saxeobas.

AGRICULTURAL WASTE Poultry and livestock manure, and residual materials in liquid or solid form generated from the production and marketing of poultry, livestock, fur bearing animals, and their products. Also includes grain, vegetable, and fruit harvest residues. , , , . , , .

sasoflo-sameurneo narCeni

AIR EMISSIONS Substances (gases and particulate matter) emitted into the air from industrial processes or from households, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide or any other mix of particulates and air that are airborne. In many OECD countries, emissions are (or used to be) regulated by countrywide emission standards. These can be either related to specific industries or to general emissions regulations. The emissions are defined in terms of load and concentration. The European Union (EU) now places emphasis on ambient air quality standards. The permit conditions for individual installations will establish the emission limit values for specified air pollutants from that installation. For the more polluting industries in the EU, the IPPC Directive applies and emissions to air are regulated by the use of BAT, Best Available Techniques. ( ), , , , , , , . ( ) . , . . () . , . 33

mefrinveleobis, mecxoveleobis da bewveulis momcemi nadirsaSenebis mier warmoebisa da gasaRebis procesSi warmoqmnili Sinauri frinvelisa da

, , , .

emisiebi atmosferul haerSi

samrewvelo an individualuri wyaroebidan atmosferul haerSi gafrqveuli nivTierebebi (airebi da myari nawilakebi), rogoricaa naxSirJangi, azotis oqsidi, azotis dioqsidi, gogirdis dioqsidi, an haerisa da myari nawilakebis aqroladi narevebi. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) mraval qveyanaSi emisiebi regulirdebian (an regulirdebodnen) erovnuli emisiis standartebiT. isini dgindebian mrewvelobis calkeuli dargebisaTvis, an erTiani erovnuli standartebis saxiT. emisiebi ganisazRvreba damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa moculobebiTa da koncentraciebiT. dReisaTvis evrokavSiris qveynebSi ufro meti yuradReba eqceva atmosferuli haeris xarisxobrivi standartebis (normebis) Sesrulebas. konkretuli danadgarisaTvis gacemul nebarTvis pirobebSi miTiTebulia atmosferul haerSi konkretul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi emisiebi am danadgarze. evrokavSiris qveynebSi mrewvelobis im dargebisaTvis, romlebic yvelaze metad abinZureben atmosferul haers, moqmedebs direqtiva "dabinZurebis

fall into two main groups: (1) those emitted directly from identifiable sources (see air emissions) and (2) those produced in the air by interaction between two or more primary pollutants, or by reaction with normal atmospheric constituents, with or without photo activation. There is a two-tier policy and strategy for regulating pollution. One tier is that the air emissions from point sources are based upon what is technical and economical possible (e.g. based on BATNEEC and/or BAT) and the second tier based on the carrying capacity of the environment. , , , . , , , . : (1) , , (2) , , . . (, , / ); .

atmosferuli haeris damabinZurebeli nivTiereba

integrirebuli Tavidan kontrolis Sesaxeb"

atmosferul regulirdeba

acilebisa

da

(IPPC) da haerSi emisiebi

saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologiebis (BAT) gamoyenebiT.

AIR POLLUTANT Any substance in air that could, in high enough concentration, harm man, animals, vegetation, or material. Pollutants may include almost any natural or artificial composition of airborne matter capable of being airborne. They may be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or in combination thereof. Generally, they 34

atmosferul haerSi arsebuli nebismieri nivTiereba, romlis garkveulma maRalma koncentraciam SesaZloa mavne zegavlena moaxdinos adamianebze, cxovelebze, mcenareebsa an materialur obieqtebze. damabinZurebel nivTierebebs SesaZloa

ganekuTvnebodes bunebrivi an xelovnuri warmoSobis airovan mdgomareobaSi myof nivTierebaTa praqtikulad nebismieri kombinacia, romelsac SeuZlia arseboba myari nawilakebis, haerwveTovan da gazisebr mdgomareobaSi, an maTi narevebis saxiT. zogadad, damabinZurebeli nivTierebebi or ZiriTad jgufad iyofa: (1) nivTierebebi, romlebic atmosferul haerSi xvdebian pirdapiri gziT konkretuli wyaroebidan (ixileT emisia) da (2) nivTierebebi, romlebic warmoiqmnebian atmosferul haerSi arapirdapiri gziT, ori an meti pirveladi damabinZurebeli nivTierebis urTierTqmedebiT, an atmoferuli haeris Cveulebriv Semadgenel nivTierebebTan damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa reaqciaSi SesvliT fotoaqtiobis Sedegad an mis gareSe. dabinZurebis regulirebis politika da strategia emyareba 2donian midgomas. pirveli done iTvaliswinebs emisiebis SezRudvas wertilovani wyaroebidan teqnikur da ekonomikur SesaZleblobaTa safuZvelze (magaliTad, BATNEEC da/an BAT-is safuZvelze); xolo meore done efuZneba garemos potenciur tevadobas.

ramac SesaZloa mavne zegavlena moaxdinos adamianTa janmrTelobaze, garemosa da materialur faseulobebze. aseve ixileT atmosferuli haeris

damabinZurebeli nivTiereba, atmosferul haerSi.

emisiebi

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICE Equipment that regulates air emissions generated, e.g. by an incinerator, and which removes pollutants that would otherwise be released to the atmosphere. See also add-on control devices. , , , , , , . . .

atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis makontrolebeli mowyobiloba

AIR POLLUTION Introduction as a result of human activities, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the air that are likely to have harmful effects on human health, the environment as a whole and property. See also air pollutant, air emissions. , , , , . . , .

atmosferuli haeris dabinZureba

mowyobiloba, romelic aregulirebs atmosferul haerSi gafrqvevebs, warmoqmnils magaliTad, nagavsawvavi danadgaris muSaobisas da iWers damabinZurebel nivTierebebs gamonabolqvSi, romlebic sxva SemTxvevaSi haerSi gaifrqveoda. aseve ixileT damatebiTi

gawmendis mowyobiloba.

AIR POLLUTION EPISODE A period of abnormally high concentration of air pollutants, often due to low winds and temperature inversion, that can cause illness and death. In cases of accidental releases of airborne gases and particulates, special organisational measures are taken by authorities to cope with the situation to alleviate the consequences. At periods of high air pollution concentrations many cities stop traffic for certain periods until the high level reduces. , 35

adamianis saqmianobis Sedegad atmosferul haerSi pirdapiri an arapirdapiri gziT nivTierebisa da energiis Setana,

, . , . .

atmosferuli haeris maRali dabinZurebis periodi

number of air quality criteria (over 400), but in practice many of these are not monitored. , , . , «» . , , , , . , « » , « ». , , (, , , , , ). , ( 400), .

atmosferuli haeris xarisxobrivi kriteriumebi

atmosferul

nivTierebaTa

haerSi damabinZurebel anomaliurad maRali koncentraciis periodi, xSir SemTxvevaSi gamowveuli susti qariTa da temperaturis inversiiT, rac SesaZloa daavadebaTa da sikvdilianobis mizezi gaxdes. aqroladi nivTierebebisa da myari nawilakebis avariuli gafrqvevis SemTxvevaSi, uflebamosili organoebis mier miiReba specialuri organizaciuli zomebi situaciis gakontrolebisa da misi uaryofiTi Sedegebis Sesamcireblad. atmosferul haerSi damabinZurebeli nivTierebebis maRali koncentraciis periodSi mraval qalaqSi avtotransportis moZraoba wydeba dabinZurebis donis Semcirebamde.

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA The levels of pollution and lengths of exposure above which adverse health and welfare effects or damage to the environment may occur, in ambient conditions. The United States Environment Protection Agency has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six principal pollutants, which are called «criteria» pollutants. These are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, lead, particulate, and sulphur dioxide. Thus, the term «air quality criteria» is used as equivalent to «air quality standard». Similarly to the United States, the EU has established only a limited number of ambient air quality standards (ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, particulate, lead, benzene and carbon monoxide). In contrast, the NIS had inherited from the Soviet period a large 36

atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis done da misi zemoqmedebis maqsimaluri xangrZlivoba, romlis gadaWarbebam SesaZloa ziani miayenos adamianTa janmrTelobas, materialur qonebas da garemos. aSS-s garemos dacvis saagentos mier dadgenil iqna atmosferuli haeris xarisxobrivi standarti 6 ZiriTadi dambinZureblisaTvis, romelTac "kriteriuli" dambinZureblebi uwodes. esenia - naxSirJangi, azotis dioqsidi, ozoni, tyvia, myari nawilakebi da gogirdis dioqsidi. amgvarad, termini "atmosferuli haeris xarisxobrivi kriteriumebi" ixmareba imave mniSvnelobiT, rac "atmosferuli haeris xarisxobrivi standartebi". aSS-s msgavsad, evrokavSiris qveynebSi dadgenilia atmosferuli haeris

xarisxobrivi standarti mxolod ramdenime damabinZurebeli nivTierebisaTvis (ozoni, gogirdis dioqsidi, azotis dioqsidi da azotis oqsidi, myari nawilakebi, tyvia, benzoli da naxSirJangi). aSS-sa da evrokavSiris qveynebisagan gansxvavebiT, axal damoukidebel qveynebs gaaCniaT sabWoTa periodidan memkvidreobiT miRebuli atmosferuli haeris xarisxobrivi kriteriumebis didi raodenoba (400-ze meti), magram maTi umravlesoba praqtikulad ar gamoiyeneba.

AIR-QUALITY INDEX A general air pollution index freely available to the public in major West European cities. This daily index, rated from 1 (excellent) to 10 (extremely polluted), takes into account ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels, all of which are toxic for human health and are regulated at the European level. The concentrations close to the warning limit correspond to an index of 4 to 5. However, this daily index, which does give a general idea of the air quality, does not reveal which substance is causing the pollution. A traffic index characterises the air quality in a dense traffic environment, taking into account the pollutants typical for traffic, the nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Any index greater than 6 corresponds to an abnormal situation, index 7 to strong air pollution caused by traffic, and the indices 8, 9 and 10 to increasingly heavy pollution up to an exceptionally high level. . 1 ( ) 10 ( ); , , , . , , , 4 5. 37

, , . , , , ­ . , 6, ; , 7, , 8, 9 10 ­ , .

atmosferuli haeris mavne nivTierebebis dabinZurebis indeqsi

dasavleT evropis qalaqTa umravlesobaSi atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis saerTo maCvenebeli xelmisawvdomia sazogadoebriobisaTvis. atmosferuli haeris xarisxis yoveldRiuri indeqsis maCvenebeli 1-dan (kargi mdgomareoba) 10mde (gansakuTrebiT Zlieri dabinZureba) meryeobs. aTvlisas mxedvelobaSi miiReba adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis mavne nivTierebebi - ozoni, gogirdis dioqsidi da azotis dioqsidi, romelTa Semcveloba atmosferul haerSi regulirdeba evropul doneze. sagangaSo donesTan miaxloebul koncentraciebs Seesabameba indeqsis mniSvnelobebi - 4 da 5. amasTan, aRniSnuli yoveldRiuri indeqsi mxolod zogad warmodgenas iZleva atmosferuli haeris xarisxis Sesaxeb da ar aCvenebs dabinZurebis gamomwvev nivTierebas. satransporto dabinZurebis indeqsi axasiaTebs atmosferuli haeris xarisxs satransporto nakadebTan uSualo siaxloves da iTvaliswinebs avtomobilebis gamonabolqvSi arsebul tipiur damabinZureblebs, rogoricaa azotis Jangeulebi da naxSirJangi. nebismieri indeqsi, romelic 6-s aRemateba, normis darRvevas aRniSnavs. indeqsis maCvenebeli - 7 Seesabameba Zlier satransporto dabinZurebas, xolo indeqsis maCveneblebi 8, 9 da 10 kidev ufro Zlier dabinZurebas, gansakuTrebiT Zlier dabinZurebamde.

AIR QUALITY STANDARDS The level of pollutants prescribed by regulations that may not be exceeded during a given time in a defined area in ambient conditions. Some of these standards may lead to complex measuring systems and levels of action by the authorities: for example S02 levels contributing to acid rain and health problems in industrial areas. EU legislation also establishes «Alert thresholds» ­ concentrations above which the public must be warned and given precautionary advice. , . , , , S02, . ­ , .

atmosferuli haeris xarisxobrivi standartebi (normebi)

SemTxvevaSi mosaxleobas unda ecnobos safrTxisa da aRniSnul situaciaSi gansaxorcielebel qmedebaTa Sesaxeb.

ALARA As Low As Reasonably Achievable. In USA: Policy/strategy principle applied nowadays in many areas to achieve the lowest possible emissions. Initially it was extensively used in the nuclear permitting procedures and referred to the practice of maintaining all radiation exposures, to workers and the general public, as low as is reasonably achievable. This notion is close to BATNEEC. : /, . , , . , .

praqtikulad miRwevadi udablesi done (ALARA)

atmosferul haerSi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa done, gansazRvruli Sesabamisi normatiuli aqtebiT, romlis gadameteba ikrZaleba garkveuli drois manZilze garkveul teritoriaze. aRniSnuli standartebidan zogierTi moiTxovs gazomvaTa rTuli sistemis warmoebas da makontrolebeli organoebis mxridan mravaldoniani reagirebis zomebis gatarebas, rogoricaa magaliTad, S02-is maRali koncentraciis SemTxvevaSi, romelic mJavur wvimebs iwvevs da problemebs uqmnis adamianTa janmrTelobas industriul centrebSi. evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobiT aseve dawesebulia e. w. "avariuli zRvrebi" koncentraciebi, romelTa gadaWarbebis

38

aSS-Si: dReisaTvis mraval sferoSi gamoyenebuli politikis/strategiis principi, garemoSi mavne nivTierebaTa udablesi donis emisiis misaRwevad. Tavdapirvelad aRniSnuli principi farTod gamoiyeneboda birTvuli da radiaciuli kontrolis sferoSi sanebarTvo procedurebis ganxorcielebisas da gulisxmobda radioaqtiuri gamosxivebis donis dawesebas praqtikulad miRwevad udables doneze, rogorc momsaxure personalisaTvis, ise mosaxleobisaTvis. aRniSnuli cneba Tavisi mniSvnelobiT axlosaa terminTan - BATNEEC.

AMBER LIST OF WASTES See under Green list of wastes.

. .

narCenebis yviTeli sia

ixileT narCenebis mwvane sia.

AMNESTY Forgiveness and relief from punishment is a well established, although sometimes controversial, law enforcement technique. An amnesty programme can be difficult to manage yet potentially it is a highly effective tool and can avoid the need for much repressive enforcement. , , , . , .

amnistia

events should endanger life, property or the environment. APELL was developed by the United Nations Environment Programme, in partnership with industry associations, communities and governments following some major industrial accidents that had serious impacts on health and the environment. APELL was originally developed to cover risks arising from fixed installations, but it has also been adapted for specific applications: APELL for Port Areas was published in 1996, TransAPELL, Guidance for Dangerous Goods Transport: Emergency Planning in a Local Community was published in 2000 and APELL for Mining published in 2001. APELL is now being implemented in nearly 30 countries around the world. For more information, see http://www.uneptie.org/pc/ apell/home.html See also Seveso Directive. (. APELL) , ­ . , , , , , . APELL , , . APELL , , : 39

danaSaulis patiebisa da Semsubuqebis farTod gamoiyenebuli praqtika. zogierT SemTxvevaSi igi sadao xdeba kanonaRsrulebis meTodologiis TvalsazrisiT. amnistiis programis realizacia SeiZleba seriozul sirTuleebTan iyos dakavSirebuli, magram arc Tu ise iSviaTad, amgvari programa SesaZlebelia maRalefeqturic iyos da moxsnas kanonaRsrulebis sadamsjelo zomebis farTo masStabiT gamoyenebis aucilebloba.

APELL Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level. APELL is a modular, flexible methodological tool for preventing accidents and, failing this, to minimise their impacts. This is achieved by assisting decision-makers and technical personnel to increase community awareness and to prepare co-ordinated response plans involving industry, government, and the local community, in the event that unexpected

1996 . APELL , 2000 . TransAPELL ­ : , ­ 2001 . APELL . APELL 30 . . www.uneptie.org/pc/apell/home.html. . .

adgilobriv doneze sagangebo situaciebis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrcelebisa da mzadyofnis programa - APELL

adgilobriv doneze sagangebo situaciebis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrcelebisa da mzadyofnis programa APELL Sedgeba modulebisagan da warmoadgens avariebis Tavidan acilebis an, maTi garduvalobis SemTxvevaSi, Sedegebis minimumamde dayvanis moqnil meTodologiur instruments. aRniSnulis miRweva SesaZlebelia gadawyvetilebis mimReb pasuxismgebel pirTa da teqnikuri personalis xelSewyobiT sazogadoebis informirebisas da xelisuflebis organoebis, samrewvelo sawarmoebisa da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis koordinirebul moqmedebaTa gegmebis SemuSavebisas, maSin roca moulodneli avariuli situaciebi safrTxes uqmnian adamianTa sicocxles, materialur faseulobebsa da garemos. adgilobriv doneze sagangebo situaciebis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrcelebisa da mzadyofnis programa - APELL SemuSavebul iqna

adaptirebul iqna ufro specifiur sferoebSic, kerZod: 1966 wels dasrulda aRniSnuli programis SemuSaveba portebisaTvis; 2000 wels gamoica saxifaTo tvirTebis transportirebis saxelmZRvanelo (TransAPELL) - sagangebo situaciebSi moqmedebaTa dagegmva adgilobriv doneebze; 2001 wels gamovida programa - APELL samTo-mompovebeli mrewvelobisaTvis. amJamad programa - APELL xorcieldeba msoflios 30-ze met qveyanaSi. dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.uneptie.org/pc/ apell/home.html. aseve ixileT sevezos direqtiva.

APPEAL AGAINST A DECISION A request (often to a higher level of administration) that a decision be changed. An appeal can be made by the law-breaker, or his legal representative, to administrative and judicial establishments in connection with a disagreement with the decision made earlier by a lower body. For example, an appeal can be made against administrative penalties imposed by inspectors in response to breaches of environmental regulations. ( ) . . , .

apelacia

gaeros

garemos

dacvis

programis

(UNEP) farglebSi samrewvelo asociaciebTan, sazogadoebasTan da mTavrobebTan TanamSromlobiT, ramdenime seriozuli samrewvelo avariis Semdeg, romlebmac mniSvnelovani ziani miayenes adamianTa janmrTelobasa da garemos. Tavdapirvelad, programa - APELL SemuSavda stacionarul samrewvelo danadgarebze avariuli riskebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, Semdgom igi

40

Suamdgomloba gadawyvetilebis Secvlis Taobaze (xSir SemTxvevaSi wardgenili ufro maRali instanciis administraciul organoSi). apelacia SeiZleba wardgenil iqnes samarTaldamrRvevi piris an misi kanonieri warmomadgenlis mier administraciul da sasamarTlo organoebSi Tu igi ar eTanxmeba qvemdgomi organos mier adre miRebul

gadawyvetilebas. magaliTad, apelacia SeiZleba wardgenil iqnes inspeqtorebis mier garemosdacviTi normebis darRvevisaTvis dakisrebuli administraciuli saxdelis gamo.

APPROXIMATION In the European Union, an obligation of membership that means aligning national laws, rules and procedures in order to give effect to the entire body of EU law contained in the acquis communautaire. There are three key elements of approximation. First, to adopt or change national laws, rules, and procedures, so that the requirements of the relevant EU law are fully incorporated into the national legal order. This process is known as «Transposition.» Second, to provide the institutions and budgets necessary to carry out the laws and regulations. Third, to provide the necessary controls and penalties to ensure that the law is being complied with fully and properly (enforcement). , , , acquis communautaire. : -, , , ­ «»; -, , ; -, ().

aproqsimacia (kanonmdeblobebis SesabamisobaSi moyvana)

romelsac Seicavs "acquis communautaire". aproqsimaciis procedura 3 Zireuli etaps moicavs: pirveli, erovnuli sakanonmdeblo aqtebis, wesebisa da procedurebis miReba an maTSi cvlilebebis Setana, evrokavSiris sakanonmdeblo aqtebis moTxovnebTan sruli Sesabamisobis mizniT - e.w. "transpozicia"; meore, Sesabamisi struqturebis Seqmna da dafinanseba, rac aucilebelia kanonebisa da samarTlebrivi normebis realizaciisaTvis; mesame, kontrolisaTvis aucilebeli berketebis SemuSaveba da pasuxismgeblobis zomebis gatarebis uzrunvelyofa, raTa garantirebul iqnes sakanonmdeblo normebis ganuxreli da saTanado dacva (kanonaRsruleba).

ARBITRATION A process for the resolution (settlement) of disputes as an alternative to going to court. The impartial arbitrator, selected and agreed by the parties, will (after consultation) take decisions that are usually legally binding. In many countries, however, enforcement cases end up in court. Courts may decide on arbitration to settle the issue. () , . , , ( ) , . - . .

arbitraJi

evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis aucilebeli piroba, romelic gulisxmobs erovnuli sakanonmdeblo normebis, wesebisa da procedurebis srul SesabamisobaSi moyvanas evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobasTan,

41

davebis gadawyvetis procesi, romelic sasamarTlo wesiT maTi ganxilvis alternativas warmoadgens. mxareTa TanxmobiT arCeul da damtkicebul damoukidebel arbitrs gamoaqvs gadawyvetileba (mxareebTan konsultaciebis dasrulebis Semdeg), romlis Sesruleba mxareTaTvis iuridiulad

mraval qveyanaSi, bolo instancias sasamarTlo warmoadgens. sasamarTloebs SeuZliaT miiRon gadawyvetileba saqmeTa arbitraJSi ganxilvis Sesaxeb.

savaldebuloa.

kanonaRsrulebis

importance in advising the court in cases of cost of rehabilitation. , , / . , , . .

Sesustebis efeqti

ARBITRATION COURT A court which handles economic disputes between legal entities on issues relating to compensation for damages, including environmental damage. , , , .

saarbitraJo sasamarTlo

sasamarTlo, romelic wyvets iuridiul pirebs Soris warmoSobil ekonomikur davebs zianis, maT Soris garemoze miyenebuli zianis anazRaurebis saqmeebze.

ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY The ability of a natural body of water to receive wastewater or toxic materials without harmful effects and without damage to aquatic ecosystems. .

asimilaciis unari

qimiuri naerTebis koncentraciaTa TandaTanobiTi Semcirebis procesi absorbciis, daSlis, gaxsnis da/an gardaqmnis gziT. avariis an incidentis dros damabiZurebel nivTierebaTa gaJonvis seriozulobis Sefasebisas inspeqtorebma mxedvelobaSi unda miiRon garemos TviTgawmendis unari da ekologiuri sistemis potenciuri tevadoba. Sesustebis efeqtis gaTvaliswineba aseve mniSvnelovania sasamarTlo organoebisaTvis aRdgeniTi samuSaoebis Rirebulebis daangariSebis Taobaze konsultaciebis gawevisas.

AUTHORISATION See under permit or licence. . .

uflebis miniWeba

bunebrivi wyalsatevis Tviseba - miiRos Camdinare wylebi an toqsikuri nivTierebebi wylis ekosistemebisaTvis mavne zemoqmedebisa da zianis miyenebis gareSe.

ATTENUATION The process by which a compound is reduced in concentration over time, through absorption, degradation, dilution, and/or transformation. Inspectors must take into account the self cleaning capacity and the carrying capacity of the environment in assessing the seriousness of an incident and accidental spillages. It is also of 42

ixileT nebarTva an licenzia.

AUTHORITY An official governmental body or legal entity that is allowed and required by law to execute and/or implement certain actions. Inspectors belong to the authorities and have a full function in the regulatory cycle. Without the status of law being vested in the inspectors, they could not function in the enforcement process. A clear definition of authority is therefore of importance.

, , , . . , . .

uflebamosili organo

damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa garemoSi gafrqveva an CaSveba, oficialurad daSvebuli Sesabamisi nebarTvebiT da/an normatiuli aqtebiTa da gankargulebebiT. gafrqveva/CaSvebis moculobebi da koncentraciebi, aseve monitoringis ganxorcielebis valdebulebebi detalurad ganisazRvreba Sesabamisi dokumentaciiT. monitoringi SesaZloa ganxorcieldes rogorc dambinZurebeli sawarmoebis, ise uflebamosili organoebis mier.

saxelmwifo organo an iuridiuli piri, romelsac kanoniT miniWebuli aqvs gansazRvruli saqmianobis ganxorcielebis uflebamosileba da valdebuleba. inspeqtorebi Sedian uflebamosili organos SemadgenlobaSi da mniSvnelovan rols asruleben regulirebis ciklSi. kanoniT miniWebuli statusis gareSe inspeqtorebi ver SeZlebdnen kanonaRsrulebis procesSi TavianTi funqciebis ganxorcielebas. amasTan dakavSirebiT, gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba uflebamosili organos statusis mkafio gansazRvras.

AUTHORISED DISCHARGES Emissions or discharges into the environment that are officially allowed either in permits and/or in regulations and directives. These discharges are carefully defined in loads and concentration as well as in monitoring obligations, either self monitored by the polluter or monitored by the authorities. , / . / , ; , /, .

nebadarTuli gafrqveva/CaSveba

AWARD COMPENSATION The level of compensation required to repair, rehabilitate or restore the damage or loss to human health or the environment. The term is also used to determine the indemnity required to insure against any such loss or damage. Inspectors are, in many cases, called in to assist in determining and assessing damages to the environment because of their specific knowledge. These activities may lead to improved enforcement activities and act as examples to potential polluters. Awarding compensation for damages is an important issue in the compliance promotion activities in which the inspectors play a role. , , . . , , , . . , .

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dakisrebuli sakompensacio gadasaxadi

sakompensacio gadasaxadis odenoba, romelic saWiroa adamianTa janmrTelobasa da garemoze miyenebuli zianis Sedegebis salikvidaciod, an zianis asanazRaureblad. termini aseve gamoiyeneba im kompensaciis aRsaniSnavad, romelic saWiroa nebismieri zianisagan dasazRvevad. garemoze miyenebuli zianis gansazRvrisa da SefasebisaTvis xSir SemTxvevaSi mimarTaven garemos dacvis inspeqtorebs, romlebsac am sferoSi specialuri codna gaaCniaT. amgvari qmedebebi xels uwyobs kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis srulyofas da magaliTia potenciuri dambinZureblebisaTvis. miyenebuli zianisTvis kompensaciis dakisreba warmoadgens garemosdacviTi

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSewyobis erT-erT mniSvnelovan

RonisZiebas, romelSic monawileoben inspeqtorebi. aqtiurad

44

45

B

BACKGROUND CONCENTRATION (1) The concentration of substances in a defined area of the environment or a sector of the environment, prior to the introduction of such substances through a new activity. Background measurements or «zero» measurements are essential in the environmental impact assessments. They are used to compare and assess the impact of planned activities. (2) In toxic substances monitoring, it is the average presence of a substance in the environment, originally referring to naturally occurring phenomena, or composition. Syn.: Background level. (1) - . «» . . (2) - ; . .: .

fonuri koncentracia

doneebs

an

Semadgenlobas.

sinonimi:

fonuri done.

BAT, BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES BAT means the most effective and advanced stage in the development of production activities and their methods of operation which indicate the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing in principle the basis for emission limit values designed to prevent and/or reduce emissions and impact on the environment as a whole. «Techniques» include both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and decommissioned. «Available» techniques mean those developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions, taking into consideration the costs and advantages, whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the state in question, as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator. «Best» means most effective in achieving a high level of protection of the environment as a whole. In the EU IPPC Directive, best available techniques must be used as a basis for setting emission limit values in the operating permit for the installation. The European IPPC Bureau produces BREFs (BAT reference documents) to assist the permitting authorities in determining what is BAT for a particular category of industry. (. BAT) B A T , , , , / . «46

(1) nivTierebaTa koncentracia gansazRvrul teritoriaze an garemos romelime komponentSi, axali saqmianobis dawyebis Sedegad am nivTierebaTa garemoSi gaSvebamde. fonuri an "nulovani gazomvebi" mniSvnelovania garemoze zemoqmedebis Sesafaseblad. igi gamoiyeneba dagegmili saqmianobis garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebisa da SedarebiTi analizisaTvis. (2) toqsikur nivTierebaTa monitoringis dros garemoSi nivTierebis Semcvelobis saSualo done. Tavdapirvelad, aRniSnuli cneba Seexeboda bunebriv

», «techniques», , , , , . «» , , , , , . «» , . , , , . ( BREF) , , B A T .

saukeTeso teqnologia (BAT) xelmisawvdomi

Sesabamis dargSi ekonomikuri da teqnikuri mizanSewonilobis, agreTve, danaxarjebisa da sargeblis gaTvaliswinebiT, miuxedavad imisa, gamoiyenebian an iqmnebian Tu ara es teqnologiebi konkretuli qveynis farglebSi, Tuki isini WeSmaritad misaRebi da xelmisawvdomia operatorisaTvis. "saukeTeso teqnologia" gulisxmobs garemos dacvis maRali donis uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT yvelaze efeqtur teqnologias. evrokavSiris "dabinZurebis

integrirebuli Tavidan acilebisa da kontrolis Sesaxeb" direqtivis (IPPC)

mixedviT emisiaTa zRvruli odenobebi ganisazRvreba saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologiebis safuZvelze, rac aisaxeba nebarTvaSi. danadgarisaTvis gacemul IPPC-is evropuli biuro SeimuSavebs sacnobaro dokumentebs saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologiebis Sesaxeb dokumenti), raTa daxmareba (BREF gauwios nebarTvis gamcem organoebs mrewvelobis konkretul dargebisaTvis saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologiis (BAT) gansazRvraSi.

BATNEEC Best Available Techniques Not Entailing Excessive Costs. The evaluation technique used in the UK prior to the adoption of the IPPC Directive and the implementation of BAT. In this context, «best» means the most effective in preventing, minimising or rendering harmless polluting emissions. There may be more than one set of techniques that achieves comparable effectiveness ­ that is, there may be more than one set of «best» techniques. «Available» means procurable by any operator of the class of process in question. It does not imply that the technology is in general use, but it does require general accessibility. «Techniques» includes both the process used and the methods in which the process is operated. Thus it also includes training of staff, working methods, supervision etc. «Not entailing excessive cost» needs to be taken in two contexts ­ depending whether it is applied to new processes or existing processes. The presumption is that best available techniques will be used, but that presumption 47

termini - "saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologia" (BAT) aRniSnavs sawarmoo procesebisa da eqspluataciis yvelaze efeqtur da mowinave meTodebs, romlebic gansazRvraven konkretuli teqnologiebis praqtikul gamoyenebadobas, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes emisiaTa zRvruli odenobis dacvis ZiriTadi principi, romelic iTvaliswinebs emisiebisa da mTlianad garemoze mavne zemoqmedebis Tavidan acilebas da/an Semcirebas. "teqnologia" gulisxmobs rogorc gamoyenebul danadgaris teqnologiebs, ise proeqtirebis, mSeneblobis, momsaxureobis, eqspluataciis da eqspluataciidan gamoyvanis meTodebs. "xelmisawvdomi teqnologia" gulisxmobs teqnologiebs, romelTa ganviTarebis done iZleva maTi danergvis saSualebas mrewvelobis

can be modified by economic considerations where it can be shown that the costs of applying them would be excessive in relation to the environmental protection effect to be achieved. , , (BAT). «» « , ». , , ; , «» . «» « ». , , . «» , . , , , . . « » ­ , . , , , , , .

saukeTeso arsebuli teqnologia, romelic ar moiTxovs gadametebul danaxarjebs (BATNEEC)

Tavidan acilebis, Semcirebis an gauvnebelyofis TvalsazrisiT yvelaze efeqtur teqnologiebs, romelTac axasiaTebT msgavsi efeqturoba. SesaZloa arsebobdes ramdenime teqnologia, romlebic msgavsi efeqturobiT xasiaTdebian. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba arsebobdes ramdenime ,,saukeTeso" teqnologia. termini "arsebuli" gulisxmobs procesis Sesabamisi tipis nebismieri operatorisaTvis xelmisawvdoms. aucilebeli ar aris aRniSnuli teqnologia farTod iyos gavrcelebuli, Tumca igi unda iyos sayovelTaod xelmisawvdomi. termini "teqnologia" gulisxmobs rogorc gamoyenebul procesebs, ise am procesebis ganxorcielebis meTodebs. amgvarad, cneba aseve gulisxmobs Sesabamisi kadrebis momzadebas, muSaobis meTodebs, kontrolis instrumentebsa da sxva. termini "romelic ar moiTxovs gadametebul danaxarjebs" ganxilul unda iqnes or konteqstSi, imisda mixedviT, gamoiyeneba arsebuli Tu axali procesebis mimarT. amosavali wertili unda iyos saukeTeso arsebuli teqnologiebis gamoyeneba, magram aRniSnul wesSi SesaZlebelia Sevides cvlileba ekonomikuri faqtorebis gamo, Tu gamoCndeba amgvari teqnologiebis gamoyenebis bevrad maRali Rirebuleba mosalodnel garemosdacviT SedegebTan SedarebiT.

BEN (COMPUTER MODEL) The United States Environmental Protection Agency developed the BEN computer model to calculate the economic benefit a violator derives from delaying or avoiding compliance with environmental requirements. In general, the Agency uses BEN to assist its own staff in developing settlement penalty figures. Both the model and the companion BEN User's Manual are available on the EPA's enforcement Internet site at http://es.epa.gov/oeca/datasys

Sefasebis teqnologia, romelic gamoiyeneboda did britaneTSi evrokavSiris IPPC -direqtivis miRebamde da saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologiis (BAT) danergvamde. aRniSnul konteqstSi "saukeTeso" gulisxmobs damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa emisiebis

48

BEN BEN , . , BEN , . , http://es.epa.gov/oeca/ datasys

kompiuteruli modeli - BEN

(BERCEN) - , - . BERCEN , , , , , . - http://www.rec.org/REC/Programs/REREP/BE RCEN.

garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa dacvisa da kanonaRsrulebis balkaneTis qseli (BERCEN)

aSS garemos dacvis saagentos mier SemuSavebul iqna kompiuteruli modeli - BEN im ekonomikuri sargeblis gasaangariSeblad, romelsac miiRebda garemosdacviTi samarTaldamrRvevi

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis

gadavadebiT an maTi SeusruleblobiT. rogorc wesi, kompiuterul model BENs saagento iyenebs sajarimo Tanxebis gaangariSebiT dakavebuli muSakebisaTvis samuSaos gaadvilebis mizniT. modeli da misi gamoyenebis saxelmZRvanelo xelmisawvdomia internetis qselSi aSS garemos dacvis saagentos misamarTze: http://es.epa.gov/oeca/datasys

BERCEN The Balkan Environmental Regulatory Compliance and Enforcement Network (BERCEN) is an informal network that facilitates, assists and promotes enforcement and compliance of environmental legislation throughout South Eastern Europe in the framework of Stabilization and Association Process. The BERCEN member countries are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, FR of Yugoslavia and FYR of Macedonia. For more information, visit http://www.rec.org/REC/Programs/ REREP/BERCEN. 49

garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa dacvisa da kanonaRsrulebis balkaneTis qseli (BERCEN) warmoadgens araformalur qsels, romlis mizania samxreT-aRmosavleT evropis regionSi stabilizaciisa da gaerTianebis procesis farglebSi garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebisa da kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis mxardaWera da stimulireba. aRniSnuli qselis wevri-saxelmwifoebia: albaneTi, bosnia da hercogovina, bulgareTi, xorvatia, rumineTi, yofili iugoslaviis respublika da yofili iugoslaviis respublika makedonia. damatebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: http://www.rec.org/REC/Programs/REREP/BE RCEN.

BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE In USA: Procedures or controls other than effluent limitations to prevent or reduce pollution of surface water. For instance, they include runoff control, spill prevention and operating procedures. : , . , , ,

.

marTvis saukeTeso meTodebi

bioakumulacia

aSS-Si: procedurebi an kontrolis sxva meTodebi, romlebic Camdinare wylebis SezRudvasTan erTad gamoiyeneba zedapiruli wylebis dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis an Semcirebis mizniT. magaliTad, maT ganekuTvneba zedapiruli Camonadenis regulireba, avariuli CaRvrebis Tavidan acileba da danadgarebis eqspluataciis specialuri procedurebi.

BEST PROFESSIONAL JUDGEMENT An informed opinion made by a professional (s) in the appropriate field of study or expertise. , ( ) .

dasabuTebuli daskvna profesionaluri

mcenareTa an cxovelTa qsovilebSi nivTierebebis (rogorc wesi, mdgradi qimiuri nivTierebis an mZime liTonebis) dagroveba, ZiriTadad wylis STanTqmis an sakvebis saSualebiT. aRniSnuli procesi, rogorc wesi, ufro swrafad mimdinareobs, vidre mcenare an cxoveli SeZlebs am nivTierebaTa organizmidan gamodevnas, rac iwvevs organizmis mowamvlis donis TandaTanobiT gazrdas misi cxovelmyofelobis manZilze.

BIODEGRADABILITY The ability of a substance to be decomposed physically, and/or chemically by microorganisms. / .

biologiuri daSlis unari

Sesabamis sferoSi gansazRvruli codnis an praqtikuli gamocdilebis mqone specialistis (an specialistebis) mier miRebuli informaciis safuZvelze warmodgenili mosazreba.

BIOACCUMULATION The accumulation of a substance (typically a persistent chemical or heavy metal) in the tissue of a plant or animal, generally through the uptake of water or food, at a rate faster than the plant or animal can excrete it, resulting in a steady increase in contamination over the organism's lifetime. ( , ) , , , , . 50

mikroorganizmebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad nivTierebis fizikurad da/an qimiurad daSlis unari.

BIODEGRADABILITY FACTOR The ratio or percentage to which organic material can be decomposed. The biodegradable factor is not used in regular inspections, but is used in the assessment process by inspectors. , . , , .

biologiuri daSlis koeficienti

xarisxi an procentuli Tanafardoba, romelic Seesabameba organuli nivTierebis SesaZlo daSlis dones. biologiuri daSlis koeficienti ar gamoiyeneba regularuli inspeqtirebis

dros, samagierod inspeqtorebis mier muSaobis procesSi.

gaiTvaliswineba analitikuri

BIOGAS The gas that develops from biodegradable processes such as occurs in waste disposal sites or waste water treatment plants. The gas mainly consists of methane, other hydrocarbons, also carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Many other gases like ammonia and volatile organic compounds may develop, but are present in trace amounts. Most modern household waste disposal sites are equipped with biogas extraction units. After cleaning, the gas is used as a fuel for electricity generation. , , , , . , , . , , , , . . .

biogazi

BIOLOGICAL STANDARDS An example of biological standard might be a limit to the lead level that is permitted in the human bloodstream. The advantage of a biological standard as a tool for control is that it covers the combined effect from all sources at the point where it matters, that is at the target to be protected. The disadvantage is that it provides a signal only when the pollutant has already reached the target, possibly in excessive amounts. . , , . . , . : , , , .

biologiuri standartebi

airi, romelic warmoiqmneba biologiuri daSlis procesSi, magaliTad, narCenebis ganTavsebis poligonebze an Camdinare wylebis gamwmend danadgarebze. biogazi ZiriTadad Sedgeba meTanisagan, sxva naxSirwyalbadebisagan, aseve naxSirorJangisa da azotisagan. igi SesaZloa mcire raodenobiT Seicavdes sxva airebsac, magaliTad, amiaks da aqrolad organul naerTebs. Tanamedrove sayofacxovrebo nagavsayrelebis umravlesoba aRWurvilia biogazis danadgarebiT. gawmendis Semdeg biogazi gamoiyeneba eleqtroenergiis warmoebaSi sawvavad.

biologiuri standartis magaliTia tyviis Semcvelobis maqsimalurad dasaSvebi done adamianis sisxlSi. biologiuri standartis, rogorc kontrolis erT-erTi instrumentis upiratesobaa is, rom igi gansazRvravs yvela wyaros kombinirebul zemoqmedebas gamosakvlev obieqtze. misi naklovanebaa is, rom biologiuri standartis gamoyeneba saSualebas iZleva ganisazRvros damabinZurebeli nivTierebis maqsimalur donis gadaWarbeba mxolod maSin, roca damabinZurebeli nivTiereba ukve moxvedrilia organizmSi da SesaZloa, didi odenobiT.

BIOMAGNIFICATION The accumulation of a substance by an animal that preys on other animals that have themselves accumulated that substance. This process can deliver remarkably high concentrations of persistent chemicals or heavy metals to top predators even if the levels in the surrounding 51

physical environment are quite low. Chemical burdens, built up over a lifetime, can also be passed to the young via the egg (in the case of birds) or through the placenta and breast milk (in mammals). , , . , , . ( ) ( ).

biomagnifikacia

warning of possible hazards to human or environmental health. For example, the use of living organisms to assess the suitability of effluents for discharge into receiving waters and to test the quality of such waters downstream from the discharge. This kind of biomonitoring may be an effective way to reduce costs for inspectorates and identify synergistic effects of chemicals, which cannot be determined analytically. Syn.: Biological monitoring. (1) , , , . (2) . , , . , . .: .

biomonitoringi

nivTierebaTa dagroveba cxovelis organizmSi, romelic ikvebeba sxva cocxali organizmebiT, romelTa qsovilebSic, Tavis mxriv, ukve dagrovilia es nivTiereba. aRniSnuli procesi iwvevs mdgradi qimiuri nivTierebebis an mZime liTonebis gansakuTrebiT maRali koncentraciebis dagrovebas kvebiTi jaWvis boloSi myof mtacebel cxovelTa organizmSi, im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac am nivTierebaTa Semcvelobis garemoSi done SesaZloa minimaluri iyos. cxovelis sicocxlis manZilze dagrovili qimiuri nivTierebebi SeiZleba aseve gadaeces mis STamomavlobas kvercxiT (frinvelebSi), an placentiT da dedis rZiT (ZuZumwovrebSi). F

BIOMONITORING (1) Analysis of the amounts of potentially toxic substances or their metabolites present in body tissues and fluids as a means of assessing exposure to these substances and aiding timely action to prevent adverse effects. (2) The term is also used for an assessment of the biological status of populations and bio-communities at risk in order to protect them and to have an early 52

(1) cocxali organizmis qsovilebsa da siTxeebSi potenciurad toqsikuri nivTierebebis an maTi metabolitebis Semcvelobis donis analizi, romelic xorcieldeba am nivTierebebis cocxal organizmze zemoqmedebis Sesafaseblad da arasasurveli Sedegebis Tavidan asacilebeli zomebis droulad gasatareblad. (2) mocemuli termini aseve gamoiyeneba safrTxis winaSe myofi populaciebisa da Tanasazogadoebebis biologiuri statusis Sefasebisas, maTi dacvisa da adamianTa janmrTelobis da garemos

mdgomareobaze SesaZlo safrTxis Sesaxeb winaswari informaciis miRebis mizniT, magaliTad, cocxali organizmebis gamoyeneba gawmendili Camdinare wylebis wyalsadinarSi CasaSvebad vargisianobis dadgenisa da wyalCaSvebis adgilis qvemo dinebaSi wylis xarisxis gansasazRvrad. biomonitoringis aRniSnuli tipi SesaZloa inspeqtirebis xarjebis Semcirebisa da qimiur nivTierebaTa sinergiuli zemoqmedebis gansazRvris efeqtur xerxad iqces, risi analitikuri meTodebiT Sefasebac sinonimi: biologiuri SeuZlebelia. monitoringi.

BIOREMEDIATION The use of living organisms, such as bacteria, to clean up oil spills or remove other pollutants from soil, water and wastewater. , , , , .

bioremediacia aRdgeniTi zomebi) (biologiuri

wastewater and the permit for wastewater treatment plants often establishes the BOD of discharges. The BOD is rather time consuming to measure, and can be estimated from the chemical oxygen demand. . . , , , . , , 20C (5). 2 O2/ . , , 10 O2/, . , , , . , , .

Jangbadis bioqimiuri moTxovnileba (Jbm)

cocxali organizmebis, magaliTad baqteriebis gamoyeneba navTobproduqtebis daRvris Sedegebis salikvidaciod an niadagidan, wylidan da Camdinare wylebidan sxva damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa mosacileblad.

BOD Biochemical oxygen demand. n approximate measure of the amount of biochemically degradable organic matter in water bodies. It is defined as the amount of oxygen required for the aerobic micro-organisms present in a water sample to oxidise the organic matter to a stable form. The test is usually carried out over a period of five days and a temperature of 20ºC (BOD5). Unpolluted waters typically have BOD values of 2 mg O2/l or less. Inland water receiving waste water may have values up to or even exceeding 10 mg O2/l. BOD is often used as a measure of efficiency of treatment of urban 53

wyalsatevebSi bioqimiurad daSlili organuli nivTierebebis odenobis miaxloebiTi maCvenebeli. igi ganisazRvreba Jangbadis raodenobiT, romelic saWiroa wylis moculobis erTeulze arsebul organul nivTierebaTa aerobuli mikroorganizmebiT dasaJangavad stabilur mdgomareobamde. analizi, rogorc wesi, tardeba dReRamis ganmavlobaSi 200C temperaturaze daubinZurebeli wylisTvis (Jbm5). Jangbadis bioqimiuri moTxovnileba, Cveulebriv, 2 mg 02/l an ufro naklebs Seadgens. Sida wyalsatevebisaTvis, romlebSic Caedineba gauwmendavi Camdinare wylebi, damaxasiaTebelia Jbm-s maCvenebeliB10Mmg 02/l, zogjer ki - ufro meti. Jbm xSirad gamoiyeneba qalaqis

Camdinare wylebis gawmendis efeqturobis Sesafaseblad, amasTan, Camdinare wylebis gamwmendi sawarmoebisaTvis gacemul nebarTvebSi dgindeba Camdinare wylebis Jbm- maCvenebeli. vinaidan Jbm maCveneblis gamoTvla mniSvnelovan dros moiTxovs, SesaZlebelia misi miaxloJangbadis qimiuri ebiTi Sefaseba moTxovnilebis maCveneblis mixedviT.

BOD/COD RATIO A rough measure of the ability of bacteria to digest organic matter present, the so-called biodegradability. In natural water the BOD/COD ratio is approximately 0.7-0.8. If other organic or inorganic materials are present, the BOD/COD ratio decreases. / , . / 0,7-0,8. / .

Jbm/Jqm Sefardebis koeficienti

media consideration. Compare with BATNEEC and BAT. (. BPEO) , . BPEO ­ , (, , ). , , . , . . BATNEEC BAT. .

garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT saukeTeso praqtikulad ganxorcielebadi varianti (BPEO)

miaxloebiTi maCvenebeli, romelic gansazRvravs baqteriis unars gadaamuSaos mocemuli organuli nivTiereba e.w. biologiuri daSlis gziT. bunebriv wyalSi Jbm/Jqm Sefardebis koeficienti daaxloebiT 0,70,8-s Seadgens. wyalSi sxva organuli an araorganuli nivTierebebis arsebobisas Jbm/Jqm Tanafardoba mcirdeba.

BPEO Best Practicable Environmental Option. Term mainly used in the United Kingdom. The BPEO is the outcome of a systematic consultative and decision-making process, which emphasises the protection and conservation of the environment across all the media (air, water, land). BPEO takes account of local conditions and the current state of knowledge, and establishes the option that provides the most benefit or the least damage to the environment as a whole, at acceptable cost, in the long term as well as the short term. BPEO specifically requires cross54

termini gamoiyeneba did britaneTSi. BPEO - warmoadgens garemos ZiriTadi komponentebis (wyali, haeri, niadagi) kompleqsuri dacvisa da SenarCunebis mizniT sistematiuri konsultaciebisa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesis Sedegs. adgilobrivi pirobebisa da arsebuli miRwevebis gamoyenebiT ganisazRvreba varianti, romelic uzrunvelyofs garemosaTvis maqsimalur mogebas an minimalur zians misaRebi danaxarjebiT, rogorc grZelvadian, ise moklevadian perspeqtivaSi. BPEO atarebs mkafiod gamoxatul kompleqsur xasiaTs da iTvaliswinebs garemos sxvadasxva komponentebis urTierTqmedebas. SedarebisaTvis ixileT saukeTeso arsebuli teqnologia, romelic ar moiTxovs gadametebul danaxarjebs (BATNEEC) da

saukeTeso (BAT).

xelmisawvdomi

teqnologia

BREF DOCUMENT BAT reference document (BREF). A guiding document that contains detailed information on

what may be considered BAT for a particular industry. The BREF is not a legal document, but is provided for guidance to the licensing authorities in their determination of permit conditions for IPPC installations. The European IPPC Bureau prepares BREFs for each category of industry listed in Annex I of the IPPC Directive. It is intended that this work will be completed by the end of 2003, but a number of BREFs have already been finalised (including: iron and steel manufacture, cement and lime manufacture, ferrous metal processes, nonferrous metal processes, pulp and paper manufacture, chlor-alkali manufacture, glass manufacture and cooling systems). In preparing BREFs, the IPPC Bureau takes into consideration the opinions and views of experts from the Member States, industry and environmental organisations. Further information about the IPPC Bureau and details of the BREFs can be found on the Bureau website at www.eippcb.jrc.es BREF (BAT) ­ « BREF». , , (BAT) . BREF , , , . , I . 2003 ., BREF ( , , ). BREF , . BREF www.eippcb.jrc.es 55

BREF- dokumenti

sacnobaro dokumentebi saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologiebis Sesaxeb (BREF). saxelmZRvanelo dokumenti, romelic Seicavs detalur informacias teqnologiebis Sesaxeb, romlebic saukeTeso SeiZleba CaiTvalon xelmisawvdom teqnologiebad (BAT) mrewvelobis konkretuli dargisaTvis. BREF ar warmoadgens iuridiul dokuments da Seicavs rekomendaciebs nebarTvis gamcemi organoebisaTvis im sawarmoTa nebarTvis pirobebis gansasazRvrad, romlebzec vrceldeba evropuli IPPC - direqtiva. IPPC-is biuro amzadebs BREF - dokumentebs IPPC direqtivis I danarTSi CamoTvlili mrewvelobis yvela dargisaTvis. aRniSnuli samuSaos damTavreba dagegmilia 2003 wlis bolosaTvis. amasTan BREF dokumentebis umravlesobaze muSaoba ukve dasrulebulia (maT Sorisaa: rkinisa da foladis warmoeba, cementisa da kiris warmoeba, feradi metalurgia, celuloza-qaRaldis warmoeba da sxva). BREF-dokumentebis SemuSavebisas IPPC-is evropuli biuro iTvaliswinebs wevrsaxelmwifoTa eqspertebis, samrewvelo sawarmoebisa da garemosdacviTi organoebis SeniSvnebsa da winadadebebs. IPPC-is damatebiTi informacia evropuli biurosa da BREF-is Sesaxeb SesaZlebelia ixiloT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.eippcb.jrc.es

BUBBLE CONCEPT concept used to regulate air emissions in the USA. The concept allows all installations in a particular area to treat their emissions as though they are enclosed in a giant bubble. Limit values are established for the bubble as a whole, enabling the installations to get more pollution control on those stacks that are easier to control in exchange for reduced controls on those that are more expensive to control, provided that the overall emissions are reduced to comply with the emission values. Thus, within the bubble, companies are able to negotiate with each other

and to trade their emissions. See further emission trading. , . , . «» , , , , , , . , «» . . .

buStis koncefcia

environment or public welfare. For example, a buffer zone is established between a composting facility and neighbouring residents to minimise odour problems. (1) , . (2) , . , .

buferuli zona

koncefcia, romelic gamoiyeneba aSS-Si atmosferul haerSi emisiebis regulirebis mizniT. aRniSnuli koncefcia saSualebas aZlevs konkretuli regionis yvela sawarmos ganixilon maT mier ganxorcielebuli yvela emisia ise, TiTqos isini moTavsebuli arian gigantur "buStSi". zRvruli mniSvnelobebi dgindeba mTeli "buStisaTvis", rac saSualebas aZlevs sawarmoebs ganaxorcielon im milebis ufro mkacri kontroli, sadac es SesaZlebelia, im milebis naklebad mkacri kontrolis nacvlad, romelTa gakontroleba ufro Zviria, im pirobiT, rom Semcirdeba emisiaTa saerTo moculoba atmosferul haerSi gafrqvevaTa saerTo maCveneblis Sesrulebis mizniT. amgvarad, "buStis" farglebSi sawarmoebs SesaZlebloba eZlevaT awarmoon molaparakebebi erTmaneTTan da ivaWron emisiebiT. aseve ixileT emisiebiT vaWroba.

(1) neitraluri teritoria, romelic warmoadgens bariers or konfliqtur Zalas Soris. (2) teritoria, romelic minimumamde amcirebs damabinZurebeli nivTierebebis gavlenas adamianTa janmrTelobasa da garemoze. magaliTad, buferuli zona iqmneba sayofacxovrebo narCenis kompostirebis sawarmosa da sacxovrebel kvartals Soris arasasiamovno sunis problemis Semcirebis mizniT.

BY-PRODUCT Material, other than the principal product, that is generated as a result of an industrial process. Depending upon the situation, by-products can be considered either as waste or as valuable secondary products. The distinction is important for waste management purposes. , - . , . .

Tanmdevi produqti

BUFFER ZONE (1) Neutral area serving as a protecting barrier separating two conflicting forces. (2) An area that minimises the impact of pollutants on the 56

produqti, romelic warmoiqmneba romelime ZiriTadi produqtis warmoebis procesSi. sxvadasxva situacidan gamomdinare, Tanmdevi produqti SeiZleba CaiTvalos rogorc narCenad, ise Zvirfas

meorad nedleulad. es mniSvnelovania narCenebis miznebisaTvis.

gansxvaveba marTvis

57

C

CADASTRE In the NIS: Compilations of information (inventory) on natural resources, which perform the function of environmental stocktaking. This mainly covers the maintenance of land, water and forest resources. : , , , .

kadastri

, , . , , , .

dakalibreba

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: informaciis erToblioba bunebrivi resursebis Sesaxeb, romelic inventarizaciis funqcias asrulebs da ZiriTadad moicavs miwis savargulebs, wyalsatevebsa da tyis resursebs.

CALIBRATION Procedure used to test the performance of monitoring equipment against standard samples under controlled conditions, in order to check that the equipment is giving results which are accurate to within required limits. In other words, to ensure that instruments in different locations/laboratories produce the same results with the same samples. Calibration may be done at an installation or in an off-site laboratory, and must be repeated at regular intervals to ensure that the required performance is maintained. , , . , , . , , 59

procedura, romelic gamoiyeneba monitoringis miznebisaTvis gamosayenebeli gamzomi xelsawyoebis Sesamowmeblad. dakalibreba tardeba standartuli nimuSebis gamoyenebiT kontrolirebad pirobebSi, gazomvis cdomilebis farglebSi xelsawyos mier gazomvaTa zusti maCveneblebis dasamowmeblad. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, aRniSnuli procedura uzrunvelyofs sxvadasxva adgilebsa da sxvadasxva laboratoriebSi gamoyenebuli gamzomi xelsawyoebis mier erTsa da imave nimuSebze gazomvaTa erTnairi Sedegebis Cvenebas. dakalibreba SeiZleba gaxorcieldes imave sawarmoSi an sawarmos gareT sxva laboratoriaSi. gamzomi xelsawyoebis muSaobis ucvleli sizustis uzrunvelsayofad dakalibreba unda tardebdes regularulad.

«CARROT AND STICK» APPROACH Notion used to illustrate achievement of compliance through incentive-based means (carrot) and command-and-control means (stick). Carrot approaches are education, information, assistance etc., while the stick approach includes, for instance permit requirements, sanctions etc.

« » () (). «» , , «» , . .

"maTraxisa da Taflakveris" meTodi

[] (1) , . (2) , .

potenciuri tevadoba

aRniSnuli gamonaTqvami naTlad uCvenebs

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis

miRwevis gzebs stimulebis SeqmniTa (Taflakveri) da mbrZaneblur-administraciuli anu sadamsjelo meTodebis gamoyenebiT (maTraxi). midgoma "Taflkveri" iTvaliswinebs saganmanaTleblo, sainformacio RonisZiebebsa da xelSewyobis sxva xerxebs, maSin roca "maTraxis" midgoma gulisxmobs nebarTvebis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebas, sanqciebis gatarebas da a.S.

CATCHMENT AREA The area from which rainwater and other surface water drains into a river, lake or other body of water. , , .

wyalSemkrebi auzi

(1) damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa raodenoba da xarisxi, romlis miReba SeuZlia garemos mniSvnelovani Sedegebis gamowvevis gareSe grZelvadian da moklevadian perspeqtivaSi. (2) mosaxleobis, cxovelTa populaciebis maqsimaluri raodenoba, romelTa zemoqmedeba SeiZleba aitanos konkretulma bunebrivma teritoriam garemosaTvis Seuqcevadi zianis gareSe.

CEN (COMITE EUROPEEN DE NORMALISATION) European Committee for Standardisation. The CEN promotes voluntary technical harmonisation in Europe in conjunction with worldwide bodies, and works with national standards bodies. Development of national standards can be both expensive and timeconsuming. The CEN promotes the development of and implementation of European Standards, and the withdrawal of conflicting national standards. CEN is a nonprofit making international, scientific and technical organisation. For more information visit the CEN website at www.cenorm.be , , , . , . , 60

teritoria, saidanac wvimisa da sxva zedapiruli wylebi Caedinebian wyalsadinarSi, tbaSi an sxva wyalsatevSi.

CARRYING CAPACITY (1) The quantity and quality of pollutants that can be absorbed by the environment without noticeable long or short term effects. (2) The maximum population (of humans and other species) that a particular environment can sustain without irreversible environmental damage.

. . : www.cenorm.be

standartizaciis evropis komisia (CEN)

(, , ) . , .

sertificireba

standartizaciis evropis komisia xels uwyobs teqnikuri standartebis harmonizacias evropaSi da TanamSromlobs rogorc saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan, ise erovnul struqturebTan, romlebic dakavebulni arian standartebis SemuSavebiT. erovnuli standartebis SemuSaveba SesaZloa ZviradRirebuli da grZelvadiani procesi iyos. komisia xels uwyobs evropuli standartebis SeuSavebasa da danergvas, aseve urTierTgamomricxavi erovnuli standartebis gauqmebas. igi warmoadgens arakomerciul saerTaSoriso samecnieroteqnikur organizacias. damatebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi: www.cenorm.be

sawarmoebis mier monitoringis ganxorcielebisas gamoyenebuli mowyobilobebisa da RonisZiebebis dadgenil standartebTan Sesabamisobis Sefasebis procesi da procedura. sertificireba xorcieldeba sertificirebadi operatorisagan damoukidebeli, oficialurad akreditirebuli uflebamosili organos, an makontrolebeli organos mier. sertificirebis procesi moicavs monitoringis sistemis sxvadasxva aspeqtebis (maT Soris, mowyobilobis, xarisxis marTvis sistemebis da personalis kvalifikaciis) sistematiur Sedarebas dokumentalurad gaformebul procedurebsa da kriteriumebTan. arsebobs sertificirebis rogorc erovnuli, ise saerTaSoriso sqemebi.

CERTIFICATION The process and procedure used to judge if the monitoring facilities and activities at an installation conform to a specific standard. It is carried out by an authority which is formally accredited as competent to do it, and which is independent from the operator and the enforcement authority. Certification involves systematically comparing different aspects of monitoring, such as equipment, quality management systems and personnel with documented procedures and criteria. There are both national and international certification schemes. , . , . 61

CHANGE IN OPERATION A change in the nature or functioning, or an extension, of an installation or a process facility with possible consequences for the environment. A «substantial» change in operation is a change that may have significant effects on human health or the environment. It is for the competent authority to decide if a change is «substantial» or not. Changes can include: changes in raw material used, changes in operating processes, increasing the capacity of the installation, etc. In many cases the operator is required to inform the competent authority prior to any change being made. This is so that the competent authority can make any changes or amendment to the operating licence or permit. In some jurisdictions it is an offence not to notify the competent authority of any proposed changes.

, . «» , . . : , , . . , , . .

eqspluataciis Secvla maxasiaTeblebis

CHARGES/TAXES Direct payments based on the quantity and quality of a pollutant. Taxes are defined as compulsory payments to the government where benefits provided by government to taxpayers are not normally in proportion to their payments. As opposed to taxes, charges (fees, levies) are compulsory payments to either government or other bodies (e.g. environmental funds or water management authorities) where benefits might be proportional to their payments. Environmental charges and taxes may, to some extent, be considered as a «price» to be paid for pollution. They may have an incentive impact and a revenue (or fund) raising impact. In many cases, particularly in the NIS, they have mostly a revenue raising impact, and the revenues are intended for collective treatment, research on new abatement technologies or subsidising new investment. See also administrative charges, emission charges, product charges and user charges. / . , , , , . , () - (, ), . «», . , . , , , , . . , , .

sawarmoo procesis an danadgaris funqcionirebis nebismieri cvlileba an gafarToeba, romelmac SesaZloa gavlena iqonios garemoze. eqspluataciis maxasiaTeblebis "mniSvnelovani cvlileba" - es aris cvlileba, romelsac SeuZlia mniSvnelovani uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba iqonios adamianTa janmrTelobasa da garemos mdgomareobaze. eqspluataciis maxasiaTeblebis Secvlas "mniSvnelovani cvlilebis" kvalifikacias aniWeben uflebamosili organoebi. cvlilebad iTvleba gamoyenebuli nedleulis Secvla, sawarmoo procesis cvlileba, danadgaris simZlavris gazrda da a.S. xSir SemTxvevaSi, operatori valdebulia winaswar Seatyobinos uflebamosil organos mis mier dagegmili nebismieri cvlilebis Sesaxeb, raTa uflebamosilma organom SeZlos licenziaSi an nebarTvaSi moqmed Sesabamisi cvlilebisa da Sesworebis Setana. zogierT qveyanaSi dagegmil cvlilebaTa Sesaxeb informaciis uflebamosili organoebisaTvis Seutyobinebloba samarTaldarRvevad iTvleba.

62

mosakreblebi/gadasaxadebi

Semowmebis kiTxvari

pirdapiri gadasaxadi damabinZurebeli nivTierebis raodenobisa da xarisxis Sesabamisad. gadasaxadi warmoadgens savaldebulo saxelmwifo gadasaxads, im pirobiT, rom gadamxdelTa mier miRebuli samagiero sargebeli ar aris gadasaxadis proporciuli. amis sapirispirod, mosakrebeli - es aris savaldebulo gadasaxadi saxelmwifos an gansazRvruli organosadmi (magaliTad, ekologiuri fondebis an wylis resursebis marTvis saagentoebisadmi), rodesac momsaxureba SesaZlebelia gadasaxadis proporciuli iyos. garemosdacviTi mosakreblebi da gadasaxadebi garkveulwilad SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc "safasuri", romelic gadaixdeba garemos dabinZurebis sanacvlod. maT SesaZloa hqondeT motivirebuli zemoqmedeba, agreTve moitanon Semosavali fuladi saxsrebis saxiT. xSir SemTxvevaSi, gansakuTrebiT axal damoukidebel qveynebSi, garemosdacviTi mosakreblebi da gadasaxadebi ZiriTadad mimarTulia Semosavlebis misaRebad, romlebic gamoiyeneba komunaluri samsaxurebis, axali garemosdacviTi teqnologiebis sferoSi gamokvlevebisa da sainvesticio saqmianobis dasafinanseblad. aseve ixileT administraciuli mosakrebeli,

sakiTxebis an elementebis sistematizirebuli CamonaTvali, romelic gamoiyeneba Semowmebis gaadvilebis mizniT, magaliTad, sawarmoSi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis mdgomareobis Semowmebisas. aRniSnuli instrumenti gamoiyeneba inspeqtorebis mier inspeqtirebis ganxorcielebis dros.

CITES The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), signed in 1973. The convention aims to prevent or limit commercial trade in certain species, which are in danger of extinction or might become if their trade was allowed to continue unchecked. The convention covers not only live plants and animals, but also their derivatives. Anyone planning to import or export/re-export specimens of a CITES species should contact the national CITES Management Authorities of the countries of import and export/re-export for information on the rules that apply. In some countries, these are part of the environment enforcement authorities. At national level, close relationship between environment enforcement authorities and customs are required to effectively implement CITES. Not one species protected by CITES has become extinct as a result of trade since the Convention entered into force and, for many years, CITES has been among the largest conservation agreements in existence, with now over 150 parties. Its Secretariat is provided by the UNEP and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. For further information visit the CITES website at www.cites.org (. CITES) 1973 . ­ , , . , . / , , 63

emisiebis gadasaxadi, aqcizuri mosakreblebi da gadasaxadebi, bunebrivi resursiT sargeblobis gadasaxadi.

CHECKLIST List of items or subjects in a systematic way that assists in verification purposes e.g. in compliance checking of a facility. It is a tool to assist inspectors in the execution of an inspection. , , , . .

CITES / . . . , CITES, , , 150 . . (). . www.cites.org

konvencia gadaSenebis piras myofi veluri faunisa da floris saxeobebiT saerTaSoriso vaWrobis Sesaxeb (CITES)

TanamSromloba. konvenciis ZalaSi Sesvlis droidan arcerTi biologiuri saxeoba, romelsac CITES konvencia icavs, ar gadaSenebula vaWrobis Sedegad. mravali wlis manZilze konvencia warmoadgens erT-erT umniSvnelovanes garemosdacviT SeTanxmebas, romelsac dReisaTvis 150 qveyana miuerTda. konvenciis samdivno moqmedebs

gaeros garemos dacvis programis (UNEP) egidiT da ganTavsebulia q.

JenevaSi (Sveicaria). CITES konvenciis Sesaxeb damatebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.cites.org

konvencia gadaSenebis piras myofi veluri faunisa da floris saxeobebiT saerTaSoriso vaWrobis Sesaxeb (CITES) xelmowerili iqna 1973 wels. konvenciis mizania - komerciuli vaWrobis akrZalva an SezRudva gadaSenebis piras myof biologiuri saxeobebze an saxeobebze, romelTac ukontrolo vaWrobis gagrZelebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa gadaSenebis safrTxe daemuqroT. konvenciis moqmedebis arealSi xvdebian ara mxolod cocxali mcenareebi da cxovelebi, aramed maTi derivatebic. konvenciis danarTebSi Sesul saxeobaTa nimuSebis importis, eqsportisa da reeqsportis SemTxvevaSi, aucilebelia importis, eqsportis da reeqsportis qveynebSi arsebul CITES erovnul organoebTan dakavSireba dadgenili wesebis Sesaxeb informaciis miRebis mizniT. zogierT qveyanaSi aRniSnuli sakiTxeiT garemosdacviTi inspeqtoratebi arian dakavebulni. erovnul doneze konvenciis efeqturad realizaciisaTvis aucilebelia garemosdacviTi kanonaRmsrulebeli da sabaJo samsaxurebis mWidro

64

CIVIL JUDICIAL ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Formal lawsuits before the courts. Some countries with civil enforcement authorities rely exclusively on civil judicial actions to enforce environmental laws. Other nations have adopted both administrative and judicial mechanisms to carry out civil enforcement authorities. Where available, administrative enforcement is generally preferred as a first response, because judicial lawsuits are far more expensive, require more staff time, and may take several years to complete. However, judicial enforcement has several advantages. It is often perceived as having greater significance and therefore has more power to deter potential violations and to set legal precedents. Also, the courts are often uniquely empowered to require action to reduce immediate threats to public health or the environment. Thus, judicial enforcement can be essential in emergency situations. The courts also play an important role in enforcing administrative orders that have been violated, and in making final decisions regarding orders that have been appealed. . .

, . , , . . , , , . . , , , , . , . , . , , , .

kanonaRsruleba samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis gziT

Tlo procesebs xSirad ufro met mniSvnelobas aniWeben da amitom ufro farTo SesaZleblobebi gaaCniaT potenciur samarTaldarRvevaTa Tavidan acilebisa da kanonis uzenaesobis dadgenisaTvis. garda amisa, sasamarTloebs, xSir SemTxvevaSi, gaaCniaT gansakuTrebuli uflebamosileba - moiTxovon dauyovneblivi qmedebebi safrTxis Semcirebis mizniT, romelic eqmneba uSualod adamianTa janmrTelobasa da garemos. amgvarad, kanonaRsruleba sasamarTlos gziT Seucvlelia sagangebo situaciebSi. sasamarTloebis roli administraciul mniSvnelovania im miwerilobaTa Sesrulebis uzrunvelsayofad, romelTa aRsrulebac irRveva, aseve apelaciaze wardgenil miwerilobebTan dakavSirebiT saboloo gadawyvetilebaTa misaRebad.

oficialuri sasamarTlo ganxilvis procedura. zogierT qveyanaSi garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis dacvis uzrunvelyofa xorcieldeba mxolod samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis gziT. sxva qveynebSi kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianoba garemos dacvis sferoSi xorcieldeba rogorc administraciuli, ise sasamarTlo procedurebiT. SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi, rogorc pirveli sapasuxo zoma, upiratesoba eniWeba

CLEANER PRODUCTION Continuous application of an integrated, preventative environmental strategy to processes, products and services to increase ecoefficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment. This leads to improved environmental performance, cost savings, and risk reduction. For production processes, cleaner production includes conserving raw materials and energy, eliminating use of toxic materials and reducing the quantity and toxicity of all emissions and wastes before they leave the process. , . , . : , 65

kanonaRsrulebis administraciul zomebs, vinaidan sasamarTlo sarCelebi,

rogorc wesi, mniSvnelovan materialur da drois danaxarjebTanaa dakavSirebuli, da SesaZloa ramdenime welic gaWianurdes. miuxedavad amisa, kanonaRsrulebas sasamarTlos gziT Tavisi upiratesobebi gaaCnia. sasamar-

.

ufro sufTa warmoeba

, .

teritoriis dabinZurebisagan gawmenda

integrirebuli, prevenciuli garemosdacviTi strategiis uwyveti gamoyeneba sawarmoo procesebis, produqciis da ekoefeqturobis momsaxurebis mimarT amaRlebis da adamianTa janmrTelobasa da garemoze zianis miyenebis riskis Semcirebis mizniT. ufro sufTa warmoebis strategiis gamoyenebas Sedegad mosdevs garemosdacviTi saqmianobis efeqturobis amaRleba, danaxarjebis dazogva da riskebis Semcireba. ufro sufTa warmoeba sawarmoo procesebis sferoSi gulisxmobs nedleulisa da energiis dazogvas, toqsikuri masalebis xmarebidan amoRebas da yvela emisiis, narCenebis raodenobisa da toqsikurobis Semcirebas garemoSi maT moxvedramde.

CLEAN-UP ACTIVITY Activity that takes place to clean up an area or site that has been polluted. The clean-up can relate to either a specific incident, such as an unauthorised discharge to water, or to clean-up of an industrial site after the industry has ceased operation. In the latter case, the extent of the clean-up depends on national legislation and the competent authority whether it is to return the site to the state it was in before the industrial activity commenced, or to a condition that makes it suitable for future use. , . , , , . , , , 66

dabinZurebuli teritoriis an obieqtis gawmendis mizniT ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi. gamwmendi RonisZiebebi SeiZleba ganxorcieldes rogorc calkeuli incidentis SemTxvevaSi (magaliTad, arasanqcirebuli wyalCaSveba), ise sawarmos eqspluataciidan gamoyvanis Semdgom teritoriis rekultivaciis mizniT. am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi gansaxorcielebeli gawmendis xarisxi damokidebulia erovnuli kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebsa da uflebamosil organoze, romelmac SesaZlebelia moiTxovos saxelmwifosaTvis teritoriis dabruneba imave mdgomareobaSi, rogorSic igi imyofeboda sawarmos eqspluataciaSi Seyvanamde, an Semdgomi gamoyenebisaTvis vargis mdgomareobaSi.

CLEAN-UP COSTS The costs of the clean up of an area that has been polluted or damaged. The clean-up costs are borne by the polluter under the polluter pays principle. In some jurisdictions, the competent authority can carry out the clean-up itself and then claim the costs back from the polluter. , . « », -. , .

teritoriis dabinZurebisagan gawmendis xarjebi

dabinZurebul an dazianebul miwebze gamwmend RonisZiebaTa ganxorcielebisaTvis gaweuli xarjebi.

"dambinZurebeli

ixdis"

-

principis

Sesabamisad, aRniSnul xarjebs sawarmo-

dambinZurebeli gaiRebs. zogierT qveyanaSi gamwmend RonisZiebebs uflebamosili organoebi damoukideblad axorcieleben da Semdgom, dambinZureblisagan moiTxoven gaweuli xarjebis anazRaurebas.

- .

sainformacio kliringi

CLEAR CUT Harvesting all the trees in one area at one time, a practice that destroys vital habitat and biodiversity and encourages rainfall or snowmelt runoff, erosion, landslides, sedimentation of streams and lakes, and flooding. , , , , , , .

pirwminda Wra

informaciis da/an masalebis Segrovebisa da gavrcelebis mizniT warmarTuli saqmianoba. amgvari saqmianoba xSir SemTxvevaSi warmoadgens proeqtis sawyis etaps, romelic miznad isaxavs aucilebel mosamzadebel samuSaoTa ganxorcielebas garemos dacvis gansazRvrul sferoSi ama Tu im cvlilebaTa SemoRebis win.

CLEEN NETWORK Chemical Legislation European Enforcement Network. CLEEN consists of a network of authorities from all EU Member States plus Norway who are responsible for the enforcement of all legislation concerning chemical substances. CLEEN is a forum for the exchange of information. See also CLEEN website www.cleen-europe.org CLEEN . CLEEN , , . CLEEN , . www.cleen-europe.org

qseli - CLEEN

garkveul teritoriaze erT jerze yvela xis gaCexva, riTac irRveva sacicocxlo garemo, ziani adgeba biologiur mravalfrovnebas da xels uwyobs wvimisa da mdnari wylebiT niadagis gadarecxvas, eroziebis, mewyerebis ganviTarebas, wyalsadinrebsa da tbebSi natanis warmoqmnas, miwis savargulebis datborvas.

CLEARINGHOUSE An activity aiming at the collection and dissemination of information and /or materials. In many cases a clearing house activity is a start of a project to prepare for a change in a certain environmental field. , / . , 67

kanonaRsrulebis evropuli qseli qimiur nivTierebaTa gamoyenebis sferoSi. qselSi - CLEEN CarTuli arian evrokavSiris yvela wevri-qveynisa da norvegiis uflebamosili organoebi, romlebic pasuxs ageben qimiur nivTierebaTa gamoyenebis sferoSi kanonaRsrulebis ganxorcielebaze. qseli - CLEEN warmoadgens forums, romelic Seqmnilia informaciis gacvlis mizniT. ixileT informacia internetis qselSi: www.cleen-europe.org

CLEMENCY Leniency (mercy) towards e.g. the introduction of a law that cannot be enforced immediately and a certain leniency is applied during its introduction. The term also applies where a less strict penalty is imposed on a polluter than would otherwise be the case, because of the particular nature or circumstances of the offence or of the polluter. See also condoning. , , . , -, , , . . .

sasjelis Semsubuqeba

wyalsatevebis danagvianeba

wyalsatevebsa da wyalsadinarebSi ucxo warmoSobis, uxsnadi damabinZurebeli masalebis (xe-tyis, widis, jarTis da sxvaTa) moxvedra. danagvianeba ar iwvevs wylis fizikuri da qimiuri Tvisebebis mniSvnelovan cvlilebas, magram xels uSlis mis normalur dinebas.

COASTAL SHELTER BELT The strip of land in a water protection zone which directly borders the water body being protected. A special usage regime applies in such areas, where natural resource protection and other management activities are taken to prevent contamination, pollution and depletion of surface waters, and to ensure habitat protection for fauna and flora. Water intake and supply installations, fishing and hunting, and some other activities may be permitted in Coastal shelter belts. , . , , , . , , .

daculi sanapiro zoli

garkveuli lmobiereba, magaliTad, axali kanonis ZalaSi Sesvlis periodSi, rodesac misi moTxovnebis dauyovneblivi dacva SeuZlebelia. termini aseve gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac sawarmo-dambinZurebels samarTaldarRvevis an TviT sawarmos gansakuTrebul garemoebebTan dakavSirebiT ekisreba ufro msubuqi sasjeli, vidre es gaTvaliswinebulia amgvari SemTxvevebisaTvis. aseve ixileT pasuxismgeblobisagan

ganTavisufleba.

CLOGGING UP OF WATER BODIES The entry into water bodies and watercourses of polluting foreign insoluble objects (wood, slag, scrap metal, etc.). Clogging up does not significantly alter the physical and chemical properties of the water itself, but affects its flow. (, , . .). , . 68

xmeleTis zoli wyaldacviT zonaSi, romelic uSualod esazRvreba dacul wyalsatevs.OaseT teritoriebze moqmedebs bunebaTsargeblobis specialuri reJimi, xorcieldeba bunebrivi resursebis dacva da sxva RonisZiebebi zedapiruli wylebis mowamvlis, dabinZurebis da daSretis Tavidan acilebis, aseve florisa da faunis saarsebo garemos dacvis mizniT. dacul sanapiro zolSi dasaSvebia wyalamRebi da wyalgamyvani mowyobilobis gamoyeneba,

TevzWera da nadiroba, agreTve zogierTi sxva saqmianoba.

COD Chemical Oxygen Demand . COD is widely used as a measure of the susceptibility to oxidation of organic and inorganic materials in waters. Strong chemical oxidants, such as dichromate (COD-Cr) and permanganate (CODMn) are used in measuring COD. Typically, transition countries have used COD-Mn measurement, whereas many OECD countries introduced COD-Cr measurement some time ago. There are some differences between data obtained by these two methods: COD-Cr measurements are of the order of 10% higher than COD-Mn measurements, depending on the composition of the water sample. In unpolluted waters, COD values are in the order of 20 mg O2/l or less. The chemical oxygen demand of the effluent indicates the more persistent chemical components in the effluent. This compares with the biochemical demand, where oxygen is absorbed through bacteria. The latter process takes quite a long time for daily operational performance checking of effluent treating plants. Provided that a waste water treatment plant has a constant input, the COD is measured as a routine analysis to estimate the BOD of the effluent once the correlation ratio has been established. See BOD, and BOD/COD ratio. . . , , (-Cr) (-Mn). , , -Mn, -Cr. , , : , -Cr, , -Mn, 10%, . 69

20 O2/ . . (), . . . , . , , . . , /.

Jangbadis qimiuri moTxovnileba (Jqm)

farTod gamoiyeneba rogorc wyalSi Semcveli organuli da araorganuli nivTierebebis daJangvis maCvenebeli. KJangbadis qimiuri moTxovnilebis donis gasazomad gamoiyenebian Zlieri qimiuri damJangvelebi, magaliTad, diqromati (Jqm-Cr) da permanganati (Jqm-Mn). axal damoukidebel qveynebSi, rogorc wesi, gamoiyeneba Jqm-Mn gazomvis meTodi, maSin rodesac ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) umravles wevrqveyanaSi uaxloes warsulSi SemoRebul iqna Jqm-Cr - meTodi. am meTodebiT Catarebul gazomvaTa Sedegebs Soris arsebobs rigi gansxvaveba: Jqm-Cr meTodiT miRebuli maCveneblebi daaxloebiT 10%-iT aWarbeben Jqm-Mn meTodiT miRebul gazomvaTa maCveneblebs wylis sinjis Semadgenlobis Sesabamisad. daubinZurebeli wylisaTvis Jqm maCvenebeli Seadgens 20 mgO2/l an mets. Camdinare wylebSi Jangbadis qimiuri moTxovnilebis done miuTiTebs maTSi mdgradi qimiuri elementebis arsebobaze. aRniSnuli maCvenebeli unda Seudardes Jangbadis bioqimiur moTxovnilebis (Jbm) anu baqteriebis mier Jangbadis STanTqmis dones. Camdinare wylebis

gamwmendi danadgaris eqspolataciis xarisxis yoveldRiuri Semowmebisas gazomvis es ukanaskneli tipi did dros moiTxovs. Tu Camdinare wylebis gamwmend danadgars erTnairi xarisxis sawyisi masala miewodeba, Jqm-s sistematur gazomvaTa Sedegebi gamoiyeneba Camdinare wylebis Jangbadis bioqimiuri moxmarebis (Jbm) donis Sesafaseblad, rogorc ki dadgindeba am or maCvenebels Soris Sefardebis koeficienti. aseve ixileT

procedures. In either case, the involvement of the community in the design and implementation of the system is critical. , . ( ) , . .

sazogadoebrivi monitoringi

Jangbadis bioqimiur moTxovnileba (Jbm) da Jbm/Jqm Sefardebis koeficienti.

COMMAND-AND-CONTROL APPROACH An approach to environmental management in which the government prescribes detailed environmental requirements and enforces compliance with these requirements strictly and immediately. See also direct regulation and economic instruments. - , . . .

mbrZaneblur-administraciuli meTodebi

sistemebi, romlebic sazogadoebis mier SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnen adgilebze garemos mdgomareobis monitoringis gasaxorcieleblad. es sistemebi SeiZleba efuZnebodnen martiv (lakmusis qaRaldis msgavs) an ufro rTul teqnologiebs, romlebic moiTxoven ufro kvalificiuri adgilobrivi personalis momzadebas sinjebis aRebisa da analizebis Casatareblad. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, sazogadoebis monawileoba monitoringis sistemis SemuSavebasa da ganxorcielebaSi metad mniSvnelovania.

COMMERCIAL WASTE In United States: all solid waste from business. This category includes, but is not limited to, solid waste originating in stores, markets, office buildings, restaurants, shopping centres and theatres. : . , , , , , , , .

komerciuli narCenebi

garemosdacviTi saqmianobis marTvisadmi midgoma, romlis drosac saxelmwifo adgens detalizebul garemosdacviT moTxovnebs da atarebs kanonaRsrulebis gadaudebel da mkacr zomebs am moTxovnaTa Sesasruleblad. aseve pirdapiri regulireba da ixileT

ekonomikuri instrumentebi.

COMMUNITY MONITORING Systems that can be adopted by communities to monitor their local environment. These systems can be based on simple technologies (the equivalent of a strip or litmus paper) or can be more sophisticated and involve the training of local technicians in basic sampling and testing 70

aSS-Si: komerciuli sawarmoebis yvela myari narCeni. aRniSnul kategorias sxva narCenebTan erTad, ganekuTvneba narCenebi,

romlebic grovdeba maRaziebSi, bazrebSi, saofise SenobebSi, restornebSi, savaWro centrebsa da TeatrebSi.

COMPLAINT Reaction mostly from the public or an NGO on matters that are or may be a breach of environmental legislation or permit conditions. These complaints are mostly in writing and officials will then deal with them. Many authorities apply complaint driven inspections meaning that they react only on complaints rather than programmatic inspections. , , , . . , .

saCivari

, . .:

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesruleba

nebarTviT, kanoniT an sxva normatiuli

aqtiT gansazRvrul moTxovnaTa sruli dacva. farTo gagebiT, igi gulisxmobs ara marto moTxovnaTaAdacvas, aramed sasurveli Sedegebis miRwevasac.

COMPLIANCE ASSISTANCE Activities that aim to help the regulated community to understand and meet their environmental obligations. Compliance assistance may include activities or tools related to specific regulations; activities that address compliance issues or needs across particular business sector and can also be directed to specific regions. Compliance assistance may be provided by: organising meetings and seminars, carrying out compliance control activities by inspectors, establishing information centres/ clearinghouses or more comprehensive compliance assistance programmes. On-site consultations, printed information, particularly best practice guides, perhaps are the preferred types of compliance assistance. In OECD countries, compliance assistance activities are usually financed by the governments. , . , - , , , , . , , . , , . 71

rogorc wesi, es aris sazogadoebis an arasamTavrobo organizaciebis reaqcia im qmedebebsa da faqtebze, romlebic warmoadgenen an SesaZloa warmoadgendnen garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis an nebarTvis pirobebis darRvevas. Cveulebriv, saCivrebi oficialur organoebs gansaxilvelad gadaecemaT werilobiTi saxiT. mravali inspeqtirebas uflebamosili organo axorcielebs ara sainspeqcio Semowmebis aramed miRebuli saCivrebis gegmis, safuZvelze.

COMPLIANCE The full implementation of requirements or conditions in a permit or in law or regulations. Compliance occurs when requirements are met and desired changes are achieved. , , .

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSemwyobi saSualebebi

.

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis istoria

saqmianoba, romlis mizania daexmaros regulirebis obieqtebs garemosdacviTi valdebulebebis gacnobierebasa da maT nebayoflobiT SesrulebaSi. igi SeiZleba Seicavdes RonisZiebebsa da saSualebebs, romlebic ukavSirdeba konkretuli normatiul-sakanonmdeblo aqtebis Sesrulebas, an iTvaliswinebdes Roniskanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Ziebebs romlebic damaxasiaSesrulebisaTvis, Tebelia mrewvelobis konkretuli dargisaTvis an konkretuli regionis problemebisaTvis. kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSemwyobi saSualebebis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia iseTi RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebisas, rogoricaa Sexvedrebisa da seminarebis organizeba, inspeqtorebis mier kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebaze kontrolis ganxorcieleba, sainformacio centrebis/sainformacio kliringis an garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSemwyobi mravalmxrivi programebis ganxorcieleba. savaraudod, yvelaze gavrcelebul formas warmoadgens adgilebze konsultaciebis gaweva, beWvdiTi masalebis da saqmianobis ufro progresuli meTodebis saxelmZRvanelos gavrceleba. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) qveynebSi msgavsi RonisZiebebi, rogorc wesi, finansdeba saxelmwifos mier.

COMPLIANCE HISTORY A historic record of compliance. Can be of importance when deciding upon the severity of a sanction. (« »). 72

informacia kompaniis an sawarmos mier

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis

Taobaze. aRniSnul informacias SesaZloa mniSvneloba hqondes mkacri sanqciebis gatarebisas.

COMPLIANCE MONITORING (1) Collecting and analysing information on compliance status, including self-monitoring reports, and verification to show whether pollutant concentrations and loads contained in permitted discharges are in compliance with the limits and conditions specified in the permit. Compliance can be checked through measurements: direct (in many cases difficult or very expensive) or indirect (more available and cost effective). Biomonitoring can be another way to monitor compliance. (2) According to the US Environment Protection Agency's definition, compliance monitoring consists of a wide range of activities in six basic categories, which may overlap. These are: (i) surveillance, i.e. obtaining general site information prior to actually entering the facility, e.g. ambient sampling at the property line; (ii) on-site inspection; (iii) investigations that are generally more comprehensive than inspections; (iv) record reviews (administrative inspections); (v) targeted information gathering on the status of compliance and/or environmental conditions; and (vi) remediation compliance monitoring. Syn.: compliance control, compliance check. (1) , , , . : ( ­ ) ( ).

. (2) , , , . : (i) , , , ; (ii) ; (iii) , ; (iv) ( ); (v) / ; (vi) . .: C , . .

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis monitoringi

magaliTad, mimdebare teritoriidan sinjebis aReba; (II) sawarmos inspeqtireba; (III) gamokvleva, romelic ufro detalurad Seiswavlis situacias, vidre Cveeulebrivi Semowmeba; (IV) dokumentaciis detaluri Semowmeba inspeqtireba); (V) (administraciuli

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis

donis, da/an garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb monacemTa miznobrivi Segroveba; (VI) monitoringis ganxorcieleba sakontrolo obieqtis sapasuxo sinonimi: kanonmdeblobis qmedebebze.

moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis kontroli, kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis Semowmeba, Sesabamisobis monitoringi.

COMPLIANCE PROMOTION Any activity that encourages compliance with requirements without direct judicial consequences. Examples of compliance promotion include educational programmes, technical assistance, and sometimes subsidies. In general compliance promotion does not have immediate enforcement type repercussions, but will be used as an additional tool in cases where noncompliance persists. , . ­ , , , , . , , , . . , .

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSewyoba

garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis, maT Soris, TviTmonitoringis Sedegebis angariSebis (1) Sesaxeb informaciis Segroveba da analizi, agreTve am informaciis Semowmeba, romlis mizania damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa moculobisa da koncentraciis donis Sesabamisobis dadgena nebarTvis pirobebSi gansazRvrul emisiaTa maqsimalurad dasaSveb kanonmdeblobis moTmaCveneblebTan. xovnaTa Sesruleba SeiZleba Semowmdes gazomvebis meSveobiT: pirdapiri (xSir SemTxvevaSi rTuli da ZviradRirebuli) an arapirdapiri (ufro xelmisawvdomi da efeqturi) gziT. aseve SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas biomonitoringi, rogorc garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis monitoringis saSualeba. (2) aSS garemos dacvis saagentos mier gamoyenebuli ganmartebis Tanaxmad, kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis monitoringi Sedgeba farTo diapazonis qmedebebisagan, romlebic pirobiTad eqvs ZiriTad kategoriad iyofa. esenia: (I) winaswari momoxilva, anu sawarmoSi Sesvlamde winaswari informaciis Segroveba,

73

nebismieri saqmianoba, romelic mimarTulia garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis stimuli-

rebisaTvis da pirdapir ar ukavSirdeba sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebs. kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSewyobis magaliTebia: saganmanaTleblo programebis ganxorcieleba, teqnikuri daxmarebis gaweva, zog SemTxvevaSi, subsidiebis gacema. rogorc wesi, garemosdacviT moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSewyobas ar gaaCnia kanonaRsrulebis pirdapiri Sedegebi mkacri zomebis saxiT, amasTan, garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevis gargZelebisas, igi damatebiT saSualebad gamoiyeneba.

iRebs Seamciros emisiaTa moculoba da am gziT uzrunvelyos garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesruleba grafikiT gansazRvrul vadebSi (ixileT pasuxismgeblobisagan ganTavisufleba). aRniSnuli meqanizmi garemosdacviTi kanonaRmsrulebeli organoebis mier gamoiyeneba garemosdacviTi kanonmdeb-

lobis

moTxovnaTa

Sesrulebis

xelSemwyobi programis farglebSic.

sinonimi: kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis waxaliseba, kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis stimulireba.

COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE A negotiated agreement between a polluter and a government agency that specifies dates and procedures by which a pollution source will reduce emissions and thereby comply with a regulation in a pre-specified time frame. See also condoning. Also used internally within the environmental enforcement agencies as part of the (systematic) compliance programme. - , , , . . . () .

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis grafiki

COMPLIANCE STRATEGY A strategy (planning and approach) for achieving compliance with legal/permit requirements. The compliance strategy describes the instruments to be used for achieving compliance and the role of inspection and enforcement within that strategy. Its implementation starts already (if not before) at the promulgation of the laws and regulations. A compliance strategy can be drawn up by the competent authorities for a particular sector of industry and can include publicity and information to the target group and the preparation of technical guidelines. Individual compliance strategies can be drawn up by installation operators, sometimes with the assistance of the competent authorities. ( ) . , , . ( ). , . , .

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis strategia

sawarmo-dambinZurebelsa da saxelmwifo organos Soris dadebuli SeTanxmeba zusti vadebis da procedurebis miTiTebiT, romlis Sesabamisadac obieqti - dabinZurebis wyaro valdebulebas

74

strategia koncefcia),

(dagegmva romelic

da zogadi uzrunvelyofs

garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebas. strategia gansazRvravs instrumentebs, romlebic gamoyenebul iqneba kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis uzrunvelsayofad da asaxavs inspeqtirebisa da kanonaRsrulebis rols kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis strategiis farglebSi. strategiis realizacia iwyeba kanonebisa da normatiuli aqtebis ZalaSi SesvlisTanave (an ufro adre). strategia SeiZleba SemuSavdes Sesabamisi uflebamosili organos mier mrewvelobis romelime konkretuli dargisaTvis, aseve iTvaliswinebdes romelime miznobrivi jgufis informirebasa da propagandas, teqnikuri saxelmZRvanelo principebis momzadebas. individualuri strategiebi SeiZleba SemuSavdes sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebis mier, zog SemTxvevaSi uflebamosili organoebis daxmarebiT.

CONDONING The act by the competent authority to tolerate an illegal situation. The condoning can be active or passive. Active condoning means that the competent authority explicitly makes clear in writing to the offender that no administrative enforcement action will be taken against a certain illegal situation. Active condoning is allowed only under strict conditions and will usually include a requirement that the illegal activity ceases within a specified period of time and/or that specified actions are taken, including reporting to the competent authority. Passive condoning means that the illegal situation is tolerated without any action of the competent authority towards the offender. Passive condoning is not allowed, and officials can be brought to justice in cases where they allow passive condoning. , . . 75

, . , , / , . , . , .

pasuxismgeblobisagan ganTavisufleba

uflebamosili organos qmedeba, romelic samarTaldamrRvevis mimarT damsjel RonisZiebaTa gautareblobas iTvaliswinebs. pasuxismgeblobisagan ganTavisufleba SeiZleba iyos aqtiuri an pasiuri. aqtiuri ganTavisufleba iTvaliswinebs uflebamosili organos mier samarTaldamrRvevisaTvis werilobiTi formiT Setyobinebas imis Taobaze, rom Cadenili samarTaldarRvevis gamo mis mimarT kanonaRsrulebis zomebi gatarebuli ar iqneba. pasuxismgeblobisagan aqtiuri ganTavisuflebis gamoyeneba nebadarTulia mxolod mkacrad gansazRvrul pirobebSi da rogorc wesi, Seicavs moTxovnas Sewydes kanonsawinaaRmdego saqmianoba garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi da/an gatarebul iqnas konkretuli RonisZiebebi, uflebamosili organosaTvis angariSebis wardgenis CaTvliT. pasuxismgeblobisagan pasiuri ganTavisuflebis SemTxvevaSi kanonsawinaaRmdego saqmianoba nebadarTulia uflebamosili organos mier, romelic aranair zomebs ar iRebs samarTaldamrRvevis mimarT. pasuxismgeblobisagan pasiuri ganTavisufleba akrZalulia da amgvari qmedebis

damSvebi Tanamdebobis piri pasuxisgebaSi miecema.

CONCEALMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION Type of environmental offence that involves the deliberate concealment of information regarding the state of the environment, environmental safety and/or a refusal to supply the information when requested. For instance, in the NIS, in instances of deliberate concealment of data, the officials of the enterprise or organisation involved may be subject to criminal prosecution. In other instances, for example, when the concealment of information has not caused significant environmental or other harm, administrative punishments (fines) can be applied. , , . , , , . , , ().

garemosdacviTi informaciis dafarva

CONSISTENCY A principle of environmental enforcement. Means taking a similar approach in similar circumstances toward all violators. At the same time, criteria that justify variations of noncompliance response should be established, e.g., the attitude of the company's management and history of compliance. Consistency should be promoted within the environmental enforcement agency at the national and sub-national levels and also through more effective interaction with other enforcement authorities. . . , , , , « » . , , .

Tanmimdevruloba

garemosdacviTi samarTaldarRvevis saxe, romelic gamoixateba garemos mdgomareobisa da garemos usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb informaciis ganzrax dafarvaSi da/an amgvari informaciis moTxovnisas mis gacemaze uaris TqmaSi. magaliTad, axali damoukidebeli qveynebSi sawarmoebisa da organizaciebis Tanamdebobis pirebi, romlebic imxilebian garemosdacviTi informaciis dafarvaSi, SesaZloa miecen sisxlis samarTlis pasuxisgebaSi. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu informaciis dafarvas ar mohyva garemos mniSvnelovani ziani da sxva mavne Sedegebi, gamoiyeneba administraciuli saxdeli (jarima).

76

kanonaRsrulebis principi garemos dacvis sferoSi. igi gulisxmobs reagirebis erTnairi meTodebis gamoyenebas analogiur viTarebaSi myofi yvela damrRvevis mimarT. amasTan, aucileblia kriteriumebis SemuSaveba, romlebic gansazRvraven calkeul moTxovnaTa darRvevis faqtebze sxvadasxva reagirebis aucileblobas, magaliTad, darRvevis mimarT kompaniis xelmZRvanelobis midgomis, an am kompaniis mier kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis istoriis gaTvaliswinebiT. Tanmimdevrulobis principi misaRebi unda iyos garemosdacviTi kanonaRsrulebis samsaxurebisaTvis rogorc erovnul, ise teritoriul doneze, maT Soris sxva

kanonaRmsrulebel organoebTan ufro efeqturi urTierTTanamSromlobis gziT.

uwyveti gafrqveva/CaSveba

CONTINGENCY PLAN A document setting out an organised, planned, and co-ordinated course of action to be followed in case of a fire, explosion, or other accident (releases of toxic chemicals, hazardous waste, or radioactive materials) that threatens human health and/or the environment. See also Seveso Directive. , , , ( , ), / .

sagangebo situaciebis moqmedebaTa gegma

garemoSi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa nebadarTuli gaSveba, romelic mimdinareobs uwyvetad, iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda, rodesac danadgari Cerdeba teqnikuri momsaxurebisaTvis, sawarmoo procesSi cvlilebebis Sesatanad da sxva.

CONTROL DIMENSIONS OF COMPLIANCE The influence of enforcement on compliance with legislation by the target group. Control dimensions include informal report compliance probability, control probability, detection probability, and selectivity. . , , , .

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis sakontrolo parametrebi

dokumenti, romelic aRwers organizebul, winaswardagegmil da koordinirebul qmedebebs, romlebic savaldebuloa Sesasruleblad xanZris, afeTqebis an sxva avariis (toqsikuri saxifaTo qimiuri nivTierebebis, narCenebis an radioaqtiuri masalebis garemoSi moxvedris) SemTxvevaSi, rodesac safrTxes eqmneba adamianTa janmrTelobasa da/an garemos mdgomareobas. aseve ixileT sevezos

direqtiva.

CONTINUOUS DISCHARGE A permitted release of pollutants into the environment that occurs without interruption, except for infrequent shutdowns for maintenance, process changes, etc. , , . . 77

kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis gavlena miznobrivi jgufis mier kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebaze. sakontrolo parametrebis CamonaTvali Seicavs araoficialuri Setyobinebebis daxmarebiT kanondarRvevis aRmoCenis albaTobas, Semowmebis albaTobas, kanondarRvevis gamovlenis albaTobas, aseve SerCeviTobas.

CONTROL PROBABILITY Likelihood of being subject to an administrative (paper) or substantive (physical) audit and/or inspection by authorities. Also called «the chance of being caught violating». , () /

. « ».

Semowmebis albaToba

albaToba imisa, rom obieqti daeqvemdebareba administraciul (dokumentalur) Semowmebas an audits da/an inspeqtirebas uflebamosili organoebis mxridan. aseve uwodeben "cxel kvalze daWeris albaTobas".

fisa da dacvisaTvis, Statebisa da adgilobriv doneze. CTG - dokumentebi SesaZloa sakmaod detaluri iyos. magaliTad, erT-erTi maTgani Sedgenil iqna liTonis gamxsnelebiT gawmendis (e.w. cximgaclis) procesSi organuli emisiebis gasakontroleblad. sxva qveynebSi kontrolis meTodebis saxelmZRvanelo principebs, Cveulebriv, "teqnikur saxelmZRvanelo principebs" uwodeben.

CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN A plan made by a company in which it declares and defines its environmental actions. , , . .: .

garemosdacviTi saqmianobis korporatiuli gegma

CONTROL TECHNIQUE GUIDELINES In USA: Control technique guidelines (CTG) are documents issued by the Environmental Protection Agency to assist state and local pollution control authorities to achieve and maintain air quality standards for certain sources through reasonably available control technologies. CTGs can be quite specific, e.g., one was written to control organic emissions from solvent metal cleaning, known as degreasing. CTGs are usually called «Technical guidelines» in other states. , . ; , , . , , « ».

kontrolis meTodebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi

kompaniis mier SemuSavebuli dokumenti, romelSic gacxadebuli da gansazRvrulia misi saqmianoba garemos dacvis sinonimi: sawarmoebisa da sferoSi.

organizaciebis ZiebaTa gegma.

garemosdacviT

Ronis-

aSS-Si: kontrolis meTodebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi (CTG) - aSS garemos dacvis saagentos mier makontrolebeli organoebis dasaxmareblad gamocemuli dokumentebi, kontrolis xelmisawvdomi meTodebis atmosferuli haeris gamoyenebiT xarisxobrivi standartebis uzrunvelyo78

CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTS A way for corporations (undertakings) to disseminate information about their environmental record, either as part of an annual report or as a stand alone document. They can be used as an internal diagnostic tool to enhance environmental performance. The number of corporations reporting on social and economic practices is continuing to increase, with more than 35% of the world's largest corporations currently voluntarily releasing environmental reports. However, corporate environmental reporting is still in its infancy, and there are still substantial shortcomings to be overcome including consistency and coherence in the reporting format, and importantly, independent verification.

() . , . , . , , , 35% . , . , , , .

korporatiuli garemosdacviTi angariSebi

dasaZlevia. kerZod, saWiroa Tanmimdevrulobis principis gatareba, angariSis erTiani formatis SemuSaveba da, rac ufro mniSvnelovania, aRniSnul angariSebSi moyvanil monacemTa damoukidebeli Semowmebis praqtikis danergva.

CORRECTIVE ACTION Action taken by the authorities to redress an offence. This can include remediation and/or clean-up costs. In some instances the court may require an EIA report or a corrective action report so as to determine the most appropriate corrective action. . / . .

gamosasworebeli RonisZiebebi

kompaniebis (sawarmoebis) mier informaciis gavrcelebis meTodi garemos dacvis sferoSi maT mier gaweuli saqmianobis Sedegebis Sesaxeb. igi gamoicema rogorc kompaniis wliuri angariSis Semadgeneli nawili, ise calke dokumentis saxiT. aRniSnuli angariSebi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnen, rogorc Sida diagnostikuri saSualebani, romlebic xels uwyoben garemosdacviTi saqmianobis efeqturobis amaRlebas. kompaniebis ricxvi, romlebic regularulad aqveyneben angariSebs TavianTi ekonomikuri da socialuri saqmianobis Sesaxeb, mudmivad izrdeba. msoflios umsxvilesi korporaciebis 35%-ze meti dReisaTvis nebayoflobiT aqveynebs angariSs garemos dacvis sferoSi gaweuli saqmianobis Sesaxeb. amasTan, korporatiuli garemosdacviTi angariSgeba jer kidev sawyis stadiaSia da mniSvnelovani xarvezebi jer kidev

79

garemosdacviTi samarTaldarRveviT gamowveuli uaryofiTi Sedegebis gamosworebis mizniT uflebamosili organos mier gatarebuli zomebi. amgvar RonisZiebaTa Soris aRsaniSnavia

teritoriis dabinZurebisagan gawmendis

da/an rekultivaciis xarjebis anazRaurebis dakisreba. zog SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom SesaZloa moiTxovos

garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis (gzS)

angariSi an informacia yvelaze mizanSewonil gamosasworebel RonisZiebaTa gansazRvris mizniT.

COST-BENEFIT CONSIDERATIONS Material and non-material advantages and disadvantages listed to evaluate the benefits or otherwise of, e.g. complying with the law, or of introducing cleaner technology.

, , , , .

danaxarjebisa analizi da sargebelis

materialuri da aramaterialuri upiratesobebisa da naklovanebebis CamonaTvali, romelic saSualebas iZleva Sefasdes danaxarjebi da sargeblebi, romlebic warmoiSobian, magaliTad, kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa dacvisa an ufro sufTa warmoebis danergvis Sedegad.

COURT OF APPEAL A court for the hearing of appeals in cases of complaints and protests against court rulings, decisions of courts of original jurisdiction and court judgements which have not come into legal force. For example, if a court rules that criminal proceedings be brought against an official for significant damage caused to the environment as a result of the pollution, he may protest that decision, turning to the higher court which has the right to confirm or override the decision of the lower court. , , , . , , , , .

saapelacio sasamarTlo

gasaCivrebisa da gaprotestebis SemTxvevaSi. magaliTad, Tu sasamarTlo iRebs gadawyvetilebas Tanamdebobis piris mimarT sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb garemoze miyenebuli mniSvnelovani zianis gamo, Tanamdebobis pirs SeuZlia gaasaCivros aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba - mimarTos ufro maRali instanciis sasamarTlos, romelsac gaaCnia qvemdgomi instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis ZalaSi datovebis an gauqmebis ufleba.

COVENANT Agreement between at least two parties. The word is used in covenant policies in which an agreement between the industry (as an organisation) and the government is signed to reduce emissions or change a process or sometimes stop operating completely. The Dutch system of covenants represents (in European terms) an unusual hybrid, since these agreements both address collective and sector wide environmental issues and are legally binding on individual companies through the permit system, and are thus intimately linked to mainstream command and control. They form a key component of Dutch environmental policy. They set stringent quantitative pollution abatement targets for over 200 substances, premised on the basis that such targets can only be reached if industry accepts a greater share of responsibility in developing and implementing pollution abatement measures. Covenants have the status of contracts in civil law. There are two agreements. The first, a declaration of intent, is signed by the government and a branch (i.e. industry) association. This contract has no legal value, but it serves as a framework for the second type of contract, namely a series of agreements between the government and individual firms willing to join the covenant scheme. These individual contracts may imply firms' liability in a civil court. The covenants are also tightly linked to the permit system, which defines detailed emission standards for each individual site to be able to operate. Covenants are linked to this system, as their pollution abatement targets are eventually integrated into the permit requirements. Individual monitoring and sanctioning of firms in the covenant system is executed via the permit system. Firms whose company environmental plans (which indicate their 80

sasamarTlo, romelic ganixilavs apelaciebs sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa, pirveli instanciis sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa, aseve ZalaSi arSesuli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa

environmental targets, measures for reaching them and proposed time frames) are repeatedly rejected by the permit authorities will be subject to stricter requirements. . , ( ) , , . ( ) , , , - . . 200 , , . . . , , () . , , . . , . , 81

, . . , ( , ) , .

nebayoflobiTi SeTanxmeba

SeTanxmeba sul cota, or mxares Soris mainc. termini gamoiyeneba SeTanxmebis politikis aRwerisaTvis, romlis drosac xeli moewereba SeTanxmebas mrewvelobis dargsa (warmodgenili Sesabamisi organizaciis saxiT) da saxelmwifos Soris, romlis Sesabamisad unda Semcirdes emisiebi, an Seicvalon teqnologiuri procesebi, an srulad SeCerdes romelime sawarmoo saqmianoba. holandiaSi xelSekrulebaTa sistema warmoadgens ucnaur hibrids (evropul konteqstSi), vinaidan am qveyanaSi arsebuli SeTanxmebebi exeba koleqtiur da zogad-dargobriv ekologiur problemebs da iuridiulad savaldebuloa nebarTvebis calkeuli kompaniisaTvis sistemis meSveobiT, da amitom, mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli tradiciul mbrZaneblur-administraciul sistemasTan.D xelSekrulebaTa sistema safuZvlad udevs holandiis garemosdacviT politikas.Aigi adgens garemos dabinZurebis donis Semcirebis mkacr raodenebriv maCveneblebs 200-ze meti nivTierebisaTvis da efuZneba imas, rom aseTi maCveneblebis miRweva SesaZlebelia, Tu mrewveloba pasuxismgeblobas aiRebs garemos dabinZurebis SezRudvis RonisZiebaTa SemuSavebasa da danergvaze. samoqalaqo samarTlis Sesabamisad, SeTanxmebebs gaaCniaT kontraqtebis statusi. arsebobs ori tipis SeTanxmeba: pirveli, deklaracia ganzraxulobaTa Sesaxeb, romelsac xels aweren

saxelmwifosa da samrewvelo (dargobrivi) asociaciebis warmomadgenlebi. aRniSnuli SeTanxmeba ar aris iuridiulad savaldebulo da warmoadgens CarCo-xelSekrulebas meore tipis SeTanxmebisaTvis, kerZod, sxvadasxva xelSekrulebebisaTvis saxelmwifosa da calkeul kompaniebs Soris, romelTac surT xelSekrulebaTa sistemaze mierTeba. es calkeuli kontraqtebi SesaZloa iTvaliswinebdnen kompaniebis pasuxismgeblobas samoqalaqo samarTlis Sesabamisad. SeTanxmebebi mWidrod ukavSirdebian nebarTvebis sistemasac, romelic awesebs emisiis yoveli calkeuli standartebs sawarmosaTvis. SeTanxmebebi ukavSirdebian am sistemas, vinaidan masSi formulirebuli garemos dabinZurebis SezRudvis maCveneblebi, saboloo jamSi, Sedian nebarTviT gaTvaliswinebul moTxovnebSi. individualuri monitoringi da calkeuli kompaniebis sanqcirebuli saqmianoba xelSekrulebaTa sistemaSi xorcieldeba nebarTvebis sistemis meSveobiT. kompaniebs, romelTa garemosdacviTi saqmianobis gegmebi (romlebic aRweren garemosdacviT miznebs, RonisZiebebsa da vadebs) araerTgzis iqnen dawunebuli nebarTvis gamcemi organoebis mier, waredginebaT ufro mkacri moTxovnebi.

serious legal sanctions available. These responses seek criminal sanctions, which may include monetary penalties and imprisonment. Countries such as Canada that now rely exclusively on criminal law for environmental enforcement have also developed creative sentencing provisions to introduce other remedies and sanctions (such as community service and required environmental audits) designed to «punish» the wrongdoing. While criminal response can be the most difficult type of enforcement, it can also create the most significant deterrence since it personally affects the lives of those who are prosecuted and carries with it a significant social stigma. Criminal cases require intensive investigation and case development. They require proof that a violation has occurred and may require proof that an individual or business (through its employees) was knowingly and wilfully responsible for the violation. Specially trained criminal investigators may be necessary to develop criminal cases. The ability to apply criminal enforcement in environmental cases depends on a country's legal system and on whether appropriate authority is provided in the environmental or other laws. , , , . , . , , , , ( ), «» . , , . . 82

CRADLE TO GRAVE See LCA, Life cycle analysis. « » . .

"dabadebidan-sikvdilamde"

ixileT (LCA)

sasicocxlo

ciklis

analizi

CRIMINAL JUDICIAL RESPONSE An enforcement response under criminal law, that is considered appropriate when a person or facility has knowingly and wilfully violated the law, or has otherwise committed a violation for which society has chosen to impose the most

, , ( ) . . , .

sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis zomebi

Caidina Segnebulad da winaswarganzraxviT. sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa gamoZieba zogjer specialurad momzadebuli gamomZieblebis monawileobas moiTxovs. sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis zomebis gamoyeneba damokidebulia saxelmwifos sakanonmdeblo sistemasa da garemosdacviTi an sxva kanonebiT miniWebul Sesabamis uflebamosilebaTa arsebobaze.

CRITICAL LOAD Maximum allowable load (e.g. mass of pollutants per unit of time e.g. kg/h) that in no circumstances may be reached or is allowed to be surpassed. For instance, the concept of «critical loads» for soils has been developed in the EU as a reference for policies to reduce acid depositions. In this particular case, the «critical load» is the amount of substance that may be deposited in a given area over a given time-scale without adverse effects. It will depend upon the character of the soil and vegetation, and will vary from area to area. (. . , , /), . , « » , . « » , . .

kritikuli datvirTva

sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis kanonaRsrulebis zomebi Sesabamisad, gamoyenebuli im piris an organizaciis mimarT, romelic Segnebulad da winaswarganzraxviT arRvevs kanons an uSvebs samarTaldarRvevas, da romlis mimarT sazogadoebam gadawyvita gamoiyenos umkacresi sanqciebi. zemoqmedebis aRniSnuli zomebi iTvaliswineben sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobas, rogoricaa dajarimeba an Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. iseT qveynebSi, rogoricaa kanada, sadac garemosdacviTi kanonaRsruleba xorcieldeba mxolod sisxlis samarTlis wesiT, SemoRebul iqna ganaCenis gansxvavebuli tipebi, romlebic kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebebisaTvis "dasjis" uzrunvelsayofad iTvaliswineben sanqciebis sxva saxeebs (m. S. sazogadoebriv samuSaoebs da savaldebulo garemosdacviTi auditis Catarebas). marTalia, sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis zomebis gamoyeneba zemoqmedebis ufro rTuli proceduraa, samagierod igi uzrundarRvevaTa profilaqtikis velyofs ufro maRal dones, vinaidan uSualo gavlenas axdens damnaSave pirTa cxovrebaze da seriozul sazogadoebriv gakicxvas iwvevs. sisxlis samarTlis saqme safuZvlian gamokvleva/gamoZiebas saWiroebs, maT Soris mtkicebulebebis moZiebas, aseve imis damtkicebas, rom pirovnebam an organizaciam (Tavisi TanamSromlebis saxiT) samarTaldarRveva

83

maqsimalurad dasaSvebi datvirTva (anu damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa masa drois erTeulSi, magaliTad, kg/sT), romlis miRweva an gadameteba yvela SemTxvevaSi mkacrad akrZalulia. magaliTad, evrokavSirSi sacnobaro dokumentis momzadebis farglebSi SemuSavebul iqna

niadagebis "kritikuli datvirTvis" koncefcia programebisaTvis, romelTa mizania mJavuri naleqebis moculobaTa Semcireba. aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi "kritikul datvirTvas" warmoadgens nivTierebaTa raodenoba, romelic Sesalebelia movides konkretul teritoriaze gansazRvruli drois manZilze arasasurveli Sedegebis gareSe. kritikuli datvirTvis maCvenebeli damokidebulia niadagis Tvisebaze, mcenareul safarze da SeiZleba Seicvalos adgilmdebareobis Sesabamisad.

CROSS-MEDIA APPROACH An approach considering more than one environmental media. This approach has the advantage that the environmental impact of an installation on the environment as a whole is considered. This reduces the possibility of simply transferring the impact to one media to another media without considering the consequences to that media. The cross media approach requires great co-operation and co-ordination between different authorities (air, water, waste, etc). The trends worldwide are in the direction of cross media (integral) approaches. The USA and the NIS still have a single media approach while practically all European Union countries are moving towards the crossmedia approach, especially for the larger polluting industries. See also multi-media inspection. Syn.: Integrated approach. , . . . () ( , , . .). . , - , 84

. . .

kompleqsuri midgoma

midgoma, romelic iTvaliswinebs bunebrivi garemos erTze met komponents. aRniSnuli midgomis upiratesoba mdgomareobs garemoze sawarmos zemoqmedebis kompleqsur SefasebaSi. igi amcirebs garemos erTi komponentidan meoreSi zemoqmedebis gadatanis SesaZleblobas mosalodneli Sedegebis gauTvaliswineblad. kompleqsuri midgoma moiTxovs uflebamosili organoebis (romlebic pasuxismgebelni arian haeris, wylis mdgomareobaze, narCenebis marTvaze da sxva) mWidro urTierTqmedebas da koordinacias. mTels msoflioSi SeimCneva kompleqsur midgomebze gadasvlis tendencia. aSS-Si da axal damoukidebel qveynebSi dRemde gamoiyeneba erTkomponenturi midgoma, maSin, roca evrokavSiris praqtikulad yvela wevri-saxelmwifo kompleqsur midgomas aniWebs upiratesobas. gansakuTrebiT, es Seexeba mZime mrewvelobas, romelic dabinZurebis maRali doniT gamoirCeva. aseve ixileT

kompleqsuri inspeqtireba. integrirebuli midgoma.

sinonimi:

CSD (COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT) The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was established in 1992 to ensure effective follow-up of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which met in Rio de Janeiro 1992 and signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity, endorsed the Rio Declaration and the Forest Principles, and adopted Agenda 21. The CSD monitors and reports on implementation of these agreements at the international, national and regional levels. The CSD also elaborates policy guidance and options for future activities to follow-up UNCED and achieve sustainable development. For more information visit the CSD website at www.un.org/esa/susdev

1992 , (UNCED), . -- 1992 . , --, 21 . , , . . : www.un.org/esa/susdev

mdgradi ganviTarebis komisia (CSD)

mdgradi daarsda

ganviTarebis komisia (CSD) 1992 wels im RonisZiebaTa

realizaciis mizniT, romlebic dasaxul iqna gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis 1992 wlis rio-de-Janeiros garemosa da ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso konferenciis (UNCED) mier. konferenciaze xeli moewera CarCo konvencias klimatis cvlilebis Sesaxeb da konvencias biomravalferovnebis Sesaxeb, miRebul iqna daskvniTi dokumentebi - rios deklaracia, tyeebis marTvis principebi da 21-e saukunis dRis wesrigi. mdgradi ganviTarebis komisia axorcielebs monitorings da aRniSnul SeTanxmebaTa realizaciis mizniT awarmoebs angariSgebas saerTaSoriso, erovnul da regionalur doneebze, aseve SeimuSavebs politikur rekomendaciebsa da winadadebebs Semdgomi saqmianobis Sesaxeb garemosa da ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso konferenciis (UNCED) gadawyvetilebaTa mdgradi ganxorcielebisa da ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofisaTvis. dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.un.org/esa/susdev .

85

D

DAMAGE Harm, destruction, breakage and also polluting impacts that cause deterioration of the environment and human health. Those who cause damage [upon public, private or individual property] may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative penalties. Environmental damage is subject to compensation, in accordance with the norms of civil law, in the full amount of damage incurred by the violator to the injured entity or individual. Such damage . , [, ], , . , . , , . , .

ziani

is subject to voluntary compensation or compensation by court ruling, which obliges the violator to restore the natural condition of the damaged natural site. In the event of natural restoration being impossible, the amount of damage incurred is payable in the monetary equivalent. , , , Sesabamisad eqvemdebareba srul anazRaurebas. ziani eqvemdebareba nebayoflobiT an sasamarTlo wesiT anazRaurebas da akisrebs damrRvevs dazianebuli bunebrivi obieqtis aRdgenas pirvandel mdgomareobamde. Tu pirveladi mdgomareobis miRweva SeuZlebelia, miyenebuli ziani anazRaurdeba Sesabamis fulad eqvivalentSi.

mavne, damangreveli, an damabinZurebeli zemoqmedeba, romelic garemos mdgomareobisa da adamianTa janmrTelobis gauaresebas iwvevs. pirebs an organizaciebs, romelTa qmedebebmac gamoiwvia (saxelmwifo, kerZo an piradi sakuTrebis) ziani, SeiZleba daekisroT sisxlis samarTlis, samoqalaqo an administraciuli pasuxismgebloba. garemoze miyenebuli ziani, romelic miadga fizikur an iuridiul pirs damrRvevis mier, samoqalaqo samarTlis

86

DAMAGE ASSESSMENT A valuation of the damage, not necessarily in money equivalents. Damage assessment may be carried out by damage experts, and/or independent consultants. In many cases of environmental damage, inspectors are consulted especially where rehabilitation and the assessment of restorative activities is required. The inspectors assist in defining enforceable conditions to be prescribed to prevent future reoccurrence. , . / . , .

, .

zianis Sefaseba

zianis sidide ar aris aucilebeli ganisazRvros fuladi eqvivalentiT. zianis Sefaseba SesaZloa ganxorcieldes zianis Semfasebeli eqspertebis da/an damoukidebeli konsultantebis mier. xSirad, garemoze miyenebuli zianis Sedegebis salikvidacio samuSaoebis moculobis Sesafaseblad aucilebelia inspeqtorebis garemosdacviTi konsultaciebi. inspeqtorTa daxmareba aseve mniSvnelovania Sesasruleblad aucilebel pirobaTa gansazRvrisaTvis, romlebic mimarTulia momavalSi ganmeorebiTi zianis Tavidan asacileblad.

DAMAGE CLAIM The petition of victims or their legal representatives in general courts of law or arbitration courts for compensation for harm caused to them. Bills of complaint are usually prepared with the aid of specialists and considered by judges who make a decision whether a court procedure should be initiated. Bills of complaint can be rejected if they lack sufficient substantiation. For example, if the health of an individual has suffered, in his opinion as a result of pollution, such individual must documentarily prove the presence of an illness and its connection with the alleged violation of the law. Only in such an event will the victim have the right to put forward claims against the alleged violator of the law. , . , , , , . . , , 87

, . - .

sarCeli Sesaxeb zianis anazRaurebis

dazaralebulTa an maT kanonier warmomadgenelTa werilobiTi gancxadebebi, Setanili sasamarTloebSi an saarbitraJo sasamarTloSi miyenebuli zianis anazRaurebis sakompensaciod. sasarCelo gancxadebebi, rogorc wesi, Sedgeba specialistebis daxmarebiT da ganixileba mosamarTleebis mier, romlebic iReben gadawyvetilebas sasamarTlo ganxilvebis proceduris dawyebis Taobaze. sarCelis ganxilvaze uaris Tqma SesaZlebelia arasakmarisi safuZvlis gamo. magaliTad, Tu ziani miadga dazaralebulis janmrTelobas da dazaralebuli Tvlis, rom aRniSnuli ziani warmoiSva garemos dabinZurebis Sedegad, aucilebelia mis mier warmodgenil iqnes mtkicebulebebi daavadebis arsebobisa da savaraudo kanondarRvevasTan misi urTierTkavSiris Sesaxeb. mxolod amgvari mtkicebulebebis arsebobisas dazaralebuls ufleba aqvs pretenzia wauyenos savaraudo samarTaldamrRvevs.

DATA COLLECTION Compiling data and information to be put into databases or archives for retrieval and information purposes. This data is, among others, important for the development of Inspection strategies and the planning of enforcement activities. All OECD countries making used of electronic data collection from cradle to grave of the regulatory cycle meaning that permit application, permit conditions, monitoring and inspections are recorded and retrievable. The majority of the OECD countries have this data publicly available for consultation. The information in the databases is

also useful for providing information on the state of the environment. . , , . - (« »), . . , , , , . - . , , .

monacemTa Segroveba

DEPLETION OF WATER RESOURCES Decreases in the amount of water in surface water or ground water bodies (including reservoirs) resulting from the influence of human activity and being of a persistent nature. Such depletion of water resources does not include seasonal variations of water flow in rivers or natural changes in the volume of water in seas and lakes, etc. ( ) , . , .

wylis resursebis daSreta

monacemebisa da informaciis Segroveba monacemTa bazis an arqivis Sesaqmnelad maTi Semdgomi amokrefisa da damuSavebis mizniT. aRniSnuli monacemebi aseve inspeqtirebis strategiis saWiroa SemuSavebisa da kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis dagegmvisaTvis. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) wevr-qveynebSi monacemTa Segroveba warmoebs regulirebis eleqtronuli formiT ciklis yvela stadiaze ("dabadebidansikvdilamde") e.i. registrirdeba da muSavdeba monacemebi nebarTvebis miRebis, nebarTvis pirobebis, monitoringis da inspeqtirebis Sesaxeb. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) umetes wevrqveynebSi aRniSnuli monacemebi xelmisawvdomia sazogadoebisTvis. monacemTa baza aseve gamoiyeneba garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb informaciis misaRebad.

adamianTa saqmianobis Sedegad zedapirul da miwisqveSa wyalsatevebSi (wyalsacavebis CaTvliT) wylis moculobis mdgradi xasiaTis Semcireba. wylis resursebis daSreta ar gulisxmobs mdinareebSi wylis Camonadenis sezonur meryeobas an zRvebSi, tbebsa da sxva wyalsatevebSi wylis donis bunebriv cvalebadobas.

DEPOSIT-REFUND SYSTEMS Payments made when purchasing a product (e.g. packaging). Payment is fully or partially reimbursed when the [used] product or its package is returned to the dealer or a specialised treatment facility. The system is used in a number of countries to encourage recovery/recycling of packaging waste. For example, some OECD countries have depositrefund systems for drinks containers, batteries, tyres, vehicles and other products. - , (, ). [] . . 88

, , , , . « » : - .

depozitur-anazRaurebadi sistema

/ , .

gamovlenis zRvari

nivTierebis yvelaze mcire koncentracia, romlis drosac SesaZlebelia am nivTierebis gamovlena gansazRvruli analitikuri meTodis gamoyenebiT.

saqonlis (magaliTad, SesafuTi masalis) SeZenisas gadaxdili gadasaxadebi. (gamoyenebuli) saqonlis an SesafuTi masalis gamyidvelisaTvis an specializebuli gadamamuSavebeli sawarmosaTvis dabrunebis Semdeg gadaxdili Tanxa srulad an nawilobriv anazRaurdeba. aRniSnuli sistema mraval qveyanaSi gamoiyeneba SesafuTi narCenis regeneraciis/reciklirebis xelSewyobis mizniT. magaliTad, ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) qveynebSi aRniSnuli sistema vrceldeba sasmelebis minis taraze, eleqtroelementebze, avtomobilebis saburavebze, avtomobilebsa da sxva saqonelze.

DETECTION PROBABILITY Possibility or likelihood of detection of an offence during e.g. an administrative inspection or other investigations by authorities. , , , .

gamovlenis albaToba

DETERMINANTS OF COMPLIANCE The key factors that will affect the impact of a regulation on an external target group. The concept of a Table of Eleven (T11) key determinants of compliance has been developed in The Netherlands for use as a standard checklist for public agencies assessing new regulatory proposals and reviewing enforcement. The T11 factors are divided into 3 main categories: spontaneous compliance dimensions, control dimensions and sanction dimensions. , . (T11) , - , . 11 3 : , .

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis faqtorebi

darRvevis gamovlenis albaToba; magaliTad, uflebamosili organoebis mier administraciuli Semowmebis an sxva saxis gamokvlevis ganxorcielebisas.

DETECTION THRESHOLD/LIMIT The lowest concentration of a substance at which its presence can be detected by a particular analytical method. 89

ZiriTadi faqtorebi, romlebic gansazRvraven gare miznobriv jgufze normatiul moTxovnaTa zemoqmedebas. kanonmdeblobis garemosdacviTi moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis 11 ZiriTadi faqtoris koncefcia, e.w. "cxrili 11" (T 11) SemuSavebul iqna holandiaSi

rogorc tipiuri Semowmebis kiTxvari im saxelmwifo samsaxurebisaTvis, romlebic afasebdnen axal sakanonmdeblo debulebaTa proeqtebsa da kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis Sedegebs. "cxrili 11"-is maCveneblebi 3 ZiriTad kanonmdeblobis kategoriad iyofa:

moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis spontanuri faqtorebi; kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis sakontrolo parametrebi; da sanqciebi, rogorc kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis faqtorebi.

DETERRENCE External framework that discourages [potential] offenders from violating requirements or repeating the offence. Since no enforcement programme can provide sufficient presence all of the time, for all violators, each programme must rely upon and develop a complying majority and focus on addressing the remainder that do not comply. This provides enforcement with a multiplier effect. Deterrence can be seen as a combination of the chances of detection and the level of punishment. , , [] . , , , , . . . . .

darRvevaTa profilaqtika

yovelTvis, yvelgan da yvela damrRvevis mimarT, aseTi programa unda gulisxmobdes, rom umravlesoba icavs garemosdacviT kanonmdeblobas da mTeli yuradReba gadatanil unda iqnes kanonmdeblobis damrRvevebze. es mniSvnelovnad zrdis kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis efeqturobas. darRvevaTa Sekaveba SeiZleba ganixilebodes rogorc darRvevaTa gamovlenis SesaZleblobebisa da sasjelis simkacris Sexameba.

DIFFUSE POLLUTION See Non-point source. . .

difuziuri (dispersiuli) dabinZureba

ixileT arawertilovani dabinZureba. DIFFUSE SOURCE See Non-point source. . .

difuziuri (dispersiuli) wyaro

ixileT wyaro.

dabinZurebis

arawertilovani

DILUTION RATIO The relationship between the volume of water in a body of water and the volume of incoming liquid. It affects the ability of the body of water to assimilate pollution. .

gazavebis koeficienti

gare CarCoebi, romlebic qmnian (potenciur) samarTaldamrRvevTa mier danaSaulis Cadenis, an misi ganmeorebis Tavidan acilebis stimulebs. vinaidan arcerT kanonaRsrulebis programas ar ZaluZs uzrunvelyos saTanado reagireba

90

wyalsadinarSi wylis moculobisa da masSi Camdinare siTxis moculobis Tanafardoba. aRniSnuli koeficienti gavlenas axdens wyalsatevis dabinZurebis asimilaciis unarze.

DIRECT REGULATION (1) Institutional measures aimed at directly influencing the environmental performance of polluters by regulating processes or products used, by abandoning or limiting the discharge of certain pollutants or by restricting activities to certain times, areas, etc. These are: standards, bans, permits, zoning, quotas, use restrictions, etc. Their main feature is that a specific level of pollution (abatement) is prescribed. The polluter is left no choice but to comply with regulation, or face penalties in judicial and administrative procedures. (2) A rule or regulation that has to be implemented immediately and precisely. For example: From a certain date, announced in the official governmental paper, all number 4 fuels (a special grade fuel) may not contain more than 0.2 percent sulphur to avoid air pollution. There are no exceptions and no period of introduction of the rule. (1) , - , . . : , , , , , . . , ( ). , . (2) , , : , , 4 ( ) 0,2% . 91

.

pirdapiri regulireba

(1) instituciur RonisZiebaTa erToblioba, romlebic pirdapir zemoqmedeben sawarmo-dambinZureblis garemosdacviT saqmianobaze gamoyenebuli teqnologiuri procesebisa an produqciis regulirebiT, garemoSi gansazRvrul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa emisiebis SezRudviT an akrZalviT, agreTve, garkveuli saxis saqmianobebis mimarT droiTi an teritoriuli SezRudvebis dawesebiT da a.S. amgvar RonisZiebebs ganekuTvneba: normativebi, nebarTvebi, zonireba, akrZalvebi, kvotireba, gamoyenebis akrZalva da a.S. aRniSnuli meTodis mTavari maxasiaTebelia is, rom misi gamoyenebisas wesdeba dabinZurebis gansazRvruli done brZola). sawarmo(dabinZurebasTan dambinZurebeli iZulebulia daicvas normatiuli moTxovnebi, an pasuxi agos sasamarTlo an administraciuli wesiT. (2) moTxovnebi da normativebi, romelTa dauyovneblivi da ganuxreli dacva savaldebuloa. magaliTad, atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, oficialuri saxelmwifo dokumentis Sesabamisad, konkretulad ganisazRvra vada, romlis gasvlis Semdeg me-4 kategoriis yvela saxis sawvavi (sawvavis gansakuTrebuli kategoria) ar unda Seicavdes 0,2%-ze met gogirds. amasTan, dokumenti ar iTvaliswinebs gamonaklis SemTxeevevebs da gardamaval periods aRniSnuli moTxovnis etapobrivi danergvisaTvis.

DISCHARGE All effluents or other materials that are put into the environment. In US, most commonly, «discharge» is considered to be the release of any liquid waste into the environment from a point source, but also can refer to air emissions. , . , ,

«» , (. discharge) .

damabinZurebeli nivTierebis CaSveba

yvela Camdinare wyali an sxva nivTiereba, gaSvebuli garemoSi. aSS-Si rogorc wesi, terminiT "Discharge" aRniSnaven wertilovani wyaroebidan nebismieri Txevadi narCenis gaSvebas, magram igi SesaZloa aRniSnavdes atmosferul haerSi emisiasac.

DISPERSION MODEL A mathematical prediction of how pollutants from a discharge or air emission source will be distributed in the surrounding environment under given conditions of wind, temperature, humidity and other ambient factors. , , .

dispersiuli modeli

, , , ( , . .). , . , , , .

disciplinuri pasuxismgebloba

garemoSi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa gafrqvevisa da CaSvebis wyaroebidan am nivTierebaTa garemoSi ganawilebis maTematikuri prognozireba qaris, temperaturis, tenianobisa da garemos sxva parametrebis konkretuli maxasiaTeblebis pirobebSi.

DISCIPLINARY RESPONSIBILITY Punitive measures applicable to individuals and provided for in labour legislation, including punishments for environmental violations (removal of bonuses, demotions, etc). Irrespective of the form of property, measures of disciplinary responsibility are applied by the manager of an enterprise on his subordinates. For example, a manager has the right to demote, deduct the bonus or reduce the income of an employee who has violated the requirements of environmental legislation. 92

fizikur pirze dakisrebuli sasjeli, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia SromiTi kanonmdeblobiT, maT Soris sasjeli garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis darRvevisaTvis (fuladi premiis moxsna, Tanamdebobrivi daqveiTeba da a.S.). sakuTrebis formis miuxedavad, sawarmos xelmZRvanelebi xelqveiTebis mimarT gamoiyeneben disciplinuri pasuxismgeblobis zomebs. magaliTad, sawarmos xelmZRvanels ufleba aqvs garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebis darRvevisaTvis Tanamdebobrivad daaqveiTos, premia mouxsnas an xelfasi Seumciros muSaks.

DISPOSAL The emplacement of waste in a repository, or a given location, without the intention of retrieval. Disposal also covers the approved direct discharge of waste into the environment, with subsequent dispersion. . .

narCenebis ganTavseba

narCenebis ganTavseba poligonze an gansazRvrul teritoriaze maTi

Semdgomi amoRebis ganzraxvis gareSe. narCenebis ganTavseba aseve gulisxmobs narCenebis nebadarTul pirdapir gaSvebas garemoSi misi Semdgomi gabneviT.

DISPOSAL FACILITY A landfill, incinerator, or other facility that receives waste for disposal. The facility may have one or many disposal methods available for use. Does not include wastewater treatment. Compare with dump. , , . . .

narCenebis ganTavsebis sawarmo

, .

garemosdacviTi informaciis damaxinjeba

dainteresebuli mxareebisaTvis garemos mdgomareobis, ekologiuri usafrTxoebisa da bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb ganzrax damaxinjebuli informaciis miwodeba, an angariSgebaSi misi gamoyeneba. ganzrax damaxinjebuli informaciis wardgenis Sedegad gamowveuli zianis SemTxvevaSi Tanamdebobis pirebi miecemian sisxlis samarTlis, administraciul an samoqalaqo pasuxisgebaSi.

DUMP A site used to dispose of solid wastes without environmental controls. , .

nagavsayreli

narCenebis poligoni, nagavsawvavi an sxva

sawarmo, sadac Sedis narCeni misi ganTavsebis an gadamuSavebis mizniT. aRniSnul sawarmos SeuZlia ganaxorcielos narCenebis ganTavseba/gadamuSaveba erTi an ramdenime meTodiT. am kategorias ar ganekuTvneba Camdinare wylebis gamwmendi sawarmo. aseve ixileT nagavsayreli.

DISTORTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION Presentation to stakeholders or entry in the registers of deliberately false information on the environment, environmental safety and the use of natural resources. In the event of damage being caused as a result of the presentation of deliberately false environmental information, officials can be brought to account on criminal, administrative and civil grounds. , . 93

teritoria, romelic gamoiyeneba myari narCenebis gansaTavseblad dabinZurebis makontrolebeli specialuri danadgarebis gamoyenebis gareSe.

E

ECO-CONSUMPTION Use of products, which better respect the environment and which save energy. .

ekomoxmareba

energodamzogi da garemosTvis naklebi zianis mimyenebeli produqciis moxmareba.

lead to the development of what is virtually a new industrial sector, which has been called «eco-industry». It includes the development and marketing of equipment for air pollution control, waste water treatment, waste management, contaminated land remediation, and noise and vibration control, as well as research and development, environmental monitoring and environmental consultancy services. A database on EU eco-industries has been created recently (see http://europa.eu.int/comm/ environment/ecoindus/home.htm). Over 2 100 companies providing services in more than 60 different environmental technologies, products and services are described in the database. , « ». , , , , , - - . , 2 100 , 60 , , , - : http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/ecoindu s/home.htm

ekoindustria (ekologiuri mrewveloba)

ECO-EFFICIENCY Refers to the efficiency with which environmental resources are used to meet human needs. Proponents of eco-efficiency emphasise reducing environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of products as well as processes. . .

ekoefeqturoba

bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebis efeqturoba adamianis moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis mizniT. ekoefeqturobis momxreebi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWeben garemoze zemoqmedebis donis Semcirebas produqciisa da procesebis sruli "sasicocxlo ciklis" manZilze.

ECO-INDUSTRY Growing realisation of the need for environmental protection and restoration has 94

garemos dacvisa da aRdgenis aucileblobis sul ufro da ufro gacnobierebam warmoSva mrewvelobis axali seqtori, e.w. "ekoindustria". igi gulisxmobs atmosferuli haeris kontrolis, Camdinare wylebis gawmendis, narCenebis marTvis, dazianebuli miwebis rekultivaciis, xmaurisa da vibraciis kontrolis mowyobilobaTa SemuSavebasa da marketings, aseve garemos dacvis sferoSi samecniero gamokvlevebis, monitoringis da sakonsultacio momsaxurebis ganxorcielebas. evrokavSirSi ekoindustriis Sesaxeb axalSeqmnili monacemTa baza Seicavs informacias 2100-ze met kompaniaze, romlebic saqmianoben garemosdacviT teqnologiebTan, produqciasa da momsaxurebasTan dakavSirebul mrewvelobis 60-mde sferoSi. ixileT informacia internetis qselSi misamarTze: http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/ecoindu s/home.htm

ECO-LABEL Typically, a label attached to a product to inform a potential consumer of a product's characteristics, or of the production or processing method(s) used in its production. The eco-labelling is a voluntary award scheme for environmentally friendly products. It aims at promoting the design, production, marketing and use of products, which have a reduced environmental impact during their entire lifecycle. To be awarded the eco-label in the EU, the product must comply with requirements regarding safety, health and the environment, and specific product parameters. The EU ecolabel award scheme (Regulation 1980/2000) is available to services as well as products. , , , . , , 95

, . , , , . , .

ekomarka

rogorc wesi, produqciaze mimagrebuli niSani, romelic acnobebs potenciur momxmarebels produqciis maxasiaTeblebis, produqciis warmoebisa an gadamuSavebis meTodebis Sesaxeb. ekomarkis miniWebis sqema xorcieldeba nebayoflobiT da xels uwyobs im produqciis proeqtirebis, warmoebis, gasaRebisa da moxmarebis stimulirebas, romlebic minimalur zemoqmedebas axdenen garemoze sruli "sasicocxlo ciklis" manZilze. evrokavSiris qveynebSi ekomarkis misaniWeblad produqcia unda Seesabamebodes adamianisa da garemos usafrTxoebisa da uvneblobis gansazRvrul pirobebs da aseve am produqciisaTvis damaxasiaTebel specialur moTxovnebs. evrokavSirSi miRebuli ekomarkis miniWebis sqema (Regulation 1980/2000) moicavs rogorc produqcias, ise momsaxurebas.

ECONOMIC AGENTS Entities engaged in economic activity. Economic agents are usually legal persons or citizens engaged in entrepreneurial activity. . , , , . .: .

mewarmeebi

ekonomikuri saqmianobis rogorc wesi, maT

monawileni. miekuTvnebian

fizikuri an iuridiuli pirebi, romlebic dakavebuli arian samewarmeo saqmianobiT.

ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS Economic instruments, in contrast to direct regulation, allows economic agents the freedom to respond to certain stimuli in a way they themselves think most beneficial. Instruments may be considered «economic» when they affect estimates of the costs and benefits of alternative actions open to economic agents. Their effect is to influence behaviour and decision-making in such a way that alternatives are chosen that lead to an environmentally more desirable situation than in the absence of the instrument. Economic instruments only adjust the economic cost of an action and do not directly control its lawfulness. Examples include environmental subsidies, pollution (emission/effluent) charges/taxes, or emissions trading. In theory, if a certain environmental target is to be reached, economic instruments will induce cost-effective behaviour. Because an economic instrument is not a natural creation of a private marketplace but a product of government intervention, it will quickly cease to be effective without enforcement. Therefore, the environmental enforcement authorities apply enforcement collaterally to preserve the existence of an economic instrument. Syn.: «Market-based» instruments. , , , , . , , , . , , . 96

. , / (/ ), . , . , , . - . C.: .

ekonomikuri instrumentebi

ekonomikuri

instrumentebi,

romlebic

pirdapiri regulirebisagan ganxvavebiT, mewarmeebs maTTvis yvelaze momgebiani

konkretuli stimulebis Tavisufali arCevis saSualebas aZleven. instrumentebi SeiZleba CaiTvalon "ekonomikurad", Tu isini gavlenas axdenen im danaxarjebisa da sargeblebis Sefasebaze, romlebic dakavSirebulia mewarmis mier arCeul alternatiul qmedebebTan. ekonomikuri instrumentebis mizania zemoqmedeba moaxdinon qmedebebsa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesze imgvarad, rom gamoiwvion garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT ufro sasurveli alternativis arCeva am instrumentebis gamoyenebiT, vidre maT gareSe. ekonomikuri instrumentebi zemoqmedeben mxolod ganxorcielebul RonisZiebaTa ekonomikur Rirebulebaze da uSualod ar aregulireben maT kanonierebas. amgvari instrumentis magaliTia

garemosdacviTi subsidia, mosakreblebi/gadasaxadebi garemos dabinZurebisaTvis (garemoSi gaSvebisaTvis), aseve emisiebiT vaWroba. Teoriulad,

rodesac dasaxulia garkveuli garemosdacviTi miznis miRweva, ekonomikuri instrumenti xels uwyobs ekonomikurad gamarTlebuli qmedebis

ganxorcielebas. vinaidan yvela ekonomikuri instrumenti warmoadgens ara sabazro urTierTobebis bunebriv Sedegs, aramed saxelmwifos Carevis produqts, kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis gareSe misi efeqturoba swrafad qveiTdeba. swored amitom, uflebamosili makontrolebel-sazedamxedvelo organoebi paralelurad axorcieleben kanonaRsrulebiT saqmianobas ekonomikuri instrumentebis qmediTunarianobis SenarCunebis mizniT.

sinonimi: sabazro instrumentebi.

ECOTOXICOLOGICAL SURVEYS These are designed to check on the presence, trends or absence of effects in the receiving environments around a process, e.g. surveys of freshwater invertebrate populations near a sewage works as evidence of water quality. Their main advantage is that they give an integrated account of environmental impacts and health of ecosystems. Their main disadvantage is that the results can be difficult to interpret, for instance because some effects may not be directly related to the process of concern. , , , . , . , , , , .

ekotoqsikologiuri gamokvlevebiF

wylis xarisxis gansazRvris mizniT mtknari wylis uxerxemlo cxovelebis populaciebis gamokvleva. ekotoqsikologiur gamokvlevaTa mTavari upiratesoba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom igi iZleva garemosa da ekosistemebis mdgomareobaze zemoqmedebis kompleqsur suraTs, xolo mTavari naklovanebaa is, rom misi Sedegebi rTuli gasaanalizebelia, vinaidan zemoqmedebis zogierTi tipi SesaZloa pirdapir ar ukavSirdebodes gamosakvlev sawarmoo process.

EEA European Environment Agency. An agency of the European Union, which collects and analyses data on the state of Europe's environment and provides it to policy makers and to the public for the development and implementation of sound environmental policies in the European Union and other EEA member countries. Most of the candidate countries became members of the EEA in the beginning of 2002. The headquarters of the EEA are situated in Copenhagen. See also the EEA's web site www.eea.eu.int. , , - . - 2002 . - . . www.eea.eu.int

garemos dacvis evropuli saagento (EEA)

raime procesis Sedegad warmoqmnili narCenebis mimReb garemoze zemoqmedebis arsebobis, ganviTarebis, an ararsebobis analizi, magaliTad, Camdinare wylebis gamwmendi nagebobis ganTavsebis raionSi

97

evrokavSiris garemos dacvis saagento, romelic dakavebulia evropis garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb monacemTa SegrovebiTa da analiziT, agreTve politikis SemmuSavebeli organizaciebis da farTo sazogadoebisaTvis am

informaciis miwodebiT evrokavSirSi da garemos dacvis evropuli saagentos (EEA) wevr-saxelmwifoebSi erTiani garemosdacviTi politikis Seqmnisa da realizaciis mizniT. 2002 wels evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis kandidatsaxelmwifoTa umravlesoba garemos dacvis evropuli saagentos wevrebic gaxdnen. Stab-bina ganTavsebulia kopenhagenSi (dania). ixileT informacia internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.eea.eu.int

EFFLUENT Treated or untreated wastewater that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer or industrial outfall. Generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters. See also discharge. , , . , , . . .

Camdinare wylebi

EFFLUENT GUIDELINES In US, technical documents developed by the Environment Protection Agency, which set discharge limits for particular types of industries and specific pollutants. : , , .

saxelmZRvanelo principebi Camdinare wylebisaTvis

aSS-Si: garemos dacvis saagentos mier SemuSavebuli teqnikuri dokumentacia, romelic awesebs SezRudvebs

damabinZurebel

nivTierebaTa

CaSvebaze

sawarmoTa gansazRvruli tipisaTvis da gansazRvruli damabinZurebeli nivTierebebisaTvis.

EIA Environment impact assessment. A procedure to assess the impact on the environment of proposed activities to be undertaken based on actual data (zero measurement), scientific knowledge and extrapolation of potential effects and data of the activity proposed. This technical assessment may contain advice and alternative suggestions to minimise the environmental impact. The permitting authority may take the assessment into account in the proceedings to authorise (see EIS, environmental impact statement). The EU has adopted Directive 85/337/EEC on EIA, as amended by Directive 97/11/EC. The EIA Directive sets out the requirements for undertaking environmental impact assessments before development consent is granted for those public and private projects which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment. EIAs are mandatory for all those projects listed in Annex I of the Directive. For those projects listed in Annex II, the Annex III selection criteria must be used to determine if an EIA is required. Member States may decide which Annex II projects are to be subject to EIA either on a case-by-case basis and/or by setting thresholds or criteria. The assessment covers 98

gawmenili an gauwmendavi wylis nakadebi, romlebic Caedinebian garemoSi gamwmendi nagebobebidan an sakanalizacio da samrewvelo koleqtorebidan. rogorc wesi, es ganmarteba Seexeba narCenebs, romlebic Caedinebian zedapirul wylebSi. aseve ixileT damabinZurebeli

nivTierebis CaSveba.

EFFLUENT CHARGES See charges. . .

gadasaxadi CaSvebisaTvis Camdinare wylis

ixileT mosakreblebi/gadasaxadebi.

direct and indirect effects of the project on humans, fauna and flora, soil, water, climate and the landscape, material assets and cultural heritage and the interactions between these factors. O . , , (« »), , . , . (. ). 85/337/EEC, 97/11/EC. , , . , I . , II, III . , II / . , , , , , , , .

garemoze (gzS)

zemoqmedebis

Sefaseba

dagegmili saqmianobis garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis procedura, romelic efuZneba realur monacemebs (e.w. "nulovan gazomvas"), samecniero monacemebs, potenciur zemoqmedebaTa eqstrapolacias da informacias dagegmili saqmianobis Sesaxeb. aRniSnuli mecnieruli Sefaseba SesaZloa Seicavdes rekomendaciebsa da alternatiul winadadebebs garemoze zemoqmedebis minimizaciis mizniT. nebarTvis gamcem organoebs SeuZliaT gaiTvaliswinon garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefaseba nebarTvis gacemis proceduraSi (ixileT gzS-s angariSi). evrokavSiris mier garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis Sesaxeb miRebulia direqtiva - 85/337/EEC, romelSic Setanil iqna Sesworebebi 97/11/EC direqtivis Sesabamisad. direqtiva Seicavs moTxovnebs gzS-s Catarebis Sesaxeb garemoze SesaZlo mniSvnelovani gavlenis mqone yvela saxelmwifo da kerZo proeqtis mimarT, jer kidev aseTi proeqtebis ganxorcielebaze Sesabamisi nebarTvis gacemamde. gzS-s Catareba savaldebuloa direqtivis I danarTSi CamoTvlili yvela saxis proeqtisaTvis. direqtivis II danarTSi CamoTvlili proeqtebis mimarT saWiroa gamoyenebul iqnes III danarTSi warmodgenili kriteriumebi gzS-s Catarebis aucileblobis gansazRvris mizniT. evrokavSiris wevr-saxelmwifoebs ufleba aqvT damoukideblad gadawyviton, II danarTSi CamoTvlili proeqtebidan romelze Catardes gzS, da saWiroa Tu ara amgvari Sefasebis Catareba yoveli calkeuli proeqtis mimarT da/an zRvrulad dasaSvebi doneebisa da kriteriumebis dawesebis gziT. Sefaseba moicavs proeqtis pirdapir da arapirdapir zegavlenas adamianTa janmrTelobaze, mcenareul safarsa da cxovelTa samyaroze, niadagze, wyalze, klimatze, landSaftze, materialur faseulobebsa da kulturul memkvidreobaze, agreTve am faqtorebis urTierTqmedebas.

99

EIS Environmental impact statement. A document prepared as an outcome of the EIA. These statements might contain advice and suggestions for alternatives to those proposed by the developer. In many cases this statement is taken into account in the permitting process and may lead to specific conditions being included in the development permit. , . , . , .

gzS-s angariSi

and revised in 2001 (see Regulation 761/2001). The scheme has been available for participation by companies since April 1995 and its aim is to promote continuous environmental performance improvements of activities by committing organisations to evaluate and improve their own environmental performance and provide relevant information to the public. The scheme does not replace existing Community or national environmental legislation or technical standards nor does it, in any way, remove a company's responsibility to fulfil all of its legal obligations under such legislation or standards. To find more information please consult www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/emas See also ISO 14000 Series. (. EMAS) EMAS 29 1993 . , . 1995 . , . - , . : www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/emas . ISO 14000.

garemosdacviTi marTvis auditis sqema (EMAS) da

garemoze angariSi.

zemoqmedebis

Sefasebis

garemoze

zemoqmedebis

Catarebis Sedegad Sefasebis momzadebuli oficialuri dokumenti. aRniSnuli angariSi SeiZleba Seicavdes rekomendaciebsa da alternatiul winadadebebs. xSir SemTxvevaSi gzS-s angariSi mxedvelobaSi miiReba nebarTvebis gacemisas, rac gamoixateba masSi specialuri pirobebis damatebiT.

ELV (EMISSION LIMIT VALUE) See Emission standards. . .

zRvrulad dasaSvebi da CaSvebebi (zdg/zdC) gafrqvevebi

ixileT emisiis standartebi.

EMAS The Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, EMAS, was first adopted by the European Council on 29th of June 1993, allowing voluntary participation in an environmental management scheme, based on harmonised lines and principles throughout the European Union, 100

garemosdacviTi marTvis da auditis sqema (EMAS) miRebul iqna evrosabWos mier 1993 wlis 29 ivniss da iTvaliswinebs nebayoflobiT monawileobas garemosdacviTi marTvis romelic evrokavSiris sistemaSi, qveynebis mier SeTanxmebul principebs (ix. Regulation 761/2001) efuZneba. kompaniebis monawileobas aRniSnul iniciativaSi starti mieca 1995 wlis

aprilSi. sqemis mizania xeli Suwyos garemosdacviTi saqmianobis gasaumjobesebel uwyvet RonisZiebaTa ganxorcielebas, romlis drosac sawarmoebi afaseben da srulyofen TavianT saqmianobas da awvdian sazogadoebas Sesabamis informacias. sqema ar cvlis arsebul evrokavSiris an erovnul kanonmdeblobasa da teqnikur standartebs da ar uxsnis kompaniebs pasuxismgeblobas kanonmdeblobisa da standartebis SeusruleblobisaTvis. dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/emas. aseve ixileT ISO 14000 seriis standartebi.

EMISSION Any direct or indirect release of substances, vibrations, heat or noise from individual or diffuse sources of an installation into the environment (air, water or land). Emissions are generally used in relation to releases to the air, while discharges relate to releases to water. , , (, ). «», , (), «». C.:

emisia

EMISSION CEILING An emission ceiling, as particularly applied to air pollution, for a country or region, is the maximum amount of a given substance that may be emitted into the atmosphere in that given country or region in a year. Restrictions will have to be imposed on industry and other emitters to ensure that the emission ceiling is not exceeded in that area. The EU has adopted Directive 2001/81/EC which sets national emission ceilings for the Member States for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, VOCs and ammonia. , . . 2001/81/EC , , -.

emisiis zRvruli mniSvneloba

danadgaris

calkeuli an difuziuri wyaroebidan nivTierebebis, vibraciis, siTbos an xmauris nebismieri pirdapiri an arapirdapiri gaSveba garemoSi (atmosferul haerSi, wyalSi an niadagSi). terminiT "emisia", rogorc wesi, aRiniSneba atmosferul haerSi nivTierebaTa gafrqveva, maSin roca nivTierebaTa wyalSi CaSveba moixsenieba terminiT "damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa

CaSveba". sinonimi: gafrqveva/CaSveba.

atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebisas qveynisa da regionisaTvis dadgenili emisiis zRvruli mniSvneloba warmoadgens gansazRvruli nivTierebis maqsimalur odenobas weliwadSi, romlis atmosferul haerSi gamofrqvevac nebadarTulia mocemul qveyanaSi an regionSi. gansazRvrul teritoriaze emisiis zRvruli mniSvnelobis dacvis uzrunvelsayofad samrewvelo sawarmoebisa da sxva wyaroebisaTvis dgindeba Sesabamisi SezRudvebi. evrokavSiris mier miRebuli 2001/81/EC direqtivis Sesabamisad wevrisaxelmwifoebisaTvis erovnul doneze dadgenilia emisiis zRvruli mniSvnelobebi gogordis orJangis, aqroladi azotis Jangeulebis, organuli naerTebis an amiakisaTvis.

101

EMISSION CHARGES AND TAXES See charges and taxes. () . ().

emisiis gadasaxadi

(, ) . , . . EPER, PRTRs.

emisiebis reestri

ixileT mosakreblebi/gadasaxadebi. EMISSION FACTOR The relationship between the amount of pollution produced and the amount of raw material processed. For example, an emission factor for a blast furnace making iron would be the number of kilogrammes of particulate matter produced per tonne of raw materials processed. Expressed, e.g., in Kg mass emitted per 1000 tonnes of raw material processed. . , , . 1000 .

emisiis koeficienti

garemoSi (m. S. atmosferul haerSi) damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa emisiis wyaroebis inventarizaciis nusxa gafrqvevaTa moculobebis CvenebiT. aRniSnuli inventarizaciis nusxa gamoiyeneba rogorc garemos mdgomareobis zogadi SefasebisaTvis, aseve emisiebis zRvruli doneebis standartebi). gansasazRvrad (emisiis damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa ixileT emisiebis evropuli reestri (EPER),

garemoSi gaSvebul da gadaadgilebul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa reestri

(PRTR).

EMISSION STANDARDS Emission standards or levels are those amounts of a given substance that may be permitted to be emitted or discharged to the environment in a given period of time from a specific installation. They are also commonly referred to as e m i s s i o n l i m i t v a l u e s and d i s c h a r g e l i m i t v a l u e s . Emission standards should be clearly set out in the permit for an installation. The emission standards for a specific installation should be set so as to ensure that the environmental quality standards can be maintained, or will be maintained in the future. Therefore the emission standards for an installation in one area may be different from the emission standards set for a similar installation in a different area. () , () , ­ , . () 102

warmoqmnil damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa moculobisa da gadamuSavebuli nedleulis raodenobis Sefardeba. magaliTad, emisiis koeficients brZmedis RumelisTvis warmoadgens aqroladi myari nawilakebis masa, romelic warmoiqmneba erT tona nedleulis gadamuSavebisas. igi SeiZleba gamoixatos kilogramebSi 1000 tona gadamuSavebul nedleulze.

EMISSION INVENTORY A listing (inventory) by source, of the amount of pollutants discharged into the environment (e.g. the atmosphere). These inventories are used not only to help provide an overview of the state of the environment but are also to establish emission limit values (emission standards). See EPER, PRTRs.

. () , , ( ) . , (), , , , .

emisiis standartebi

firm their unused or surplus emission rights. These surpluses (meaning emissions less than that required by law or by permit) rights were acquired by either spending money to reduce emissions or applying cleaner technologies. The overall aim at that area is to maintain at least an overall constant emission level and not to increase the pollution. Emission trading is a relatively new idea, for example it has only very recently been established in the UK. It is seen by some commentators as a mechanism by which some countries can comply with their Kyoto Agreement obligations. , : , , . ( ) , . (. . , , ) . , , , . , , , . , . : () .

emisiebiT vaWroba

emisiis standartebi anu normebi gansazRvruli nivTierebis raodenoba, romlis garemoSi emisia nebadarTulia danadgaridan garkveuli konkretuli drois manZilze. emisiis standartebs aseve uwodeben zRvrulad dasaSvebi gafrqvevis an zRvrulad dasaSvebi CaSvebis normebs. emisiis standartebi mkafiod unda iyos gansazRvruli sawarmosaTvis gacemul nebarTvaSi, amasTan, maTi dadgenisas unda garemos uzrunvelyofil iqnes dacva xarisxobrivi standartebis awmyosa da momavalSi. amgvarad, konkretuli sawarmosaTvis dawesebuli emisiis standartebi konkretul teritoriaze SeiZleba gansxvavdebodes sxva teritoriaze ganTavsebuli analogiuri sawarmos Sesabamisi standartebisagan.

EMISSION TAXATION See charges and taxes. . .

emisiebis dabegvra

ixileT mosakreblebi/gadasaxadebi.

EMISSIONS TRADING Instrument that may be used to stabilize and/or reduce overall emissions in a given region or area. This trading allows one polluting firm to increase emissions through buying from another 103

sistema, romelic SesaZlebelia gamoyenebul iqnas mocemul regionSi an emisiebis stabilizaciis teritoriaze da/an Semcirebis mizniT. emisiebiT

vaWroba saSualebas iZleva erTma sawarmom gazardos emisiaTa moculoba sxva sawarmosagan mis xelT arsebuli gamouyenebeli an dazogili emisiis uflebis Sesyidvis xarjze. daSvebul emisiaTa amgvari dazogva (anu sxvaoba kanoniT an nebarTviT gaTvaliswinebuli emisiis moculobasa da realur dones Soris) miRebulia emisiebis moculobaTa Semcirebis mizniT investiciebis ganxorcielebis an ekologiurad sufTa teqnologiebis danergviT. misi ZiriTadi mizania mocemul teritoriaze, rogorc minimumi, SenarCundes emisiebis saerTo mudmivi done da ar iqnes daSvebuli dabinZurebis donis gazrda. emisiebiT vaWroba warmoadgens SedarebiT axal movlenas, romlis xorcSesxmis ideac warmoiSva axlaxans, magaliTad, did britaneTSi. zogierT specialistTa mier emisiebiT vaWroba ganixileba rogorc meqanizmi, romlis daxmarebiTac calkeuli qveynebi SeZleben Seasrulon kiotos oqmiT gaTvaliswinebuli valdebulebebi.

EMS Environmental Management Systems. An EMS is a management tool intended to assist the firm to achieve environmental and economic goals by focusing on systemic problems rather than individual deficiencies. That is, it involves the assessment and control of risks and the creation of an in-built system of maintenance and review. Its focus is on the organisational structure, responsibilities, practices, procedures and resources for implementing and maintaining environmental management. The basic elements of such a system include the creation of an environmental policy, setting objectives and targets, implementing a programme to achieve these objectives, monitoring and measuring its effectiveness, correcting problems, and reviewing the system to improve overall environmental performance. In future, the most popular form of EMS will almost certainly be one that complies with the International Standards Organisation's (ISO) EMS standard, ISO 14001 and, in Europe, with the EMAS.

( ) () , , . , . , , , . , , , , . , , , ISO 14001, , , , EMAS.

garemosdacviTi (EMS) marTvis sistema

garemosdacviTi marTvis sistema (EMS) warmoadgens instruments, romelic iTvaliswinebs kompaniebisaTvis daxmarebis gawevas garemosdacviTi da ekonomikuri miznebis misaRwevad sistemuri problemebis gadaWris, da ara calkeuli naklovanebebis aRmofxvris gziT. amgvari midgoma gulisxmobs riskebis Sefasebas da kontrols, aseve teqnikuri momsaxurebisa da kontrolis integrirebuli sistemis Seqmnas. garemosdacviTi marTvis danergvisa da mxardaWeris mizniT yuradRebis centrSi moqceulia - organizaciuli struqtura, movaleobaTa ganawileba, praqtika, procedurebi da resursebi. aRniSnuli sistemis sabazo elementebi

104

iTvaliswineben garemosdacviTi SemuSavebas, miznebisa da amocanebis formulirebas da am miznebis misaRwevi programebis realizacias, mis monitoringsa da efeqturobis Sefasebas, problemaTa aRmofxvrasa da mTeli sistemis koreqtirebas garemosdacviTi saqmianobis efeqturobis amaRlebis mizniT. momavalSi garemosdacviTi marTvis sistemis yvelaze gavrcelebul formad savaraudod iqceva sistema, romelic Seesabameba standartizaciis saerTaSoriso organizaciis (ISO) mier miRebuli EMS standartis, ISO 14001 da evropaSi, standartisa

politikis

technology incinerators are waste-to-energy recovery units. , , . .

energiis regeneracia

garemosdacviTi marTvis sqemis (EMAS) moTxovnebs.

da

auditis

END-OF-PIPE TECHNOLOGY A technology designed to control pollution from process units, generally installed at the point of emission. This in contrast to «in process» reduction of emission, designed to reduce emissions. « » , , . .

"milis boloze" teqnologia kontrolis

narCenebisagan energiis warmoeba mravalricxovani arsebuli procesebidan erT-erTis, magaliTad, dawvis meSveobiT. mravali Tanamedrove teqnologiis nagavsawvavi danadgari narCenebidan regenerirebuli energiis miRebazec muSaobs.

ENFORCEABILITY (1) The degree to which a requirement in a consent or permit can be enforced by exercising all available legal possibilities. The enforceability of conditions is of major importance in permit conditions. (2) Also means the magnitude or extent to which a condition «can stand in court» if and when challenged. (1) , . . (2) . .: , .

kanonaRsrulebadoba

sawarmoebis mier garemos dabinZurebis kontrolis mizniT SemuSavebuli teqnologia, romelic gulisxmobs Sesabamisi mowyobilobis damontaJebas uSualod damabinZurebeli nivTierebis emisiis wertilSi. "milis boloze" kontrolis teqnologia gansxvavdeba e.w. warmoebis procesSi emisiebis Semamcirebeli teqnologiebisagan.

ENERGY RECOVERY Capturing energy from waste through any of variety of processes, such as burning. Many new 105

(1) kanonmdeblobis, nebarTvis an licenziis moTxovnaTa iZulebiT ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba, nebismieri xelmisawvdomi iuridiuli procedurebis gamoyenebiT. kanonaRsrulebadobis principis gaTvaliswineba umniSvnelovanesia nebarTvis pirobebis SemuSavebisas.

(2) garemosdacviTi moTxovnis samarTlianobis damtkicebis SesaZlebloba sasamarTloSi misi ganxilvis dros.

ENFORCEABLE REQUIREMENTS Conditions or limitations in permits issued under certain acts that, if violated, will result in the issuance of a compliance order or which will initiate a civil or criminal action under relevant laws by the competent authority. , , , .

kanonaRsrulebadi moTxovnebi

, , , , , . , , .

kanonaRsruleba

dadgenili pirobebi an SezRudvebi, romlebic gaicema gansazRvruli normatiuli aqtebis Sesabamisad da romelTa Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi uflebamosili organos mier damrRvevis mimarT gamoiyeneba miweriloba kanonmdeblobis garemosdacviTi Sesaxeb an moTxovnaTa Serulebis aRiZreba administraciuli an sisxlis samarTlis saqme moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad.

ENFORCEMENT Enforcement, in the broad sense of this notion, is the application of all available tools to achieve compliance, including compliance promotion, compliance monitoring and noncompliance response. In a narrow sense, enforcement can be defined as the set of actions that governments or others take to correct or halt behaviour that fails to comply with environmental requirements.

nebarTvebiT

kanonaRsruleba, farTo gagebiT, niSnavs yvela arsebuli samarTlebrivi meqanizmis gamoyenebas, maT Soris kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSemwyob RonisZiebebs, inspeqtirebas da garemos mdgomareobis monitorings, aseve darRvevebze reagirebis zomebs. viwro gagebiT, kanonaRsruleba SeiZleba ganimartos, rogorc saxelmwifo organoebisa da sxva struqturebis mier gamoyenebuli zomebis erToblioba garemosdacviT moTxovnebTan Seusabamo saqmianobis gamosworebis an Sewyvetis mizniT.

ENFORCEMENT IN CASES OF LEGAL COLLISIONS Should there be conflicts, contradictions or gaps in the laws and regulations relating to a particular issue before a court, the following rules are applied: 1. Hierarchical collision: if the regulation contradicts a legal regulation of a higher hierarchical level, then the higher ranking regulation is applied; 2. Logical collision: if a special law rules an instance differently from the standard law, then the special law is applied; 3. Temporal collision: if a law that has been published later rules one way, and an earlier published law rules another, then the later published law is applied; 4. Gap collision: if a situation relates to a legal issue, but there is no law to regulate it, then 106

a similar law or right is applied to fill the gap; 5. In cases of contradiction between the requirements of international and national law, usually the requirements of international law are applied. , , - , : 1. : , ; 2. : , , ; 3. : , , , , ; 4. : , , , , ; 5. , , .

kanonaRsruleba koliziis dros sakanonmdeblo

kanonmdeblobas, gamoiyeneba specialuri kanoni. 3. drois kolizia: Tu ufro gvian gamoqveynebuli kanoni ewinaaRmdegeba adre gamoqveynebuli kanonis debulebebs, gamoiyeneba ufro gvian gamoqveynebuli kanoni. 4. samarTlebrivi vakuumi: Tu Seqmnili mdgomareoba eqvemdebareba samarTlebriv daregulirebas, magram ar arsebobs kanoni, romelic aregulirebs msgavs situaciebs, samarTlebrivi vakuumis aRmofxvris mizniT gamoiyeneba analogiuri kanoni an samarTlebrivi norma. 5. saerTaSoriso da erovnuli kanonmdeblobebis moTxovnaTa Seusabamebobis SemTxvevaSi, rogorc wesi, gamoiyeneba saerTaSoriso kanonmdeblobis normebi.

ENFORCEMENT INDICATORS Criteria used to assess the effectiveness of environmental enforcement. Indicators of enforcement performance are essentially of two types: activity indicators and result indicators. Activity indicators can cover both compliance assistance to the regulated community (for instance, training events or information materials) and enforcement measures (number of inspections, cases filed, monetary value of remedies/penalties, timeliness of actions taken, and follow-through on compliance orders and settlement agreements etc.). Environmental improvements will indicate the results of enforcement. Both types of indicators are necessary for a complete picture. , . : . (, ), 107

normatiul-sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi konfliqtebis, Seusabamobebisa da samarTlebrivi vakuumis warmoSobis SemTxvevaSi, romelic Seexeba sasamarTloSi gansaxilvel saqmes, gamoiyeneba Semdegi wesi: 1. ierarqiuli kolizia: Tu norma ewinaaRmdegeba ufro maRali statusis normatiuli aqtis debulebebs, gamoiyeneba ufro maRali statusis normatiuli aqti. 2. logikuri kolizia: Tu specialuri kanoni ewinaaRmdegeba zogad

( , , , , .). . , .

kanonaRsrulebis indikatorebi

in court cases, close factories in case of immediate danger to the public or the environment. , () . : , , , , , , , .

kanonaRsrulebis uflebamosileba

maCveneblebi, romlebic gamoiyenebian garemos dacvis sferoSi kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis efeqturobis Sesafaseblad. kanonaRsrulebis efeqturobis indikatorebi Cveulebriv ori tipisaa: saqmianobis maCveneblebi da Sedegebis maCveneblebi. pirvel tips SeiZleba miekuTvnon rogorc garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxov-

naTa Sesrulebis xelSemwyobi saSualebebi (magaliTad, saswavlo RonisZiebebi

an sainformacio masalebi), ise kanonaRsrulebis maCveneblebi (inspeqtirebis ricxvi, gamovlenil darRvevaTa raodenoba, jarimebisa da zianis anazRaurebis Tanxebis odenoba, reagirebis zomebis drouloba, inspeqtirebis Sedegad miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi da SeTanxmebebi da sxva). meore tips ganekuTvneba kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis ganxorcielebis Sedegad garemos mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis Sefasebis kriteriumebi. sruli suraTis misaRebad aucilebelia rogorc uSualod kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis Sedegebi, aseve monacemebi garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb.

ENFORCEMENT POWERS Powers invested in authorities to enforce. The essential powers of the enforcement authorities are: the right to enter premises, take samples, inspect records, investigate compliance with the laws, determine violations and report to either public prosecutors or political officials, appeal 108

uflebamosileba, romelic ekisreba kanonaRmsrulebel organoebs. am organoebis umTavresi uflebamosilebebia: sakontrolo obieqtis teritoriaze Sesvla, sinjebis aReba, dokumentaciis Semowmeba,

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis

Semowmebis mizniT gamokvlevis Catarebis, darRvevebis dafiqsireba da angariSis wardgena saxelmwifo bralmdeblebis an sxva Tanamdebobis pirebisTvis, monawileobis miReba sasamarTlo ganxilvebSi, im sawarmoTa saqmianobis SeCereba, romlebic pirdapir safrTxes uqmnian adamianTa janmrTelobasa da garemos mdgomareobas.

ENFORCEMENT PROGRAMME A programme dedicated to achieving compliance with environmental requirements and correcting and halting situations that endanger the environment or public health. Government enforcement programmes usually includes inspections, compliance checking followed by legal action, if necessary. The enforcement programme must be adequate to correct violations and deter potential violators.

, , . , , , , , . .KANON

kanonaRsrulebis programa

. .: ).

kanonaRsrulebis zomebi

qmedebaTa erToblioba, ganxorcielebuli kanonaRmsrulebeli organoebis mier samarTaldamrRvevTa mimarT, kanonmdeblobis garemosdacviTi moTxovnaTa darRvevebis da/an axali samarTaldarRvevebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT. kanonaRsrulebiTi organoebis mxridan reagirebis yvelaze gavrcelebuli formaa fuladi saxdelis dakisreba.

ENFORCEMENT RESPONSE POLICY The policy to be adhered to by the enforcement authorities when non-compliance is observed and the enforcement process has to be implemented. The policy describes the measures to be taken, how stringent the measures should be, and what penalties should be sought to deter reoccurrence of the violation. , (-) , . , , , ,

kanonaRsrulebis politika

programa,

romelic

mimarTulia

garemosdacviTi moTxovnebis Sesrulebis

uzrunvelsayofad, adamianis janmrTelobisa da garemos mdgomareobisaTvis saxifaTo situaciebis gamosasworeblad da aRsakveTad. kanonaRsrulebis saxelmwifo programebi, rogor wesi, moicaven inspeqtirebis ganxorcielebas, garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis Semowmebas da saWiroebis SemTxveevaSi, samarTaldarRvevebze saqmeTa aRZvras. kanonaRsrulebis programa unda uzrunvelyofdes darRvevaTa Sedegebis gamosworebasa da axali samarTaldadarRvevebis Tavidan acilebas.

ENFORCEMENT RESPONSE The set of actions taken by the enforcement authorities in response to a violation to bring the violator into compliance and/or to deter both the violator and others from future violations. The most common form of enforcement response is the monetary penalty. , () / , . 109

saerTo wesebi, romlebic unda daicvan kanonaRmsrulebelma organoebma, kanonmdeblobis garemosdacviTi moTxovnaTa darRvevis gamovlenisa da kanonaRsrulebis procedurebis ganxorcielebis dros. aRniSnuli politika gansazRvravs gasatarebel zomebs, am zomebis simkacres, aseve saxdelis saxes, romelic momavalSi uzrunvelyofs darRvevis gameorebis Tavidan acilebas.

ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING A systematic, comprehensive, documented, and objective evaluation mechanism at a facility (company) detailing the status of compliance with environmental requirements and/or of its management systems and practices that affect compliance. Internal audits are conducted by, or on behalf of the company itself for internal purposes. External environmental auditing is executed by private consultants to review company's conformity with the ISO standards From the governmental point of view, these audits are not mandatory. Sometimes, environmental auditing can be prescribed in permit conditions (e.g. in Ireland or Norway) and is therefore mandatory. , , (), / , . , , . , ISO. , , . ( ) .

garemosdacviTi auditi

standartebTan Sesabamisobis gansazRvris mizniT. amasTan, saxelmwifoebrivi TvalsazrisiT, amgvari auditebis Catareba savaldebulo ar aris. zogierT qveyanaSi (irlandia, norvegia) garemosdacviTi auditis ganxorcieleba gawerilia nebarTvis pirobebSi da am SemTxvevaSi savaldebuloa Sesasruleblad.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONVENTIONS An international agreement second to a treaty in formality, also a widely accepted or established view on the environment (see also protocol). , (. ).

garemosdacviTi konvenciebi

Tavisi formaluri doniT saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebis Semdeg meore adgilze mdomi saerTaSoriso garemosdacviTi SeTanxmeba (aseve ixileT oqmi).

ENVIRONMENTAL CERTIFICATION Procedure for confirming that the characteristics of the manufactured product are in compliance with environmental standards. Certification is carried out by state organisations and agencies on the basis of laboratory and technical tests. Certification may be compulsory or voluntary. . . , .

garemosdacviTi sertificireba

sawarmos

(organizaciis) saqmianobis sistematuri, kompleqsuri, dokumenturad gaformebuli da obieqturi Semowmeba, romelic miznad isaxavs gansazRvros TviT sawarmos da/an misi marTvis sistemis garemosdacviT moTxovnebTan Sesabamisobis done da muSaobis meTodebi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen aRniSnul moTxovnaTa Sesrulebaze. Sida auditi, rogorc wesi, tardeba uSualod organizaciis mier an misi saxeliT Tavisi Sida miznebisaTvis. gare auditi tardeba kerZo konsultantebis mier garkveul moTxovnebTan, magaliTad, ISO

110

warmoebis produqtis maxasiaTeblebis garemosdacviT standartebTan Sesabamisobis dadasturebis procedura. sertifikacia xorcieldeba saxelmwifo dawesebulebebisa da organizaciebis mier laboratoriuli da teqnikuri gamocdis

Sedegebis safuZvelze. sertifikacia SeiZleba iyos savaldebulo an nebayoflobiTi.

ENVIRONMENTAL CRIMES Violations of environmental requirements and conditions falling under the criminal law. As opposed to administrative offences, an environmental crime is characterised by a high level of public threat. Examples of environmental crimes include: pollution causing significant damage to air, water or soil, fraud in bookkeeping on waste generation, illegal declaration of waste quantities and disposal. , . , . : , , , .

ekologiuri danaSauli

laboratory analyses or from experimental systems representing such processes and conditions. , , , , .

garemosdacviTi monacemebi

nebismieri saxis monacemi an informacia, romelic Segrovda an miRebul iqna gazomvebis, analizebis Catarebis an bunebrivi procesebis, pirobebisa da damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa adamianis janmrTelobasa da garemoze zemoqmedebis modelebis Seqmnis (maT Soris, laboratoriuli analizebis, an am procesebisa da pirobebis gamomwvevi eqsperimentebis Sedegad) gziT.

ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER ZONE In the NIS: A territory subjected to negative influences as the result of an accident or catastrophe caused by natural or man-made factors. : , .

ekologiuri ubedurebis zona

garemosdacviTi moTxovnebisa da pirobebis darRveva, romelzec vrceldeba sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi.

administraciuli samarTaldarRvevisagan

gansxvavebiT, ekologiuri danaSauli iTvleba sazogadoebrivad saSiS qmedebad. ekologiuri danaSaulis magaliTia: dabinZureba, romelmac mniSvnelovani ziani miayena atmosferul haers, wyals an niadags, narCenebis warmoqmnis Sesaxeb monacemTa gayalbeba, yalbi deklaraciis miwodeba narCenebis moculobebis da ganTavsebis Sesaxeb.

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: teritoria, romelic anTropogenuri avariis, katastrofis an stiqiuri ubedurebis Sedegad ganicdis uaryofiT zemoqmedebas.

ENVIRONMENTAL DUMPING Where companies move from one country to another because the environmental requirements are less strict there. , . 111

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA Any parameters or pieces of information collected or produced from measurements, analyses, or models of environmental processes, conditions, and effects of pollutants on human health and the ecology, including results from

ekologiuri dempingi

kompaniis erTi qveynidan meore qveyanaSi gadaadgileba, sadac garemosdacviTi moTxovnebi naklebad mkacria.

ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY This is a situation occurring at a particular site as a result of an accident, a hazardous natural phenomenon, a catastrophe, natural or other disaster, which might result in, or has already resulted, in human casualties, in harm to human health or the natural environment, or significant material losses and disruption of people's lives. , , , , , , , .

sagangebo ekologiuri mdgomareoba

natural resources. The laws of western countries do not have similar provisions with regard to such environmental emergency zones. There is, however, in the EU a developed system for the prevention of emergency situations (see the article on the Seveso Directive). , , , . , , , , , . , (. ).

sagangebo ekologiuri mdgomareobis zona

situacia, romelic iqmneba garkveul teritoriaze avariis, saxifaTo bunebrivi movlenis, katastrofis, stiqiuri an sxva ubedurebis Sedegad, romelic SeiZleba gaxdes an ukve gaxda adamianTa msxverplis, adamianTa janmrTelobaze an garemos mdgomreobaze zianis, mniSvnelovani materialuri zianis miyenebisa da adamianTa keTildReobis xelyofis mizezi.

ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY ZONE In the NIS, territories are defined as being environmental emergency zones if, as a result of economic or other activities, there is a negative change in the environment which significantly threatens the health of the population, the condition of natural ecosystems and the genetic fund of flora and fauna. In environmental emergency zones, activities negatively affecting the environment and human health are terminated, certain forms of economic activity related to the use of natural resources are limited and measures are taken to restore and reproduce 112

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi teritoriebi cxaddeba sagangebo ekologiuri mdgomareobis zonad, Tu ekonomikuri an sxva saqmianobis Sedegad moxda garemos mdgomareobis uaryofiTi cvlileba, romelic seriozul safrTxes uqmnis mosaxleobas, bunebriv ekosistemebs da florisa da faunis genetikur fonds. sagangebo ekologiuri mdgomareobis zonaSi wydeba saqmianoba, romelic uaryofiT gavlenas axdens adamianTa janmrTelobasa da garemoze, xolo garkveuli saxis, bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebuli ekonomikuri saqmianoba izRudeba da xorcieldeba RonisZiebebi bunebrivi resursebis aRdgenisa da aRwarmoebisaTvis. dasavleT evropis

qveynebis kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs sagangebo ekologiuri mdgomareobis zonebis mimarT amgvar RonisZiebebs, amasTan, evrokavSirSi arsebobs sagangebo ekologiuri situaciebis Tavidan acilebis ganviTarebuli sistema (ixileT sevezos direqtiva).

, . .

ekologiuri Tanasworoba

ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES The national, regional and/or local organisations charged with inspection and enforcement tasks. These organisations can fall directly under the ministries of environment (or equivalent) or sometimes (such as in the UK) be quasiautonomous organisations. () , / , . ( ). (, ) .

garemosdacviTi organoebi kanonaRsrulebis

calkeuli pirebisa da adamianTa jgufebis (maTi rasobrivi an eTnikuri kuTvnilebisa da ekonomikuri statusis miuxedavad), Tanasworuflebianobis principze dafuZnebuli, ekologiuri safrTxisagan dacva. garemos dacvis sferoSi problemebis gadaWrisas samarTlianobisa da miukerZoeblobis ganxorcieleba.

ENVIRONMENTAL FUNDS In the NIS: Institutions capitalised with working capital, usually revenues from environmental taxes, to support financially environmental activities. : , , , , .

garemosdacviTi fondebi

erovnuli, regionaluri da/an adgilobrivi organizaciebi, romlebic uflebamosili arian ganaxorcielon inspeqtirebisa da kanonaRsrulebis funqciebi garemos dacvis sferoSi. aRniSnuli organizaciebi SesaZloa uSualod eqvemdebarebodnen garemos dacvis saministroebs (an analogiur uwyebebs). zogierT qveyanaSi (magaliTad, did britaneTSi) aseTi organoebi warmoadgenen avtonomiur struqturebs.

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: organizaciebi, romlebic finansdebian sabrunavi saxsrebis (rogorc wesi _ garemosdacviTi sagadasaxado Semosavlebis) xarjze da finansur daxmarebas uweven garemosdacviT saqmianobas.

ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY Equal protection from environmental hazards for individuals, groups, or communities regardless of race, ethnicity, or economic status. Fairness and impartial treatment with respect to the environmental issues. 113

ENVIRONMENTAL INSURANCE Type of business activities aimed at the protection of property of legal entities and individuals against environmental risks. Environmental insurance may be compulsory or voluntary. For example, environmental

insurance of employees of nuclear power plants and other radioactive installations against possible harmful influence of radionuclides is compulsory. , . . , .

ekologiuri dazRveva

, , . , . .

garemosdacviTi kanonmdebloba

ekonomikuri saqmianobis tipi, romelic iTvaliswinebs fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis sakuTrebis ekologiuri riskebisagan dacvas. ekologiuri dazRveva SeiZleba iyos savaldebulo an nebayoflobiTi. ase magaliTad, savaldebuloa atomuri eleqtrosadgurebisa da sxva danadgarebis radioaqtiuri TanamSromlebis ekologiuri dazRveva radionuklidebis potenciurad uaryofiTi zemoqmedebisagan.

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW The body of legislation that concerns and regulates all matters concerning the environment. In many countries this consists of framework laws showing the general principles to be adopted, general obligations imposed on industry, individuals and the authorities, the lay out and administrative functions. The general principles and obligations are then given more detail in regulations, standards etc. , . , , , , 114

sakanonmdeblo normebis erToblioba, romelic aRwers da aregulirebs yvela saxis saqmianobas garemos dacvis sferoSi. mraval qveyanaSi igi Sedgeba CarCo kanonebisagan, romlebSic aRwerilia saqmianobis is ZiriTadi principebi, romlebic unda daicvan sawarmoebma da organizaciebma, agreTve, asaxaven samrewvelo sawarmoebze, kerZo pirebsa da xelisuflebis organoebze dakisrebul ZiriTad valdebulebebs, pasuxismgeblobebsa da administraciul funqciebs. calkeuli principebisa da valdebulebebis detaluri aRwera mocemulia normatiul aqtebSi, standartebSi da a.S.

ENVIRONMENTAL LIABILITY Responsibility of the polluters to remediate or provide compensation for environmental problems they create and to correct or provide compensation for damages caused to third parties. In many countries, liability provisions are strongest for accidental releases of pollution and may not apply to actions allowed under the permit conditions, such as emissions within limit values. Strong liability laws make it easier for citizens affected by pollution or other environmental problems to seek damage compensation via the courts. - , , , , . ;

, , , . , . : () .

garemosdacviTi pasuxismgebloba

garemosdacviTi marTva

termini gamoiyeneba im RonisZiebaTa sistemis aRwerisTvis, romlebsac gamoiyeneben sawarmoebSi, organizaciebsa da saxelmwifo organoebSi garemosdacviTi problemebis gadaWrisa da garemosdacviTi saqmianobis organizebis mizniT.

sawarmo-damabinZureblis valdebuleba ganaxorcielos aRdgeniTi samuSaoebi an aanazRauros ziani, romelic warmoiSoba mis mier Seqmnili garemosdacviTi problemebiT, aRkveTos es problemebi da aunazRauros mesame mxares miyenebuli ziani. mraval qveyanaSi garemosdacviTi pasuxismgeblobis sferoSi kanonmdeblobis yvelaze mkacr debulebebs warmoadgenen moTxovnebi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa avariuli gafrqvevebis mimarT. amasTan, aRniSnuli debulebebi ar SeiZleba gamoyenebodnen nebarTvis pirobebiT gaTvaliswinebuli qmedebebis mimarT, magaliTad emisiebis zRvrulad dasaSvebi odenobis farglebSi. garemosdacviTi pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb detalurad gawerili kanoni aadvilebs im moqalaqeTa mier sasamarTlo wesiT kompensaciebis miRebis proceduras, romlebic dazaraldnen garemos dabinZurebis an sxva ekologiuri problemis Sedegad.

ENVIRONMENTAL PASSPORT OF THE ENTERPRISE One of the forms of environmental reporting of enterprises in the NIS that was introduced back in the Soviet era. The main provisions were established by Government Standard (GOST) 170.004-20 of December 15, 1990. Typically, the environmental passport includes a site description, a description of raw materials used, the use of minerals and energy resources, the type of emissions released into the atmosphere, water consumption and waste water discharges, production wastes, information on the economic and environmental activities of the enterprise and other data. The environmental passport does not replace or override other forms and types of state accounting, it merely compiles and combines all the necessary information. Enforcement agencies, in the course of inspections at enterprises, check environmental passports alongside other documents. , . () 170.004-20 15 1990 . , , , , , , , . . ; 115

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Expression used in enterprises/ institutes/ authorities indicating a system towards the way environment issues are handled, structured and organised. , , .

­ . - .

sawarmos ekologiuri pasporti

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION The presence of matter or substances whose nature, location, or quantity produces undesired effects in the environment. , , .

garemos dabinZureba

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi sabWoTa droidan arsebuli ekologiuri angariSgebis erT-erTi forma. ZiriTadi moTxovnebi dadgenilia saxelmwifo standartiT () -170.004-20, 15.12.1990w. rogorc wesi, ekologiuri pasporti Seicavs iseT informacias, rogoricaa: sawarmos teritoriis aRwera, gamoyenebuli nedleulis, mineraluri resursebisa da energomatareblebis tipebi, atmosferul haerSi gafrqvevis, wyalmoxmarebisa da wyalCaSvebis, warmoqmnili narCenebis saxeebi. pasporti Seicavs monacemebs sawarmos ekonomikuri da garemosdacviTi saqmianobis Sesaxeb da sxva informacias. ekologiuri pasporti ar cvlis da ar auqmebs saxelmwifo angariSgebis sxva formebsa da tipebs. aRniSnuli dokumentis mizania - yvela saTanado informaciis Segroveba da kompleqsurad inspeqtirebis ganxorcielebis asaxva. procesSi kanonaRsrulebis organoebi sxva dokumentaciasTan erTad amowmeben ekologiur pasportebsac.

garemoSi nivTierebis arseboba, romlis maxasiaTeblebi, adgilmdebareoba an raodenoba arasasurvel zegavlenas axdens garemos mdgomareobaze.

ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC PROSECUTOR In the NIS: State prosecution agencies established specifically for enforcement of environmental legislation. The public prosecutor's office investigates and prosecutes environmental crimes. Environmental prosecutors were set up during the Soviet period to deal with environmental aspects of supervisory activities. They are still in operation in many of the NIS. For example, in Russia there are approximately 25 territorial environmental public prosecutors that investigate and prosecute alleged environmental criminal offences. Also «Inter-regional environmental protection public prosecutors» exist. They have responsibility for several administrative-territorial units and are organised along the same principles as the water basins. : , . . . - 116

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY The layout of ideas, goals, and general methods and mechanisms on how to achieve these goals and with what instruments. , .

garemosdacviTi politika

garemosdacviTi saqmianobis principebisa da miznebis, agreTve am miznebis miRwevis zogadi meTodebisa da meqanizmebis sistema.

. , 25 , . « », .

garemosdacviTi prokuratura

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: saprokuroro zedamxedvelobis saxelmwifo dawesebuleba, daarsebuli specialurad garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis aRsrulebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT. prokuratura iZiebs garemosdacviT danaSaulebs da axorcielebs damnaSaveTa pasuxisgebaSi micemas. garemosdacviTi prokuratura Seiqmna jer kidev sabWoTa periodSi da dakavebuli iyo sazedamxedvelo saqmianobis garemosdacviTi aspeqtebiT. bevr axal damoukidebel qveyanaSi igi amJamadac funqcionirebs. magaliTad ruseTSi moqmedebs 25-mde teritoriuli garemosdacviTi prokuratura. isini iZieben garemosdacviTi xasiaTis sisxlis samarTlis saqmeebs. aseve moqmedeben "regionTaSorisi garemosdacviTi prokuraturebi", romlebic pasuxs ageben ramdenime administraciul-teritoriul erTeulze da moqmedeben calkeul mdinareTa auzebis farglebSi.

, . , , . (, , , , , , ).

garemos xarisxobrivi standarti

moTxovnaTa erToblioba, romlebic, garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad, daculi unda iqnen drois garkveul periodSi garemos an misi calkeuli komponentis mimarT. garemos xarisxobrivi standartebi, rogorc wesi, exeba garkveul nivTierebaTa zRvrul koncentraciebs. evrokavSiris qveynebSi moqmedebs garemos xarisxobrivi standartebis mxolod SezRuduli raodenoba (magaliTad: benzoli, naxSirJangi, tyvia, azotis Jangeulebi, myari nawilakebi da vinilqloridi).

ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS Specific practices, procedures and conditions required by law to directly or indirectly reduce or prevent pollution and degradation of the environment. , , .

garemosdacviTi moTxovnebi

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARD The set of requirements which must be fulfilled at a given time in a given environment or particular part thereof, as set out in the legislation. These quality standards usually refer to limit values. There are only a limited number of these quality standards developed and accepted in the EU (for example, benzene, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, particulate matter, vinyl chloride).

kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili konkretuli meTodebi, procedurebi da pirobebi garemos pirdapiri an arapirdapiri dabinZurebis da degradirebis Semcirebis an Tavidan acilebis mizniT.

117

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE OF AN ENTERPRISE structural subdivision of companies in the NIS that is responsible for planning and implementing environmental protection activities. These subdivisions are also responsible for self-monitoring and reporting. Because this activity is not considered to be particularly important, and because companies wish to save money, they rarely offer support to establish an environmental service, although in some countries these units might be required by law. , . . , , , .

sawarmos garemosdacviTi samsaxuri

enforcement, statistics are used to establish the effectiveness of the enforcement process. It is, however, difficult to establish and evaluate the effectiveness of enforcement actions because too many variables play a role. There is still a debate continuing on the role of environmental indicators in connection with enforcement. Other data on environment in statistics refer more on trends e.g. in SO2 and acid rain, acid deposition etc. Many countries publish statistical information on the numbers of violations of the law, number of prosecutions, enforcement actions etc. In the NIS, environmentally significant information is reported by either public or private entities to the state statistics agencies. There are several reporting forms: «Report on the protection of atmospheric air,» «Report on current expenditure on the environment,» «Report on the use of fuel and energy resources» and so forth. Statistical reporting exists on the activities of the environmental enforcement agencies. For example, there is quarterly reporting on the number of companies investigated, the number of officials and citizens to be prosecuted, the total fines gathered, etc. The reporting data are published in annual government reports and directories (see the State of Environment Report). There are differences among the various countries in the NIS, both in the form of reporting and its content. , , , . , , , . - . , , SO2, , . . , , . . 118

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: sawarmoTa struqturuli qvedanayofi, romelic pasuxs agebs garemosdacviTi saqmianobis dagegmvasa da ganxorcielebaze. aRniSnuli qvedanayofi pasuxs agebs agreTve TviTmonitoringis Catarebasa da angariSgebaze. vinaidan sawarmos amgvari saqmianoba ar iTvleba gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovnad da amasTan, sawarmoebi cdiloben dazogon saxsrebi, isini iSviaTad qmnian garemosdacviT samsaxurebs, Tumca zogierT qveyanaSi, garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, maTi Seqmna savaldebuloa.

ENVIRONMENTAL STATISTICS Quantitative data on an environmental subject, especially in a comparable way. In the world of

. : « », « », « » . . - , . , , , , , , , . . (. ). , .

garemosdacviTi statistika

mier, waredgineba saxelmwifo statistikis organoebs. arsebobs angariSgebis ramdenime forma: "angariSi atmosferuli haeris dacvis Sesaxeb", "angariSi garemosdacviTi saqmianobis mimdinare xarjebis Sesaxeb", "angariSi saTbobisa da energetikuli resursebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb" da a.S. statistikuri angariSgeba asaxavs agreTve kanonaRsrulebis organoebis saqmianobas garemos dacvis sferoSi. magaliTad, arsebobs yovelkvartaluri angariSgeba Semowmebul sawarmoTa, pasuxisgebaSi micemul fizikur da Tanamdebebobis pirTa raodenobis, aseve sajarimo Tanxebis odenobis Sesaxeb da sxva. statistikuri monacemebi qveyndeba yovelwliur saxelmwifo angariSebSi da cnobarebSi (ixileT angariSi garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb). garemosdacviTi angariSgeba axal damoukidebel qveynebSi ganxvavdeba rogorc formiT, ise SinaarsiT.

raodenobrivi monacemebi garemos dacvis sxvadasxva aspeqtebis Sesaxeb, warmodgenili SeZlebisdagvarad SedarebisaTvis mosaxerxebeli formiT. kanonaRsrulebis sferoSi msgavsi statistika gamoiyeneba saqmianobis efeqturobis Sesafaseblad, romlis gansazRvra sakmaod rTulia masSi arsebuli cvladi monacemebis didi raodenobis gamo. jer kidev grZeldeba kamaTi garemosdacviTi maCveneblebis rolis Taobaze kanonaRsrulebiT saqmianobaSi. garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva statistikuri monacemebi metnaklebad asaxaven garemos xarisxobrivi cvlilebis tendenciebs, magaliTad, SO2-is Semcvelobis, mJave wvimebis, mJave danaleqebis da sxvaTa dinamikas. mraval qveyanaSi qveyndeba statistikuri informacia garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis darRvevebis, aRZruli saqmeebis, kanonaRsrulebiTi zomebis raodenobis Sesaxeb da a.S. axal damoukidebel qveynebSi garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovani informacia, sazogadoebrivi an kerZo organizaciebis

119

ENVIRONMENTAL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES (1) Funding of activities supported by the authorities or foundations aiming at improvements for the environment. These incentives are used e.g. in cleaner production initiatives, establishment of waste water treatment plants etc. (funding through levies system where subsidies are used to erect treatment plants); (2) All forms of explicit financial assistance to polluters or users of natural resources (e.g. grants, soft loans, tax breaks, accelerated depreciation, etc.) for environmental protection. (1) , , . , , , . . (, ,

); (2) (, , , , . .), .

garemosdacviTi SeRavaTebi subsidiebi da

(1) saxelmwifo organoebis an fondebis mxardaWeriT mimdinare finansuri saqmianoba, romelic mimarTulia qveyanaSi garemos mdgomareobis gaumjobesebisaken. amgvari finansuri mxardaWera gamoiyeneba, ufro sufTa warmoebis magaliTad, teqnologiebis sferoSi proeqtebis gansaxorcieleblad, Camdinare wylebis gamwmendi nagebobebis mSeneblobisas (magaliTad, gadasaxadebis sistemidan Segrovili TanxebiT gamwmendi nagebobebis mSeneblobis dafinanseba); (2) sawarmo-dambinZureblebis an bunebrivi resursebiT mosargebleTa pirdapiri finansuri mxardaWeris yvela forma (magaliTad, grantebi, SeRavaTiani kreditebi, sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi, daCqarebuli amortizacia da a.S.), romelic gamoiyofa garemosdacviTi miznebisaTvis.

37 26 , . 96/61/EC (. ) 2003 . - 20 000 , . . PRTR.

damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa emisiebis evropuli reestri (EPER)

EPER European Pollutant Emission Register. This is an EU register (established by Commission Decision 2000/479/EC) that will record emissions of 37 air and 26 water pollutants and sources. The register will be a key element of the European Council Directive 96/61/EC on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (see further IPPC) and will be implemented in 2003. As from that time, Member States will be obliged to report to the European Commission every three years, information on emissions from about 20,000 individual industrial facilities covered by the IPPC Directive. See also PRTR. (EPER) ( 2000/479/EC), 120

evrokavSiris reestri (damtkicebuli evrokomisiis mier 2000/479/EC gadawyvetilebiT), romelSic Seitaneba atmosferuli haeris 37 da wylis resursebis 26 damabinZurebeli nivTierebis emisiebi da dabinZurebis wyaroebi. reestri gaxdeba "dabinZurebis integrirebuli Tavidan acilebisa da kontrolis Sesaxeb" evrokavSiris 96/61/EC direqtivis (ixileT IPPC direqtiva) sakvanZo elementi da amoqmeddeba 2003 wels. am droidan evrokavSiris wevri-saxelmwifoebi valdebuli arian yovel sam weliwadSi erTxel warudginon evrokomisias informacia emisiebis Sesaxeb daaxloebiT 20 000-mde samrewvelo sawarmodan, romlebzec vrceldeba IPPC direqtivis garemoSi moqmedeba. aseve ixileT

gaSvebul da gadaadgilebul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa reestri

(PRTR).

EUTROPHICATION The process by which a body of water accumulates nutrients, particularly nitrates and phosphates. This process can be accelerated by nutrient-rich runoff or seepage from agricultural land or from sewage outfalls, leading to rapid and excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants and undesirable changes in water quality.

, , . , , , , .

eutrofikacia

, . . () : , , -.

kompensaciis iZuleba

procesi, romlis drosac wyalsatevSi grovdeba sakvebi nivTierebebi, gansakuTrebiT nitratebi da fosfatebi. aRniSnuli procesi SeiZleba daCqardes sakvebi nivTierebebiT gamdidrebuli Camdinare wylebis, sasoflo-sameurneo miwebidan an sakanalizacio koleqtorebidan CaJonili nivTierebebis zemoqmedebiT, rac iwvevs wyalmcenareebis didi raodenobiT da swraf gamravlebas, aseve wylis xarisxis arasasurvel cvlilebebs.

EXECUTIVE COERCION The possibility of the environmental authorities to take remedial action at the expense of the offender. If a country wishes to make use of this possibility, it must be clearly defined in legislation, when the environmental authorities may take such action, what actions they make take etc. Examples of executive coercion include cases where an installation commits a polluting act and refuses to take the required clean up actions ­ the environmental authorities may take the clean up actions themselves and present the bill to the polluter. . , , 121

garemosdacviTi organoebis ufleba, ganaxorcielos gamosasworebeli RonisZiebebi damrRvevis xarjze. Tu qveyanas surs isargeblos aRniSnuli SesaZleblobiT, kanonmdeblobiT mkafiod unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli, ra SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba iyos gamoyenebuli es qmedebebi garemosdacviTi organos mier, konkretulad ra zomebis gatarebis ufleba gaaCnia da a.S. kompensaciis iZulebis magaliTia SemTxveva, rodesac garemos dambinZurebeli sawarmo uars acxadebs ganaxorcielos teritoriis dabinZurebisagan gawmendis RonisZieba _ garemosdacviT organoebs SeuZliaT ganaxorcielon aRniSnuli RonisZiebebi damoukideblad, xolo Semdeg wauyenon angariSi damabinZurebel sawarmos.

EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION An investigation initiated to find out whether feasible further investigation is worthwhile. This exploratory investigation normally precedes the formal investigation. , . .

winaswari gamokvleva

gamokvleva, romelic xorcieldeba ufro safuZvliani gamokvlevis Catarebis mizanSewonilobisa da SesaZleblobis gansazRvris mizniT. winaswari

gamokvleva, rogorc wesi, win uswrebs oficialur gamokvlevas.

EXPORT NOTIFICATION SCHEMES These schemes apply to hazardous substances and wastes. These schemes are based on the principle that countries which export certain materials or wastes which are banned or severely restricted for health or environmental reasons in the country of export, or which are subject to stringent international control as specified in a particular agreement, should inform the importing country that these exports will take or have taken place. Export notification requirements can be found in several international agreements that address hazardous substances and waste (such as the Basel Convention on the shipment of hazardous wastes). However, significant differences exist among the various schemes with regard to criteria which trigger a notification requirement, frequency of notification, timing, and detail of information to be provided. In most cases, export notification provisions are coupled with provisions to obtain a PIC, prior informed consent from the importing country. . , , , , , , . (, ). , , 122

, . .

saeqsporto Setyobinebis sistema

aseTi

sistemebi gamoiyeneba saSiSi an narCenebis eqsportis mimarT. aRniSnuli sistemebi efuZneba princips, rom qveyana, romelic awarmoebs im masalebis an narCenebis eqsports, romelTa gamoyeneba akrZaluli an mkacrad SezRudulia eqsportior qveyanaSi adamianTa janmrTelobisa da garemos dacvis mizniT, an isini eqvemdebarebian mkacr saerTaSoriso kontrols Sesabamisi xelSekrulebiT, valdebulia Seatyobinos importior qveyanas mosalodneli an ukve momxdari eqsportis faqtis Sesaxeb. moTxovnebs saeqsporto Setyobinebis Taobaze gansazRvravs ramdenime saerTaSoriso SeTanxmeba saSiSi nivTierebebisa da narCenebis Sesaxeb (magaliTad, bazelis saxifaTo narCenebis konvencia transsasazRvro gadazidvebisa da maT ganTavsebaze kontrolis Sesaxeb). amasTan, saeqsporto Setyobinebis calkeul sistemebs Soris arsebobs mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba im kriteriumebis TvalsazrisiT, romlebic adgenen saeqsporto Setyobinebis wardgenis aucileblobas, SetyobinebaTa sixSiresa da vadebs, agreTve warmosadgeni informaciis Sinaarss. xSir SemTxvevaSi, moTxovnebs saeqsporto Setyobinebis wardgenis Sesaxeb Tan axlavs moTxovna _ importiori qveynisgan miRebuli informaciis winaswar dasabuTebuli safuZvelze Tanxmobis (PIC) miRebis aucileblobis Sesaxeb.

nivTierebebis

EXTENDED PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY An obligation placed on one or more producers of a product to take back the product for recycling or safe disposal. .

mwarmoeblis pasuxismgebloba

gafarToebuli

valdebuleba, romelic produqtis erT an mwarmoebels, daibrunon produqti gadamuSavebis an ganTavsebis mizniT.

ekisreba ramdenime Tavisi usafrTxo

123

F

FACILITY Any operation, installation, equipment or business activity taking place at a certain well defined place. , , , , .

obieqti

. ., , BREF ( ()), .

moTxovnebi calkeuli obieqtisadmi

nebismieri sawarmo, danadgari, mowyobiloba an sameurneo obieqti, romelic ganlagebulia konkretul, zustad gansazRvrul adgilze.

FACILITY-SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS Requirements that apply to a specific facility also called «tailor made» conditions in the permitting system. The facility-specific requirements include those requirements laid down in the operating permit to ensure that the facility (installation) complies with the environmental quality objectives, emission limit values, operating conditions etc. These conditions all need to be enforceable. See, for example, BREFs, BAT reference documents, that are specifically written for certain industrial sectors. , , ( ) «». , , , () , , . . 124

calkeuli obiqtis mimarT gamoyenebuli moTxovnebi, romlebsac nebarTvebis/licenziis gacemis sistemaSi aseve uwodeben "individualur" specialuri moTxovnebi moTxovnebs. calkeuli obieqtisadmi iTvaliswineben saqmianobaze gacemuli nebarTviT gansazRvrul pirobebs, raTa obieqtis uzrunvelyofil iqnes Sesabamisoba garemos (danadgaris) xarisxobrivi mdgomareobis miznobriv emisiebis zRvrulad maCveneblebTan, dasaSveb sidideebTan, eqspluataciis pirobebTan da a.S. amasTan, uzrunvelyofili unda iyos am moTxovnaTa Sesruleba. magaliTisTvis mrewvelobis calkeuli ixileT, dargebisaTvis specialurad SemuSavebuli dokumentebi (sacnobaro BREF dokumentebi saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologiebis Sesaxeb).

FEES Amount of money to be paid to cover costs of the services delivered. , .

mosakrebeli

fuladi Tanxa, romelic eqvemdebareba gadaxdas gaweuli momsaxurebis xarjebis dafarvis mizniT.

FIELD CITATION A civil administrative order issued directly (on the spot of the observed violation) by an inspector in the field. , ( ).

darRvevis aqti

Fines are the most widespread coercive measure applied to environmental offenders. Generally, the administrative fines should be an effective way of preventing violations and of punishing those responsible for infringements. . , , . , .

jarima

samoqalaqo administraciuli gankarguleba, Sedgenili inspeqtoris mier adgilze (darRvevis gamovlenisas).

FIELD SAMPLING On site sample taking, e.g., samples of water (effluent), soil, air pollution. Sample taking requires experienced, well trained and qualified inspectors or laboratory technicians and equipment in order to be able to proceed with an enforcement action if and when needed. , , (), . , , , , , .

sinjebis aReba

administraciuli samarTaldarRvevisaTdakisrebuli administraciuli vis

saxdeli fuladi jarimis saxiT. jarima warmoadgens zemoqmedebis yvelaze gavrcelebul formas garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa damrRvev pirTa mimarT. rogorc wesi, administraciuli jarimebi warmoadgenen efeqtur meqanizms marTlsawinaaRmdego acilebisa da qmedebebisATavidan kanonmdeblobis damrRvevTa dasasjelad.

sinjebis, magaliTad, dabinZurebuli wylebis (Camdinare wylebis), niadagis, haeris sinjebis aReba adgilze. sinjis aReba warmoebs gamocdili, kargad momzadebuli da kvalificiuri inspeqtorebis an laboratoriis TanamSromelTa mier Sesabamisi mowyobilobis gamoyenebiT, rac, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, iZleva kanonaRsrulebis zomebis miRebis saSualebas.

FORMAL ENFORCEMENT MECHANISMS Mechanisms that are backed by the force of law and are accompanied by procedural requirements to protect the rights of the individual. Formal mechanisms are either civil or criminal (see also environmental crimes). Civil actions may be either administrative (i.e., directly imposed by the enforcement agency) or judicial (i.e., imposed by a court or other judicial authority). The authority to use formal enforcement mechanisms must be provided in environmental laws. , . ( . ). (. . - 125

FINES Administrative punishments in the form of monetary penalties for administrative offences.

) (. . ). , , .

kanonaRsrulebis meqanizmebi

, . .

araorganizebuli emisia

kanonebidan gamomdinare meqanizmebi, romlebic Seicaven specialur procedurebs moqalaqeTa uflebebis dasacavad. oficialuri meqanizmebi SeiZleba iyos samoqalaqosamarTlebrivi an sisxlissamarTlebrivi (ixileT aseve ekologiuri danaSauli). samoqalaqo saqmeebi SesaZlebelia daregulirdnen administraciuli wesiT (anu uSualod kanonaRsrulebis organoebis mier) an sasamarTlo wesiT (anu sxvadasxva sasamarTlo instanciis mier). uflebamosil organoebs, romelTac miniWebuli aqvT kanonaRsrulebis oficialuri meqanizmebis gamoyenebis ufleba, unda gansazRvravdes garemosdacviTi kanonmdebloba.

FOOTPRINT (ECOLOGICAL) A measure of the hectares of biologically productive area required to support a human population of given size. «» ( ) , .

ekologiuri "kvali"

emisiebi, romlebic mouxelTebelia airdamWeri sistemebisaTvis. rogorc wesi, esenia umniSvnelo emisiebi samrewvelo danadgarebis gaJonvis adgilebidan.

biologiurad produqtiuli farTobi (heqtrebSi), romelic aucilebelia mosaxleobis garkveuli raodenobisaTvis maTi sasicocxlo moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofleblad.

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS Emissions not caught by a capture system. Typically, small releases from leaks in plant equipment.

Comment [DG1]:

126

G

GBR, GENERAL BINDING RULES GBRs (though not necessarily by that name) are used for various regulatory purposes by a number of the European Union's Member States. These may take the form of standard emission limits for specified categories of installations or standard conditions for the entire operation of installations. Within the latter category most GBRs are used for very small processes which are not included within the regime of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (see IPPC Directive), although some countries, e.g. in the Netherlands, would apply GBRs to IPPC installations. There is no unique definition of a GBR. Three possible alternatives exist (1) A statutory set of standard conditions applying to the entire operation of an installation; (2) A statutory set of standard conditions applying to one or more aspects of the operation of an installation; (3) A statutory set of minimum conditions established at a national level and binding on regional regulators. To find more information one can consult the Internet site of the IMPEL Network www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/impel.

5H

, . GBR . : (1) , , (2) , , (3) , . - IMPEL : www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/impel

6H

saerTo-savaldebulo normebi (GBR)

(. GBR) GBR ( ) - . . GBR , « » (. ), , , GBR 127

saerTo-savaldebulo normebi (GBR), gamoiyeneba evrokavSiris mravali wevrisaxelmwifos mier sxvadasxva miznebisaTvis regulirebis sferoSi (Tumca yovelTvis am dasaxelebiT ar gvxvdeba). maT SeiZleba miiRon emisiebis standartuli SezRudvebis forma garkveuli kategoriis sawarmoo danadgarebisaTvis, an mTlianobaSi danadgarebis eqspluataciis standartuli pirobebis forma. am ukanaskneli kategoriis farglebSi saerTo-savaldebulo normebi gamoiyeneba mcire obieqtebisaTvis, romlebzec ar vrceldeba direqtiva "dabinZurebis integrirebuli Tavidan acilebisa da kontrolis Sesaxeb" (ixileT IPPC direqtiva), Tumca zogierT qveyanaSi, rogoricaa holandia, saerTosavaldebulo normebi gamoiyeneba im danadgarebze, romlebzec vrceldeba IPPC direqtiva. saerTo-savaldebulo normebis erTmniSvnelovani ganmarteba ar arsebobs. arsebobs sami SesaZlo

varianti: (1) standartuli pirobebis normatiuli erToblioba, romelic gamoiyeneba mTlianad sawarmoo danadgaris eqspluataciis mimarT; (2) standartuli pirobebis normatiuli erToblioba, romelic gamoiyeneba danadgaris eqspluataciis erTi an ramdenime aspeqtis mimarT; (3) minimaluri pirobebis normatiuli erToblioba, romelic miRebulia erovnul doneze da savaldebuloa maregulirebeli regionaluri organoebisaTvis. dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi, IMPEL-is qselis misamarTze: www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/impel

gamoiyenebian farTo diapazonis dabinZurebis wyaroebisaTvis. saerTo moTxovnebi ­ aris valdebuleba, romelic mTlianobaSi ekisreba samrewvelo da sxva sawarmoebs, maT Soris valdebulebebi narCenebis minimizaciis, garemos dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis, eqspluataciis dawyebamde nebarTvis miRebis, avariuli Sesaxeb uflebamosili SemTxvevebis organoebisaTvis Setyobinebis da sxvaTa specialuri Sesaxeb. ixileT aseve

moTxovnebi, saerTo-savaldebulo normebi

(GBR).

GENERAL WATER USE In the NIS, this term refers to the use of water bodies without the application of equipment, technical means and facilities. General water use does not require a licence for water use, although the water use should be carried out in accordance with water legislation. General water uses include bathing, recreation on water bodies, boating in small vessels, water abstractions for personal needs and without technical facilities. - , . . . , , , .

saerTo wyalsargebloba

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Practices and procedures required by law to directly or indirectly reduce or prevent pollution that is applied for a wide range of polluters. General requirements are those obligations imposed on industry etc. as a whole, and include such issues as an obligation to minimise waste, prevent pollution, obtain a permit before operation, notify the authorities in case of accident etc. See also specific requirements, GBR. , . ­ , . . , , , , . . . , .

saerTo moTxovnebi

garemos dabinZurebis pirdapiri an arapirdapiri Semcirebis an Tavidan acilebis kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesebi da procedurebi, romlebic

128

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi es termini aRniSnavs wylis resursebis gamoyenebas mowyobilobebis, teqnikuri saSualebebis da xelsawyoebis gareSe. saerTo wyalsargebloba xorcieldeba licenziis gareSe, wylis kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil moTxovnaTa dacviT. saerTo wyalsargebloba gulisxmobs wylis obieqtebze dasvenebas, banaobas da mcire

saSualebebis gamoyenebas, individualuri sasmelsayofacxovrebo da sxva moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad, teqnikuri saSualebebis gamouyeneblad.

mcuravi

wyalaRebas

, , , , .

saTburis airi

GEOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS Factors specific to the placement of a site. The term used in assessing the environmental impact of activities in connection with its specific location. For example, geographic considerations are important to assess the impact of plants in a valley that is prone to inversion weather conditions or in the middle of an urban area. , . , . , , ( ), .

geografiuli faqtorebi

airi, magaliTad, naxSirorJangi an meTani, romelic aireklavs infrawiTel gamosxivebas dedamiwidan da amiT xels uwyobs siTbos dagrovebas atmosferoSi.

GIS Geographic Information Systems. Spatial databases; storage and analysis of information in an Earth-based location system. A GIS brings up geographic data e.g. a city map on digital latitude-longitude grids. Information and pictures of areas in great detail are possibly very important for planning considerations and EIA. For instance, GIS is used to assess territorial differences in pollution level or to establish those areas that are subject to a combined impact of several adverse factors. . , ; , . , , , , - . . , , .

geografiuli sistema (GIS) sainformacio

garkveuli adgilmdebareobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli faqtorebi. termini gamoiyeneba adamianis saqmianobis garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebisas, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu sad xdeba es zemoqmedeba. aRniSnuli faqtorebi mniSvnelovania, magaliTad, danadgaris zemoqmedebis Sesafaseblad araxelsayreli klimaturi pirobebis (temperaturis inversia) mqone xeobaSi, an qalaqis centrSi.

GHG Greenhouse gas. A gas such as carbon dioxide or methane that reflects infrared radiation emitted by the earth, thereby helping to retain heat in the atmosphere. , , , , , 129

sivrcul monacemTa bazebi. informaciis Senaxvisa da damuSavebis sistemebi, romlebic Seicaven geografiul koordinatebTan mibmul lokaciur monacemebs. geografiuli sainformacio sistema iZleva geografiul monacemebs, rogoricaa magaliTad, qalaqis ruka

geografiul koordinatTa cifruli badiT. aRniSnul informacias da sxvadasxva arealebis detalur rukebs didi mniSvneloba eniWebaT dagegmarebisas da garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis Catarebisas. magaliTad, (gzS) geografiuli sainformacio sistema gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva teritoriul erTeulTa dabinZurebis doneeebis Sesafaseblad, an im adgilebis dasadgenad, romlebic ganicdian ramdenime uaryofiTi faqtoris kompleqsur zemoqmedebas.

GLP Good Laboratory Practice. The GLP have been developed to promote the quality and validity of test data used for determining the safety of chemicals and chemical products. It is a managerial concept covering the organisational process and the conditions under which laboratory studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded and reported. The issues of data quality, addressed by GLP, have an important international dimension. If regulatory authorities in countries can rely on safety tests developed abroad, duplicative testing can be avoided and costs saved to government and industry. The OECD Principles of Good Laboratory Practice were first developed in 1978. Those principles were formally recommended for use in Member Countries by the OECD Council in 1981. After a decade and half of use, Member Countries considered that there was a need to review and update the Principles. The revised version was adopted in November 1997. To see the full text of this revised version please contact the web site of the OECD Environment Directorate (www.oecd.org/env).

7H

. , , . , , . « » 1978 . - 1981 . - «». 1997 . «» - : www.oecd.org/env

8H

saTanado praqtika (GLP)

laboratoriuli

() , . , , , , 130

saTanado laboratoriuli praqtikis (GLP) principebi, SemuSavebul iqna eqsperimentaluri monacemebis xarisxis da utyuarobis asamaRleblad qimiuri nivTierebebisa da/an produqciis usafrTxoebis dadgenis mizniT. aRniSnuli marTvis meodika moicavs organizaciul process da pirobebs, romelTa meSveobiT xorcieldeba laboratoriuli gamokvlevebis dagegmva, Catareba da kontroli, maTi Sedegebis gaformeba da Sesabamisi angariSebis wardgena. laboratoriuli praqtikiT regulirebad monacemTa xarisxis sakiTxebs didi saerTaSoriso mniSvneloba eniWebaT. Tu maregulirebeli organoebi sxvadasxva qveynebSi daeyrdnobian sazRvargareTidan miRebul monacemebs qimiuri nivTierebebisa da produqciis usafrTxoebaze gamocdis Sesaxeb, SesaZlebeli gaxdeba ganmeorebiTi gamocdis Tavidan acileba, agreTve, saxelmwifosa da sawarmos saxsrebis dazogva. saTanado laboratoriuli praqtikis (GLP) principebi ekonomikuri

TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) wevrisaxelmwifoebisaTvis SemuSavebul iqna 1978 wels. aRniSnuli principebi, evrosabWos mier 1981 wels oficialurad iqna rekomendirebuli Sesasruleblad ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) wevrisaxelmwifoebisaTvis. maTi gamoyenebis dawyebidan 15 wlis Semdeg ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) wevrisaxelmwifoebis mier miRebul iqna gadawyvetileba "principebis" gadaxedvisa da masSi Sesworebebis Setanis Taobaze. axali redaqcia miRebul iqna 1997 wlis noemberSi. "principebis" aRniSnuli versiis sruli teqsti ixileT OECD-is misamarTze internet-qselSi: www.oecd.org/env

GOSTS (GOVERNMENT STANDARDS) In the NIS: Rules and regulations of a technical, hygienic or other nature. The strictly centralised system of state standards (GOSTs) in the sphere of environmental protection was part of the general system of standards in the former Soviet Union. This system comprised over 22,000 regulatory-technical documents and excluded any work on the establishment of standards at the level of the republics. Standardisation in the sphere of environmental protection, in particular, covered environmentally significant concepts and terms and regulated the system for the use and protection of natural resources, methods for observation, control and evaluation of the condition of the environment, the maximum permissible levels and norms for the concentration of harmful materials in air, water, ground and foodstuffs. Every standard had its place in the overall structure and were systematically numbered. The environmental standards were titled «GOST 17.0...- (year) Environmental protection...» (the title of the sub-section and the actual title of the document followed). At present, GOSTs continue to be used in many NIS. In addition, new GOSTs continue to be prepared, being adopted at an inter-state level. Amongst the latter, the most noteworthy is GOST 17.00.05-94 «Environmental protection. Environmental 131

passport of waste». See also SNiPs and Sanitary norms. ( ) : , . () , 22 000 . , , , , , , , . . « 17.0...- () ...» ( ). . , , . 17.00.05-94 « . ». . .

-ebi (saxelmwifo standartebi)

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: teqnikuri, higienuri an sxva xasiaTis wesebi da normebi. garemos dacvis sferoSi saxelmwifo standartebis mkacrad centralizebuli sistema (-ebi) warmoadgenda yofili sabWoTa kavSiris standartebis saerTo sistemis nawils, romelic Sedgeboda 22000-ze meti normatiul-teqnikuri dokumentisagan da gamoricxavda respublikis doneze raime standartis SemuSavebas. standartizacia garemos dacvis sferoSi exeboda

garemosdacviTi mniSvnelobis cnebebsa da terminebs da aregulirebda bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebisa da dacvis sistemas, garemos mdgomareobis monitoringis, kontrolisa da Sefasebis meTodebs, atmosferul haerSi, wyalSi, niadagSi da kvebis produqtebSi mavne nivTierebaTa maqsimalurad dasaSveb doneebs da koncentraciis normebs. yvela standarts Tavisi adgili eWira saerTo struqturaSi da sistemurad iyo danomrili. garemosdacviT standartebs hqondaT dasaxeleba -" 17.0... (weli) garemos dacva ...." (Sedeg qveTavisa da dokumentis dasaxeleba). -ebi amJamadac gamoiyeneba axal damoukidebel qveynebSi. amasTan, mimdinareobs axali saxelmwifo standartebis SemuSaveba saxelmwifoTaSoriso doneze. am ukanasknelTa Soris aRsaniSnavia 17.00.05-94 "garemos dacva. narCenebis ekologiuri pasporti". ixileT aseve -ebi da sanitaruli normebi.

( ­ . , , ) ( ). , , , , . , , , , , . , . .

narCenebis mwvane sia

GREEN LIST OF WASTES European Community Regulation 259/93 on the supervision and control of shipments of waste within, into and out of the European Community establishes lists of non-dangerous (green list ­ e.g. metal and metal-alloy wastes, solid plastics wastes, and textile wastes) waste and hazardous (amber and red list) wastes. Amber list wastes include, e.g. wastes from iron and steel production, waste from the production/processing of petroleum coke and bitumen, and leaded petrol sludge. Red list wastes include e.g. wastes containing PCB/PCTs and wastes containing asbestos. The Regulation imposes restrictions and requirements on waste shipments depending on which list the waste appears. It also makes a distinction between shipments of waste for disposal and shipments of waste for recovery. 259/93 , 132

evrogaerTianebis dadgenileba 259/93 narCenebis gadazidvebze zedamxedvelobisa da kontrolis Sesaxeb evrogaerTianebis farglebSi, evrokavSirSi da mis farglebs gareT adgens arasaxifaTo narCenebis CamonaTvals (mwvane sia - m.S. Savi da feradi liTonebis jarTi, myari plastmasis narCenebi, aseve safeiqro narCenebi) da saxifaTo narCenebis CamonaTvals (narCenebis yviTeli da wiTeli siebi). yviTel siaSi Sedian magaliTad, rkinisa da foladis warmoebis narCenebi, navTobis koqsisa da biTumis warmoebisa da gadamuSavebis Sedegad miRebuli narCenebi, aseve eTilirebuli navTobSlami. wiTel siaSi Sedian magaliTad, narCenebi, romlebic Seicaven PCB/PCT-s (poliqlorbenifilebi da poliqlorirebuli terfenili), aseve narCenebi, romlebic Seicaven azbests. dadgenileba awesebs SezRudvebsa da moTxovnebs narCenebis gadazidvaze imis mixedviT, Tu romel siaSia igi moxvedrili. igi aseve ganasxvavebs narCenebis gadazidvas maTi ganTavsebisa an reciklirebis mizniT.

GOVERNANCE The way that a corporation or government organises and carries out its economic, political and administrative authority. , , .

marTva

meTodebi, romelTa meSveobiT organizacia an xelisufleba organizebas uwevs an axorcielebs Tavis ekonomikur, politikur da administraciul funqciebs.

GRANDFATHERING Granting an existing firm a legal exemption from a new or changed policy. In the case of tradable permits, it refers to the common practice of allocating permits to existing polluters or users of natural resources at no direct cost to them. « » . .

"memkvidreobiT" uflebis miReba

GREENHOUSE EFFECT The rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, for example) trap energy from the sun. Because of their warming effect, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases. Without them, more heat would escape back into space and the Earth's average temperature would be about 33°C colder. Similarly, their rapid accumulation in the atmosphere can lead to rising temperatures. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was established in 1988 to assess and provide information on climate change and options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. For more information visit their website at www.ipcc.ch

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moqmedi sawarmos kanonieri ganTavisufleba axali an Secvlili moTxovnebis Sesrulebisagan. aRniSnuli termini, dakavSirebuli nebarTvebTan, romlebiT vaWrobac daSvebulia, gulisxmobs moqmedi sawarmodambinZureblebisaTvis an bunebrivi resursebis momxmarebelTaTvis nebarTvebis miniWebis gavrcelebul praqtikas am ukanasknelTa mier pirdapiri danaxarjebis gaRebis gareSe.

, , (, , , ) . . , , 33°C . , . 1988 . , , . - : www.ipcc.ch

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saTburis efeqti

dedamiwaze temperaturis matebis tendencia, romelic atmosferoSi zogierTi airebis (magaliTad, wylis orTqlis, naxSirorJangis, azotis Jangis da meTanis) mier mzis energiis Sekavebis Sedegia. aRniSnul airebs siTburi zemoqmedebis gamo saTburis airebs uwodeben. maT gareSe, siTbos didi nawili kosmosSi dabrundeboda, xolo

133

saSualo temperatura dedamiwaze daaxloebiT 330C-iT daiwevda. saTburis airebis swrafma dagrovebam atmosferoSi SesaZloa temperaturis mateba gamoiwvios. 1988 wels Seiqmna samTavrobaTaSoriso jgufi klimatis cvlilebis sakiTxebze, romelic mowodebulia gaaanalizos da uzrunvelyos informaciis wardgena klimatis cvlilebis Sesaxeb, SeimuSaos RonisZiebebi saTburis airebis emisiaTa Sesamcireblad. damatebiTi informacia ixileT internet-qselSi misamarTze: www.ipcc.ch

mwvane wigni asaxavs problemebs, maTi gadawyvetis alternatiul variantebs, romelTac ganixilaven mTavrobebi, da mouwodebs samrewvelo sawarmoebs, ekologiur jgufebs, sazogadoebriobas da sxva dainteresebul mxareebs warmoadginon TavianTi SeniSvnebi da komentarebi. rogorc wesi, mwvane wigns mosdevs TeTri wignis gamocema, romelic Seicavs kanonproeqtebs. (ixileT, magaliTad, evrokomisiis 1993 wlis mwvane wigni "garemosdacviTi zianis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb").

GREEN PAPER In the EU: A Commission consultative document addressed to a specific, often controversial, issue. The Green Paper will set out the problem and suggest a number of options that the Commission is considering taking. Comments are specifically sought from industry, environmental groups, the public and other interested parties. A Green Paper will usually be followed by a White Paper which will include proposals for legislation. (See, e.g., the European Commission 1993 Green Paper on Remedying Environmental Damage). : , , . , , , , , . , , . (., , 1993 . « »).

mwvane wigni

GREEN PLAN In the EU: A long-term comprehensive national strategy for addressing environmental problems at source by integration of environmental considerations into national policies and programmes of all sectors of activity. Several examples of Green Plans exist in Europe: Denmark (Our Common Future), France (Le Plan Vert), Ireland (An Environmental Action Programme), the Netherlands (National Environmental Policy Plan and NEPP Plus), etc. : . « »: (« »), (« »), (« »), (« » « »).

mwvane gegma

evrokavSirSi: samTavrobo-sakonsultacio dokumenti, romelic eZRvneba konkretul, xSirad sadao sakiTxs.

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evrokavSirSi: sakvanZo garemosdacviTi problemebis gadawyvetis grZelvadiani kompleqsuri erovnuli strategia saqmianobis yvela sferos erovnul strategiebsa da programebSi garemosdacviT mosazrebaTa integraciis gziT. evropaSi arsebobs "mwvane gegmis" ramdenime magaliTi: dania ("Cveni saerTi momavali"), safrangeTi ("mwvane gegma"),

irlandia ("garemosdacviTi saqmianobis programa"), holandia ("ekologiuri politikis erovnuli gegma" da "NEPP Plus") da sxva.

, . . - : www.environment-agency.gov.uk

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GUIDELINE A suggested practice that is not mandatory. Within an organisation these guidelines are not compulsory but strongly advised. For instance, a guideline for inspection is only a way of indicating a route to follow during an inspection. The environmental authorities in many countries publish Guidelines on a wide range of topics on how best industry can comply with legislation. For example, the Environment Agency in the UK produces guidelines on waste oil disposal, waste landfill operation etc. For further information see the Environment Agency web site at www.environment-agency.gov.uk

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saxelmZRvanelo principi

, . , . , , . , , . ,

rekomendirebuli praqtika, romelic ar aris savaldebulo Sesasruleblad. calkeuli organizaciebis farglebSi rekomendaciebis Sesruleba savaldebulo ar aris, magram uaRresad sasurvelia. inspeqtirebis Catarebis magaliTad, saxelmZRvanelo principebi asaxaven zogad debulebebs, romelTa gaTvaliswineba saWiroa inspeqtirebis Catarebis procesSi. mravali qveynis garemosdacviTi organoebi aqveyneben saxelmZRvanelo principebs sakiTxebis farTo speqtrze, maT Soris imis Taobaze, rogor SeuZliaT samrewvelo sawarmoebs ufro efeqturad daicvan sakanonmdeblo normebi. magaliTad, didi britaneTis garemos dacvis saagento aqveynebs rekomendaciebs naxmari zeTebis narCenebis poligonebis ganTavsebis, eqspluataciis Sesaxeb da sxva. damatebiTi informacia ixileT internetqselSi didi britaneTis garemos dacvis saagentos misamarTze: www.environmentagency.gov.uk

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H

HAZARD The inherent capacity of a material (e.g. a chemical, a mixture of wastes, or a genetically modified organism) to cause adverse effects on human beings or the environment under the conditions of exposure. (, , ) .

saSiSroeba saSiSi nivTiereba

nebismieri mavne nivTiereba, romelic Tavisi bunebrivi Tvisebis wyalobiT warmoadgens mdgrad, momwamlav an bioakumulaciis unaris mqone nivTierebas, an Seicavs am maxasiaTeblebis nebismier kombinacias. saSiSi nivTierebebis zemoqmedebam SesaZloa gamoiwvios damRupveli Sedegi calkeuli organizmebis, populaciis, ekosistemisa da biosferosaTvis.

raime masalis (magaliTad, qimiur nivTierebaTa, narCenebis narevis an genetikurad modificirebuli organizmebis) damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba, garkveuli urTieTqmedebis pirobebSi, moaxdinos uaryofiTi gavlena adamiansa da garemoze.

HAZARDOUS WASTE By-products of society that can pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment when improperly managed. Possesses at least one of four characteristics - ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Hazardous wastes often appear on special lists of multilateral environmental agreements. , . , : , , . .

saxifaTo narCenebi

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE Any harmful substance which due to its intrinsic properties is persistent, toxic or liable to bioaccumulate or any combination of these properties. Exposure to hazardous substances can lead to harmful effects; to a single organism, a population, an ecosystem or the biosphere. , , . , , . 136

sazogadoebis saqmianobis Sedegad Tanmdevi produqti, dagrovili romelsac, araswori mopyrobis SemTxvevaSi, SeuZlia mniSvnelovani ziani miayenos adamianis janmrTelobas an garemos. saxifaToa narCenebi, romelTac

axasiaTebT qvemoTCamoTvlil TvisebaTagan erT-erTi mainc: aalebadoba, koroziuloba, qimiuri aqtivoba an toqsikuroba. saxifaTo narCenebi xSirad Seitaneba garemos dacvis mravalmxriv xelSekrulebaTa specialur siebSi.

HAZARDOUS WASTE PASSPORT In the NIS: A document that contains information about the quantitative and qualitative makeup of a batch of hazardous waste. The hazardous waste passport is drawn up on the basis of data on the components and properties of the hazardous waste, and an evaluation of its degree of hazard. The passport is prepared by the enterprise and must be approved by the environmental protection agencies. : , . , . .

saxifaTo narCenebis pasporti

communication channel used in emergency cases or suspected emergency situations. Those lines are protected against interference with other communication systems. Hot lines are also called «Dedicated communication lines». « » (1) , . , « » . « » . (2) « » , . , . « » « »

"cxeli xazi"

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: dokumenti, romelic Seicavs informacias saxifaTo narCenebis partiis raodenobrivi da xarisxobrivi Semadgenlobis Sesaxeb. saxifaTo narCenebis pasporti dgeba maTi komponentebisa da maxasiaTeblebis Sesaxeb monacemebisa da saSiSroebis donis Sefasebis safuZvelze. pasports adgens samrewvelo sawarmo da amtkiceben garemos dacvis organoebi.

(1) satelefono kvanZebi, romlebic uzrunvelyofen ufaso satelefono zarebs. rogorc wesi, "cxeli xazebi" organizebulia garemosdacviTi inspeqtoratis mier, raTa moqalaqeebs mieceT saSualeba daubrkoleblad miawodon maT informacia garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis nebismieri darRvevis Sesaxeb. "cxeli xazebi" xels uwyoben darRvevaTa droulad da mcire danaxarjebiT gamovlenas. (2) xSirad, "cxel xazs" kavSirgabmulobis Cqarosnul arxs uwodeben, romelic gamoiyeneba avariis an mosalodneli avariuli situaciis SemTxvevaSi. aRniSnuli xazebi daculia kavSirgabmulobis sxva sistemebiT gamowveuli xarvezebisagan. "cxel xazebs" "kavSirgabmulobis gamxoloebul xazebsac" uwodeben.

HOT LINES (1) Telephone centres that provide free telephone calls. Typically, hot lines are established by environmental inspectorates to facilitate citizen's reporting on any violation of environmental laws. Hot lines can help to detect violations timely, in a cost effective way. (2) Commonly, a hot line is a fast 137

«HOT SPOT» AIR POLLUTION The term «hot spot» pollution may be used to describe the high short-term pollution concentrations to which the population may be exposed when located close to pollution

sources. «Hot spot» air pollution includes urban streets with busy traffic, and the pollution impacts from industrial stacks in cities. «» «» , , . «» , , .

atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis "cxeli wertili"

sanitariul-higienuri normebi

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: maqsimalurad an minimalurad dasaSvebi raodenobrivi da/an xarisxobrivi maCveneblebi, romlebic SemuSavebulia adamianis janmrTelobaze mavne zemoqmedebis Semcirebis mizniT. sanitariul-higienuri normebi zogierTi damabinZurebeli nivTierebisaTvis (rogoricaa kancerogenuli nivTierebebi) SesaZloa garemosdacviT normebze ufro mkacri iyos.

termini dabinZurebis "cxeli wertili", gamoiyeneba damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa xanmokle maRali donis koncentraciis aRwerisaTvis, romlis lokalur zemoqmedebas ganicdian dabinZurebis wyaros siaxloves myofi adamianebi. atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis "cxel wertils" warmoadgenen qalaqis quCebi intensiuri saavtomobilo moZraobiT, agreTve qalaqebSi ganTavsebuli samrewvelo sawarmoebis damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa gamfrqvevi sakvamle milebi.

HYGIENE STANDARDS In the NIS: The maximum or minimum permissible quantitative and/or qualitative indicators established with the aim of limiting harmful influences on the health of humans. Hygiene standards for some pollutants (such as carcinogenic substances) can be stricter than environmental standards. - : / , . - (, ) , . 138

I

ICM CRITERIA ICM - Isolate, Control, Monitor. These criteria are used in waste disposal. ­ , , . .

ICM - kriteriumebi

izolacia, kontroli, monitoringi (ICM). aRniSnuli kriteriumebi gamoiyeneba narCenebis ganTavsebisas.

promotes the exchange of information and experience and the development of a greater consistency of approach in the implementation, application and enforcement of environmental legislation, with a special emphasis on Community environmental legislation. There used to be a parallel network - AC-IMPEL - for the benefit of the candidate countries for membership of the EU, but this merged with IMPEL. For more information visit the IMPEL site on the Internet at www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/impel.

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IMMISION LEVELS Levels of pollutants in the environmental media (e.g. in ambient air). (, ).

miwispira dabinZurebis doneebi

garemos ZiriTad komponentebSi (magaliTad, atmosferul haerSi) damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa Semcvelobis doneebi.

IMPEL (IMPEL) - - . IMPEL ( ) , . , , . - ACIMPEL ­ - . IMPEL : www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/impel.

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IMPEL The European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL) is an informal Network of the environmental authorities of the Member States of the European Union. The objectives of IMPEL are to create the necessary impetus in the European Community (including the potential future membership) to make progress on ensuring a more effective application of environmental legislation. The Network 139

qseli - IMPEL

evrokavSiris qseli garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa dacvisa da kanonaRsrulebis sferoSi (IMPEL) _ warmoadgens evrokavSiris wevri-qveynebis saxelmwifo garemosdacviTi organoebis araoficialur qsels. IMPEL-is qselis mizania Seqmnas saTanado stimulebi evrokavSiris (maT Soris potenciuri)

wevr-qveynebSi garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis dacvis ufro efeqturi uzrunvelyofis saqmeSi warmatebis misaRwevad. qseli xels uwyobs informaciisa da gamocdilebis gacvlas, agreTve, garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis kontrolisa da aRsrulebis saqmeSi midgomebis daaxloebas evrokavSiris garemosdacviT kanonmdeblobaze sagangebo aqcentirebiT. uaxloes warsulSi arsebobda paraleluri AC IMPEL-is qseli evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis kandidat-saxelmwifoebisaTvis. IMPEL-is qselis Sesaxeb damatebiTi informacia ixileT misamarTze: www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/impel

Sesrulebis

Sesvla".

xelSewyoba)

"ZalaSi

IMPOUNDMENT A body of water or sludge confined by a dam, dike, floodgate, or other barrier. , , , .

dagubebuli wyalsatevi

wylis masa an lami, SemosazRvruli dambiT, kaSxliT, SluziT an sxva barieriT.

IMPLEMENTATION Practical application or incorporation of (environmental) law by the competent authorities into individual decisions, for instance when issuing a permit or devising or executing a plan or programme. It means «putting into action» the requirements laid out in the national legislation, such as providing permits, and exercising compliance promotion. , , . « » , , , .

aRsruleba

INABILITY TO PAY Inability to pay is identified by some environmental enforcement agencies as one circumstance of compelling public concern under which an enforcement case may be settled for less than the economic benefit of noncompliance. For instance, in the United States such settlements are allowed if removal of the economic benefit would result in a plant closing, bankruptcy, or other extreme financial burden, and there is an important public interest in allowing the firm to continue in business. Nevertheless, if a violator either refuses to comply, has a long history of previous similar violations, or has committed egregious violations, the Environmental Protection Agency reserves the right to seek penalties that might adversely impact a violator - even putting it out of business. Three models are in use by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate claims of inability to pay: ABEL, INDIPAY and MUNIPAY. , , , . , , 140

kanonmdeblobis (m. S. garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis) praqtikuli gamoyeneba an konkretul gadawyvetilebebSi asaxva uflebamosili organoebis mier, magaliTad, nebarTvis gacemisas, aseve, gegmisa an programis SemuSavebisa da ganxorcielebisas. terminiT aRiniSneba erovnul kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvrul moTxovnaTa (rogoricaa nebarTvebis miReba da kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa

, , . , , , , , ­ . : ABEL, INDIPAY MUNIPAY.

gadaxdisuunaroba

garemos dacvis saagento sawarmos gadaxdisuunarobis Sesafaseblad gamoiyenebs kompiuterul modelebs: ABEL, INDIPAY da MUNIPAY .

INCIDENT Any accidents, deliberate acts and unexpected occurrences. Incidents may lead to enforcement actions in case a violation is observed. , . .

incidenti

garemosdacviTi kanonaRsrulebis zogierTi organos ganmartebiT, gadaxdisuunaroba es aris situacia, roca arsebobs ukiduresi sazogadoebrivi daintereseba, raTa kanonmdeblobis darRvevis Sesaxeb saqmis ganxilvis Sedegad dakisrebul iqnes sawarmos mier garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebis SeusruleblobiT miRebuli ekonomikuri sargebelis amoRebasTan SedarebiT ufro msubuqi sasjeli. magaliTad, aSS-Si amgvari daregulireba dasaSvebia, Tu ekonomikuri sargebelis amoRebis Sedegad sawarmos elis daxurva, gakotreba an mniSvnelovani finansuri danakargebi da, amadroulad, arsebobs ukiduresi sazogadoebrivi daintereseba - neba daerTos sawarmos gaagrZelos Tavisi saqmianoba. amasTan, Tu samarTaldamrRvevi uars ambobs garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebaze, an warsulSi mravalgzis Cadioda analogiur samarTaldaldarRvevas, an Caidina Zalian uxeSi darRveva, aSS garemos dacvis saagento (EPA) itovebs iseTi saxdelis dadebis uflebas, romelic seriozul zians miayenebs samarTaldamrRvevs sawarmos gakotrebis CaTvliT. aSS

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nebismieri avaria, winaswarganzraxuli qmedeba an gauTvaliswinebeli SemTxveva. incidentebs, kanondarRvevaTa gamovlenis SemTxvevaSi, SesaZloa mohyves kanonaRsrulebis zomebis gamoyeneba.

INCINERATION The destruction of solid, liquid, or gaseous wastes by controlled burning at high temperature. The residue ash and the emissions may contain some hazardous substances. () , . .

narCenebis dawva

myar, Txevad da gazisebr mdgomareobaSi myofi narCenebis ganadgureba maRal temperaturaze organizebuli dawvis meSveobiT. warmoqnili nacari da emisiebi SesaZloa Seicavdnen saSiS nivTierebebs.

INDIPAY (COMPUTER MODEL) In the United States: A sophisticated modelling tool developed to assist enforcement professionals in evaluating inability to pay claims made by individuals, designed to be used principally in negotiations. INDIPAY is

generally not intended for use at a trial or in an administrative hearing. When the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presents ability to pay testimony in these settings, it relies on an expert to provide an independent financial analysis. Both the model and the companion INDIPAY User's Manual are available on the EPA's enforcement Internet site (www.epa.gov/compliance/civil/programs/econmodels).

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INDIPAY : , , , , , . , INDIPAY . , , , . , « INDIPAY» - .

kompiuteruli modeli - INDIPAY

INDIRECT DISCHARGE (1) The introduction of pollutants from a nondomestic source into a municipal (often publicly owned) wastewater treatment system. Indirect discharges can be from commercial or industrial facilities who must pre-treat their waste before discharge into municipal sewers. (2) Indirect discharges also apply to leachates etc. from, for example waste disposal sites that contaminate underground waters. ( ) . () , . () . ., , , .

arapirdapiri CaSveba

aSS-Si: modelirebis rTuli meTodi, romelic SemuSavebulia kanonaRsrulebis organoebis specialistTa dasaxmareblad gadaxdisuunarobis Sesaxeb warmodgenili ganacxadis Sefasebisas da gamoiyeneba ZiriTadad molaparakebebis etapze. rogorc wesi, modeli - INDIPAY ar gamoiyeneba sasamarTlo procesebis an administraciuli mosmenebis mimdinareobisas. im SemTxvevaSi, roca aSS garemos dacvis saagento (EPA) waradgens mtkicebulebebs damrRvevis gadaxdisunarianobis Sesaxeb, igi eyrdnoba damoukidebeli eqspertis daskvnas, romlic atarebs damoukidebel finansur analizs. modeli, misi gamoyenebis saxelmZRvanelosTan erTad xelmisawvdomia internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.epa.gov/compliance/civil/programs/econm odels

municipalur (xSirad saxelmwifo) sakanalizacio sistemaSi arasayofacxovrebo wyaroebidan damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa moxvedra. arapirdapiri CaSveba SesaZloa moxdes komerciuli an samrewvelo sawarmoebidan, romlebic valdebulni arian municipalur sakanalizacio sistemaSi CaSvebamde winaswar gawmindon narCenebi. (2) arapirdapir CaSvebas aseve ganekuTvneba filtratebis miwisqveSa wylebSi SeRwevis SemTxvevebi da sxva, magaliTad, narCenebis ganTavsebis adgilebidan.

INDIRECT REGULATION Also called «the invisible hand», indirect regulation is a regulation that has an impact without direct effects. For example, to reduce the consumption of leaded petrol and promote the use of unleaded petrol an extra charge is added to make leaded petrol more expensive than unleaded and thus promote the use of unleaded petrol. It is aimed at encouraging petrol users to move to the cheaper petrol thereby improving the environment. 142

, « », - . , , , , , . , .

arapirdapiri regulireba

sinonimi: wyaro.

.

dabinZurebis

stacionaruli

INDUSTRIAL WASTE Unwanted materials produced in or expelled from an industrial process or operation and categorised under a variety of headings, such as liquid wastes, sludge, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. , . , , , , . wyaro.

samrewvelo narCenebi

arapirdapiri regulireba, romelsac "uCinar xelsac" uwodeben, warmoadgens arapirdapiri qmedebis regulirebas. magaliTad, eTilirebuli benzinis moxmarebis Semcirebisa da araeTilirebuli benzinis moxmarebis asamaRleblad SemoRebul iqna damatebiTi gadasaxadi, raTa eTilirebuli benzini araeTilirebulze ufro Zviri gaxdes da am gziT xeli Seewyos araeTilirebuli benzinis gamoyenebas. aRniSnuli zomebi gankuTvnilia momxmarebelTa stimulirebisaTvis, rac xels uwyobs garemos mdgomareobis gajansaRebas.

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION SOURCE Pollution (emissions) coming from a specific industrial installation. It can also include fugitive emissions. ( ), . . .: .

dabinZurebis samrewvelo wyaro

gamousadegari masalebi, romlebic miiReba an gamoiyofa sawarmoo procesis an garkveuli operaciebis Sedegad. samrewvelo narCenebi iyofa mraval kategoriad, rogoricaa: Txevadi narCeni, lami, myari narCeni da saxifaTo narCeni.

garkveuli samrewvelo sawarmos mier gamowveuli garemos (emisiebiT) dabinZureba. maT SesaZloa aseve ganekuTvnos araorganizebuli emisia.

143

INECE NETWORK The International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement, INECE is an international partnership to promote effective environmental compliance and enforcement of requirements of domestic environmental laws and international environmental agreements through networking, capacity building and enforcement co-operation. It grew out of a common recognition that environmental enforcement is essential to protect public health and the environment and to secure both environmental and economic benefits sought from development and international trade. Six biennial conferences with global representation, conducted under the INECE banner, have led to an ongoing network. The INECE partnership facilitates linkages and communications among and reinforces - but does not duplicate - the activities of participating institutions. It also provides synergies between organisations with common goals in supporting and implementing environmental compliance and enforcement programs. To find more consult the web page

www.inece.org, where you can find general information about INECE, conference proceedings and other informational materials.

16H

INECE (INECE) - , , , . , , , . , INECE, . INECE , -, . , , . INECE, - www.inece.org

17H

saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebisa da kanonaRsrulebis uzrunvelyofis efeqturobis amaRlebisaken. qseli Seiqmna im faqtis sayovelTao aRiarebis Sedegad, rom kanonaRsruleba garemos dacvis sferoSi mniSvnelovania mosaxleobis janmrTelobisa da garemos dasacavad, agreTve, ganviTarebisa da saerTaSoriso vaWrobis procesebidan ekologiuri da ekonomikuri sargeblis uzrunvelsayofad. aRniSnuli qseli Camoyalibda INECE-is egidiT yovel or weliwadSi erTxel, msoflios sxvadasxva qveynis warmomadgenelTa monawileobiT Catarebuli eqvsi konferenciis Sedegad. INECE xels uwyobs kontaqtebisa da kavSirebis damyarebas, ufro efeqtians xdis monawile-organizaciebis saqmianobas, magram gamoricxavs mis dublirebas. qseli xels uwyobs aseve urTierTmomgebian TanamSoromlobas im organizaciebs Soris, romelTa saerTo mizania garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa dacvisa da kanonaRsrulebis programebis mxardaWera da ganxorcieleba. INECE-is qselis Sesaxeb damatebiTi informacia, konferenciebis masalebi da sxva monacemebi ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.inece.org

qseli - INECE

saerTaSoriso qseli garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebisa da kanonaRsrulebis sferoSi (INECE) warmoadgens saerTaSoriso partniorobas, romelic mimarTulia, erToblivi Zalisxmevis, organizaciuli potencialis ganmtkicebisa da kanonaRsrulebis sferoSi mWidro TanamSromlobis gziT, erovnuli kanonmdeblobebis da garemosdacviTi

144

IN-FIELD TESTING An activity performed by the authorities of pilot-testing general requirements in order to determine whether the requirements are clear and understandable as well as the ease and cost of compliance. This is done to facilitate the decision-making process and decide whether changes to the general requirements are needed before they are finally implemented in permits or authorisations, which will be applied throughout the country. ,

, . , , , , , .

gamocda

SesaZlebloba da maTi simkacre (magaliTad, momxmareblebis da/an kontraqtorebis dakargva, reputaciis Selaxva da a.S.).

organoebis saqmianoba saerTo obieqtebze winaswari testirebis moTxovnebis mizniT, imis gasarkvevad, ramdenad naTeli da gasagebia es moTxovnebi, agreTve, maTi Sesrulebadobisa da Rirebulebis dasadgenad. igi saSualebas aZlevs politikis SemmuSavebel pasuxismgebel pirebs, saWiroebis SemTxveevaSi, cvlilebebi Seitanon saerTo moTxovnebSi manamde, vidre isini realizebuli da gamoyenebuli iqnebian nebarTvebsa da licenziebSi qveynis masStabiT.

saxelmwifo pilotur

INFORMAL REPORT PROBABILITY The possibility that an offence comes to light in an earlier stage than during an official investigation and officially reported.

, , , .

araoficialuri albaToba Setyobinebis

kanondarRvevis aRmoCenis albaToba oficialuri gamokvlevis Catarebamde da oficialuri Setyobinebis arxebis gamoyenebamde.

INFORMAL CONTROL The possibility that non-compliant behaviour of the target group will be detected and disapproved of by third parties (e.g. nongovernment organisations) and the possibility and severity of sanctions that might be imposed by third parties (e.g. loss of customers and/or contractors, loss of reputation, etc.). , (, ), (, / , ..).

araoficialuri kontroli

INFORMAL RESPONSE A response that cannot impose legal requirements or sanctions or be enforced, but can lead to a more severe response if ignored. Informal responses are typically telephone calls or documents that provide information about the observed violation and the action needed to correct the violation. If not properly addressed by the regulatee, this informal response must be followed by a compliance checking and inspection that may further lead to penalties in line with the enforcement response. , , . , . , 145

mesame pirTa (magaliTad, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis) mxridan miznobrivi jgufis mier Cadenili kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevis aRmoCenisa da gakicxvis SesaZlebloba, aseve mesame pirTa mier zomebis gatarebis

, , , .

zemoqmedebis zomebi araoficialuri

informaciis marTva

reagirebis zomebi, romlebic ar iTvaliswineben samarTlebriv sanqciebs an kanonaRsrulebiTi xasiaTis qmedebebs, magram maT ignorirebas SesaZloa ufro mkacri reagireba mohyves. zemoqmedebis araoficialuri zomebia - satelefono Setyobinebebi an dokumentebi, romlebic Seicaven informacias gamovlenil samarTaldarRvevaTa Sesaxeb da rekomendaciebs gamosasworebeli RonisZiebebis Taobaze. bunebaTmosargebleTa mxridan adeqvaturi reaqciis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi, zemoqmedebis araoficialur zomebs mosdevs

informaciis marTva gulisxmobs, magaliTad, sinjebis aRebisa da analizis dros miRebul monacemTa damuSavebas. igi iTvaliswinebs monacemTa Caweras, maT analizs da pasuxismgebel Tanamdebobis pirTaTvis, sxva dainteresebuli mxareebisaTvis, xolo saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, sazogadoebisaTvis Sesabamisi formiT miwodebas. farTo gagebiT, es termini aRniSnavs Sesabamisi momxmareblebisaTvis informaciis miwodebis meqanizmsa da struqturas. sinonimi: informaciuli nakadebis marTva.

INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS Information needs on environmental performance, on the part of the operator itself or the authoritiesFor example, the permit or authorisation may contain obligations as to regular reporting on performance by the operator (in digital form or otherwise) to the authorities, and to keeping records at the site, to monitor and analyse certain environmental important components (see monitoring). It is important that the operator establishes the necessary mechanisms to ensure that such information is collected in the appropriate format. It is important that the authorities have the appropriate mechanisms also to obtain and process such information. , ( ) , (. ). , . , , . 146

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis Semowmeba an inspeqtireba, rasac Tavis

mxriv, SesaZloa mohyves saxdelebis dadeba kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad.

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Information management refers to processing the data obtained, e.g., from the sampling system. This includes recording the data, analysing it and presenting the information in a manner which is useful to decision makers and other stakeholders, and where relevant, the public. In the broad sense of the word it means the mechanism and structure to disclose information for the relevant users. , , , . , , , ­ , . . . .

informaciis moTxovna

miweriloba

aucilebeli monacemebi garemosdacviTi saqmianobis Sedegebis Sesaxeb, romelic saWiroa uSualod sawarmosaTvis an uflebamosili organois moTxovnaTa dasakmayofileblad. magaliTad, nebarTva an licenzia SesaZloa avaldebulebdes sawarmos regularulad warudginos informacia Tavisi saqmianobis Sesaxeb saxelmwifo organoebs (eleqtronuli an sxva saxiT) da awarmoos obieqtze Sesabamisi monacemebis aRricxva monitoringis ganxorcielebisa da garemos mdgomareobis amsaxveli mniSvnelovani parametrebis analizis monitoringi). mizniT (ixileT mniSvnelovania sawarmos mier informaciis saTanado formiT asaxvis meqanizmis Seqmna. garda amisa, aucilebelia, rom uflebamosili organoebi flobdnen amgvari informaciis miRebisa da damuSavebis meqanizmebs.

INFRINGEMENTS A violation of the law, or breaking the law. .

marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebebi

garemosdacviTi organoebis daskvna

kanonaRsrulebis garemosdacviTi

kanonmdeblobis

moTxovnaTa

darRvevis

Taobaze. miweriloba Seicavs moTxovnebs darRvevis aRkveTisa da miyenebuli anazRaurebis Sesaxeb (amis zianis magaliTs warmoadgens miweriloba moTxovniT damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa gafrqvevis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb) .

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY New or inventive methods to treat hazardous wastes, conserve energy or prevent pollution. , .

inovaciuri teqnologia

axali an arastandartuli meTodebi, saxifaTo narCenebis SemuSavebuli marTvis, energiis dazogvis an garemos dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT.

kanonis darRveva, ugulebelyofa.

INJUNCTION Indictment from a state environmental enforcement authority on non-compliance. The injunction contains a demand to cease the violation, and to make good the damage caused (for example an injunction to cease discharging pollutants). . ( ). 147

INSPECTION An official investigation and examination of the compliance status of a facility. It is the task of the inspector being part of the Inspectorate or inspection system or agency. As defined in the EU Minimum criteria for inspection, the «environmental inspection» is an activity which entails, as appropriate, (a) checking and promoting the compliance of controlled installations with relevant environmental requirements [..]; (b) monitoring the impact of controlled installations on the environment to determine whether further inspection or enforcement action (including issuing, modification or revocation of any authorisation, permit or licence) is required to secure compliance [...]; (c) the carrying out of activities for the above purposes. This last includes: site visits; monitoring achievement of environmental quality standards; consideration of environmental audit reports and statements; consideration and verification of any self monitoring carried out by or on behalf of

operators of controlled installations; assessing the activities and operations carried out at the controlled installation; checking the premises and the relevant equipment (including the adequacy with which it is maintained) and the adequacy of the environmental management at the site; checking the relevant records kept by the operators of controlled installations.» . , , . « » , « » - , , , () [...]; () ( , ) [...]; () . : ; ; ; , ; , ; ( ); ; , .

inspeqtireba

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xarisxis oficialuri gamokvleva da Semowmeba. inspeqtireba xorcieldeba inspeqtoris mier, romelic warmoadgens inspeqtorats, inspeqtirebis

sawarmoSi sistemas an organizacias. evrokavSiris inspeqtirebis minimaluri e.w. kriteriumebis Sesabamisad, "garemosdacviTi inspeqtireba" warmoadgens saqmianobas, romelic garemoebaTa Sesabamisad, moicavs: (a) Semowmebas da Sesabamisi garemosdacviTi moTxovnebis Sesrulebis xelSewyobas sakontrolo obieqtebze. (b) sakontrolo obieqtebis garemoze zemoqmedebis monitorings, inspeqtirebis Semdgomi gagrZelebis an kanonaRsrulebis zomebis gatarebis (m.S. nebarTvis an licenziis nebismieri gacemis, Sesworebis an gauqmebis) mizniT, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnas garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesruleba. (g) sxva RonisZiebebis gatareba zemoTaRniSnuli miznebis misaRwevad. maT Soris: sakontrolo obieqtze Sesvla; garemos xarisxobriv standartebTan Sesabamisobis monitoringi; garemosdacviTi auditis angariSebisa da daskvnebis Seswavla; TviTmonitoringis Sedegebis Seswavla da Semowmeba, romelic tardeba uSualod sakontrolo obieqtis mier an misi saxeliT. sakontrolo obieqtze ganxorcielebuli samuSaoebisa da sawarmoo procesebis Sefaseba; Sesabamisi nagebobebisa da mowyobilobebis (teqnikuri momsaxurebis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis CaTvliT) da garemosdacviTi Sesabamisobis Semowmeba; marTvis sakontrolo obieqtze Sesabamisi saaRricxvo dokumentebis Semowmeba.

INSPECTION CHARGE Some agencies obtain income by charging facilities for inspections. This is the approach taken in Sweden.

148

, . .

inspeqtirebis gadasaxadi

inspeqtirebis angariSSi ar aisaxeba, magram amgvari rekomendaciebis SeTavazeba SesaZlebelia ufro maRal doneze gadawyvetilebis misaRebad wardgenil Sida angariSSi.

zogierTi organizaciebi iReben Semosavals obieqtebidan inspeqtirebis CatarebisaTvis. amgvari midgoma miRebulia SveciaSi.

INSPECTION REPORT The official record of an inspection. These reports show clearly facts and figures and the observations during the inspection. It is basic material for future enforcement actions either by straight citation of penalties, or court actions. Condoning, agreeable timeframes for improvements to reach compliance are not part of the inspection report but can be suggested in an internal report for decisions at a higher level. . , , . , . , , .

inspeqtirebis angariSi

INSPECTION PLAN The plan according to which an inspection is carried out. This could mean both the inspection plan of an «on site visit» according to a certain protocol and annual inspection plans. , . , « » .

inspeqtirebis gegma

gegma, romlis Sesabamisad xorcieldeba inspeqtireba. termini SesaZloa aRniSnavdes rogorc dadgenili proceduris Sesabamisad "obieqtze Sesvlis" inspeqtirebis gegmas, ise inspeqtirebis wliur samoqmedo gegmasac.

oficialuri angariSi inspeqtirebis Sesaxeb. inspeqtirebis angariSi mkafiod asaxavs inspeqtirebis procesSi mokvleul faqtebs, cifrebs da dakvirvebebis Sedegebs. angariSi warmoadgens safuZvels kanonaRsrulebis Semdgomi zomebis gasatareblad, iqneba es saxdelis pirdapiri dakisreba, Tu samarTlebrivi devna. pasuxismgeblobisagan ganTavisufleba da garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebTan SesabamisobaSi mosayvanad dasaSvebi vadebi

149

INSPECTOR The person legally charged with compliance checking and enforcement. The term inspector is sometimes used as a synonym for government official, or compliance promotion official. This might lead to misunderstandings and obstruct proper handling of infringements later on in court proceedings. To this end, the inspector will not act as an advisor in assisting compliance during the inspection. , . «» « » «, »,

. , .

inspeqtori

piri, romelsac gaaCnia kanoniT miniWebuli uflebamosileba kanonmdeblobis ganaxorcielos moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis Semowmeba da gaataros kanonaRsrulebis zomebi. termini "inspeqtori" zogjer gamoiyeneba terminebis - "saxelmwifo moxelis" an "kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis moxelis" aRsaniSnavad, xelSemwyobi ramac SesaZloa gamoiwvios gaugebroba da gaarTulos samarTaldarRvevaTa Sesaxeb saqmeTa ganxilva sasamarTloSi. gaugebrobaTa Tavidan acilebis mizniT, inspeqtori inspeqtirebis procesSi ar unda gamodiodes kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSemwyobi konsultantis rolSi.

INSTALLATION A technical unit where one or more activities (with potential environmental impacts) are carried out, and any other directly associated activities which have a technical connection with the activities carried out on that site and which could have an effect on emissions and pollution. , ( ), , , , / .

danadgari

INSPECTORATE An authority legally charged with compliance checking and enforcement on either national, regional or local level. Syn.: environmental enforcement authority. , , . .: , .

inspeqtorati

teqnikuri obieqti, romlzec sruldeba erTi an ramdenime saxis samuSao (romelmac SesaZloa zemoqmedeba moaxdinos garemoze), an xorcieldeba nebismieri sxva saxis saqmianoba, romelic teqnikurad dakavSirebulia mocemul obieqtze mimdinare samuSaoebTan da gavlenas axdens damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa emisiebze garemoSi.

INTEGRATED APPROACH TO ISSUING PERMITS The measures necessary to ensure that the conditions of, and procedure for the grant of, the permit are fully co-ordinated where more than one competent authority is involved, and where discharges to more than one environmental media (air, water, land) are involved in order to guarantee an effective integrated approach by all competent authorities. This approach also promotes integration of all environmental issues that concern the application for a permit, ensuring that discharges to one environmental medium are not limited such that another medium is thereby significantly affected. It necessarily means that all authorities involved one way or another with the permitting process for all environmental media are working together to reach a permit that takes a well 150

uflebamosili organo, romelsac gaaCnia kanoniT miniWebuli uflebamosileba kanonmdeblobis ganaxorcielos moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis Semowmeba da gaataros kanonaRsrulebis zomebi erovnul, regionul da adgilobriv sinonimi: garemos dacvis doneebze.

saxelmwifo-makontrolebeli organo; makontrolebel-sazedamxedvelo organo.

balanced approach achieving the minimum load to the environment.

, , , , , (, , , ), , . , . , - , . , , / , , , , .

nebarTvis gacemisadmi integrirebuli midgoma

komponentSi ise, rom mniSvnelovani ziani ar miadges garemos sxva komponentebs. es niSnavs, rom organoebi, romlebic ama Tu im formiT monawileoben garemos romelime komponentSi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa emisiebze nebarTvis gacemis procesSi, erToblivi ZalisxmeviT unda iRebdnen gadawyvetilebas, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnas dabalansebuli midgoma garemoze datvirTvis minimumamde dasayvanad.

INTEGRATED POLLUTION PREVENTION AND

CONTROL

zomebi,

nebarTvis

romlebic uzrunvelyofen gacemis pirobebisa da proceduris srul koordinacias im SemTxvebSi, rodesac masSi CarTulia ramdenime uflebamosili organo, agreTve, roca zemoqmedeba xorcieldeba garemos erTze met komponentze (magaliTad, atmosferul haerze, wyalze da niadagze), raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnas urTiereTSeTanxmebuli da efeqturi qmedebebi uflebamosili organoebis mxridan. integrirebuli midgoma xels Seuwyobs aseve yvela im garemosdacviTi problemis integracias, romelic wamoiWreba konkretuli sanebarTvo ganacxadis ganxilvisas da uzrunvelyofs mavne nivTierebaTa emisiis SezRudvas garemos erT romelime

151

Measures and procedures to prevent (wherever practicable) or to minimise emissions from industrial installations so as to achieve a high level of protection for the environment as a whole. This concept arose when it became clear that approaches to controlling emissions in one medium alone may encourage shifting the burden of pollution across other environmental media. Originally, this concept requires that emission limit values are set with the aim of not breaching environmental quality standards: «Only when environmental quality standards or relevant international guidelines do not exist can emission limit values be based on BAT» (Proposal for a Council Directive on integrated pollution prevention and control. Commission of the European Communities, Official Journal No C 311/06, Luxembourg). See also under IPPC Directive.

, (, ) , . , , , , . , ,

: « , , BAT ( )». ( . , C 311/06, ). . .

dabinZurebis integrirebuli Tavidan acileba da kontroli

products' life-cycle and taking action where it is most effective. , , . , .

produqciisadmi midgoma integrirebuli

garemos dacvis maRali donis miRwevis mizniT RonisZiebaTa da proceduraTa ganxorcieleba, romlebic mimarTulia emisiebis samrewvelo obieqtebidan Tavidan asacileblad (sadac es SesaZlebelia) an minimumamde Sesamcireblad. aRniSnuli koncefcia warmoiSva maSin, rodesac naTeli gaxda, rom emisiebis kontrolma garemos mxolod erT komponentze SesaZloa xeli Seuwyos dabinZurebis gadatanas garemos sxva komponentebSi. aRniSnuli koncefcia Tavdapirvelad iTvaliswinebda emisiaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi doneebis gansazRvras, raTa ar dairRves garemos xarisxobrivi standartebi: "mxolod im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac garemos xarisxobrivi standartebi an Sesabamisi saxelmZRvanelo saerTaSoriso ar arsebobs, emisiaTa principebi zRvrulad dasaSvebi doneebi efuZneba

nebismieri produqcia ama Tu im formiT iwvevs garemos mdgomarebis gauaresebas misi warmoebis, gamoyenebis an ganTavsebis procesSi. produqciisadmi integrirebuli midgoma iTvaliswinebs aRniSnuli zemoqmedebis minimumamde Semcirebas produqciis "sasicocxlo ciklis" yvela stadiis analizisa da, sadac es efeqturia, Sesabamisi zomebis ganxorcielebis gziT.

INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT Approach that seeks waste minimisation through the various stages of the waste life cycle. Waste streams and the options for their minimisation are seen as part of the entire cycle of production and consumption. The selection of waste treatment process and technology is part of a waste management strategy. , . . .

narCenebis kompleqsuri marTva

saukeTeso

xelmisawvdom

teqnologiebs

(BAT)" (dabinZurebis integrirebuli Tavidan acilebisa da kontrolis direqtivis proeqti, evrokomisia, oficialuri biuleteni # C 311/06, luqsemburgi). aseve ixileT IPPC direqtiva.

INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY All products cause environmental degradation in some way, whether from their manufacturing, use or disposal. Integrated Product Policy seeks to minimise these by looking at all phases of a

midgoma,

narCenebis

iTavaliswinebs narCenebis "sasicocxlo ciklis" sxvadasxva stadiaze. narCenebis saxeebi da maTi minimizaciis SesaZleblobebi ganixileba

romelic

minimizacias

152

rogorc warmoebisa da moxmarebis sruli ciklis Semadgeneli nawili. narCenebis gadamuSavebis procesebisa da teqnologiebis SerCeva warmoadgens narCenebis marTvis strategiis nawils.

INTERVENTION VALUE A value that once reached will require action to counteract the cause of the change of the value. The term is used, for example, in periods of high air pollution levels in cities. Traffic will be re-routed or even stopped. It is a governmental action to intervene in this case. , , . , , , . .

Carevis done

. -, , , (. . , ).

sagamoZiebo organoebis muSakebi

aRniSnuli terminiT xSirad inspeqtorebi da sxva moixseniebian msgavsi Tanamdebobis pirebi. aRsaniSnavia sxvaoba, romelic arsebobs gamoZiebis farTo uflebamosilebaTa mqone inspeqtor-gamomZiebelsa da saxelmwifo moxeles Soris, romelsac gaaCnia gamoZiebis Catarebis SezRuduli uflebamosilebani (anu gamoZiebis Catarebis uflebamosileba Sesabamisi kanonebiT dasjad samarTaldarRvevebze).

done, romlis miRweva saWiroebs garkeuli zomebis gatarebas, romlebic win aRudgebian misi Secvlis gamomwvev mizezebs. termini gamoiyeneba magaliTad, qalaqebSi atmosferuli haeris maRali donis dabinZurebis periodebSi, roca avtotransportis moZraoba SeiZleba warimarTos sxva mimarTulebiT an saerTod Sewydes. intervenciis ganxorcieleba amgvar SemTxvevebSi saxelmwifo organoebis prerogativas warmoadgens.

INVESTIGATION The process of determining whether there is an incidence of non-compliance with the law. Thus, compliance checking is an investigation whether the conditions of the law or the permit are complied with. An Inspection is also an investigation. The term is to be used in the general meaning and not only for criminal cases. / , . , - , . . , .

gamokvleva/gamoZieba

INVESTIGATING OFFICIALS The term is often used for inspectors and other similar government employees. A distinction can be made between inspector investigators that have a general power of investigation and officials who have restricted powers of investigation (i.e. that the power of investigation is restricted to the investigation of certain offences made punishable in certain laws).

procesi, romelic adgens, aqvs Tu ara adgili kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa faqts. amgvarad, darRvevis kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa dacvis

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Semowmeba warmoadgens imis gamokvlevis process, Tu ramdenad daculia kanonis moTxovnebi, an nebarTvis pirobebi. inspeqtireba aseve warmoadgens gamokvleva/gamoZiebas. termini saWiroa gamoyenebul iqnas farTo mniSvnelobiT, da ara mxolod sisxlis samarTlis saqmeebis mimarT.

. . - : http://eippcb.jrc.es

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IPPC biuro biuro)

(IPPC-is

evropuli

IPPC BUREAU (EUROPEAN IPPC BUREAU) The European IPPC Bureau exists to catalyse an exchange of technical information on best available techniques (BAT) under the IPPC Directive (96/61/EC) and to create reference documents (BREFs) which should be taken into account when the competent authorities of Member States determine conditions for IPPC permits. IPPC applies to a wide range of industrial activities and the objective of the information exchange exercise is to assist the efficient implementation of the directive across the European Union. The BREFs will inform the relevant decision makers about what may be technically and economically available to industry in order to improve their environmental performance and consequently improve the whole environment. More information can be found on the site http://eippcb.jrc.es

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( ) (96/61/EC), ( BREFs), , - . . . BREF , , , 154

IPPC-is evropuli biuro mowodebulia xeli Seuwyos saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologiebis Sesaxeb (BAT) teqnikuri informaciis gacvlas IPPC direqtivis (96/61/EC) Sesabamisad da sacnobaro dokumentebis (BREF - dokumentebis) momzadebas, romelTa mxedvelobaSi miReba xdeba wevri-saxelmwifoebis uflebamosili organoebis mier IPPC nebarTvis direqtivis Sesabamisad pirobebis gansazRvrisas. IPPC direqtiva gamoiyeneba samrewvelo saqmianobis farTo speqtrisaTvis. informaciis gacvlis mizans warmoadgens direqtivis efeqturi realizaciis xelSewyoba evrokavSiris mTel sivrceSi. BREF dokumentebi acnobeben Tanamdebobis pirebs, romeli teqnikurad da finansurad xelmisawvdomi saSualebebi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas sawarmosaTvis garemos dacvis saqmianobis srulyofisa, da Sesabamisad, garemos mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mizniT. damatebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: http://eippcb.jrc.es

IPPC DIRECTIVE The EU has a set of common rules on permitting for specified industrial installations. These rules are set out in the so-called IPPC Directive 96/61/EC of 1996. IPPC stands for Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. IPPC applies to the larger, more polluting activities (listed in annex I of the Directive) and represents a major change in the permitting system for such installations. The IPPC Directive is the only piece of EU legislation that requires integrated control of industrial pollution at source. An integrated approach must be taken for emissions to air, water and land, including waste. The IPPC Directive does not set emission limit values (ELVs) itself, but it applies ELVs set in other EU legislation (Annex II of the Directive lists the relevant EU legislation). It is important

to note that these ELVs are minimum requirements ­ stricter limits can be imposed if best available techniques (BAT) and local conditions so require. Further information can be found at www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/ippc See also entries on European IPPC Bureau, BAT, BREF.

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rogorc "dabinZurebis integrirebuli Tavidan acileba da kontroli". IPPC direqtiva gamoiyeneba iSifreba garemos seriozuli dabinZurebis gamomwvevi saqmianobebis mimarT (direqtivis I danarTis CamonaTvali), da kardinalurad cvlis Sesabamisi danadgarebis eqspluataciaze nebarTvis gacemis sistemas. IPPC direqtiva evrokavSiris erTaderTi sakanonmdeblo aqtia, romeli moiTxovs integrirebul kontrols garemos dabinZurebis samrewvelo wyaroebis mimarT. integrirebuli midgoma unda iqnes emisiebis mimarT gamoyenebuli atmosferul haerSi, wyalSi da niadagSi, narCenebis ganTavsebis CaTvliT. IPPC direqtiva TviTon ki ar adgens emisiebis zRvrulad dasaSveb doneebs, aramed gamoiyenebs evrokavSiris sxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT gansazRvrul maT mniSvnelobebs (direqtivis II danarTi asaxavs evrokavSiris Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo dokumentebis CamonaTvals). aRsaniSnavia, rom emisiebis zRvrulad dasaSvebi doneebi warmoadgenen minimalur moTxovnebs SesaZloa ufro mkacri SezRudvebis daweseba, Tu amis saSualebas iZleva saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologia (BAT) da adgilobrivi pirobebi. damatebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/ippc, ixileT aseve IPPC biuro, saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologiebi (BAT), BREF dokumentebi.

. 96/61/EC 1996 . « ». , ( I ), . ­ , . , , . (), , ( II ). , () ­ , (BAT) . - www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/ippc . , BAT, BREF.

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IRREGULAR SOURCE OF POLLUTION This term is used for intermittent emissions, e.g. from batch processes, to the environment. (), , .

IPPC direqtiva

evrokavSirs gaaCnia saerTo wesebi danadgarebis garkveuli samrewvelo eqspluataciisaTvis nebarTvebis gasacemad. wesebi asaxulia e.w. IPPC direqtivaSi 96/61/EC, 1996 w. IPPC

155

dabinZurebis wyaro

araregularuli

termini gamoiyeneba garemoSi perioduli emisiebis aRsaniSnavad, magaliTad, drodadro ganxorcielebuli teqnologiuri procesebis Sedegad.

ISO (INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION) A world-wide federation of national standards bodies from more than 140 countries, one from each country. ISO is a non-governmental organisation established in 1947. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardisation and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing co-operation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO's work results in international agreements which are published as International Standards. See also www.iso.org

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bisaken, agreTve, inteleqtualuri, samecniero, teqnologiuri da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis sferoSi TanamSromlobis xelSewyobisaken. standartizaciis saerTaSoriso organizaciis saqmianobis Sedegia saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebi, romlebic gamoicema saerTaSoriso standartebis formiT. damatebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.iso.org

. 140 , . 1947 . . , , , . , . www.iso.org

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ISO 9 000 AND 14 001 SERIES An international accepted system of management of an organisation, promoted by industry, aiming at a structure for the companies that ensures (not guarantees) that environmental issues are properly covered in order to comply to the laws and regulations. ISO 9000 is primarily concerned with quality management and consists of standards and guidelines to assist the company in identifying and ensuring that its products conform to the customer's requirements. ISO 14001 is more specific to environmental management and calls for an understanding and identification of significant environmental issues, the setting of targets, monitoring of progress and continual review of how well the system as a whole is working. It involves documentation control, management system auditing, operational control, control of records, management policies, training, statistical techniques, and corrective and preventive action. Companies may seek third party certification of this if they so wish but are not bound to do so. ISO 9 000 14 001 , , ( ) . ISO 9 000 . ISO 14 001 156

standartizaciis organizacia (ISO)

saerTaSoriso

standartizaciis erovnuli organoebis msoflio federacia, romelic 140-ze meti qveynis TiTo organizacias aerTianebs. standartizaciis saerTaSoriso organizacia, rogorc arasamTavrobo organizacia, Seiqmna 1947 wels. misi saqmianoba mimarTulia saqonlisa da momsaxurebis saerTaSoriso gacvlis gaiolebis mizniT msoflioSi standartizaciis ganviTare-

, , , . , , , , , , , . , .

ISO 9 000 standartebi da 14 001 seriis

specializebuli firmebisagan, Tumca igi savaldebulo proceduras ar warmoadgens.

organizaciebis marTvis sistema, romelic miRebulia saerTaSoriso doneze, sargeblobs mxardaWeriT samrewvelo wreebis mxridan da xels uwyobs sawarmos garemosdacviTi saqmianobis struqturis mier Sesabamisi kanonebisa da normebis Sesrulebis (magram ara garantirebulad) uzrunvelyofas. ISO 9000, upirveles yovlisa, yuradRebas uTmobs marTvis xarisxs da Sedgeba standartebisa da saxelmZRvanelo principebisagan, romlebic exmarebian organizaciebs gansazRvron da uzrunvelyon momxmareblis moTxovnebTan TavianTi produqciis Sesabamisoba. ISO 14001 warmoadgens ufro specifikur garemosdacviTi marTvis standartebs sferoSi da miznad isaxavs arsebiTi garemosdacviTi problemebis gacnobierebasa da gamovlenas, miznobrivi maCveneblebis gansazRvras, cvlilebaTa monitorings da mTeli sistemis gamarTul muSaobaze uwyveti dakvirvebis warmoebas. masSi Sedis dokumentaciis kontroli, marTvis sistemebis auditi, saeqspluatacio kontroli, saaRricxvo monacemebis kontroli, marTvis politika, swavlebis sistema, statistikuri meTodebi, agreTve gamosasworebeli da prevenciuli RonisZiebebi. kompaniebs SeuZliaT miiRon aRniSnul standartebTan Sesabamisobis sertifikati sertifikatis gamcemi

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J

JUDICIAL INTERVENTION Taking an intrusive action in a judicial procedure by e.g. the public prosecutor, sometimes to modify or change the outcome of proceeding in a court of law because new facts came to light. , , , .

sasamarTlo ganxilvaSi Careva

sasamarTlo ganxilvis proceduraSi, magaliTad, prokuroris Careva, xSirad mimarTuli sasamarTlo procesis Sedegebis Sesacvlelad saqmeze axali faqtebisa da garemoebebis aRmoCenisas.

158

L

LANDFILL A waste disposal site for the final deposit of solid waste onto or into land. It can include internal waste disposal sites where the producer of waste carries out his own waste disposal at the place of production. It generally does not include the temporary storage of waste, but may include a permanent site, which is used for the temporary storage of waste. The waste is spread and compacted on the site and covered with soil to minimise the effects on the environment (including public health and safety). Under many legal systems landfills are required to have liners and leachate treatment systems to prevent contamination of groundwater and surface waters. See e.g. Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste. Landfills are often classified depending whether they can accept inert, municipal, non-hazardous industrial waste or hazardous waste. . , . , , . , ( ). . ., , 1999/31/EC . 159 , , , .

narCenebis poligoni

myari narCenebis saboloo ganTavsebis adgili Ria zedapirze an gruntSi damarxviT. aRniSnuli termini aseve SeiZleba exebodes narCenebisaTvis gankuTvnil moednebs, sadac narCenebis mwarmoeblebi adgilze damoukideblad ganaTavseben sawarmoo narCenebs. rogor wesi, poligonebs ar ganekuTvneba narCenebis droebiTi ganTavsebis adgilebi, magram maT ricxvs SeiZleba miekuTvnon narCenebis mudmivi ganTavsebis adgilebi, romlebic gamoiyenebian maTi droebiTi SenaxvisaTvis. garemoze zemoqmedebis minimizaciis (aseve adamianTa janmrTelobisa da usafrTxoebis dacvis) mizniT narCenebi Tanabrad nawildeba poligonze, itkepneba da ifareba gruntis feniT. mravali qveynis kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, gruntisa da zedapiruli wylebis dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, narCenebis poligonebi unda aRiWurvon filtratebis hidroizolaciiTa da gamwmendi sistemebiT. magaliTisaTvis ixileT direqtiva 1999/31/EC narCenebis poligonebis Sesaxeb. xSirad poligonebi iyofa kategoriebad imis mixedviT, gamoiyeneba igi inertuli, sayofacxovrebo, arasaxifaTo samrewvelo Tu saxifaTo narCenebis Sesanaxad .

LARGE COMBUSTION PLANT In the context of EU legislation, a large combustion plant means any technical apparatus in which fuels are oxidised in order to use the

heat thus generated, and where the rated thermal input of the combustion plant is equal to or greater than 50MW irrespective of the type of fuel used. See Directive 2001/80/EC on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants. , , , 50 , . . 2001/80/EC .

msxvili sawvavi danadgari

are in general very lengthy ones and fast adjustments through regulations are preferred nowadays. , , , . , , / . , . , .

kanoni

evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, msxvil sawvav danadgars ganekuTvneba nebismieri teqnikuri danadgari, romelzec xdeba nebismieri saxis sawvavis Jangva am dros warmoqmnili siTburi energiis gamoyenebis mizniT, xolo amgvari sawvavi danadgaris Semavali nominaluri siTburi simZlavre, miuxedavad gamoyenebuli sawvavisa, Seadgens 50 megavats an ufro mets. ixileT direqtiva 2001/80/EC msxvili sawvavi danadgarebidan atmosferul haerSi zogierT damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa gafrqvevis SezRudvis Sesaxeb.

LAW Document approved and adopted by the legislature that provides the scope and authority for requirements to protect e.g. public health, and the environment. Many environmental laws are so called framework laws, and define the scope and operation of the law, leaving more detailed requirements to other institutions or governmental organisations for subsequent regulations, permits, and/or licenses. Some laws themselves may contain requirements but have the disadvantage of the lack of flexibility when conditions and knowledge of the environment become available. Procedures to change the law 160

sakanonmdeblo organos mier miRebuli da damtkicebuli dokumenti, romelic adgens moTxovnaTa da uflebamosilebaTa farglebs, magaliTad, janmrTelobis dacvisa an garemos dacvis sferoSi. mravali garemosdacviTi kanoni warmoadgens e.w. CarCo dokuments, romelic gansazRvravs mxolod kanonis moqmedebis CarCoebs da mocemul sferoSi detaluri moTxovnebis SemuSavebas akisrebs saxelmwifo dawesebulebebsa da organizaciebs, romlebic gamocemen normatiul aqtebs da gascemen nebarTvebs da/an licenziebs. zogierTi kanoni Seicavs konkretul moTxovnebs, romelTa ZiriTadi naklovaneba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom moTxovnaTa pirobebis Secvlis an garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb axali monacemebis gamovlenis SemTxvevaSi, maT ar gaaCniaT saTanado moqniloba. kanonSi cvlilebebis Setanis procedura,

rogorc wesi, sakmaod moiTxovs, amitom upiratesoba eniWeba operatiul koreqtirebas aqtebis gamocemis gziT.

did dros dReisaTvis moTxovnaTa normatiuli

ganTavsebas. sasicocxlo saboloo ciklis analizi warmoadgens integrirebuli midgomis Semadgenel nawils, romelic gamoiyeneba Tanamedrove ekologiur eqspertizaSi da SeuZlia mniSvnelovani roli Seasrulos garemoze zemoqmedebis SefasebaSi.

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS (LCA) The life cycle analysis/assessment is the term used in the «cradle to grave analysis «of a product in order to assess its environmental impact. The LCA assesses the overall impact of the product on the environment over its complete life cycle. That is to say, it includes raw materials, production, use, possible re-use or recycling and eventual disposal of the product. The LCA fits into the integrated approach taken in modern environmental assessments and can play a role in Environmental Impact Assessment. (LCA) « » , « ». , , , , , . , , .

sasicocxlo ciklis analizi (LCA)

LDN INDEX This is the internationally recognised index for describing noise related to air traffic. It should be below 65 decibels in build-up zones and 60 decibels in zones to be constructed. LDN , . 65 60 .

Ldn indeqsi

saerTaSoriso doneze miRebuli, sahaero transportiT gamowveuli xmauris donis gamomxatveli indeqsi. aRniSnuli indeqsi unda iyos 65 decibelze naklebi ganaSenianebuli adgilebisaTvis da 60 decibelze naklebi dagegmili ganaSenianebis zonebSi.

LEACHATE Any liquid that has percolated through the deposited waste at a landfill and is either emitted from or contained within the landfill. Leachate will have picked up dissolved, suspended and/or microbiological contaminants from the waste. Unless collected and/or treated, leachate can contaminate groundwater and surface waters. , , . , / , . / 161

termini - sasicocxlo ciklis analizi, gamoiyeneba produqtis garemoze zemoqmedebis analizis aRsaniSnavad mTeli sasicocxlo ciklis manZilze, "dabadebidan-sikvdilamde". sasicocxlo ciklis analizi gamoiyeneba produqtis jamuri zemoqmedebis Sesafaseblad misi mTeli sasicocxlo ciklis ganmavlobaSi, rac moicavs nedleuls, warmoebas, gamoyenebas, SesaZlo reciklirebasa da xelaxal gamoyenebas, aseve produqtis

, .

filtrati

nebismieri siTxe, romelic aRwevs ganTavsebuli narCenebis poligonze fenebSi da rCeba poligonis farglebSi an gaiJoneba garemoSi. narCenebTan kontaqtis Sedegad, filtrati Seicavs gaxsnil, Sewonil da/an mikrobiologiur damabinZureblebs. filtratis Segrovebisa da/an gawmendis samuSaoebis ugulebelyofis SemTxevaSi, mas SeuZlia gamoiwvios gruntisa da zedapiruli wylebis dabinZureba.

Such payments can be made to affected parties (e.g. in cases of chronic or accidental pollution) or to the government. They can operate in the context of specific liability rules, compensation programmes or compensation funds financed by contributions from potential polluters (e.g. funds for oil spills). , , , . (, ), . , , (, , ). .: .

sakompensacio gadasaxadi

LIABILITY A judicial term indicating the responsibility of person or organisation for activities in his allocated field. For inspectors it is important to verify whether they are personally responsible (liable) for their activities or whether the state or organisation itself takes that responsibility. , . .

iuridiuli pasuxismgebloba

iuridiuli termini, romelic aRniSnavs piris an organizaciis pasuxismgeblobas mis mier ganxorcielebuli saqmianobisaTvis. inspeqtorebis saqmianobis mniSvnelovan aspeqts warmoadgens aRniSnul pirTa mier Tanamdebobrivi movaleobebis Sesrulebisas personaluri pasuxismgeblobisa da saxelmwifosa an organizaciis pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxis garkveva.

samoqalaqo samarTlis Sesabamisad, zianis asazRaureblad gadaxdili Tanxa im qmedebisaTvis, romelmac gamoiwvia garemos dabinZureba. gadaxda SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes dazaralebuli mxaris (magaliTad, sistematiuri dabinZurebis an avariuli dabinZurebis SemTxvevebSi), an saxelmwifos sasargeblod. gadaxda SeiZleba aseve ganxorcieldes pasuxismgeblobis gansakuTrebuli wesebis Sesabamisad, sakompensacio programebis farglebSi an sakompensacio fondebis (magaliTad, navTobis daRvriT miyenebuli zianis anazRaurebis fondebis) saxsrebidan, romlebic finansdebian potenciuri dambinZurebeli obieqtebis mier.

LIABILITY PAYMENTS Payments made under civil law to compensate for the damage caused by a polluting activity. 162

LICENCE An official document that authorises a person or organisation to undertake a certain activity. It may contain, for example, requirements pertaining to the manufacture, testing, sale, and/or distribution of a product, such as a pesticide, that may pose an environmental or public health risk if improperly used. In the NIS, the term «licence» has been used mostly in relation to the regulation of the natural resources use. Traditionally, subject to licensing were activities such as mining, forestry, and industrial consumption of water. Recently, the term «licence» can encompass not only licences proper (for certain activities), but also permits for emission or discharge of pollutants, waste disposal, forest tickets, etc. Synonyms: permit, consent, authorisation. , . , , , / , , . «» . , , , . «» , , , . . «».

licenzia

Seuqmnas garemos da adamianTa janmrTelobas. axal damoukidebel qveynebSi termini "licenzia" gamoiyeneba ZiriTadad bunebaTsargeblobis sferoSi. tradiciulad, licenzirebas eqvemdebareba saqmianobis iseTi saxeebi, rogoricaa sasargeblo wiaRiseulis sabadoebis damuSaveba, satyeo meurneoba, wylis samrewvelo moxmareba. bolo dros, termini "licenzia" xSirad aRniSnavs ara mxolod TviT nebarTvas garkveuli saxis saqmianobis ganxorcielebaze, aramed nebarTvas uSualod damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa emisiaze, narCenebis garemoSi ganTavsebaze, tyis Wraze da a.S. sinonimi:

nebarTva, Tanxmoba, uflebis miniWeba.

LICENCE FOR SPECIAL WATER USE In the NIS, a document issued by an authorised water management body on the basis of which the right to a special water use is acknowledged. The licence contains information on water bodies, users and consumers of water, abstraction and discharge sites, limits of water use and requirements related to the rational use and protection of water resources. Syn.: permission for special water use.

oficialuri dokumenti, romelic pirs an organizacias aniWebs garkveuli saxis saqmianobis ganxorcielebis uflebas. licenzia SesaZloa Seicavdes moTxovnebs produqciis warmoebis, gamocdis, gasaRebis da/an moxmarebis mimarT, magaliTad, pesticidis mimarT, romlis arasworma gamoyenebam SesaZloa safrTxe

163

­ , . , , , .

licenzia specialur wyalsargeblobaze

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi - wylis resursebis marTvis uflebamosili organos mier gacemuli dokumenti, specialuri romelic warmoadgens wyalsargeblobis uflebis safuZvels. licenzia Seicavs informacias wylis

obieqtebis, wyalmosargebleebis da wyalmomxmareblebis, wyalaRebis da wyalCaSvebis adgilebis, wyalmoxmarebis zRvruli doneebis, agreTve wylis racionaluri gamoyenebisa da wylis resursebis dacvis moTxovnebis Sesaxeb.

during night or can create a general feeling of malaise that can result in psychological disorders and stress. It also disrupts the biorhythm of flora and fauna. , , , , . .

sinaTliT dabinZureba

sinonimi: nebarTva wyalsargeblobaze.

specialur

LICENCE SUSPENSION / REVOCATION Recalling or reversing a licence/permit. This may be a temporary or permanent revocation depending on the seriousness of the offence. If an undertaking is out of business the permit will in general be revoked. In case of serious damage of the facility, for example by fire, some laws apply automatic suspension of the permit and a new procedure to be performed. / /. . , , . , .

licenziis SeCereba/gauqmeba

xelovnuri ganaTebis gadaWarbebuli gamoyeneba Senobis gareT, ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios sibrmave, simSvidis darRveva Ramis saaTebSi, saerTo sisustis SegrZneba, fsiqologiuri diskomforti da stresi. sinaTliT dabinZurebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios agreTve florisa da faunis bioritmebis darRveva.

licenziis/nebarTvis moqmedebis Sewyveta. sanebarTvo dokumentis moqmedeba SesaZlebelia Sewydes droebiT an mudmivad _ darRvevis Sesabamisad. sawarmos daxurvis SemTxvevaSi, rogorc wesi, nebarTva eqvebdebareba gauqmebas. amasTan, rigi qveynis kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebs nebarTvis avtomatur SeCerebas da licenzirebis axali proceduris gavlas sawarmos seriozuli dazianebis SeTxvevaSi, magaliTad, xanZris Sedegad.

LIGHT POLLUTION Excessive use of artificial light in the open air. This can result in dazzling or as a disturbance 164

LIMIT FOR THE DISPOSAL OF WASTE The maximum permissible quantitative limit for specific wastes that can be disposed of in a certain way for a certain period at waste disposal facilities, taking into account the environmental situation at that disposal site. The limits for specific wastes are included in the permissions issued to the waste disposal facility. The limits are established on the basis of requirements relating to the conservation of soils and subsoil resources, and are used as the basis for calculating waste disposal charges. , () , . , .

.

narCenebis ganTavsebis limiti

konkretuli saxis narCenis maqsimalurad nebadarTuli odenoba, romlis ganTavseba daSvebulia specialurad mowyobil adgilebze garkveuli xerxiT, gansazRvruli drois ganmavlobaSi, ganTavsebis adgilis ekologiuri mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT. limiti konkretuli saxis narCenebisaTvis narCenebis ganTavsebis miTiTebulia sawarmoebisaTvis gacemul nebarTvebSi. zRvruli mniSvnelobebi dgindeba niadagisa da wiaRis dacvis moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad da warmoadgenen safuZvels narCenebis ganTavsebisaTvis gadasaxadis tarifebis dasaangariSeblad.

, , . , , , . . , , . , .

limitebi bunebrivi sargeblobisaTvis resursebiT

LIMITS FOR THE USE OF NATURAL

RESOURCES

In the NIS, these limits are established for a set term for each type of natural resource used (extracted). The limits can be reviewed taking into account developments in technology, improvements in technical processes, changes in demands of a given type of resource, and its condition, and likewise in view of other factors. Traditionally it is the use of land, underground resources, water and forestry, as well as the flora and fauna that have been regulated in this manner. General requirements for regulating the use of natural resources are contained in laws and subordinate legislation. Requirements directed at a specific enterprise are established during the licensing process. Regulated volumes of the use of natural resources are established by specially authorised state administrative agencies in the field of natural resource use and protection, based on draft applications developed by the enterprises themselves. () . , , 165

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi limitebi bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebisaTvis dgindeba garkveuli droiT yoveli konkretuli saxis mosapovebeli bunebrivi resursisaTvis. dadgenili limitebis Secvla SesaZlebelia teqnikis ganviTarebis, teqnologiuri procesebis srulyofis, mocemuli saxis resursze moTxovnilebis gazrdis, mis raodenobasa da xarisxSi cvlilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, aseve sxva faqtorebis gavleniT. tradiciulad regulirebas eqvemdebareba miwiT, wiaRiT, wylis da tyis resursebiT, agreTve, floriTa da fauniT sargebloba. bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobis saerTo moTxovnebi maregulirebeli mocemulia kanonebsa da kanonqvemdebare normatiul aqtebSi. moTxovnebi konkretuli sawarmoebis mimarT dgindeba licenzirebis procesSi. bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobis marTvisa da garemos dacvis sferoSi uflebamosili organoebi uSualod sawarmoebis mier warmodgenili ganacxadebis safuZvelze gansazRvraven bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebis moculobas.

LINE SOURCE OF AIR POLLUTION This term is used in model calculations for air pollution quality (immision) calculations. When calculating the immision concentration at a reasonable distance of an industrial complex where many fugitive emissions are known to be present (for example, a refinery complex with many valves and control devices which may leak) a rough indication can be made about the load of all the emission points. For calculation purposes they are considered to take place evenly along a line across the peripheral of the enterprise. Dilution and concentration factors can then be used to calculate the immision level at that distance. See also environmental quality standards.

kompleqsis didi raodenobis sarqvelebi da kontrolis mowyobilobebi, romlebidanac SesaZlebelia gaJonva) garemoze gamowveuli datvirTvis miaxloebiTi gamoTvla. gamoangariSebebisas miRebulia daSveba, rom es wertilebi Tanabrad arian ganlagebuli sawarmos perimetris gadamkveT wrfeze. amasTan, mocemul manZilze miwispira dabinZurebis donis dadgenisas SeiZleba gafantvisa da koncentraciis koeficientebis gamoyeneba. aseve ixileT garemos xarisxobrivi standartebi. F

( ). , (, , , ), , . , , . . . .

atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis xazovani wyaro

LOAD An amount per unit of time emitted. , .

datvirTva

garemoSi gaSvebul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa raodenoba drois erTeulSi.

aRniSnuli termini gamoiyeneba gamoTvlebSi atmosferuli haeris xarisxis (miwispira dabinZurebis) gansazRvris modelebis gamoyenebiT. miwispira dabinZurebis koncentraciebis gamoTvlis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia araorganizebuli emisiis wyaroebis mqone sawarmodan garkveuli manZiliT daSorebuli emisiis yvela wertilis mier (magaliTad, navTobsaxdeli

166

M

MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A structured, non-technical system describing the policies, objectives, principles, organisational authority, responsibilities, accountability, and implementation plan of an organisation for conducting work and producing items and services. See, for example, ISO 14 001, EMAS, and TQM. , , , , , . ., , ISO 14001, EMAS .

marTvis sistema

, , .

deklaracia

oficialuri gancxadeba, agreTve sabaJo dokumenti, romelic Seicavs dawvrilebiT informacias gadasagzavni an gadasazidi tvirTis Sesaxeb. deklaraciaSi SeiZleba miTiTebul iqnas magaliTad, qimiuri narCenis Semadgenloba an Semadgeneli tvirTis sertifikacia.

struqturirebuli arateqnikuri sistema, romelic aRwers strategiebs, miznebs, principebs, organizaciul struqturebs, uflebebs, movaleobebs, pasuxismgeblobebs, agreTve, angariSgebis, samuSaoTa Catarebis, produqciis warmoebisa da momsaxurebis ganxorcielebis organizaciul gegmas. 14001, ixileT magaliTad, ISO

MANIFEST VIOLATION A violation related to the manifest (documentation) of, e.g., hazardous waste transportation. , (), , .

deklarirebis wesebis darRveva

darRveva,

romelic

garemosdacviTi sqema (EMAS) marTva (TQM).

marTvis da auditis da xarisxis erTiani

deklaraciasTan

dakavSirebulia (dokumentaciasTan),

saxifaTo magaliTad, transportirebis dros.

narCenebis

MANIFEST A public declaration, could also be a customs document listing the particulars of a parcel or shipment. The composition of e.g. chemical waste may be listed in a manifest, or certification of the contents. , , . 167

MATERIAL LIABILITY In the NIS: The obligation of a worker to restore, in the required fashion and to the required extent, the property of the enterprise damaged by him as a result of the improper fulfilment of his working duties. In particular, material liability is borne by workers who cause damage to the enterprise which entails the paying of compensation for harm inflicted through infringements of environmental legislation. If environmental damage occurs, the

enforcement office will file a claim for compensation from the enterprise. If the damage was caused by the failure of the worker to properly carry out his duties then the enterprise can sue the worker for the sum claimed by the enforcement office. For example, in the case of an illegal disposal of waste by the driver of a waste transportation facility, the enforcement office can sue the facility. The facility, in turn, may claim the fine or compensation amount back from the guilty driver. : , . , , , , . , - . , , , - . , . , , .

materialuri pasuxismgebloba

organoebi sawarmosgan moiTxoven garemosaTvis miyenebuli zianis anazRaurebas. Tu ziani gamowveulia muSakis mier Tavisi movaleobebis arasaTanadod SesrulebiT, sawarmos SeuZlia wauyenos mas sarCeli kanonaRmsrulebeli organos mier moTxovnil Tanxaze. magaliTad, narCenebis gadamzidi sawarmos mZRolis mier narCenebis Seuferebel adgilze gadmotvirTvis SemTxvevaSi, kanonaRmsrulebel organos ufleba aqvs wauyenos sarCeli sawarmos. Tavis mxriv, sawarmos SeuZlia damnaSave mZRolisgan moiTxovos aRniSnuli Tanxis anazRaureba jarimis an kompensaciis saxiT.

MAXIMUM ACCEPTABLE CONCENTRATION Used in the protection of labourers e.g. in mg/m3.The value gives the amount of substance they are allowed to be exposed to in a 40 hours working week per pure chemical. Special adding formulas are used to calculate the MAC value for a mix of chemicals. Synergism of chemicals is included in this calculation.

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: muSakis valdebuleba, dadgenili wesiT da dadgenili xarisxiT aRadginos sawarmos sakuTreba, romelsac ziani miayena Tavisi samsaxurebrivi movaleobebis arasaTanadod Sesrulebis Sedegad. kerZod, materialuri pasuxismgebloba ekisrebaT muSakebs, romlebic zians ayeneben sawarmos, da amas mohyveba kompensaciis gadaxda garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis darRveviT miyenebuli zianisaTvis. kanonaRmsrulebeli

168

( , , /³). ( ), . . .

maqsimalurad dasaSvebi koncentracia (mdk)

termini gamoiyeneba muSa-mosamsaxureTa Sromis dacvis sferoSi da SesaZlebelia gaizomos magaliTad, mg/m3-ebSi. aRniSnuli maCvenebeli Seesabameba erTi nivTierebis raodenobas (sufTa qimiur nivTierebaze gaangariSebiT), romlis zemoqmedeba muSa-mosamsaxureebze dasaSvebia 40-saaTiani samuSao kviris

ganmalobaSi. mdk qimiur nivTierebaTa narevebisaTvis gamoiTvleba specialuri Semajamebeli formulebiT. aRniSnul gaTvlebSi gaTvaliswinebulia agreTve qimikatebis sinergizmi.

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS In the NIS: Term equivalent to environmental quality standards. Means the quantity of a hazardous substance present in the environment and calculated per unit of volume or weight of a certain media that does not influence adversely human health or ecosystems during a permanent or limited time exposure. Maximum allowable concentrations are established for air, water and soil pollutants, and have been developed mostly based on human health safety criteria. These standards take into consideration both acute and chronic exposure. Standard setting process, originating in the Soviet period, did not take into account available control technology, economic feasibility, and ability in practice to measure emission levels and ambient concentrations of pollutants. Furthermore, in relation to water bodies, two types of MACs are applied. If a water body is used for drinking water supply, recreation and household or industrial purposes, s a n i t a r y M A C s are applied. If a water body is used for fishery purposes, f i s h e r y M A C s are applied. The list of regulated substances is extensive comprising thousands of substances. In the Russian Federation, for example, it consists of over 3 000 regulated contaminants. On the basis of these MACs, volumetric norms are calculated individually for each industrial facility (see Maximum allowable discharges, Maximum allowable emissions). . , , . , , , , 169

. (), . , . . , , . , . . , 3 000 . , , (. , ).

zRvrulad dasaSvebi koncentracia (zdk)

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi miRebuli termini, romelic Seesabameba garemos xarisxobrivi standartebs. igi aRniSnavs garemoSi mavne nivTierebaTa raodenobas Sefardebuls misi konkretuli komponentis moculobasa an masis erTeulTan, romelic mudmivad an gansazRvruli drois manZilze zemoqmedebisas praqtikulad ar axdens uaryofiT gavlenas adamianTa janmrTelobasa da ekosistemebze. zRvrulad dasaSvebi koncentraciebi dgindeba atmosferuli haeris, wylisa da niadagis damabinZurebeli nivTierebebisaTvis da, rogorc wesi, gamoiTvleba adamianTa janmrTelobis usafrTxoebis kriteriumebis gaTvaliswinebiT. aRniSnuli normebi iTvaliswineben damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa rogorc droebiT, ise mudmiv zemoqmedebas. sabWoTa periodSi SemuSavebuli standartebis dadgenis meTodi ar iTvaliswinebda arsebul

kontrolis teqnologiebs, rentabelobas da emisiebis doneebisa da garemoSi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa koncentraciebis praqtikuli gazomvis SesaZleblobebs. garda amisa, wyalsatevebis mimarT gamoiyeneba ori tipis zdk. Tu wyalsatevi gamoiyeneba sasmeli wyliT momaragebisaTvis, rekreaciuli an sxvadasxva sayofacxovrebo an samrewvelo miznebisaTvis, moqmedebs sanitariuli zdk. Tu wyalsatevi gamoiyeneba Tevzis rewvis mizniT, moqmedebs zdk Tevzis rewvis sferoSi. regulirebas daqvemdebarebul nivTierebaTa nusxa sakmaod grZelia da aTasobiT nivTierebas Seicavs. magaliTad, ruseTis federaciaSi igi Sedgeba 3000-ze meti regulirebas daqvemdebarebuli damabinZurebeli nivTierebisagan. zdk-s safuZvelze yoveli samrewvelo obieqtisaTvis individualurad gamoiTvleba moculobis erTeulebSi gamosaxuli normativebi (ixileT

sewage system, it must ensure that all quality norms are met for the system in question. (1) , , . . (2) : . , (). , , , , . , . , .

zRvrulad dasaSvebi CaSveba (zdC)

zRvrulad dasaSvebi CaSveba, zRvrulad dasaSvebi gafrqveva).

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE DISCHARGE (1) Commonly, this is the maximum amount of a specified substance that may be discharged, or emitted, in a specified period of time. A permit for an installation will usually contain maximum allowable discharges for specific substances. (2) In the NIS: Encompasses the same notion. The maximum allowable discharge is determined for each discharge source as the level where discharge from this source will not lead to the values of maximum allowable concentrations being exceeded. When calculating these discharges, local environmental conditions are taken into account, for example, among other considerations are the background concentrations and discharges from other enterprises located in the vicinity or further upstream or downstream. Should an enterprise discharge waste water directly into water bodies, the enterprise must ensure that the standards of maximum allowable concentrations in surface water sites are observed. If the enterprise discharges waste water into the local 170

(1) rogorc wesi, es aris garkveuli nivTierebis maqsimaluri raodenoba, romlis garemoSi CaSveba dasaSvebia drois garkveul monakveTSi. samrewvelo obieqtis eqspluataciaze gacemuli nebarTva, Cveulebriv, Seicavs zRvrulad dasaSvebi CaSvebis maCveneblebs konkretuli nivTierebebisaTvis. (2) axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: termini igive mniSvnelobas asaxavs. zRvrulad dasaSvebi CaSvebis done ganisazRvreba yoveli damabinZurebeli wyarosaTvis rogorc done, romlis drosac aRniSnuli wyarodan CaSveba ar zRvrulad dasaSvebi gamoiwvevs koncentraciis gadaWarbebas. CaSvebaTa gamoTvlisas mxedvelobaSi miiReba adgilobrivi ekologiuri pirobebi, magaliTad, fonuri koncentraciebi da axlomdebare, agreTve dinebis qveviT an

zeviT ganlagebuli sawarmoebis mier ganxorcielebuli CaSvebebi. Tu sawarmo Camdinare wylebs uSvebs uSualod wyalsatevSi, igi unda uzrunvelyofdes zRvrulad dasaSvebi koncentraciebis dacvas. adgilobriv sakanalizacio sistemaSi Camdinare wylebis CaSvebis SemTxvevaSi sawarmom unda uzrunvelyos am sistemisaTvis yvela xarisxobrivi normis dacva.

, , () . , , (). .

zRvrulad (zdg) dasaSvebi gafrqveva

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE EMISSIONS In the NIS: Values of maximum allowable emissions of harmful (pollutant) substances into atmospheric air (measured in g/second). They are among core requirements of an environmental permit. The annual volume of maximum allowable emissions is calculated both for each specific fixed source of emissions (stack) of all pollutants at a given enterprise, and as a whole for the entire enterprise. This may give hundreds of separate emission sources. Calculations are based on the assumption that the company functions at intended or full design capacity. The environmental situation at a given site is taken into account, in particular the existence of any other air polluting sources in the vicinity, including (theoretically) mobile sources. The requirement is that the total emissions of pollutants impacts from all the sources will not create a concentration of substances in the air that exceeds the maximum allowable concentration. Modelling is used to calculate the allowable emissions. : () ( /.). . ( ) , . . , . 171

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: atmosferul haerSi mavne (damabinZurebel) nivTierebaTa zRvrulad dasaSvebi emisia (izomeba grami/wamSi). aRniSnuli maCveneblebi Sedian garemosdacviTi nebarTvis ZiriTad moTxovnebSi. zRvrulad dasaSveb gafrqvevaTa yovelwliuri moculobis gamoTvla xdeba, rogorc mocemuli sawarmos yvela damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa gafrqvevis calkeuli stacionaruli wyarosaTvis (sakvamle milisaTvis), ise mTeli sawarmosaTvis. amgvari modgomiT dabinZurebis calkeuli wyaroebis ricxvma SeiZleba aseulebs miaRwios. gamoTvlebisas xelmZRvaneloben im mosazrebiT, rom sawarmo muSaobs dadgenili, an sruli saproeqto simZlavriT. mxedvelobaSi miiReba aseve konkretuli sawarmos ganlagebis raionSi arsebuli ekologiuri situacia, kerZod atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis sxva wyaroebis siaxlove, dabinZurebis moZravi wyaroebis (Teoriulad) CaTvliT. wayenebuli moTxovnebis Sesabamisad, damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa yvela wyarodan gafrqvevebis erToblivi zemoqmedebis Sedegad atmosferul haerSi ar unda dagrovdes nivTierebaTa iseTi koncentraciebi, zRvrulad romlebic gadaaWarbeben dasaSveb koncentraciebs (zdk). zRvrulad dasaSvebi gafrqvevebis gamosaangariSeblad gamoiyeneba modelireba.

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE PHYSICAL IMPACTS In the NIS, this is the maximum permissible threshold of harmful physical impact from a facility on the environment and human health. They are applicable to radiation impact, noise pollution, vibration, magnetic fields and other harmful physical effects. These maximum permissible levels are included in the environmental permit of the enterprise. : . , , , . .

zRvrulad zemoqmedeba dasaSvebi fizikuri

damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa maqsimaluri done (MCL)

aSS-Si, zogierT damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa Semcvelobis maqsimaluri done sasmel wyalSi, romelic maragdeba wyalmomaragebis komunaluri sistemebidan. damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa maqsimaluri done (MCL) dgindeba aSS garemos dacvis saagentos (EPA) mier sasmeli wylis usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb federaluri kanonis Sesabamisad.

MCLG (MAXIMUM CONTAMINANT LEVEL GOAL) In the USA, the maximum level of a contaminant that is associated with no adverse health effects from drinking water containing that contaminant over a lifetime. For chemicals believed to cause cancer, the MCLGs are set at zero. MCLGs are not enforceable, but are ideal, health-based goals which are set in the National Primary Drinking Water Standards developed by the EPA. MCLs are set as close to MCLGs as possible, considering costs and technology. Compare with environmental quality standards set in EU legislation.

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: garemosa da adamianTa janmrTelobaze obieqtis mavne fizikuri zemoqmedebis zRvrulad dasaSvebi done. aRniSnuli cneba exeba radiaciul zemoqmedebas, xmauriT dabinZurebas, vibracias, eleqtromagnitur velebs da sxva mavne fizikuri zemoqmedebis saxeebs. maTi zRvrulad dasaSvebi doneebi ganisazRvreba garemosdacviTi nebarTviT.

MCL (MAXIMUM CONTAMINANT LEVEL) In the USA, the maximum level of certain contaminants permitted in drinking water supplied by a public water system as set by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act.

: , . . 172

: , . , , , , . , , , , . , , . . ,

.

damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa maqsimaluri donis miznobrivi maCvenebeli (MCLG)

aSS-Si, damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa Semcvelobis maqsimaluri done sasmel wyalSi, romlis drosac ar xdeba uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba adamianTa janmrTelobaze mTeli sicocxlis manZilze. qimikatebisaTvis, romlebic savaraudod kibos iwveven, dadgenilia nulovani miznobrivi maCveneblebi. miznobrivi maCveneblebi ar eqvemdebarebian iZulebiT Sesrulebas sasamarTlo wesiT, magram warmoadgenen sasmeli wylis xarisxis erovnuli normativebiT dadgenil, adamianTa janmrTelobis usafrTxoebaze dafuZnebul Teoriul maCveneblebs, romlebsac adgens aSS garemos dacvis saagento. damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa zRvruli doneebi maqsimalurad miaxloebulia miznobriv maCveneblebTan danaxarjebisa da arsebuli teqnologiebis gaTvaliswinebiT. SedarebisaTvis ixileT evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli garemos xarisxobrivi standartebi.

. , , , , , (, ). ( ).

samedicino narCeni

saavadmyofoebis, klinikebis an jandacvis sxva dawesebulebebis narCenebi (aSS-Si maT aseve uwodeben "narCenebis wiTeli CanTa"), romlebic an Seicaven, an imyofebodnen kontaqtSi daavadebul qsovilebTan an infeqciur mikroorganizmebTan. maT aseve uwodeben saxifaTo infeqciur narCenebs, anu romelTac axasiaTebT narCenebs, infeqciuri Tvisebebi; mecxoveleobis inficirebuli narCenebis, adamianis sisxlisa da sisxlis produqtebis, paTologiuri narCenebisa da ukve gamoyenebuli sagnebis (nemsebi, skalpelebi, an damtvreuli samedicino instrumentebi) CaTvliT. samedicino narCenebisaTvis aucilebelia ganTavsebagauvnebelyofis gansakuTrebuli meTodebis gamoyeneba (Cveulebriv es SeiZleba iyos dawva).

MEDICAL WASTE All wastes from hospitals, clinics, or other health care facilities (in USA also «Red Bag Waste») that contain or have come into contact with diseased tissues or infectious microorganisms. Also referred to as infectious waste which is hazardous waste with infectious characteristics, including: contaminated animal waste, human blood and blood products, pathological waste, and discarded sharps (needles, scalpels, or broken medical instruments). Special disposal methods (usually incineration) should be used for medical wastes. , ( « »), 173

MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD The maximum amount of a renewable resource that can be harvested over an indefinite period without causing its stock to be depleted. , , .

amouwurvadi bunebaTsargeblobis maqsimaluri done

ganaxlebadi resursis maqsimaluri moculoba, romelic SesaZloa mopovebul iqnas ganusazRvreli drois ganmavlobaSi ise, rom ar gamoiwvios mocemuli resursis maragebis amowurva.

MEAN DAILY SAMPLE Mean equals average taken over a day. This is done, for example, with effluent sampling where the so called drip sampling is applied. Drip sampling involves taking every unit of time a small (drip) of sample in a collecting flask that is then taken for analyses after one day (24 hrs period). , . , , «» ( () , 24 ).

saSualo-dReRamuri sinji

ensure a more uniform application and implementation of EU legislation on the environment. The Recommendation applies to inspections at all industrial installations and other enterprises and facilities whose air, waste and water discharges are subject to authorisations or permits. There is a general obligation to aim for a high level of environmental protection when organising and carrying out environmental inspections and Member States should cooperate on an administrative level in this regard. Member States should plan their environmental inspection tasks and have an ongoing inspection programme, which covers all the regulated installations. Such programmes may be drawn up at local, regional or national level, and should be made available to the public. The Recommendation establishes minimum criteria for site visits, including exchange of information between different inspecting authorities, and requires proper reporting. Additional requirements are established for enquiries into serious accidents, incidents and occurrences of non-compliance.

dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi aRebuli sinji. magaliTad, Camdinare wylebis sinji, romelic miiReba e. w. "wveTovani" sinjebis aRebiT. "wveTovani" sinjebis aReba gulisxmobs mcire sinjebis (wveTebis) Segrovebas Semkreb WurWelSi drois gasazRvrul SualedebSi, romelic igzavneba analizisaTvis erTi dRe-Ramis (24-saaTiani periodis) gasvlis Semdeg.

MINIMUM CRITERIA FOR INSPECTION The minimum number of steps to observe in executing an Inspection. The term is nowadays in use in the EU IMPEL network and accepted as a guideline for all EU countries. A Reference Book for Environmental Inspections has been produced by IMPEL and is available on their web site. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union produced a Recommendation Providing for Minimum Criteria for Environmental Inspections (4 April 2001). The Recommendation, which is not legally binding on the Member States, seeks to 174

, . IMPEL . . IMPEL « », - . « » (4 2001 .). , - , . , , , , . -

, - . - , . , . , , . , .

inspeqtirebis minimaluri kriteriumebi

inspeqtirebisas gansaxorcielebel qmedebaTaAminimaluri raodenoba. dReisaTvis aRniSnuli termini gamoiyeneba evrokavSiris IMPEL-is aRniSnuli koncefcia qselSi. warmoadgens saxelmZRvanelo princips evrokavSiris yvela qveynisaTvis. IMPELis mier gamoica "garemosdacviTi inspeqtirebis cnobari", romlis naxva SesaZlebelia internetis qselSi. evroparlamentis da evrosabWos mier damtkicebul iqna "rekomendacia garemos dacvis sferoSi inspeqtirebis minimaluri kriteriumebis Sesaxeb" (2001 wlis 4 aprili). rekomendacia ar aris savaldebulod Sesasrulebeli evrokavSiris wevri-saxelmwifoebisaTvis da mimarTulia evrokavSiris garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis ufro unificirebuli gamoyenebisa da Sesrulebis gansaxorcieleblad. rekomendacia gamoiyeneba nebismieri samrewvelo danadgaris da sxva sawarmos an obieqtis Semowmebisas, romlebic eqvemdebarebian ganebarTvianebas maT mier garemoSi mavne nivTierebaTa gafrqveva/CaSvebisa da narCenebis warmoebis gamo. arsebobs saerTo valdebuleba garemosdacviTi inspeqtirebis organizebisa da

175

ganxorcielebisas garemos dacvis maRali donis miRweva da evrokavSiris wevrsaxelmwifoebs Soris am mimarTebiT administraciul doneze TanamSromloba. evrokavSiris wevr-saxelmwifoebma unda dasaxon garemosdacviTi inspeqtirebis amocanebi da unda gaaCndeT regularuli inspeqtirebis programa, romelic regulirebis yvela obieqts moicavs. aRniSnuli programebi SesaZlebelia SemuSavdes adgilobriv, regionalur an erovnul doneebze da xelmisawvdomi unda iyos sazogadoebisaTvis. rekomendacia adgens obieqtebze Sesvlis minimalur kriteriumebs, sxvadasxva makontrolebel organoebs Soris informaciis gacvlis CaTvliT, da iTxovs Sesabamisi angariSgebis warmoebas. damatebiTi moTxovnebi dadgenilia avariis, incidentis an seriozuli kanonmdeblobis garemosdacviTi moTxovnaTa darRvevis mimarT.

MITIGATION Measures taken to reduce adverse effects on the environment. Mitigating circumstances, in judicial terms, make the penalty imposed less severe to the defendant either because of the individual circumstances of the case or of the defendant. , . « » , .

zemoqmedebis Serbileba

garemoze uaryofiTi zemoqmedebis Sesamcireblad gatarebuli zomebi. iuridiul terminologiaSi "Semamsubuqebeli garemoebani" aRniSnavs gansakuTrebul garemoebebs saqmis an mopasuxis mimarT, romlebic ganapirobeben naklebad mZime saxdelis dakisrebas.

MOBILE INCINERATOR SYSTEMS (Hazardous) waste incinerators that can be transported from one site to another and have all the flexibility of on site cleaning and destruction of waste. The disadvantage lies in the procedures of permitting and enforcement of the operating conditions of the mobile incinerator. These conditions in the case of incinerators are very strict and require experienced staff and laboratories.

(, , , , . .).D

dabinZurebis moZravi wyaro

dabinZurebis nebismieri arastacionaruli wyaro, rogoricaa msubuqi da satvirTo avtomobili, motocikli, avtobusi, TviTmfrinavi da a.S.

MODEL AGREEMENTS (CONTRACTS) Model agreements are one of the sources of environmental law in the NIS. A relatively widespread model agreement is the agreement on environmental insurance, which covers the objects and conditions of insurance, payment schemes, periods of validity, insurance compensation and protection, and the obligations of the insurer. () - . , , , , , .

tipiuri SeTanxmebebi (kontraqtebi)

() , . . . , .

narCenebis danadgarebi dawvis moZravi

(saxifaTo) narCenebis sawvavi danadgarebi, romelTa transportireba SesaZlebelia erTi adgilidan meoreze. aseTi danadgarebi mosaxerxebelia moednebis narCenebisagan gawmendisa da adgilze gauvnebelyofisaTvis, xolo naklovanebas warmoadgens nebarTvis miRebis rTuli procedura da narCenebis dawvis moZravi danadgarebis eqspluataciis wesebis dacvaze garTulebuli kontroli. moTxovnebi narCenebis dawvis moZravi danadgarebis muSaobis mimarT ukiduresad mkacria da moiTxovs gamocdili personalisa da Sesabamisi laboratoriuli mowyobilobebis gamoyenebas.

tipiuri SeTanxmebebi warmoadgenen kanonmdeblobis erT-erT wyaros axal damoukidebel qveynebSi. SedarebiT farTod aris gavrcelebuli tipiuri ekologiuri dazRvevis SeTanxmeba Sesaxeb, romelic moicavs dazRvevis obieqtebs da pirobebs, gadaxdis sqemebs, moqmedebis vadebs, sadazRvevo kompensaciebs da dacvis saSualebebs, aseve damzRvevis movaleobebs. .

MODELLING Environmental modelling is a technique that can provide a comprehensive picture of the anticipated condition of the environment over a broad area without having to carry out detailed monitoring. Models are only as good as the data, which are the inputs, and the algorithms, which make up the model. Frequently these are not adequate, and the accuracy of the model outputs 176

MOBILE SOURCE Any non-stationary source of pollution such as cars, trucks, motorcycles, buses, aircrafts, etc.

is a matter of considerable controversy. The combined use of monitoring and modelling can serve as a check on the outputs of the model and be used to predict the results of future actions with some reasonable degree of confidence. In environmental management, the environmental monitoring and modelling are often applied to determine where the goals or standards are not being met. - , , ( ) . , , . , . . .

modelireba

gamoyenebul iqnas momaval qmedebaTa Sedegebis misaRebi sizustiT prognozirebisaTvis. garemosdacviT marTvaSi monitoringi da modelireba xSirad gamoiyeneba miznobrivi maCveneblebisa da standartebis Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaTa gamosavlenad.

MONETARY PENALTY A sanction that must be paid in a country's currency. See fine. , .

fuladi sanqcia

jarima, romelic eqvemdebareba gadaxdas erovnul valutaSi. ixileTFjarima.

MONITORING The observing, sample collection, analysis and reporting of information on, for example, emissions from installations or the ambient air quality in a particular location. It includes determining the actual state of the environment (often published in State of the Environment Reports on a regular basis). See also compliance monitoring. Other monitoring issues include monitoring the quality and frequency of inspections, monitoring near accidents, monitoring the quality of the accuracy of measurement instruments (calibration). A m b i e n t m o n i t o r i n g (of air quality, water quality) is also important to determine the general state of the environment in a given area so that the effects of future interventions can be more properly determined. In such cases, the ambient monitoring plan should set out the rationale for selecting the number and location of monitoring stations, the monitoring frequency and the sampling methods, as well as a quality control system. , , , , . 177

garemosdacviTi modelireba - meTodi, romelic saSualebas iZleva miRebul iqnas sruli suraTi garemos mosalodneli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb did farTobze monitoringis RonisZiebaTa Cautareblad (an SezRuduli raodenobiT CatarebiT). modelebis sizuste damokidebulia masSi Setanili im monacemebisa da algoriTmebis sisworeze, romlebzec igeba modeli. xSirad isini araadeqvaturia da modelis meSveobiT sizuste miRebuli informaciis seriozuli polemikis sagani xdeba. monitoringisa da modelirebis erToblivi gamoyeneba SesaZloa warmoadgendes modelirebis Sedegebis Semowmebis karg saSualebas da

( ). . . , , (). ( , ) , . , , .

monitoringi

da sinjebis aRebis meTodebis dasabuTebas, aseve unda aRwerdes xarisxis kontrolis sistemas.

MONITORING TIME-SCALES The frequency, duration, intermittence averaging time and time resolution over which monitoring must be carried out. , , ó , .

monitoringis droiTi parametrebi

sixSire, xangrZlioba, SesvenebaTa saSualo xangrZlioba da nebadarTuli vadebi, romlebic damaxasiaTebelia monitoringis RonisZiebebisaTvis.

MONITORING PROGRAMME A documented account of the facilities, activities and timetable for measurement work which is needed for compliance monitoring purposes. , , , .

monitoringis programa

dakvirveba, sinjebis Segroveba, analizi da informaciis wardgena, magaliTad, samrewvelo danadgarebidan emisiebis, an gakveul teritoriaze atmosferuli haeris xarisxis Sesaxeb. monitoringi gulisxmobs garemos arsebuli mdgomareobis gansazRvras (romelic, rogorc wesi, aisaxeba garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb regularulad gamoqveynebul angariSebSi). ixileT monitoringis sxva amocanebi iTvaliswineben inspeqtirebis xarisxisa da sixSiris monitorings, avariis adgilis monitorings maxloblad, gamzomi xelsawyoebis gazomvaTa xarisxisa da sizustis monitorings (dakalibreba). mimdinare monitoringi (haeris, wylis xarisxi) aseve mniSvnelovania garemos saerTo mdgomareobis gansazRvrisaTvis mocemul teritoriaze, raTa ufro zustad aisaxos Semdgomi Carevis Sedegebi. amgvar SemTxvevebSi mimdinare monitoringis gegma unda Seicavdes monitoringis sadgurebis ricxvisa da ganTavsebis adgilebis, monitoringis RonisZiebaTa ganxorcielebis sixSirisa

178

kanonmdeblobis monitoringi.

moTxovnaTa

Serulebis

dokumenti, romelic aRwers obieqtebs, RonisZiebebsa da gazomvebis Catarebis grafiks da aucilebelia kanonmdeblobis

moTxovnaTa monitoringisaTvis.

Sesrulebis

MULTI-MEDIA INSPECTION An inspection covering more than one medium such as air, water, waste, etc. When all media are covered in the inspection it is called an «integral inspection». These multi-media inspections are generally executed by a team of at least two persons. Very complex facilities might need more then two inspectors to perform an inspection. Inspectors are generally experts on one medium and often do not fully understand the implications for other media,

therefore it is important that when a multi-media inspection occurs that all inspectors are properly trained and can work in co-operation with each other. , , , , , . . , «». , , , . . , , , .

kompleqsuri inspeqtireba

utilities such as regional water or sewer authorities. Both the model and the companion MUNIPAY User's Manual are available on Environmental Protection Agency's Internet site at http://es.epa.gov/oeca/datasys.

24H

MUNIPAY : , , , , , . « MUNIPAY» - .

kompiuteruli modeli - MUNIPAY

inspeqtireba, romelic moicavs garemos ramdenime komponents, rogoricaa atmosferuli haeri, wyali, narCenebi da a.S. vinaidan amgvari inspeqtireba moicavs garemos yvela sferos, mas kompleqsur inspeqtirebas uwodeben. amgvari inspeqtireba, moicavs garemos ramdenime komponents da rogorc wesi, tardeba jgufis mier, romelic, sul cota, ori inspeqtorisagan Sedgeba. ufro rTul obieqtebze zogjer saWiro xdeba orze meti inspeqtoris monawileoba. rogorc wesi, inspeqtorebi warmoadgenen erTi dargis specialistebs da ar SeuZliaT srulad Seafason SesaZlo zemoqmedeba garemos yvela komponentze. amitom mniSvnelovania kompleqsuri inspeqtirebis Catarebisas inspeqtorebi saTanadod iyon ganswavlulni da SeeZloT urTierTTanamSromloba.

aSS-Si: modelirebis rTuli meqanizmi, romelic SemuSavebulia qalaqebis, dasaxlebuli punqtebis, qveynebisa da saxelmwifo komunaluri samsaxurebis (magaliTad _ wyalmomaragebisa da kanalizaciis regionaluri sawarmoebis) gadaxdisuunarobis gancxadebaTa Sesafaseblad. modeli da TandarTuli saxelmZRvanelo MUNIPAY-is momxmarebelTaTvis ixileT aSS garemos dacvis saagentos internetis qselSi misamarTze: http://es.epa.gov/oeca/datasys.

MUNIPAY COMPUTER MODEL In the United States: A sophisticated modelling tool designed to evaluate inability to pay claims of cities, towns, countries and publicly owned 179

N

NATURAL HAZARDS The forces of nature cause hazardous events such as earthquakes, floods, mud and snow avalanches, cold- and heat-waves, droughts, storms and tornados, etc. Usually, unlike accidents, little can be done to prevent or reduce the magnitude of naturally occurring hazardous events. However, much can be done to reduce potential impacts. Land use and emergency planning as processes requiring involvement of environmental inspectorates, are the key to reduction of potential impact. , , , , , , , , . . , , . , . , .

stiqiuri ubedureba

mdgomareobis RonisZiebaTa dagegmva, romelic moiTxovs garemos dacvis inspeqtorebis monawileobasac.

NEGLIGENCE Where a person has a duty of care to act in a particular manner and, through omission, neglect or carelessness, fails to comply with that duty of care as a result of which, some harm occurs, then that person may be liable in negligence. It is the failure to do something that a reasonable man in that position would do, or doing something that the reasonable and prudent man would not do. If an owner fails to properly maintain the pipes etc in his installation as a result of which a pipe bursts releasing dangerous or harmful substances into water or the air, then he may be found to be negligent. , , , - , . - , , , . , , .

gaufrTxilebloba

bunebis ZalebiT gamowveuli saSiSi movlenebi, rogoricaa miwisZvra, wyaldidoba, seluri nakadebi da Tovlis zvavebi, temperaturis mkveTri Semcireba da momateba, gvalva, Stormebi, qarborbala da a.S. rogorc wesi, saSiSi bunebrivi movlenebis masStabebis Semcireba da Tavidan acileba, avariebisagan gansxvavebiT, naklebad SesaZlebelia. amasTan, SesaZloa mosalodneli Sedegebis Semcireba. mosalodneli Sedegebis masStabebis Semcirebis saSualebaa racionaluri miwaTsargebloba da sagangebo

180

im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac pirovneba valdebulia moiqces garkveuli wesiT, magram Tavisi movaleobebisadmi arakeTilsindisieri damokidebulebis an

uyuradRebobis gamo, mis mier miyenebul iqna ziani, SesaZloa igi mieces pasuxisgebaSi gaufrTxileblobisaTvis. gaufrTxilebloba aris im qmedebaTa ugulebelyofa, romlebic unda ganexorcielebina mocemul viTarebaSi gonier adamians; an im qmedebis ganxorcieleba, romelsac ar Caidenda gonieri da windaxeduli adamiani. Tu mflobels gamarTul mdgomareobaSi ar mohyavs milebi da danadgaris sxva Semadgeneli nawilebi, ris Sedegadac moxda milis gaxeTqva da mavne an saSiSi nivTierebebis wyalSi an haerSi moxvedra, igi SesaZloa dadanaSaulebul iqnas gaufrTxileblobaSi.

yvela wyaro ganixileba rogorc dabinZurebis erTi didi wyaro. amasTan, igi warmoadgens calkeuli wyaroebis kontrolis moqnil saSualebas emisiebis erTian standartebTan Sesabamisobis uzrunvelsayofad. ixileT agreTve

buStis koncefcia.

NO FAULT LIABILITY See under Strict liability. . .

pasuxismgebloba gareSe danaSaulis

NETWORKING Networking is a mechanism whereby organisations or individuals can maintain contact with other relevant people or organisations in which the participants attempt to achieve common or other goals or of their organisation. The activities are channelled and kept alive by close personal and organisational contacts and by dissemination of information directed to the common goal by the participants. See, for example, AC-IMPEL, IMPEL, INECE. - , . , , . ., , AC-IMPEL, IMPEL, INECE.

qseluri urTierTanamSromloba

ixileT mkacri pasuxismgebloba.

NETTING A concept in which all emissions sources in the same area that are owned or controlled by single company are treated as one large source, thereby allowing flexibility in controlling individual sources in order to meet a single emissions standard. See also Bubble. , , , , . . .

neTingi

principi, romlis Tanaxmad garkveul teritoriaze erTi kompaniis kuTvnili an mis mier kontrolirebadi emisiebis

181

qseluri urTierTTanamSromloba meqanizmi, romlis saSualebiT organizaciebs an calkeul pirebs SeuZlian kavSiri iqonion sxva pirebTan an organizaciebTan saerTo miznis an TavianTi organizaciis sxva miznebis misaRwevad. saqmianobis koordinacia da mxardaWera xorcieledeba mWidro piradi kontaqtebisa da organizaciebs Soris kavSirebis meSveobiT, aseve monawileTa mier saerTo miznebis miRwevasTan dakavSirebuli informaciis gavrcelebis gziT. ixileT magaliTad, qselebi - AC-IMPEL, IMPEL, INECE.

NEW INDEPENDENT STATES (NIS) Republics of the former Soviet Union that have since the early 1990s become sovereign states. The geographic scope of NIS does not include the Baltic States. () , 90- . .

axali (adq) damoukidebeli qveynebi

factors. On the other hand, it is easier for new plants to adopt cleaner processes to incorporate treatment requirements in the initial design and therefore the costs of well designed NSPS need not be excessive. In European legislation (such as the IPPC Directive) existing plants are given a longer, but specified, period in which they should attain compliance with the new (higher) standards. This is to enable the operators of such plants to plan ahead for installing any necessary new pollution abatement equipment, or to assess whether it will be economically viable to continue operation of the plant.

yofili sabWoTa kavSiris respublikebi, romlebmac 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi moipoves damoukidebloba. axali damoukidebeli qveynebis geografiul sazRvrebSi ar Sedian baltiis qveynebi.

NEW SOURCE Any stationary source built or modified after publication of final or proposed regulations that prescribes a given emission performance. , , .

dabinZurebis axali wyaro

dabinZurebis nebismieri stacionaruli wyaro, aSenebuli an modificirebuli saboloo an winaswari normatiuli moTxovnebis gamoqveynebis Semdeg, emisiebis romlebSic gawerilia gansazRvruli normebi.

NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS New source performance standards (NSPS, USA based term) are specific emission standards in which the standard is only applied to new plants. Where NSPS are mostly significantly stricter than standards imposed on existing plants and therefore costly, they may have the effect of prolonging the economic life of existing plants - subject of course to the influence of other economic and technological 182

(NSPS, , ) - , . , , , , , , , , . , , , , . (, ) , , ( ) . , , .

emisiis standartebi dabinZurebis axali wyaroebisaTvis (NSPS)

termini _ emisiis standartebi dabinZurebis axali wyaroebisaTvis (NSPS) gamoiyeneba aSS-Si. es aris emisiebis gansakuTrebuli standartebi, romlebic gamoiyeneba mxolod axali sawarmoebisaTvis. NSPS standartebi ufro mkacria, vidre ukve arsebuli sawarmoebisaTvis gamoyenebuli standartebi da, Sesabamisad, ufro ZviradRirebulic. maT SeuZliaT ekonomikurad efeqturi eqspluataciis vadebi gauxangrZlivon arsebul sawarmoebs, Tu sxva ekonomikuri da teqnologiuri faqtorebi iZleva amis saSualebas. amave dros, axali sawarmosaTvis bevrad ufro advilia axali, ekologiurad ufro sufTa teqnologiebis danergva da gawmendis RonisZiebebis gaTvaliswineba sawyis proeqtSi da, Sesabamisad, danaxarjebi kargad SemuSavebuli standartebis dacvaze ar iqneba uzomod didi. evropul kanonmdeblobaSi (magaliTad, ukve arsebuli IPPC direqtivaSi) sawarmoebisaTvis gaTvaliswinebulia ufro xangrZlivi, magram gansazRvruli kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa vadebi uzrunvelsayofad axali Sesrulebis (ufro mkacri) standartebis Sesabamisad. aRniSnuli RonisZieba saSualebas aZlevs amgvar sawarmoebs dagegmon garemos dabinZurebis Semamcirebeli axali mowyobilobebis danergva, an gansazRvron danadgaris Semdgomi eqspluataciis ekonomikuri mizanSewoniloba.

daytime, inside and outdoors, over an eight hour period. The maximum level at night should not exceed 45 decibels outdoors, and 30 decibels inside. This last level, established to ensure the ability to sleep, should also be applied to facilitate intellectual concentration or convalescence. In Western Europe, these are environmental enforcement authorities dealing with noise pollution. Noise-related complaints can account for around half of complaints received in big European cities. In the NIS, the Sanitary Epidemiological Services deal with noise pollution. / , (65 ) . , , . , 65 , . , 1995 ., 55 . 45 30 . , , . - . , . - .

xmauriT dabinZureba/xmauriT dabinZurebis normebi

NOISE POLLUTION/STANDARDS Noise may be considered as pollution if it makes it impossible to carry on a normal conversation (65 decibels), or if it disturbs the ability to study or sleep. The potentially harmful effects of noise on human health have begun to receive international recognition. For the OECD countries any noise exceeding an average of 65 decibels over eight consecutive hours is considered harmful. The World Health Organisation, after analysing a series of studies performed in 1995, recommends that a level of 55 decibels should not be exceeded during 183

xmauri SeiZleba ganxilul iqnas rogorc garemos dabinZureba, Tu igi ar iZleva normaluri saubris saSualebas (65 decibeli), an xels uSlis mecadineobasa da Zils. adamianis janmrTelobaze xmauris SesaZlo mavne

zegavlena ukve sayovelTaod aRiarebulia saerTaSoriso doneze. OECD-is qveynebSi nebismieri xmauri, romelic 65 decibels aRemateba da ganuwyvetliv grZeldeba 8 saaTis ganmavlobaSi _ iTvleba saxifaTod. 1995 wels Catarebuli rigi gamokvlevebis safuZvelze jandacvis saerTaSoriso organizacia rekomendacias iZleva dRis ganmavlobaSi xmauris donem Senobebsa da mis gareT 8 saaTis ganmavlobaSi ar gadaaWarbos 55 decibels. maqsimaluri done RamiT ar unda aWarbebdes 45 decibels Senobis gareT da 30 decibels - SenobaSi. xmauris donis es ukanaskneli maCvenebeli, romelic uzrunvelyofs Zilis SesaZleblobas, aseve misaRebia gonebrivi muSaobis an avadmyofis gamojanmrTelebis xelSewyobisaTvis. dasavleT evropaSi xmauriT dabinZurebis kontrols axorcieleben garemosdacviTi kanonaRsrulebis organoebi. xmaurTan saCivrebma SeiZleba dakavSirebulma evropis didi qalaqebidan miRebuli mTeli saCivrebis naxevari Seadginon. axal damoukidebel qveeynebSi xmauriT dabinZurebis kontrols axorcieleben sanitariul-epidemiologiuri samsaxurebi.

xmauris CamonaTvali, misi intensiobis gaTvaliswinebiT. xmauris reestri aris rukis saxiT warmodgenili angariSi xmauriT dabinZurebis Sesaxeb.

NON-COMPLIANCE A failure to comply with relevant legislation. It includes a failure to comply with permit or licence conditions. Instances of non-compliance can be investigated and dealt with through the enforcement procedures. Syn.: violation, offence, infringement. , . . : , ,

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRveva

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa, maT Soris nebarTvis an licenziis pirobebis Seusrulebloba. kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevis SemTxveva SeiZleba gaxdes gamokvleva/gamoZiebis sagani da gamoiwvios kanonaRsrulebiTi xasiaTis zomebis gatareba.

sinonimebi: samarTaldarRveva, darRveva, kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedeba.

NOISE REGISTER A geo-referenced inventory of air, road or rail noise registered according to its intensity. This inventory is a noise pollution survey represented in the form of maps. , , . , .

xmauris reestri

NON-COMPLIANCE RESPONSE Where a case of non-compliance is established, a number of responses are possible: a warning by letter, a ticket in which violation is penalised, immediate closure of certain activities, etc. The type of the response depends on the provisions laid down in legislation and on the nature and severity of the non-compliance.

konkretul adgilmdebareobasTan dakavSirebuli sahaero, saavtomobilo da sarkinigzo transportiT gamowveuli

184

, : , , . . ,

.

kanonmdeblobis darRvevaze reagireba

agreTve moTxovnaTa ugulebelyofiT miRebul mogebas da a.S.

moTxovnaTa

Tu dadgenilia kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRveva, SesaZlebelia masze reagirebis ramdenime varianti: werilobiTi gafrTxileba, qviTari kanondarRvevisaTvis jarimis gadaxdis Sesaxeb, konkretuli qmedebebis dauyovneblivi SeCereba da a.S. reagirebis saxe damokidebulia kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebul debulebebze, aseve kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevis SemTxvevis seriozulobaze.

NON-CONFORMANCE A deficiency in a characteristic, documentation, or procedure that may impair the quality of an item or activity and may render it unacceptable or indeterminate; non-fulfilment of a specified requirement. An item of non conformance may lead to enforcement activities. , , ; . .

Seusabamoba

NON-COMPLIANCE FEES Payments imposed under civil law on polluters who do not comply with environmental or natural resource management requirements and regulations. They can be proportionate to selected variables such as damage due to noncompliance, profits linked to reduced compliance, etc. , , . , , , , , . .

saxdelebi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevisaTvis

parametrebis, dokumentaciisa da procedurebis araadeqvaturoba, rasac SeuZlia Seamciros produqciis an samuSaos xarisxi da SeiZleba mieniWos miuRebelis an daumTavrebelis kvalifikacia; garkveul moTxovnaTa Seusrulebloba. Seusabamobis SemTxvevam SesaZloa gamoiwvios kanonaRsrulebis zomebis gamoyeneba.

NON-CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT Any pollutant not listed in legislation as requiring standards or emission limits to be set, or for which poor scientific knowledge is available or not understood at all.

samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad dakisrebuli saxdelebi dambinZurebelTa mimarT, romlebic ar asruleben garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis racionaluri gamoyenebis wesebsa da moTxovnebs. isini SesaZloa Seesabamebodnen sxvadasxva parametrebs, magaliTad: kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevis Sedegad gamowveul zians,

, , , .

aranormirebuli nivTiereba damabinZurebeli

185

nebismieri damabinZurebeli nivTiereba, romelic ar aris Setanili sakanonmdeblo normebSi rogorc nivTiereba, romlisTvisac saWiroa emisiaTa dadgindes standartebi an zRvrulad dasaSvebi normebi, aseve ar aris sakmarisad Seswavlili an identificirebuli.

generally carried off the land by rain water. Common non-point sources of pollution include pesticide and fertiliser run-off in agriculture, run-off from mining industry and leachate from landfill sites. Because such sources of pollution are diffuse it can be impossible to determine who caused the pollution or where it originated. , . , . , , . , , .

dabinZurebis wyaro arawertilovani

NGO Non-governmental organisation. Private group with vested interests e.g. in environment. NGOs may directly or indirectly influence law enforcement. They have the wish to be heard as a group/organisation in the subjects of their interest. Governments sometimes prefer the NGO as a «sound board» and as «watch dogs». . , . . /, . , «» « ».

arasamTavrobo organizacia (NGO)

kerZo pirTa jgufi garkveuli interesebiT, magaliTad, garemos dacvis sferoSi. arasamTavrobo organizaciebs SeuZliaT pirdapiri an arapirdapiri zemoqmedeba moaxdinon kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa uzrunvelyofaze. isini cdiloben warmoCindnen, rogorc jgufebi/organizaciebi, romelTac gaaCniaT garkveuli miznebi TavianTi interesebis sferoSi. saxelmwifo organoebi zogjer mxars uWeren arasamTavrobo organizaciebs, romlebic e.w. "ruporebisa" da "modaraje ZaRlebis" rolSi gvevlinebian.

NON-POINT SOURCE OF POLLUTION Diffuse pollution sources i.e., without a clearly defined single point of origin. The pollutants are 186

dabinZurebis difuziuri (dispersiuli) wyaroi, romlis koordinatebi ar eqvemdebareba zust gansazRvras. rogorc wesi, damabinZurebeli nivTierebebi vrceldebian dedamiwis zedapirze wvimis wyalTan erTad. rogorc wesi, dabinZurebis arawertilovan wyaroebs ganekuTvneba zedapiruli Camonadeni, romelic Seicavs pesticidebsa da mineralur sasuqebs, samTomopovebiTi saqmianobis Sedegad warmoqmnili Camonadenebi da filtratebi narCenebis poligonebidan. vinaidan dabinZurebis arawertilovani wyaroebi difuziuria, zogjer SeuZlebelia ganisazRvros Tu vin gamoiwvia, an saidan momdinareobs dabinZureba.

NORMATIVE COMMITMENT Innate (inborn) or not learned willingness or habit of target group to comply with laws and regulations. ( ) .

kanonmorCileba

miznobrivi jgufis bunebrivi mzadyofna an Cveva _ daicvas kanonebi da wesebi.

NOTICE An official written information (document) from the inspectorate to the undertaking concerning the results of an inspection. In cases of noncompliance the Notice may be used in court action. It contains all the elements of the inspection procedure such as; the date of the visit, persons met, observed violations, permit contents that are violated, reactions of the responsible persons etc. () , . . , , , , , , . . .

Setyobineba Sesaxeb Semowmebis Sedegebis

NOTICE OF VIOLATION An official written information of a violation (see also notice). (. ).

Setyobineba darRvevis Sesaxeb

oficialuri werilobiTi informacia darRvevis Sesaxeb (ixileT agreTve

Setyobineba Sesaxeb).

Semowmebis

Sedegebis

NUISANCE A nuisance is an interference, usually over a period of time, by the owner or occupier of property with the use or enjoyment of neighbouring property. The neighbouring property does not have to be adjacent property to the property from where the nuisance comes. The interference may take the form of physical damage to the land or, more usually, of the discomfort to the occupier. Typical examples of nuisance include: smoke, water, smell, fumes, noise, heat and vibrations. , , - , . , . , , , , , . , , , , , .

usiamovneba

oficialuri werilobiTi informacia inspeqtirebis Sedegebis (dokumenti) Sesaxeb, romelsac inspeqtorati kanonmdeblobis warudgens sawarmos. SemTxvevaSi moTxovnaTa darRvevis SesaZlebelia Setyobinebis gamoyeneba sasamarTlo devnisas. igi moicavs inspeqtirebis proceduris yvela elements, maT Soris Catarebis dros, im pirTa CamonaTvals, romlebsac Sexvdnen inspeqtorebi, gamovlenil darRvevebs, nebarTvis pirobebis darRvevebs, pasuxismgebeli pirebis reagirebebsa da a.S.

usiamovneba _ Cveulebriv, garkveuli drois manZilze, sakuTrebis mflobelis an am sakuTrebis meijaris mier mezobeli obieqtisTvis Semawuxebeli garemoebis Seqmna. aucilebeli ar aris, rom

187

mezobeli obieqti uSualod esazRvrebodes usiamovnebis wyaros mqone obieqts. amgvarma garemoebam SesaZloa miiRos fizikuri zianis forma, romelic miadga obieqts, ufro xSirad ki, diskomforts uqmnis arendators. usiamovnebis tipiuri wyaroebia: kvamli, wyali, suni, orTqli, xmauri, siTburi zemoqmedeba da vibracia.

188

O

OBJECTIVE EVIDENCE Any documented statement of fact, other information, or record, either quantitative or qualitative based on observations, measurements, or tests that can be verified with reference to the case under investigation. () , , , , ,

mtkicebuleba

The EU has implemented the requirements of the Montreal Protocol through Regulation EC/2037/2000 on ozone depleting substances. . (), , () , , . , , , , . , (1985), , , , , , . . - : www.undp.org/seed/eap/montreal/montreal.htm , EC/2037/2000 .

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nebismieri dokumenturad asaxuli faqti, sxva raodenobrivi an xarisxobrivi monacemebi an masalebi, romlebic efuZnebian dakvirvebebs, gazomvebs an cdebs, da romelTa Semowmeba SesaZlebelia gamokvlevis mimdinareobis procesSi.

ODS Ozone depleting substances. Chemical substances (gases) such as CFC (chlorofluorocarbons) and halons that contribute to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer which prevents most ultraviolet radiation from reaching earth. These gases and other industrial chemicals have been used as refrigerants, foaming agents, aerosol propellants, fire retardants, solvents and fumigants. Recognising their danger, governments have adopted the Vienna Convention on Protection of Ozone Layer (1985), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1987), and amendments to the Montreal Protocol in London, Copenhagen, Montreal and Beijing. The Montreal Protocol sets out a time schedule to freeze and reduce consumption of ODS by developed and developing countries. For more information visit the website at www.undp.org/seed/eap/montreal/montreal.htm

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odn

ozondamSleli nivTiereba. qimiuri nivTierebebi (airebi), rogoricaa qfn (qlorftornaxSirbadebi) da halogenSemcveli nivTierebebi. isini xels uwyoben stratosferos ozonis Sris daSlas, romelic xels uSlis ultraiisferi sxivebis didi nawilis dedamiwis zedapiramde miRwevas.

189

aRniSnuli airebi da sxva samrewvelo qimikatebi gamoiyenebodnen rogorc macivaragentebi, qafwarmomqmnelebi, aerozoluri propelentebi, antipirenebi, gamxsnelebi da fumigantebi. maTi saSiSroebidan gamomdinare, sxvadasxva qveynis mTavrobebma miiRes venis konvencia ozonis Sris dacvis Sesaxeb (1985 w.), monrealis oqmi ozonis Sris damSleli nivTierebebis Sesaxeb, aseve monrealis oqmis Sesworebebi, SeTanxmebuli londonSi, kopenhagenSi, monrealSi da pekinSi. monrealis oqmSi mocemulia ganviTarebuli da ganviTarebadi qveynebis mier odn-s warmoebis gayinvisa da moxmarebis Semcirebis kalendaruli gegma. damatebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.undp.org/seed/eap/montreal/montreal.htm. evrokavSiris mier danergil iqna monrealis oqmis moTxovnebi ozondamSleli nivTierebebis Sesaxeb direqtivis (EC/2037/2000) miRebiT.

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The OECD groups 30 member countries sharing a commitment to democratic government and the market economy. With active relationships with some 70 other countries, NGOs and civil society, it has a global reach. Best known for its publications and its statistics, its work covers economic and social issues from macroeconomics, to trade, education, environment, development, and science and innovation. The Non-member Countries Division of the OECD Environment Directorate hosts the Secretariat of the EAP Task Force. For more information visit the web site at www.oecd.org/env/eap

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, , , , , , . , , . - : www.oecd.org/env/eap

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ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizacia (OECD)

. 30 -, . 70- , , . , 190

ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizacia (OECD) aerTianebs 30 wevr-saxelmwifos, romlebic iziareben marTvis demokratiuli formebisa da sabazro ekonomikis principebs. daaxloebiT 70mde sxva qveyanasTan, arasamTavrobo organizaciasa da sazogadoebriobasTan aqtiuri TanamSromlobiT man msoflio masStabebs miaRwia. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis saqmianoba, romelic sayovelTaod cnobilia organizaciis mier gamoqveynebuli gamocemebiT da statistikuri monacemebiT, moicavs ekonomikur da socialur sakiTxebs makroekonomikiT dawyebuli, vaWrobiT, ganaTlebiT, garemos dacviT, ganaTlebiTa da mecnierul-teqnikuri progresiT damTavrebuli. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis arawevr-saxelmwifoebTan TanamSromlobis ganyofilebasTan, garemos dacvis direqtoratis farglebSi, moqmedebs garemos dacvis moqmedebaTa programis realizaciis specialuri samuSao jgufis samdivno. damatebiTi informaciis miReba SesaZlebelia internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.oecd.org/env/eap

OFFICIAL In the NIS: An individual acting as a representative of the authorities (ministers, their

deputies, managers of departments, etc.). Officials can be appointed either permanently, temporarily or in accordance with special mandates. Officials can exercise special administrative powers on individuals that jobwise are independent of them. At the same time, officials have a stricter and higher legal accountability, both under administrative and criminal law. For example, in the event of accidental pollution of a water body by a state enterprise, with significant damages resulting, criminal proceedings can be brought against its manager ­ an official. : , (, , . .). . , . , , . , , , ­ ­ .

Tanamdebobis piri

ziani gamoiwvia, sawarmos xelmZRvanelis

_ Tanamdebobis piris _ mimarT, SeiZleba aRiZras sisxlis samarTlis saqme.

ON-SITE VISIT Visiting the site of the undertaking, facility or enterprise e.g. for inspection or verification. In the IMPEL criteria there are structured and well organised systematic procedures to visit a site for inspection. , , . IMPEL .

obieqtze Sesvla

sawarmoSi an obiqtze Sesvla, magaliTad, inspeqtirebisa an aragegmiuri SemowmebisaTvis. IMPEL-is qselma SeimuSava inspeqtirebis ganxorcielebisas obiqtze Sesvlis mowesrigebuli da sistematizirebuli procedura.

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: pirebi, romlebic warmoadgenen xelisuflebis organoebs (ministrebi, maTi moadgileebi, uwyebaTa xelmZRvanelebi da a.S.). Tanamdebobis pirebi iniSnebian mudmivad, droebiT an garkveul uflebamosilebaTa moqmedebis vadiT. Tanamdebobis pirebs SeuZliaT gamoiyenon administraciuli zemoqmedebis zomebi im pirTa mimarT, romlebic ar imyofebian maT samsaxurebriv daqvemdebarebaSi. amave dros, maT ekisrebaT ufro mkacri pasuxismgebloba rogorc administraciuli, ise sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad. magaliTad, saxelmwifo sawarmos mier wyalsatevis avariuli dabinZurebis SemTxvevaSi, romelmac mniSvnelovani

191

OPERATOR Any natural or legal person who operates or manages the installation or, where this is provided for in national legislation, to whom power over the technical functioning of the installation has been delegated. , - , , , , .

operatori

nebismieri fizikuri an iuridiuli piri, romelic eqspluatacias uwevs an marTavs raime danadgars, an, sadac es gaTvaliswinebulia erovnuli kanonmdeblobiT, piri, romelsac

delegirebuli aqvs danadgaris teqnikuri funqcionirebis uzrunvelyofis ufleba.

ORDER A document backed by the force of law that requires a violator to take certain action within a certain time period to correct a violation or to cease illegal activity. , .

miweriloba

, - . .

garigeba sasamarTlos gareSe

dokumenti, romelic gamomdinareobs kanonidan da avaldebulebs samarTaldamrRvevs dadgenil vadaSi miiRos garkveuli zomebi darRvevaTa aRmofxvris an kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebebis SewyvetisaTvis.

OUT-OF-COURT SETTLEMENT A settlement between the public prosecutor and the suspect in which the suspect is given the opportunity to avoid further prosecution under strict written conditions, but without any court order or judgement against him. These conditions may comprise the obligation to pay a fine, the obligation to take remedial actions, the obligation to improve the internal environmental care in a company, the obligation to accept a press release of the out-of-court settlement. In many countries, the term also applies to a settlement between the parties in a civil action. , , , . , , 192

SeTanxmeba prokurorsa da eWvmitanils Soris, romlis Sesabamisad eWvmitanils SesaZlebloba eZleva Tavidan aicilos Semdgomi samarTlebrivi devna mkacrad gansazRvruli, werilobiT dafiqsirebuli pirobebiT, magram eWvmitanilis mimarT sasamarTlo miwerilobis an ganaCenis gareSe. amgvari pirobebi SeiZleba Seicavdnen valdebulebas jarimis gadaxdis, aRdgeniTi xasiaTis RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb, agreTve, sawarmoSi Sida garemosdacviTi samuSaoebis gaumjobesebis valdebulebisa da sasamarTlos gareSe garigebis dadebaze gancxadebis aRiarebis Sesaxeb. mraval qveyanaSi aRniSnuli termini gulisxmobs aseve mxareebs Soris garigebas samoqalaqo sarCelis SemTxvevaSi.

P

PARTICULATES Liquid or solid particles such as dust, smoke, mist, or smog found in air emissions. , , , , .

nawilakebi

, . , . ., , / 96/59/EC.

pqb

Txevadi an myari nawilakebi, magaliTad, mtveri, kvamli, nisli an smogi emisiebis atmosferuli haeris SemadgenlobaSi.

PCB Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are mixtures of synthetic organic chemicals, with a non-inflammable nature and chemical stability. They have been used in many industrial and commercial applications, such as in transformers, condensers, electrical industry, heat exchange, and in paints, plastics and rubber products etc. Due to their chemical stability and persistency in the environment, they have entered the food chain and have been linked to a reduction in mammalian reproduction capacity. Their use is restricted or prohibited in a number of countries and special care must be taken in their disposal. See for example, EU Directive on PCB/PCTs 96/59/EC. () ­ , . , , , , , . . , 193

poliqlorirebuli bifenilebi (pqb) sinTetikuri organuli nivTierebebis araalebadi narevebi, romlebic gamoirCevian qimiuri mdgradobiT. am nivTierebebs mravalmxrivi samrewvelo da komerciuli gamoyeneba gaaCniaT, rogoricaa transformatorebis, kondensatorebis da sxva eleqtroteqnikuri mowyobilobebis, Tbogadamcemebis, saRebavebis, plastmasis, rezinis nakeTobebis warmoeba da sxva. qimiuri stabilurobis da garemoSi mdgradobis wyalobiT isini xvdebian kvebiT jaWvSi da zogierTi gamokvlevebis Sesabamisad, uaryofiT gavlenas axdenen ZuZumwovrebis aRwarmoebis unarze. am nivTierebebis gamoyeneba mTel rig qveynebSi akrZaluli an SezRudulia, xolo maTi ganTavsebisas aucilebelia sifrTxilis gansakuTrebuli zomebi. ixileT, evrokavSiris direqtiva PCB/PCTs 96/59/EC.

PENALTY A sanction that is imposed by the court when a case of non-compliance is proved against a defendant. The nature of the penalty depends on the nature of the non-compliance and on the legislation. It can take the form of, for example, monetary penalty (fine), clean-up of pollution

caused, loss of permit/licence and closure of the installation. , . . , , (), , / .

samarTlebrivi sanqcia

, . .: .

valdebulebaTa garantiebi Sesrulebis

sanqcia, dakisrebuli sasamarTlos mier braldebulis kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevaSi damnaSaved cnobis Semdeg. gamoyenebuli sanqciis saxe damokidebulia darRvevis xasiaTze da kanonmdeblobis debulebebze. samarTlebrivi sanqcia SeiZleba gamoixatos magaliTad, fuladi garkveuli saxdelis (jarimis),

sawarmo-dambinZureblebis an bunebaTmosargebleebis mier sagarantio giraos saxiT gaformebuli depozitis gadaxda. depozitis saxsrebi ubrundebaT, rogorc ki maTi saqmianoba moyvanil iqneba garemosdacviT kanonmdeblobasTan SesabamisobaSi. Tu eqspluataciis dros an samrewvelo obieqtis daxurvis Semdeg adgili aqvs garemos dabinZurebas, an iqmneba garemosdacviTi xasiaTis sxva gadauwyveteli problemebi, depoziti an misi nawili ar ubrundeba sawarmos mflobels da gamoiyeneba teritoriebis dabinZurebisagan gawmendis xarjebis dasafarad.

teritoriebis dabinZurebisagan gawmendis

iZulebis, nebarTvis/licenziis gauqmebis an obieqtis daxurvis formiT.

PERFORMANCE BONDS Payment of a deposit in the form of a «bond» imposed on polluters or users of natural resources. The bond is refunded when compliance is achieved. If contamination or other problems appear at any time during operation, or upon closure, and are not addressed, the owner must forfeit all or part of the performance bond which is then used to cover costs of cleanup. - , . , . 194

PERMIT (1) Document that contains requirements relating to the construction and/or operation of facilities/installations that generate pollutants. These requirements may be general or facilityspecific. The conditions and requirements set out in the permit are enforceable and therefore must be sufficiently defined so to be able to stand up in court if and when challenged. (2) That part or the whole of a written decision (or several such decisions) granting authorisation to operate all or part of an installation, subject to certain conditions which guarantee that the installation complies with the requirements. A permit may cover one or more installations or parts of installations on the same site operated by the same operator. This type of permit may also be called an operating permit. Other permits allow to build but not to operate. Some countries grant operating permits after the facility has been put on line and everything applied for in the application is found to be erected and functioning properly. (1) , / -

/, . . , , . (2) ( ), , . , /. . , . , , , , .

nebarTva

Sesabamisi nawili an sruli teqsti, romelic Seicavs danadgaris an misi nawilis eqspluataciaze nebarTvas garemosdacviT moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis uzrunvelmyofi pirobebiT. nebarTva SeiZleba gaices erT samrewvelo moedanze ganlagebuli da erTi sawarmos/organizaciis mier marTuli erTi an ramdenime danadgaris, an maTi calkeuli nawilebis mimarT. amgvari saxis nebarTva gaicema samSeneblo saqmianobisaTvis da ara eqspluataciisaTvis. zogierT qveyanaSi eqspluataciaze nebarTvebi gaicema danadgaris eqspluataciaSi Seyvanis Semdeg, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu nebarTvis misaRebad warmodgenil ganacxadSi aRwerili sawarmoo procesisaTvis saWiro aRWurviloba saxezea da normalurad funqcionirebs.

PERSISTENT Not easily degradable. The term is used in the classification of chemicals. . .

mdgradi

(1) dokumenti, romelic Seicavs sawarmos/danadgaris moTxovnebs mSeneblobisa da/an eqspluataciis mimarT, romlis muSaobis procesSi warmoiqmneba damabinZurebeli nivTierebebi. amgvari moTxovnebi SesaZloa iyos zogadi xasiaTis, an specialurad SemuSavebuli konkretuli sawarmosaTvis. nebarTvaSi CamoTvlili pirobebisa da moTxovnebis Sesruleba SesaZlebelia dakisrebul iqnas kanonis Sesabamisad, amitom aucilebelia maTi mkafio formulireba, raTa darRvevis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli iyos am darRvevaTa iuridiuli dasabuTeba da sanqciis gamoyeneba. (2) dadgenilebis (an ramdenime amgvari dadgenilebis)

195

daSlas Znelad daqvemdebarebuli. aRniSnuli termini gamoiyeneba qimiur nivTierebaTa klasifikaciaSi.

PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANT (POP) Any complex organic chemical which resists decomposition in the environment and can migrate over great distances, which bioaccumulates and biomagnifies, and which is suspected of being toxic to humans or other organisms exposed to even low concentrations if such exposure occurs over a long period of time. Examples include certain pesticides (for instance, aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, and toxaphene), industrial chemicals (PCBs and hexachlorobenzene, which is also a pesticide),

and unwanted by-products of combustion and industrial processes (dioxins and furans).

, , , , , . (, , , , , , , ), ( , ) ( ).

organuli warmoSobis mdgradi damabinZurebeli nivTiereba (POP)

defects in the pilot project can then be rectified before the structure or system is applied more generally. A pilot project may also be set up for an industrial process to ensure that any defects are rectified before full production commences. Sometimes pilot projects or test runs are required before the operator can apply for a permit for the proposed installation. , . . , , , . . .

sapiloto proeqtebi

nebismieri organuli qimiuri nivTiereba, romelic ar iSleba garemoSi, gadaitaneba Sor manZilze, monawileobs bioakumulaciisa da biomagnifikaciis procesebSi da xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi zemoqmedebisas, mcire koncentraciebiTac ki, toqsikurad moqmedebs adamianebsa da sxva organizmebze. aseT nivTierebebs SesaZloa ganekuTvnon pesticidebi (aldrini, qlordani, ddt, dieldrini, endrini, heptaqlori, mireqsi an toqsafeni), samrewvelo qimiuri reagentebi (pqb da heqsaqlorbenzoli, romelic aseve warmoadgens pesticids) da wvisa da teqnologiuri procesebis arasasurveli Tanmdevi produqtebi (dioqsinebi da furanebi).

PILOT PROJECTS Test projects, trial runs. A pilot project may be set up to see if a proposed institutional structure or management system operates effectively and efficiently and in the manner anticipated. Any 196

sacdeli, eqsperimentaluri proeqtebi. sapiloto proeqtebi SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldnen SemoTavazebuli institucionaluri struqturis an marTvis sistemis muSaobis efeqturobis, mosalodneli da miRebuli Sedegebis Sesabamisobis Semowmebis mizniT. sapiloto proeqtis mimdinareobisas gamovlenili nebismieri xarvezi, SesaZlebelia aRmoifxvras ufro adre, vidre Sesamowmebeli struqtura an sistema farTo masStabiT iqneba amoqmedebuli. sapiloto proeqti aseve SeiZleba ganxorcieldes sawarmoo procesebis mimarT, srulmasStabiani warmoebis dawyebamde nebismieri xarvezis gamovlenisa da aRkveTis mizniT. zogjer sapiloto proeqtis ganxorcieleba an mowyobilobis sacdeli gaSveba savaldebulo moTxovnas warmoadgens

danadgaris

eqspluataciaze nebarTvis misaRebad ganacxadis wardgenisas.

. (www.basel.int).

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PIC Prior Informed Consent. A principle stipulating that shipments of certain hazardous materials or wastes, in particular when banned or severely restricted in the country of export, or when subject to stringent international regulations, should not take place without the explicit consent of the importing country. , , .

winaswar dasabuTebuli Tanxmoba

winaswar dasabuTebuli Setyobineba

dokumenti, romelic acnobebs ama Tu im qveynis uflebamosil organos monacemebs saxifaTo an sxva saxis narCenebis savaraudo transsasazRvro gadazidvis Sesaxeb. Setyobinebis standartuli forma da misi Sevsebis instruqcia warmodgenilia bazelis konvenciis internet-misamarTze: www.basel.int

principi, romelic iTvaliswinebs importiori qveynis Tanxmobas gansazRvruli saxifaTo masalisa an narCenis Sezidvis Sesaxeb, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac amgvari masalebis gamoyeneba akrZalulia an mkacrad SezRudulia eqsportior qveyanaSi, an warmoadgens mkacri saerTaSoriso regulirebis obieqts.

PHASE OUT APPROACH Complete removal of a particular pollutant from use and discharge into the environment required as a result of the serious environmental threat posed by this pollutant. It may also be implemented where acceptable non-polluting alternatives are available. Such phase-out programmes involve compounds which persist in the environment for long periods (e.g., DDT, PCBs, Lead, CFCs). Syn.: Elimination Approach. , , . . , (, , , , ). T .

xmarebidan amoReba

PIN Prior Information Notification. A document used to transmit, to the competent authorities of the States concerned, all the required information concerning any proposed transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and other wastes. A sample form of the notification and the instructions for its completion are available on the web-site of the Basel convention (www.basel.int).

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, 197

konkretuli damabinZurebeli nivTierebis gamoyenebisa da garemoSi misi gaSvebis sruli Sewyveta, rac am nivTierebis mier garemosaTvis seriozuli saSiSroebis

SeqmniTaa gamowveuli. xmarebidan amoReba xorcildeba alternatiul aradamabinZurebel nivTierebaTa arsebobis SemTxvevaSic. xmarebidan amoRebis programebi xorcieldeba mdgradi qimiuri nivTierebebis mimarT, romlebic xangrZlivad rCebian garemoSi (magaliTad, ddt, pqb, tyvia, qfn).

sinonimi: likvidacia.

PLUME A concentration of contaminants in air, soil, or water usually extending over an area from a distinct source. , , .

Sleifi

stacionaruli obieqti, an samrewvelo an sxva sawarmos emisiebis fiqsirebuli wertili, saidanac xorcieldeba garemoSi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa moxvedra. magaliTad, wyalSi - milebis, arxebis, saleqarebis, WaburRilebis an gamyvani koleqtorebis saSualebiT. dabinZurebis wertilovani wyaro SeiZleba iyos aseve dabinZurebis calkeuli identificirebadi wyaroc, rogoricaa, gemi an Saxti. ixileT

dabinZurebis arawertilovani wyaro.

POLICY LIFE-CYCLE A concept that presents environmental policy in the form of a lifecycle of environmental problems. At the first stage, the period of differing opinions on the nature and seriousness of the problem slowly gives way to acceptance of the problem, after which the development of policy is set in motion, culminating in the third stage: the solution provided by legislation. This is followed by the fourth stage, the administrative phase, in which the importance is attached to inspection and enforcement. This concept was developed by Pieter Winsemius, Minister for the Environment in the Netherlands in the mid-1980's.

damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa koncentracia atmosferul haerSi, niadagSi an wyalSi, romelic vrceldeba calkeuli wyarodan garkveul teritoriaze.

POINT SOURCE OF POLLUTION A stationary location or fixed emission point from an industry or other facility that discharges pollutants into the environment e.g. water through pipes, ditches, lagoons, wells, or stacks. It can also include a single identifiable source such as a ship or a mine. Compare with nonpoint source of pollution. , , , , , , . , , . . .

dabinZurebis wertilovani wyaro

, (Pieter Winsemius), 1980- . . , ­ ­ , , ­ . ­ , ­ .

garemosdacviTi sasicocxlo cikli politikis

198

1980-iani wlebis Sua periodSi niderlandebis garemos dacvis ministris, peter vinzemiusis (Pieter Winsemius) mier SemuSavebuli koncefcia. Tavisi Sexeduleba garemosdacviT politikaze man warmoadgina garemos dabinZurebis problemaTa sasicocxlo ciklis formiT. aRniSnuli koncefciis Sesabamisad, pirveli etapi - garkveuli problemis xasiaTisa da seriozulobis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva SexedulebaTa arsebobis periodi - TandaTan icvleba mocemuli problemis arsebobis gacnobierebis etapiT, ris Semdegac iwyeba politikis SemuSavebis procesi, romlis kulminaciaa mesame etapi problemis gadawyveta sakanonmdeblo gziT. Semdeg modis meoTxe etapi administraciuli qmedebebis periodi, romelSic ZiriTadi roli ekisreba inspeqtirebasa da kanonaRsrulebiT saqmianobas.

This means the polluter has e.g. to pay for the costs of acquiring a permit and /or has to pay for emissions. The money in most cases is put into the treasury but other systems allow the money to be put into improvements for the environment. « » , - , , (. . , ). , . , , , / . , .

principi "dambinZurebeli ixdis"

POLLUTANT Any substance (or effect) introduced by humans which adversely affects the environment (see also pollution). (), (. ).

damabinZurebeli nivTiereba

admianis mier garemoSi Setanili nebismieri nivTiereba (an zemoqmedeba), romelic uaryofiT gavlenas axdens masze. ixileT agreTe dabinZureba.

POLLUTER PAYS PRINCIPLE The principle that the polluter should bear the expenses of carrying out pollution prevention and control measures decided by public authorities, to ensure that the environment is in an acceptable state (i.e. costs of these measures should be reflected in the cost of goods and services which cause pollution) and to pay for the pollution caused by the polluting activity. 199

principi, romlis Sesabamisad, garemos saTanado mdgomareobis uzrunvelyofis mizniT, sawarmo-dambinZurebeli unda anazRaurebdes uflebamosili organoebis mier gansazRvrul xarjebs garemos dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebisa da kontrolis RonisZiebaTa gansaxorcieleblad (anu amgvar RonisZiebaTa ganxorcielebaze danaxarjebi unda aisaxos im produqciisa da momsaxurebis RirebulebaSi, romlebic dabinZurebis mizezs warmoadgenen). sawarmom aseve unda gadaixados saqmianobis procesiT gamowveuli garemos dabinZurebisaTvis. es niSnavs, rom dambinZurebelma unda aanazRauros nebarTvis gacemis xarjebi da/an gadaixados gadasaxadi emisiebisaTvis. amgvari gadasaxadebisagan miRebuli saxsrebi xSir SemTxvevaSi Sedis saxelmwifo biujetSi, xolo zogierT qveyanaSi nebadarTulia maTi

garemosdacviTi gamoyeneba.

saqmianobisaTvis

In general terms, the use of waivers presents several dangers. Most importantly in transition economies, it increases the risk of corruption. Also waivers may provide disincentives for pollution reduction.

POLLUTION (1) Presence of matter or substances whose physical and chemical nature, and/or quantity produces undesired environmental effects. (2) Direct or indirect introduction as a result of human activity, of substances, vibrations, heat or noise into the air, water or land which may be harmful to human health or the quality of the environment. (1) , / . (2) , , , , .

garemos dabinZureba

(1) garemoSi nivTierebebis arseboba, romelTa fizikuri da qimiuri Tvisebebi da/an raodenoba, iwveven garemoze negatiur zemoqmedebas. (2) adamianTa saqmianobis Sedegad nivTierebaTa, vibraciis, siTburi energiis an xmauris pirdapiri an arapirdapiri Setana atmosferul haerSi, wyalSi an niadagSi, ramac SesaZloa mavne zegavlena moaxdinos adamianTa janmrTelobaze an garemos mdgomareobaze.

( ) , , . . «» . , , -, ( ). . , , . , .

dabinZurebis ganTavisufleba gadasaxadisagan

POLLUTION CHARGE WAIVERS Environmental authorities in many NIS (and some other countries) have allowed enterprises to reduce their required charge or fine payments by the amount of their pollution abatement and control investments, i.e. have used charge «waivers». Unfortunately, environmental authorities appear to have exercised little oversight of the investments claimed (or the basis for their valuation). As result, waivers appear to have little effect in reducing pollution. 200

axali damoukidebeli qveynebis (aseve zogierTi sxva qveynis) garemosdacviTi organoebi nebas rTaven sawarmoebs Seamciron gadasaxadebi garemos dabinZurebisaTvis an jarimebi, am sawarmoTa dabinZurebis Semcirebis an kontrolis RonisZiebebisaTvis saWiro investiciebis odenobiT, anu gamoiyenon gadasaxadebisa da jarimebisagan "ganTavisufleba". samwuxarod saxelmwifo garemosdacviTi organoebi savaraudod ver axorcieleben saTanado zedamxedvelobas dokumentebSi miTiTebuli Tanxebis realur investiciebTan Sesabamisobaze (da maTi gaangariSebis sisworeze). Sedegad, garemos dabinZurebisaTvis gadasaxadebisa

da jarimebisagan ganTavisufleba mniSvnelovan zemoqmedebas ver axdens dabinZurebis donis Semcirebaze. mTlianobaSi, dabinZurebis gadasaxadisagan ganTavisufleba damokidebulia mTel rig saSiSroebebTan, romelTagan, gardamavali ekonomikis pirobebSi, yvelaze mniSvnelovania korufciis saSiSroeba. garda amisa, ganTavisufleba sulac ar warmoadgens stimuls garemos dabinZurebis Sesamcireblad.

, (. ) . , , .

dabinZurebis Tavidan (dabinZurebis prevencia) acileba

POLLUTION CONTROL Legislative and administrative procedures aimed at reducing the harm of a potential pollutant. , . . .

dabinZurebis regulireba

sakanonmdeblo RonisZiebaTa potenciurad

da administraciul sistema, gamiznuli

damabinZurebel

uaryofiTi zemoqmedebis

nivTierebaTa

Sesamcireblad.

damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa warmoqmnis Semcirebisa an Tavidan acilebis procesi. magaliTad, dabinZurebis Tavidan acileba SeiZleba gamoixatos sawarmoo procesebSi iseTi principuli cvlilebebis SetaniT, romlebic saSualebas iZlevian srulad gamoiricxos damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa ufro sufTa warmoqmna (ixileT warmoeba), an mniSvnelovnad Semcirdes maTi moculoba. sxva SemTxvevaSi, dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT SesaZlebelia specialuri mowyobilobis danergva, romelic auvnebelyofs damabinZurebel nivTierebebs garemoSi maT moxvedramde, rac am nivTierebaTa ufro misaRebi meTodebiT gauvneblobis saSualebas iZleva.

POLLUTION PREVENTION Process of reduction or prevention of generation of pollutants. For example, pollution prevention may include changing a manufacturing process altogether so that pollutants are no longer generated (see cleaner production) or greatly reduced. Alternatively it may require the installation of equipment that removes the pollutant before it is emitted or discharged to the environment so that it can be disposed of in a more appropriate manner. . , 201

PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE The precautionary principle was stipulated in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration (1992) which states that «In order to protect the environment, the precautionary principle shall be widely applied by States according to their capability. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation». Also the treaty establishing the European Union makes reference to, but does not define, the precautionary principle in Article 174 of the Treaty in the title on environment.

15- -- (1992 .) : « . , ». 174 , .

sifrTxilis principi

, , .

emisiebis saprognozo monitoringi

emisiebis

Sefasebis (arapirdapiri) meTodi sawarmoo procesis Taobaze rigi urTierTdakavSirebuli monacemebis gamoyenebiT. aseTi monacemebia, magaliTad, temperatura, wneva, wylis xarji, Camdinare wylebis damuSavebis xangrZlioba, wvis procesebSi Warbi Jangbadis done.

sifrTxilis principi warmoadgens riode-Janeiros deklaraciis (1992 w.) me-15 princips, romlis Sesabamisad, ,,qveynebi valdebulebas iReben garemos dacvis mizniT SeZlebisdagvarad farTod gamoiyenon sifrTxilis principi. mosalodneli seriozuli an Seuqcevadi zianis SemTxvevaSi, sruli mecnieruli dasabuTebis ararseboba ar unda gaxdes garemos mdgomareobis gauaresebis Tavidan asacilebeli, ekonomikurad efeqturi zomebis gadavadebis mizezi". evrokavSiris damfuZnebeli xelSekrulebis garemos dacvis Sesaxeb ganyofilebis 174-e muxli aseve eyrdnoba sifrTxilis princips misi arsis gadmocemis gareSe.

PRESSURE-STATE-RESPONSE A framework for the presentation of environmental information in terms of indicators of the pressures that human activities exert on the environment, of the state of the environment, and of society's responses. -- , , , .

zemoqmedeba-mdgomareoba-reaqcia

garemosdacviTi informaciis wardgenis sistema adamianTa sxvadasxva saxis saqmianobis garemoze zemoqmedebis, garemos mdgomareobisa da sazogadoebis reaqciis indikatorebis Sesaxeb.

PREDICTIVE EMISSION MONITORING A (surrogate) method of estimating emissions using a range of related process operating data, e.g. temperature, pressure, flow, residence time, excess oxygen in combustion processes.

PREVENTATIVE ACTION Action taken to avoid pollution. In the OECD countries, the policy on environment requires that preventative action be taken. This is because it is considered cheaper and more beneficial for the environment to take action before damage occurs, rather than take the necessary remedial action after the damage occurs. , . 202

() , , , , ,

, , .

prevenciuli zomebi

pirveladi zedamxedveloba/pirveli rigis inspeqtireba

garemos dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT gatarebuli zomebi. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) wevr-qveynebSi garemosdacviTi politika moiTxovs prevenciuli zomebis gatarebas, romlis Sesabamisadac aRiarebulia, rom dabinZurebis Tavidan asacilebeli zomebis ganxorcieleba garemoze zianis miyenebamde garemosaTvis ufro sasargeblo da iafia, vidre aRdgeniTi samuSaoebis realizacia zianis miyenebis Semdeg.

PRIMARY SUPERVISION/ FIRST LINE

INSPECTION

uflebamosili organos mier kanonebisa da normatiuli aqtebis moTxovnaTa Semowmeba kanonis Sesrulebis Sesabamisad. meore rigis inspeqtireba xorcieldeba ufro maRali instanciis organoebis mier, gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi, an pirveli rigis inspeqtirebis efeqturobis Sesamowmeblad. meore rigis inspeqtireba aseve xorcieldeba ufro dabali rangis organoebis qmedebaTa marTlzomierebaSi eWvis Setanis SemTxvevaSi.

PRIORITY SETTING As difficult as it is for the regulated community to keep up with the current large number of environmental requirements, it is even more difficult for environmental officials to ensure there is compliance and to take the necessary enforcement actions. Therefore, priorities must be set to focus enforcement activities. , . , .

prioritetebis gansazRvra

The checking of compliance with legislation and regulations by the competent authority given responsibility by law for direct checking. A second line inspection is from a higher authority checking in either a special case or on an ad hoc basis, the performance of a lower authority. Second line inspection is also executed in case of doubt of proper behaviour of the lower authority. / , , . , , , , . . 203

rogori

rTulic

ar

unda

iyos

regulirebis obieqtebisaTvis dReisaTvis

arsebul mravalricxovan garemosdacviT moTxovnaTa Sesruleba, kidev ufro rTulia garemosdacviT makontrolebel organoTa amocana uzrunvelyon saTanado RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba. amasTan dakavSirebiT, aucilebelia ganisazRvros prioritetebi, romelTa Sesabamisad

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa da kanonaRsrulebis

Sesruleba

warimarTeba saqmianoba.

kanonaRsrulebiTi

PROCESS STANDARDS Standards specifying design requirements or operating procedures applicable to fixed installations such as factories, or the means and methods of regulating activities such as hunting and fishing. A particular production process or technique may be imposed on operations. National laws commonly require installation of purification or filtration systems in production facilities. The ban of driftnet fishing can serve as example for international process standards. In contrast to emission standards, process standards impose means of production and generally do not allow the polluter to choose other methods to reduce risk of harm or emissions. , , , , , , . . . . , , , - .

teqnologiuri standartebi

saqmianobis sxvadasxva saxeebis, magaliTad, nadirobisa da TevzWeris regulirebis xerxebsa da meTodebs. sawarmoebs SeiZleba daekisroT garkveuli sawarmoo procesis an teqnologiis gamoyenebis valdebuleba. erovnuli kanonmdebloba, Cveulebriv, moiTxovs samrewvelo sawarmoebisgan gamwmendi nagebobis an filtraciis sistemebis damontaJebas. saerTaSoriso teqnologiuri standartis magaliTs warmoadgens TevzWeris akrZalva drifteruli badeebis gamoyenebiT. emisiebis standartebisagan gansxvavebiT, teqnologiuri standartebi garkveulwilad zRudaven warmoebis meTodebs da, rogorc wesi, ar aZleven sawarmo-dambinZureblebs garemoze mavne emisiebis zemoqmedebis riskis an Semcirebis sxva meTodebis gamoyenebis saSualebas.

PRODUCT CHARGES AND TAXES Payments applied to products that create pollution when manufactured, consumed or discharged (e.g. sulphur content of fuels, fertilisers, pesticides, or batteries). , , , (, , , ).

aqcizuri mosakreblebi gadasaxadebi da

gadasaxadebi, dawesebuli produqciaze (magaliTad, gogirdis Semcvel sawvavze, pesticidebze, sasuqebze an akumuliatorul batareebze), romelTa warmoeba, gamoyeneba da garemoSi moxvedra iwvevs mis dabinZurebas.

PRODUCT STANDARDS Standards used for items created or manufactured for sale or distribution. They may regulate: (a) the physical or chemical 204

teqnologiuri standartebi gansazRvraven stacionaruli obieqtebis, magaliTad, qarxnebis mimarT wayenebul saproeqto moTxovnebsa da saeqspluatacio procedurebs, an

composition of items, for instance pharmaceuticals or detergents. (b) the technical performance of products, such as maximum levels of pollutant or noise emissions from motor vehicles, or specifications of required product components such as catalytic converters; (c) the handling, presentation and packaging of products, particularly those that are toxic. For economic reasons, uniform product standards are usually adopted by states for an entire industry. , , . : (a) , , ; () , , , , ; () , , . , , .

produqciis standartebi

mizanSewonilobis gamo, produqciis erTiani standartebi, rogorc wesi, saxelmwifoebis mier miiReba mTeli samrewvelo dargisaTvis.

PROHIBITION NOTICE The enforcement authority may prohibit any operation (or part of an operation) which poses an unacceptable risk to the environment and/or cannot comply with a permit or other legal requirement. The prohibition notice may explain which operation is prohibited and the reasons for prohibiting it, what conditions the operator must satisfy so as to have the prohibition lifted, what sanctions will be applied if the prohibition is violated, and any criminal consequences which may follow from violation. - ( ), / . , , , , , , , , .

Setyobineba akrZalvis Sesaxeb

standartebi, romlebic gamoiyenebian realizaciis mizniT warmoebuli produqciis mimarT. aRniSnul standartebs SeuZliaT daareguliron: (a) produqciis, magaliTad, farmaceftuli produqciis an sarecxi saSualebebis fizikuri an qimiuri Semadgenloba. (b) produqciis teqnikuri maxasiaTeblebi, magaliTad, avtomobilebisaTvis damabinZurebel emisiaTa nivTierebaTa an xmauris maqsimaluri doneebi, an nakeTobis aucilebel komponentTa specifikacia, magaliTad, gamonabolqvi airebis katalizuri konverteris aucilebloba. (g) produqciis, gansakuTrebiT toqsikuri produqciis, naSandeba, etiketireba da SefuTva, aseve masTan mopyrobis wesebi. ekonomikuri

205

kanonaRmsrulebel organoebs ufleba aqvT akrZalon obieqtis (an misi nawilis) funqcionireba, Tu igi gardauval saSiSroebas uqmnis garemos da/an arRvevs nebarTvis pirobebs, an sxva savaldebulo moTxovnebs. Setyobinebis teqsti SesaZloa aRwerdes akrZalvis arss, mizezebs, pirobebs, romlis drosac mwarmoebelma SesaZloa miaRwios akrZalvis moxsnas; akrZalvis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi mwarmoeblis mimarT gamoyenebuli sanqciebis CamonaTvals, aseve damrRveevis mimarT

sisxlissamarTlebrivi Sedegebis aRweras.

devnis

SesaZlo

garemosdacviTi moTxovnaTa darRvevis

kanonmdeblobis gamovlenisa da

kanondeblobis moTxovnaTa saqmianobis xelSemwyobi

PROPORTIONALITY A principle of environmental enforcement. Means that the enforcement action is commensurate with the risks to the environment and with the severity of violation. . , , , .

Tanazomiereba

Sesrulebis

uSedegobis SemTxvevaSi, damrRvevis mimarT xorcieldeba samarTlebrivi devna.

kanonaRsrulebis erT-erTi principi. igi gulisxmobs, rom kanonaRsrulebiTi zomebis simkacre garemosaTvis Seqmnili safrTxisa da darRvevis simZimis proporciuli unda iyos.

PROSECUTION Prosecution is the step in the legal procedures ending in a court of justice that will subsequently pass judgment or/and sentence if the violation is proved. Once a violation of conditions or of legislation are observed and compliance promotion does not seem to work the offender will face court action. , , / . .

samarTlebrivi devna

PRTR Pollution Release and Transfer Register. A PRTR is an environmental database or inventory of potentially harmful releases (discharges) to air, water and soil as well as wastes transported off-site for treatment and disposal. Data from the PRTR should then be made available to the public. The development and implementation of a national PRTR represents a mechanism for governments to track the generation, release and fate of various pollutants over time, and therefore can be an important tool in the environmental policy of a country. It can also promote undertakings to invest in pollution prevention techniques. The OECD has developed a number of practical tools and guidance on PRTR. For more information visit their web site at www.oecd.org/ehs/prtr The EU has adopted Commission Decision 2000/479/EC on PRTR. By this Decision all Member States are required to establish a register of all installations covered by the IPPC Directive. Threshold values for reporting emissions to air and water have to be determined and operators must report to the competent authorities whenever the threshold values are exceeded. The competent authorities must establish a register or PRTR system to collate all individual reports.

31H

(. PRTR)

samarTlebrivi devna warmoadgens kanoniT dadgenili proceduris etaps. igi mTavrdeba sasamarTloSi, romelsac gamoaqvs gadawyvetileba da/an ganaCeni damrRvevis damnaSaved cnobis SemTxvevaSi. nebarTvis pirobebis an

206

() , , , . , , . ,

, , , . . , - : www.oecd.org/ehs/prtr 2000/479/EC, - , . , . , , , .

32H

garemoSi gaSvebul da gadaadgilebul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa reestri (PRTR)

garemoSi gaSvebul da gadaadgilebul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa reestri (PRTR) warmoadgens atmosferul haerSi, wyalSi an niadagSi gaSvebul, agreTve, sawarmoTa teritoriebidan gadamuSavebisa da ganTavsebis adgilebze gadatanil potenciurad mavne nivTierebebis monacemTa garemosdacviT bazas. garemoSi gaSvebul da gadaadgilebul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa reestrSi Setanili monacemebi xelmisawvdomi unda iyos sazogadoebisaTvis. erovnuli reestris SemuSaveba da warmoeba warmoadgens meqanizms, romlis saSualebiT saxelmwifo organoebs SesaZlebloba eZlevaT akontrolon garemoSi

207

sxvadasxva damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa warmoqmna, garemoSi gaSveba, xangrZlivi drois manZilze garemoSi arseboba. amdenad, igi SeiZleba qveynis garemosdacviTi politikis realizaciis mniSvnelovan instrumentad gadaiqces. amgvari monacemTa baza SeiZleba gaxdes stimuli garemos dabinZurebis Tavidan asacilebeli teqnologiebis SemuSavebis proeqtebis sarealizaciod. ekonomikuri TanmSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciam (OECD) moamzada rigi praqtikuli rekomendaciebi da saxelmZRvaneloebi garemoSi gaSvebul da gadaadgilebul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa reestrebis (PRTR) SesamuSaveblad. amasTan dakavSirebiT damatebiTi informacia SesaZleblia ixiloT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.oecd.org/ehs/prtr. am sakiTxze evrokomisiis mier miRebul iqna gadawyveetileba 2000/479/EC, romlis mixedviT evrokavSiris yvela qveyana valdebulia SeimuSaos reestrebi yvela danadgarisaTvis, romlebzec vrceldeba IPPC direqtiva. unda ganisazRvros agreTve, atmosferul haersa da wyalSi emisiaTa zRvruli maCveneblebi, romelTa gadaWarbebis SemTxvevaSi sawarmoebi valdebuli arian warudginon uflebamosil organoebs Sesabamisi informaciebi. Tavis mxriv, uflebamosilma organoebma calkeul angariSebSi warmodgenili informaciebis mowesrigebis mizniT, unda Seqmnan garemoSi gaSvebuli da gadaadgilebuli damabinZurebeli nivTierebebis reestrebi an reestrTa sistemebi.

PROTOCOL A protocol is a very soft type of agreement of handling, behaviour or approaching system to certain problem or protection areas. In general it has no enforcement part to it. E.g. Antarctic protocol, biosafety protocol, conventional weapons protocol. The Kyoto protocol on the CO2 emissions is another example. Countries agree to strive to a certain reduction of emissions of CO2 and are accountable to the

international society. Enforcement and penalties are not part of the protocol. International blame for not achieving the aims of the protocol is about the maximum penalty. , . , . , , . CO2, , CO2, . . - .

oqmi

PUBLIC DISCLOSURE The term used to open up or to reveal to the public the contents of information or decisions, or the facts that have lead to certain occurrences. Information that has been kept from the public but now is open and available to everyone. , , , . , , .

informaciis gaxsna

termini gamoiyeneba iseTi informaciebis, gadawyvetilebebisa an faqtebis gamoqveynebis, an sazogadoebisaTvis gacnobis mimarT, romlebmac garkveuli Sedegebi gamoiwvia. adre dafaruli informacia xelmisawvdomi xdeba farTo sazogadoebriobisaTvis.

oqmi warmoadgens xelSekrulebis aramkacr tips, romelic exeba calkeuli problemebis gadaWras an garemos calkeuli elementebis dacvas. rogorc wesi, igi ar asaxavs kanonaRsrulebis zomebs. amis magaliTebia antarqtikuli oqmi, oqmi biousafrTxoebis Sesaxeb, oqmi SeiaraRebis Cveulebrivi saxeebis Sesaxeb. kidev erT magaliTs warmoadgens kiotos oqmi CO2-is emisiebis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmad monawile-qveynebi iReben valdebulebas CO2-is emisiebis Sesamcireblad garkveul RonisZiebaTa gatarebis Taobaze da Tavis Tavze iReben pasuxismgeblobas saerTaSoriso sazogadoebriobis winaSe. oqmebi ar iTvaliswineben kanonaRsrulebis zomebs an sajarimo sanqciebs. maqsimalur sasjels oqmiT dasaxuli miznebis SeusruleblobisaTvis warmoadgens saerTaSoriso sazogadoebriobis mier damrRvevi-saxelmwifos gakicxva.

208

PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL In the NIS, this term mostly refers to the realisation of the right of citizens for participation in the decision-making process on environmental issues. The most widespread forms of public environmental control are the public environmental reviews and the right to demand environmental data from organisations and businesses. In a wider sense, this notion may include visual observations of pollution sources, detection of violations and submission of data on such violations to the bodies of state environmental control.

, , . .

, .

sazogadoebrivi kontroli garemosdacviTi

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi aRniSnuli termini, rogorc wesi, gamoiyeneba moqalaqeTa uflebis - monawileoba miiRon garemos dacvis sferoSi gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi realizaciis aRsaniSnavad. sazogadoebrivi garemosdacviTi kontrolis yvelaze gavrcelebul formas warmoadgens

sazogadoebrivi ekologiuri eqspertiza

da organizaciebisa da sawarmoebisagan garemosdacviTi informaciis miReba. ufro farTo gagebiT, amgvari kontroli SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes dabinZurebis wyaroebze vizualuri dakvirvebis, garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis darRvevebis gamovlenisa da garemosdacviTi makontrolebeli organoebisaTvis am darRvevebze informaciebis wardgenis gziT.

. , . , , . , , (, ), . , .

sazogadoebrivi eqspertiza ekologiuri

PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW In the NIS: A form of public participation in the environmental decision-making process. Under certain conditions, the public has the right to check whether planned activities are in strict conformity with environmental requirements. This form of assessment is usually carried out and funded by NGOs prior to decisions made by state environmental review bodies. The mechanism of public environmental review is underdeveloped, which, apart from other issues of a more general character (such as the lack of a tradition of environmental democracy), results it its limited application. It should be noted that a public environmental review, theoretically, does not substitute for public participation in the EIA procedure.

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: garemos dacvis sferoSi gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis procesSi sazogadoebriobis monawileobis forma. garkveul pirobebSi sazogadoebriobas ufleba aqvs Seamowmos, srulad Seesabameba Tu ara dagegmili saqmianoba garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebs. Sefasebis aRniSnuli forma xorcieldeba da finansdeba, rogorc wesi, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mier da win uswrebs saxelmwifo ekologiur eqspertizas. sazogadoebrivi ekologiuri eqspertizis Catarebis meqanizmi dRemde cudad aris SemuSavebuli, rac zogadi xasiaTis sxva problemebTan erTad (magaliTad, garemosdacviTi demokratiis tradiciebis ararseboba), misi arasakmarisad gamoyenebis mizezia. aRsaniSnavia, rom sazogadoebrivi ekologiuri eqspertiza Teoriulad ar cvlis sazogadoebis garemoze zemoqmedebis monawileobas Sefasebis (gzS) proceduraSi.

: 209

PUBLIC INTEREST FACTORS Factors that are considered in deciding whether or not to prosecute. They may include the following: environmental effect of the offence, foreseeability of the offence or the circum-

stances leading to it, intent of the offender, individually and/or corporately, history of offending, attitude of the offender, deterrent effect of a prosecution, on the offender and others, and personal circumstances of the offender. These factors are not exhaustive and those which apply will depend on the particular circumstances of each case. Deciding on the public interest is not simply a matter of adding up the number of factors on each side. The enforcement authorities may decide how important each factor is in the circumstances of each case and go on to make an overall assessment. , . : , , , ­ / , , , , , . , . . , .

sazogadoebrivi interesis faqtorebi

sxvebze, samarTaldamrRvevis piradi garemoebebi. aRniSnuli faqtorebis nusxa amiT ar amoiwureba da calkeuli faqtorebis gamoyeneba damokidebulia saqmis konkretul viTarebaze. sazogadoebrivi interesebis Taobaze gadawyvetilebis miReba ar warmoadgens orive mxridan arsebuli calkeuli faqtorebis ubralo Sejamebis Sedegs. kanonaRsrulebis organos ufleba aqvs gadawyvitos, ramdenad mniSvnelovania yoveli faqtori TiToeuli saqmis garSemo Seqmnil viTarebaSi da Semdgom, misces maT saerTo Sefaseba.

faqtorebi, romlebic ganixileba samarTlebrivi devnis aRZvris sakiTxis gadawyvetisas. maT Soris aRsaniSnavia: samarTaldarRveviT gamowveuli zemoqmedeba garemoze, samarTaldarRvevis an misi gamomwvevi garemoebebis prognozirebadoba, samarTaldamrRvevis fizikuri da/an iuridiuli piris ganzraxuloba, samarTaldarRvevis Cadenis istoria, samarTaldamrRvevis damokidebuleba, samarTlebrivi devnis Semakavebeli efeqti damrRvevsa da

210

Q

QA/QC Quality Assurance/Quality Control. A system of procedures, checks, audits, and corrective actions to ensure that all technical, operational, monitoring, and reporting activities are of the highest achievable quality. It does not mean in the permitting system that once a QA or QC is present in an industrial organisation that compliance is ensured. It only means that the system is available enabling the permittee to comply and overview his/her obligations efficiently. / , , , , , . , , . , , .

xarisxis uzrunvelyofa/xarisxis kontroli

Sesruleba avtomaturad garantirebulia.

es mxolod imas niSnavs, rom nebarTvis mimRebs gaaCnia meqanizmi, romelic saSualebas aZlevs efeqturad Seasrulos Tavisi valdebulebebi da damoukideblad akontrolos maTi Sesruleba.

procedurebis, Semowmebebis, reviziebisa da gamosasworebel RonisZiebaTa sistema, romelic iTvaliswinebs yvela teqnologiuri, saeqspluatacio, sakontrolo da angariSgebis operaciis maqsimalurad misaRwevi xarisxis uzrunvelyofas. nebarTvebis gacemis sistema ar gulisxmobs, rom Tu samrewvelo sawarmoSi arsebobs xarisxis uzrunvelyofis an kontrolis kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa sistema,

211

R

REAL-TIME INSTRUMENTS OF MONITORING This involves making direct measurements of pollutant concentrations in situ with instruments that give immediate and continuous readings. This method gives information with high time resolution and virtually no time delay, but instruments are difficult and costly to calibrate and require special maintenance under possibly adverse or difficult field conditions.

RECLAMATION Term used to indicate the conversion of waste land, contaminated industrial sites etc to land suitable for other purposes, such as housing, parks, for crops etc. In waste treatment it means to change and extract and/or convert the waste into a useful product; term used in recycling technology. / , . . , , , , . . «» ; .

rekultivacia/reciklireba

, . , , .

monitoringis instrumentebi drois realur reJimSi

damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa koncentraciebis pirdapiri gazomvebis Catareba adgilze im xelsawyoebis daxmarebiT, romlebic iZlevian gazomvaTa dauyovneblivi da uwyveti Sedegebis miRebis saSualebas. aRniSnuli meTodiT praqtikulad SesaZlebelia informacia miRebul iqnas Seferxebebis gareSe, drois mcire SualedebSi. amasTan, gamoyenebuli xelsawyoebi saWiroeben ZviradRirebul da Sromatevad dakalibrebas, aseve specialur momsaxurebas savaraudod araxelsayrel da rTul savele pirobebSi.

termini aRniSnavs mitovebuli adgilebis, dabinZurebuli samrewvelo moednebisa da sxva teritoriebis gardaqmnas sxva daniSnulebiT gamoyenebis mizniT, maT Soris sabinao mSeneblobisaTvis, parkebis mosawyobad, miwaTmoqmedebisaTvis da a.S. narCenebTan mimarTebaSi gamoiyeneba termini "reciklireba", rac niSnavs narCenebis gadamuSavebas da/an gardaqmnas sasargeblo produqtebad.

RECORD OF ENVIRONMENTAL OFFENCE In the NIS: Document put together by inspectors recording the fact of an environmental offence. : , .

darRvevis oqmi

212

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: dokumenti, romelic dgeba inspeqtorebis mier da masSi fiqsirdeba garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRveva.

nivTiereba. reestri eqvemdebareba Semowmebas garemosdacviTi organoebisa da inspeqtoratebis mxridan.

RED LIST OF WASTES See under Green list of wastes. . .

narCenebis wiTeli sia

REGULATED COMMUNITY Those individuals, facilities, installations, businesses, and/or institutions that are subject to specific requirements of the law or regulations. , , , / , .

regulirebis obieqtebi

ixileT narCenebis mwvane sia.

REGISTER OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SUBSTANCES

In the NIS: List of potentially hazardous chemical and biological substances. If a hazardous substance is to be used, then it must be included in this list. The register is kept and maintained by the enterprise and must document all relevant substances used, produced and stored on the premises. The register may be examined by the environmental inspectorates and agencies.

sawarmoebi

fizikuri pirebi, obieqtebi, danadgarebi, da/an organizaciebi, romlebzedac vrceldeba Sesabamisi kanonebisa da normatiuli aqtebis specialuri moTxovnebi.

REGULATION A document empowered or supported by the law that establishes requirements that must be met by the regulated community. Generally the regulation will provide the necessary detail that is required to implement the requirements of the law. Regulations are adopted via, and are subservient to, laws. The regulation must be compatible with the law, and the law must enable such regulations to be adopted. Some regulations are directly enforced. Others provide criteria and procedures for developing permits and/or licenses.

: . , . ; , , . .

potenciurad saSiS qimiur da biologiur nivTierebaTa reestri

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: saSiS qimiur da potenciurad biologiur nivTierebaTa nusxa. Tu gaTvaliswinebulia saSiSi nivTierebis gamoyeneba, igi unda Setanil iqnes aRniSnul nusxaSi. reestrs damoukideblad awarmoebs sawarmo; masSi unda aisaxos gamoyenebuli, warmoebuli da dasawyobebuli yvela Sesabamisi

213

, , , . , , . , . .

/ .

normatiuli aqti

dokumenti, amoqmedebuli kanonis ZaliT an Sedgenili misi gardamavali debulebebis Sesabamisad, romelic adgens savaldebulo moTxovnebs regulirebis rogorc wesi, obieqtebisaTvis. normatiuli aqtebi detalurad aRweren qmedebebs, romlebic aucilebelia kanonis moTxovnaTa uzrunvelsayofad. normatiuli aqti unda Seesabamebodes kanonis debulebebs, xolo kanoni unda qmnides safuZvels normatiuli aqtebis asamoqmedeblad. zogierT normatiul aqts gaaCnia pirdapiri moqmedebis Zala. sxva normatiuli aqtebi Seicaven nebarTvebisa da/an licenziebis kriteriumebisa da procedurebis aRweras.

by interest groups. RIA also facilitates the process of choice between competing regulatory options. It has proved a useful appraisal tool of the quality of existing and new regulations and has aimed to ultimately foster a cultural change among regulators towards greater responsiveness, openness and accountability. (Regulatory Impact Analysis, RIA) ­ , , , , . , . , , . . , .

regulirebis zemoqmedebis analizi

REGULATORY CAPTURE The capacity of narrow interest groups to shape regulations to suit their own goals. , , .

maregulirebel organoebze zegavlena

saerTo interesebiT gaerTianebul pirTa viwro jgufis unari, Tavis miznebs moargon normatiuli aqtebis Sinaarsi.

REGULATORY IMPACT ANALYSIS Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) is a decision tool, a method of systematically and consistently analysing selected potential impacts of government action and of communicating the information to decision makers. The central principle of a RIA is the explicit comparison of costs and benefits of regulation. It thus seeks to provide a vehicle for the implementation of the economic efficiency principle of good regulation described above and is intended to serve as a checkpoint against regulatory capture 214

regulirebis zemoqmedebis analizi (RIA) - es aris gadawyvetilebis miRebis meqanizmi, saxelmwifo organoebis mier gatarebul RonisZiebaTa zemoqmedebis calkeul aspeqtTa sistematiuri da Tanmimdevruli analizi, romelic iTvaliswinebs miRebuli daskvnebis gadawyvetilebis mimRebi pirebisaTvis wardgenas. regulirebis zemoqmedebis analizis ZiriTad princips warmoadgens regulirebasTan dakavSirebuli danaxarjebisa da sargeblebis pirdapiri Sedareba. amis Sedegad, uzrunvelyofilia zemoTaRniSnuli adeqvaturi regulirebis ekonomikuri

efeqturobis principis dainteresebuli

gamoyeneba da jgufebis

standartebis amoqmedeba,

maregulirebel

organoebze

zegavlenis

Tavidan acilebis SesaZlebloba. aRniSnuli meTodi aadvilebs amorCevis process regulirebis sxvadasxva variantebs Soris. man daamtkica Tavisi efeqturoba, rogorc ukve arsebuli da axlad asamoqmedebeli maregulirebeli zomebis xarisxis Sefasebis meqanizmma, romlis mizania xeli Seuwyos maregulirebel saqmianobaSi ufro meti operatiulobis, sajaroobis da pasuxismgeblobis danergvas.

gamoqveyneba, 2) maTi kanonmdeblobis 3) Semowmebis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis (inspeqtirebis) Catareba, 4) kanonaRsrulebis zomebis gatareba, 5) ukukavSirebis uzrunvelyofa.

RELEASE Any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment of any pollutant. / , , , , , , , , , , .

garemoSi gaSveba

REGULATORY CYCLE The regulatory cycle is the visual presentation of logical and essential steps showing the route any government authority is supposed to follow in order to get a law, regulation or standard to be implemented and complied with. These essential steps are 1) legal issues and/or standards promulgated, 2) implementation and execution introduced, 3) compliance checking (inspection) performed, 4) enforcement applied, 5) feedback arranged. , , . : 1) / , 2) , 3) () , 4) , 5) .

regulirebis cikli

nebismieri damabinZurebeli nivTierebis garemoSi moxvedra - daRvra, gaJonva, Cadineba, CaRvra, gafrqveva, Cacla, CaSveba, amotumbva, gaSveba, gadarecxva, dayra an ganTavseba.

REMOTE SENSING A technique used for measuring ambient pollutant concentration from a distance by measuring the interaction of emitted electromagnetic radiation with particular pollutant molecules. The main advantage of this technique is that pollutant loads can be mapped over a wide area and at high time resolution. The main disadvantages are cost and the limited number of pollutants which can be detected. , . , . : 215

regulirebis cikli TvalsaCinod asaxavs ZiriTad da logikur nabijebs, romlebic unda ganaxorcielos nebismierma saxelmwifo organom kanonis, normatiuli aqtis an standartis gamoyenebisa da Sesrulebis uzrunvelsayofad. igi moicavs Semdeg etapebs: 1) debulebaTa da/an

, .

distanciuri zondireba

use. It forms an integral part of waste minimisation schemes. Resource recovery also is employed in pollution prevention. . , , . .

resursebis regeneracia

garemoSi damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa koncentraciis garkveuli manZilidan gasazomad gamoyenebuli teqnologia gansazRvrul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa molekulebze mimarTuli eleqtromagnituri gamosxivebis urTierTqmedebis gazomviT. aRniSnuli meTodis ZiriTadi upiratesobaa garemos dabinZurebis donis gazomvis SesaZlebloba did teritoriebze drois mcire intervalSi. meTodis umTavresi naklia misi maRali TviTRirebuleba da damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa SezRuduli raodenoba, romlebic SeiZleba daeqvemdebaron amgvar gazomvas.

REQUEST FOR IMPROVEMENT Instruction from a competent authority to an operator of an installation which asks the operator to propose a programme and timetable for improvements, which the authority can then consider accepting. , .

miweriloba gasaumjobesebel RonisZiebaTa programis Sedgenis Taobaze

narCenebidan sasargeblo masalebis an energiis amoReba. amgvar masalebs ganekuTvnebian qaRaldi, mina da liTonebi, romlebic SesaZlebelia gadamuSavdnen SemdgomSi maTi ganmeorebiTi gamoyenebis mizniT. resursebis regeneracia warmoadgens narCenebis minimizaciis programebis ganuyofel nawils. igi aseve gamoiyeneba garemos dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT.

uflebamosili organos mier sawarmosaTvis wardgenili miweriloba gasaumjobesebel RonisZiebaTa programisa da grafikis SemuSavebis moTxovniT, romlebic Semdgom waredgineba kompetentur organos SesaTanxmeblad.

RESOURCE RECOVERY The extraction of useful materials or energy from waste. Such materials can include paper, glass, and metals that can be reprocessed for re216

RESPONSIBLE CARE «Responsible Care» is a self regulatory programme by the chemical industry intended to reduce accidents and pollution, to build industry credibility through improved performance and increased communication and to involve the community in decision making. This programme is built around a series of industry codes of practice and greater levels of public disclosure and participation. This term is used to emphasis an attitude for governments and non governmental organisations to take care and take responsibility for the environment. Industry applies ISO 14 001 or BS 7 750 while the EU pushes for the EMAS system for industries. The systems applied in industry aim at describing and checking internal and external structural and organisational procedures - what, when and how to do their tasks in much detail.

« » - , , , , . . , . ISO 14 001 BS 7 750; EMAS. , , (, ).

"pasuxismgeblobiT programa mopyrobis"

garemos mdgomareobaze pasuxismgeblobis aRebasa da garemos dasacavad mimarTul saqmianobaze. mrewvelobaSi gamoiyeneba standartebi - ISO 14 001 an BS 7 750; evrokavSiri aseve moiTxovs samrewvelo sawarmoebis mier garemosdacviTi marTvis da auditis sqemis (EMAS) gamoyenebas. mrewvelobaSi gamoyenebuli sistemebi emsaxureba Sida da gare struqturuli da organizaciuli procedurebis detalurad aRwerasa da kontrols anu ra, rodis da rogor unda gakeTdes dasaxul amocanaTa gadasawyvetad.

REVOCATION OF PERMIT Termination of a permit when the permitee fails to comply with its conditions, a permit applicant fails to fully disclose all relevant facts in the application or permit issuance process or any time thereinafter, or the competent authority determines that the permitted activity endangers human health or the environment. The permit may also be revoked if the conditions in the permit are not complied with by the operator of the installation. , , - , , , , . , , .

nebarTvis gauqmeba

"pasuxismgeblobiT mopyrobis" programa warmoadgens qimiuri mrewvelobis sawarmoTa TviTregulirebis programas, romlis mizania avariaTa ricxvisa da dabinZurebis moculobis Semcireba, sawarmoebisadmi ndobis amaRleba maTi saqmianobis gaumjobesebis xarjze, sazogadoebasTan informaciis ufro intensiuri gacvlis uzrunvelyofa da gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis procesSi sazogadoebis CarTva. aRniSnuli programa efuZneba mTel rig dargobriv normebsa da wesebs, iTvaliswinebs sawarmoTa mxridan sajaroobis ufro metad amaRlebasa da sazogadoebis ufro aqtiur monawileobas. aRniSnuli termini gamoiyeneba samTavrobo da arasamTavrobo organizaciaTa yuradRebis misapyrobad

217

nebarTvis

moqmedebis Sewyveta misi mflobelis mier nebarTviT gaTvaliswinebuli pirobebis darRvevisas, mis mier arsebiTi faqtebis dafarvisas ganacxadis wardgenis, nebarTvis gacemis procesSi an Semdgomi drois manZilze, aseve im SemTxvevaSi, Tu uflebamosili organos gadawyvetilebis Sesabamisad

nebadarTuli saqmianoba saSiSroebas uqmnis adamianTa janmrTelobas an garemos. nebarTva aseve SeiZleba gauqmdes, Tu masSi formulirebuli pirobebi ar sruldeba piris an organizaciis (operatoris) mier, romelic eqspluatacias uwevs samrewvelo danadgars.

RISK The probability of occurrence of an adverse effect on humans or the environment resulting from a given exposure to a hazardous substance. The risk associated with a potential harm due to exposure to hazardous substances need to be identified, assessed and managed properly. . , , , .

riski

, . , , , , . . , , .

riskis Sefaseba

riskis

Sefaseba gulisxmobs saSiSi nivTierebebis zemoqmedebiT warmoSobili

saSiSi nivTierebis garkveuli zemoqmedebis Sedegad adamianTa janmrTelobisaTvis an garemosaTvis araxelsayreli Sedegebis dadgomis albaToba. aucilebelia ganisazRvros da Sefasdes riski, dakavSirebuli potenciur zianTan saSiSi nivTierebebis zemoqmedebis gamo, aseve aucilebelia misi saTanado marTva.

riskebis xasiaTisa da parametrebis gansazRvras. aRniSnuli procesis pirvel etaps warmoadgens saSiSi nivTierebis, misi arasasurveli zemoqmedebis xasiaTis, mosalodneli saSiSroebis qveS myof adamianTa jgufebis gansazRvra. riskebis Sefaseba, rogorc wesi, gamoiyeneba qimiuri mrewvelobis sawarmoTa ganTavsebis adgilis SerCevisas dasaxlebuli teritoriebis uSualo siaxloves. imave wesiT warmoebs satransporto sistemebis funqcionirebasTan dakavSirebuli riskebis Sefasebac.

RISK ASSESSMENT Risk assessment is concerned with identifying and characterising the risks arising from exposure to hazardous substances. The first step in the process normally is identifying the agent of concern, its adverse effects, target populations and conditions of exposure. Risk assessments are commonly used in the procedures for the location of chemical factories in the neighbourhood of urban area. Also risks of transport are assessed in the same way. 218

RISK MANAGEMENT Multidisciplinary process that deals with taking measures, frequently of a regulatory nature, based on risk assessment and legal, political, social, economic and engineering considerations. , , , , , , , , .

riskebis marTva

mravalmxrivi procesi, romelic, rogorc wesi, gulisxmobs maregulirebeli xasiaTis zomebis riskebis Sefasebis gatarebas safuZvelze, iuridiuli, politikuri, socialuri, ekonomikuri da teqnikuri faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

219

S

SAFETY DECLARATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL

FACILITY

In Russia, a document containing various data about the industrial facility, including information of environmental significance. In 1997, following an increase in the frequency of accidents at industrial enterprises, the preparation of the declaration became mandatory. The declaration is put together by enterprises (legal entities) for planned and existing industrial installations, and must outline the safety of the facility at the stages of start-up, operation and decommissioning. The declaration contains various data including details of local natural conditions, a description of technological processes and products, analysis of the risk of an emergency, description of safety controls for the industrial production process, information about the local system of notification in the case of an emergency, outline of preventative and elimination measures of emergencies, and other information. , , , . 1997 ., , , . ( ) , . , , , , 220

, , , .

deklaracia samrewvelo sawarmos usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb

deklaracia samrewvelo usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb warmoadgens dokuments, romelic Seicavs sxvadasxva informacias, garemosdacviTi mniSvnelobis monacemebis CaTvliT. 1997 wels, mas Semdeg, rac samrewvelo sawarmoebSi momxdari avariebis ricxvma imata, deklaraciis Sedgena savaldebulo gaxda. deklaracia dgeba sawarmos (iuridiuli piris) mier yvela saproeqto da moqmedi samrewvelo danadgarisaTvis da unda Seicavdes informacias sawarmos usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb misi eqspluataciaSi Seyvanis, eqspluataciis da eqspluataciidan gamoyvanis stadiebze. deklaraciaSi aisaxeba sxvadasxva monacemebi, maT Soris adgilobrivi bunebrivi pirobebis, teqnologiuri procesebis da produqciis Sesaxeb, sagangebo situaciebis warmoSobis riskis analizi, informacia sagangebo situaciebis Sesaxeb, Setyobinebis adgilobrivi sistemis Sesaxeb, sagangebo situaciebis Tavidan acilebis da misi Sedegebis likvidaciis meTodebis aRwera da sxva informacia.

ruseTSi:

sawarmos

SAMPLING Sampling refers to the collection of data which are representative of a system. In some cases the data can be measured directly (such as

temperature) but often a representative sample has to be analysed or tested to determine the value of individual parameters. Important questions to be addressed are the design of sampling schemes and the protocols for the collation, storage and transportation of samples. A wide range of national and international sector specific standards exists for sampling and analysis. « » - . (, ), . , , . .

sinjebis aReba

positions are those within or at the exit from a process (in a combustion chamber, before and after abatement equipment, at an outlet from an effluent pipe, etc.). The pathway positions are placed in the receiving media (e.g. air, water), where the flow and dispersion require monitoring because they affect compliance with ambient limits. The receptor positions are the sensitive positions in receiving media, for instance at a point of maximum ground-level concentration or deposition, at a position occupied by the most exposed person(s) or ecosystems, etc. In an installation, the permit should specify the sampling positions, and the frequency of sampling, to ensure that the permit conditions are being met. , / . : , , . ( , , . .). (, , ), , , . , , , , . . , .

sinjis aRebis wertilebi

termini "sinjebis aReba" niSnavs tipiur monacemTa Segrovebas ama Tu im sistemis parametrebis Sesaxeb. zog SemTxvevaSi amgvari parametrebi (magaliTad, temperatura) SesaZlebelia gaizomos uSualod, magram xSirad parametris sididis gansasazRvravad aucilebelia tipiuri sinjebis gaanalizeba an laboratoriuli gamokvlevebis Catareba. mniSvnelovan sakiTxs warmoadgens sinjebis aRebis sqemis SemuSaveba, aseve sinjebis aRebis, Senaxvisa da transportirebis mkafio instruqciebis arseboba. sinjebis aRebisa da analizisadmi moTxovnebi aRwerilia sxvadasxva erovnul da saerTaSoriso standartebSi.

SAMPLING POINTS The positions where samples and/or measurements are to be taken. The possibilities can be grouped into the following: source, pathway and receptor positions. Source 221

adgilebi, sadac warmoebs sinjebis aReba da/an gazomvebis Catareba. sinjebis aRebis savaraudo wertilebi

SesaZlebelia dajgufdes rogorc: wertilebi, romlebic mdebareoben uSualod wyaroze, nivTierebis gadaadgilebis gzaze da mis mimReb garemoSi. sinjis aRebis wertilebi wyaroze ganlagdebian teqnologiuri procesis farglebSi an procesidan gamosvlis adgilze (wvis kameraSi, gamwmendi mowyobilobis gavlamde da Camdinare wylebis gavlis Semdeg, gamyvani koleqtoris boloze da a.S.). wertilebi nivTierebis gadaadgilebis gzaze ganlagdebian nivTierebis mimReb garemos komponentSi (magaliTad, atmosferul haerSi, wyalSi) iq, sadac aucilebelia nivTierebis moZraobisa da gavrcelebis monitoringis ganxorcieleba, vinaidan aRniSnuli maCveneblebi gavlenas axdenen garemos mdgomareobis xarisxis mimarT kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Serulebaze. wertilebi nivTierebis mimReb garemoSi ganlagdebian SedarebiT mgrZnobiare adgilebSi, magaliTad, maqsimaluri miwispira koncentraciebis an daleqvis adgilebSi, aseve teritoriebze, sadac adamianebi da ekosistemebi yvelaze metad ganicdian damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa zemoqmedebas da a.S. yoveli danadgarisaTvis gacemul nebarTvaSi misi pirobebis Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT unda ganisazRvros sinjebis aRebis wertilebi da sinjebis aRebis sixSire.

magaliTad, Tavisuflebis aRkveTa, fuladi jarima, nebarTvis gauqmeba da a. S.

SANCTIONS DIMENSIONS OF COMPLIANCE The influence of sanctions on compliance. It will include such factors as the actual probability of getting caught in case of noncompliance, and the effect of the actual sanctions imposed on those who breach the legislation. Such information is useful for the inspection and enforcement authorities to consider whether more inspectors or inspections are required, or whether the legislation needs changing to increase the severity of penalties, so as to encourage compliance. It includes such factors as sanction probability and sanction severity , , , . - , . , .

sanqciebi, rogorc kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis faqtorebi

SANCTION Any adverse consequence imposed by the legal system on a violator, such as prison sentence, financial penalty, permit revocation, etc. , , , , . .

sanqcia

gamoyenebuli

sanqciebis

gavlena

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebaze,

romelic moicavs iseT faqtorebs, rogoricaa kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevebis gamovlenis albaToba da kanonmdeblobis damrRvevTa mimarT sanqciebis dakisrebis Sedegebi. amgvari informacia SeiZleba sasargeblo iyos inspeqtirebisa da kanonaRsrulebis organoebisaTvis inspeqtorebis

222

damrRvevisaTvis araxelsayreli nebismieri samarTlebrivi Sedegi,

ricxovnebisa an inspeqtirebis Catarebis raodenobis sakiTxis gadawyvetisas, aseve kanonmdeblobaSi cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb sakiTxis ganxilvisas, kanonmdeblobis Sesrulebis xelSewyobis mizniT mis moTxovnaTa darRvevisaTvis sasjelis gasamkacreblad. igi moicavs iseT faqtorebs, rogoricaa sanqciis da sanqciis dakisrebis albaToba

simkacre.

SN (SANITARY NORMS) Legal acts that were part of the environmental regulatory system in the Soviet Union and are still applied in the NIS. Sanitary norms contain requirements concerning maximum permissible concentrations of harmful chemical substances in the environment and the levels of harmful physical and biological influence on humans. () , . , .

sanitariuli normebi

SANCTION PROBABILITY Possibility or chance that a sanction will be imposed once/when an offence has been detected through controls and (criminal) investigations. () .

sanqciis dakisrebis albaToba

kanonmdeblobis darRvevis aRmoCenisas inspeqtirebis an (sisxlisamarTlebrivi) gamoZiebis mimdinareobis procesSi sanqciis dakisrebis SesaZlebloba an riski.

SANCTION SEVERITY Severity and type of sanction and associated adverse effects caused by imposing sanctions e.g. loss of respect and reputation, also high deterrent type of penalty. , , , , , .

sanqciis simkacre

normatiuli aqtebi, romlebic warmoadgenden sabWoTa kavSiris garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis nawils da dRemde gamoiyeneba axal damoukidebel qveynebSi. sanitariuli normebi aweseben moTxovnebs garemos mavne qimiur nivTierebaTa maqsimalurad aseve dasaSvebi koncentraciebis, adamianTa janmrTelobaze mavne fizikuri da biologiuri zemoqmedebis doneebis mimarT.

sanqciis simkacre da tipi, aseve amgvar

sanqciaTa dakisrebis SemTxvevaSi Tanmdevi araxelsayreli Sedegebi, magaliTad, reputaciis Selaxva, romelic aseve warmoadgens darRvevaTa profilaqtikis efeqtur saSualebas.

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SANITARY PROTECTIVE ZONES In the NIS, the aim of sanitary protective zones is to create a barrier between housing areas and enterprises and other sites, which are sources of harmful chemical, physical and biological influences on human health and the environment. The creation of these zones is a planned measure of environmental protection in town planning and the development of inhabited areas. The width of sanitary protective zones around enterprises ranges from 50 m to 1000 m, depending on the nature of the enterprise and includes factors such as its production capacity and technological processes, and the nature and the extent of the negative impact on human

health and the environment. Under certain conditions, the width of the zone can be increased by a factor of three. The zone cannot be used for the expansion of the industrial site itself. A green belt must be planted on the territory of the zone. - - , , . . - 50 1000 , , , , . - , . .

sanitariuli dacvis zonebi

procesebi, adamianTa janmrTelobasa da garemos mdgomareobaze uaryofiTi zemoqmedebis xasiaTi da xarisxi. garkveul pirobebSi sanitariuli dacvis zonebis sigane SesaZloa gaizardos 3jer, amasTan, amgvari zonis teritoria ar SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes samrewvelo sawarmos teritoriis gafarToebis mizniT. sanitariuli dacvis zonaSi aucilebelia mwvane nargaobis gaSeneba.

SCHEDULED INSPECTION An inspection that is carried out according a plan as part of e.g. annual, monthly or weekly inspection schemes. Scheduled inspections mostly occur with Inspectorates that have a detailed compliance and enforcement programme. , , , , . , , , .

gegmiuri inspeqtireba

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi sanitariuli dacvis zonebis mizania barieris Seqmna sacxovrebel raionebsa da samrewvelo an sxva teritoriebs Soris, romlebic adamianTa janmrTelobasa da garemoze mavne fizikuri, qimiuri da biologiuri zemoqmedebis wyaroebs warmoadgenen. amgvari zonebis Seqmna warmoadgens garemosdacviT RonisZiebas, romelic winaswar dagegmilia qalaqmSeneblobisa da sacxovrebeli raionebis daproeqtebisas. sanitariuli dacvis zonebis sigane samrewvelo sawarmoebis garSemo meryeobs 50-dan 1000-metramde sawarmos tipisa da iseTi faqtorebis Sesabamisad, rogoricaa sawarmos simZlavre, gamoyenebuli teqnologiuri

224

inspeqtireba, ganxorcielebuli magaliTad, wliuri, yovelTviuri an yovelkvireuli inspeqtirebis gegmis Sesabamisad. gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli inspeqtireba, rogorc wesi, tardeba inspeqtoratebis mier, romelTac gaaCniaT saqmianobis detaluri programa kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebisa da kanonaRsrulebis sferoSi.

SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment. A procedure integrating environmental concerns into the preparation and adoption of certain plans and programmes which are likely to have significant effects on the environment by carrying out an environmental assessment of the

proposed plan or programme. In contrast to the EIA procedure, where the impact assessment is linked to the development consent for a specific project, the SEA is already effective at the planning stage above the project level where the framework for future projects is established. The EU Directive 2001/42/EC on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment will require SEA for plans and programmes which are prepared for, inter alia, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy, industry, transport, waste management, water management, tourism, and town and country planning. The environmental assessment must be carried out during the preparation of the plans and programmes and the environmental aspects must be taken into account before adoption of the plan or programme. To achieve this, an environmental report must be produced concerning the assessment of the potential significant effects on the environment, and an assessment of reasonable alternatives to the plan or programme.

. , .

strategiuli Sefaseba (SEA) garemosdacviTi

, . , , , . 2001/42/EC , , , , , , , , , , , . , 225

strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefasebis (SEA) procedura warmoadgens garemosdacviT problemaTa Sesaxeb arsebuli codnis integraciis mcdelobas im gegmebisa da programebis momzadebis procesSi, romelTac SeuZliaT arsebiTi gavlena iqonion gzS garemos mdgomareobaze. procedurebisagan gansxvavebiT, romlis drosac zemoqmedebis Sefaseba ukavSirdeba garkveuli proeqtis ganxorcielebis mizniT gadawyvetilebis miRebas, strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefasebis (SEA) procedura efeqturia ukve momavali proeqtebis dagegmvis stadiaze. garkveuli gegmebisa da programebis realizaciisas garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis Sesaxeb evrogaerTianebis direqtiva (2001/42/EC) iTvaliswinebs strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefasebis proceduris savaldebulo Catarebas gegmebisa da programebisaTvis, maT Soris soflis meurneobis, satyeo meurneobisa da meTevzeobis, energetikis, mrewvelobis, transportis, narCenebis marTvis, wyalmeurneobis, turizmis, aseve qalaqmSeneblobisa da miwaTmowyobis sferoSi. strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefaseba unda ganxorcieldes gegmebisa da programebis momzadebis stadiaze, amasTan amgvari proeqtebis garemosdacviTi aspeqtebi unda gaTvaliswinebul iqnan am gegmebisa da proeqtebis miRebamde. am mizniT unda Sedges garemosdacviTi angariSi garemoze potenciurad mniSvnelovani zemoqmedebis Sefasebis, agreTve SesamuSavebeli

gegmebisa da programebis savaraudo alternativebis Sefasebis Taobaze.

SECTORAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL In the NIS: compliance monitoring exercised by the central bodies of executive authority over the state owned enterprises under their control. Sectoral control is carried out by state bodies but is not a part of state environmental control. The differences between them are to be found in the sphere of implementation: departmental control is limited to a branch of industry. An example of sectoral control would be those actions of the ministries of energy which are aimed at providing industrial and environmental safety at energy-producing facilities. : , . , . : . , .

uwyebrivi kontroli garemosdacviTi

mrewvelobis calkeul dargebSi. uwyebrivi kontrolis magaliTs warmoadgens energetikis saministros qmedebebi, mimarTuli energetikuli kompleqsis obieqtebze sawarmoo da ekologiuri usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad.

SECONDARY POLLUTANT A pollutant that is of lesser importance to the environment but still needs attention and compliance checking.

, , .

meorexarisxovani damabinZurebeli nivTiereba

damabinZurebeli nivTiereba, romelsac naklebi mniSvneloba eniWeba garemos mdgomareobisaTvis, magram mainc iTxovs yuradRebas kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa monitoringis Sesrulebis mimdinareobisas.

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: kanonmdeblobis garemosdacviTi moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis monitoringi, romelic xorcieldeba aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis centraluri organoebis mier maTdami uwyebrivad daqvemdebarebul saxelmwifo sawarmoTa mimarT. marTalia, uwyebrivi kontroli xorcieldeba saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organoebis mier, magram igi ar warmoadgens garemos dacvis saxelmwifo kontrolis Semadgenel nawils. aRniSnuli cnebebi gansxvavdebian maTi samoqmedo sferoebiT - uwyebrivi kontroli xorcieldeba

226

SECONDARY SUPERVISION The checking by higher government authorities of the implementation by lower government authorities of their environmental functions (i.e. supervision of the supervisors). These secondary inspections either take place in special cases where suspicion on the role of the lower authority requires a thorough investigation or sometimes are routinely ad hoc inspections without a specific suspicion. Complaints sometime require a secondary inspection to verify the justification of the complaint. (see also primary supervision/first line inspection). Syn.: second line inspection. ( ) ,

( ). , , . . (. / ).

meoradi zedamxedveloba/meore rigis inspeqtireba

xorcieldeba ufro maRali donis saxelmwifo organos mier, romelic amowmebs ufro dabali, pirveli rigis inspeqciis mier garemosdacviTi funqciebis Sesrulebis efeqturobas (sainspeqcio organoebze zedamxedvelobis wesiT). meore rigis inspeqtireba xorcieldeba gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi, rodesac ufro dabali rigis inspeqciebis arauflebamosili an araadeqvaturi qmedebebis Sesaxeb eWvi moiTxovs detalur gamokvlevas, an tardeba yovelgvari eWvis gareSe, Cveulebrivi SerCeviTi Semowmebis Catarebis mizniT. zogjer meoradi zedamxedvelobis aucilebloba warmoiSoba saCivrebis miRebisas, maTi safuZvlianobis garkvevis mizniT (aseve pirveladi ixileT

() , (. . , , ). , . .

SerCeviToba

riskebis analizisa da miznobrivi sawarmoebis, pirovnebebisa da teritoriebis gansazRvris safuZvelze,

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis

Semowmebisa da darRvevaTa gamovlenis (maRali) albaToba (anu damrRvevTa Semowmebis sixSire, kanonmdeblobis SemsruleblebTan SedarebiT). SerCeviTobis politika ufro mimarTulia kanonmdeblobis darRvevaTa Semowmebisken, vidre kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebisken. evropaSi inspeqtoratebis umravlesoba, upirveles yovlisa, dakavebulia kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevis SemTxvevebis gamovleniT.

zedamxedveloba/pirveli inspeqtireba).

rigis

SELF ASSESSMENT The collection and analysis of instructions, working methods, control mechanisms and performance indicators, executed by the company itself. , , , .

TviTSefaseba

SELECTIVITY The (increased) chance of compliance checking and detection as a result of risk analysis and targeting of firms, people or areas (i.e. the extent to which inspectors succeed in checking offenders more often than those who abide by the law). Selectivity policy put emphasis on non-compliance checking rather than compliance checking. Most inspectorates in Europe look for non-compliance.

arsebuli instruqciebis, muSaobis meTodebis, kontrolis meqanizmebisa da

227

efeqturobis maCveneblebis Segroveba da analizi, ganxorcielebuli uSualod sawarmos mier.

SELF MONITORING The process by which an installation measures certain of its emissions, discharges, and/or performance parameters to provide information on the pollutant discharges and/or the operation of control technologies. In the European Union the requirements on the operator for making compliance measurements will be specified in permits or other legislation. , , / / . . .: , .

TviTmonitoringi

government or individual firms) setting rules and standards (codes of practice) relating to the conduct of firms in the industry. In practice, self-regulation is rarely effective in achieving compliance (i.e. obedience by the target population/s with regulation/s) - at least if it is used as a «stand alone» strategy without sanctions. This is because self-regulatory standards are often weak, enforcement is commonly ineffective and punishment is secret and mild. Moreover, self-regulation commonly lacks many of the virtues of typically conventional state regulation, in terms of visibility, credibility, accountability, compulsory application to all, greater likelihood of rigorous standards being developed, cost spreading, and availability of a range of sanctions. There is a growing number of selfregulatory schemes in the sphere of environmental protection, which at least in some contexts and when they are underpinned by other instruments, may yet make an important positive contribution to environmental protection. Best known examples include the chemical industry's Responsible Care programme, which applies in over 40 countries. See also EMAS). , , . , , ( ) () , . (. . ) ­ , . , , , , , . , 228

procesi, romlis mimdinareobisas sawarmo axorcielebs kontrols gafrqvevebze, CaSvebebsa da/an teqnologiur parametrebze emisiis damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa da/an sawarmoo garemosdacviTi kontrolis funqcionirebis Sesaxeb informaciis wardgenis mizniT. evrokavSirSi sawarmoTa mier TviTmonitoringis ganxorcielebis mimarT moTxovnebi ganisazRvreba nebarTvebiTa an sxva sakanonmdeblosinonimi: normatiuli aqtebiT.

TviTkontroli, Sida kontroli.

SELF-REGULATION Self-regulation is not a precise concept but it may be defined as a process whereby an organised group regulates the behaviour of its members. Most commonly it involves an industry-level organisation (as opposed to the

­ , , , , , . , , , . , 40 . .

TviTregulireba

upiratesobebi, rogoricaa gamWvirvaloba, ndobisa da pasuxismgeblobis maRali done, yvelas mimarT erTiani midgomis savaldebulo gamoyeneba, ufro mkacri normebis SemoRebis didi albaToba, xarjebis ganawileba da mTeli rigi sajarimo sanqciebis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba. amJamad, garemos dacvis sferoSi TviTregulirebis sxvadasxva programebis ricxvi izrdeba, ramac garkveul viTarebaSi da sxva meqanizmebiT mxardaWeris SemTxvevaSi, SesaZloa garemos dacvis saqmeSi mniSvnelovani pozitiuri wvlili Seitanos. TviTregulirebis SedarebiT cnobili programaa "pasuxismgeblobiT mopyrobis" programa, romelic gamoiyeneba 40-ze meti qveynis qimiur mrewvelobaSi. aseve ixileT garemosdacviTi marTvis da auditis sqema (EMAS).

TviTregulireba ar warmoadgens mkafiod gamoxatul cnebas. igi SeiZleba ganisazRvros rogorc procesi, romlis mimdinareobisas organizebuli jgufi aregulirebs Tavisi wevrebis saqmianobas. rogorc wesi, TviTregulireba xorcieldeba organizaciis meSveobiT, romelic mrewvelobis garkveuli dargis (da ara calkeuli saxelmwifo an kerZo kompaniebis) doneze arsebobs da adgens wesebsa da standartebs im sawarmoTa saqmianobis mimarT, romlebic mrewvelobis am dargs ganekuTvnebian. praqtikaSi TviTregulireba iSviaTad warmoadgens kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa uzrunvelyofis (e. i. Sesrulebis miznobrivi jgufis mier kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis) efeqtur saSualebas, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca gamoiyeneba calke meqanizmad, sanqciebis gareSe. amis mizezia is, rom, TviTregulirebis standartebi xSirad ufro sustia. Sesabamisad, kanonaRsrulebac araefeqturia, xolo sasjeli Serbilebuli da sazogadoebisaTvis dafaruli. garda amisa, TviTregulirebas ar gaaCnia tradiciuli saxelmwifo regulirebis

229

SELF REPORTING (1) Reporting based on the measurements made by the operator that are made available to the authorities. Nowadays a lot of self-reporting is made electronically available to authorities for convenience of inspections. (2) The process by which installations and operators provide enforcement officials with self-monitoring and/or self-record keeping data periodically and/or upon request. Nowadays these are commonly made available electronically. (1) , . . (2) , - / .

.

sawarmos angariSgeba

savaldebuloa. Sesabamisi saaRricxvo dokumentacia waredgineba inspeqtorebs inspeqtirebis dros.

(1) angariSgebis warmoeba sawarmoTa mier ganxorcielebuli gazomvebis safuZvelze, romelTa Sesaxeb informacia waredgineba uflebamosil organoebs. inspeqtirebis procedurebis gamartivebis mizniT, dReisaTvis arsebul sawarmoTa mier Sedgenili angariSebis umravlesoba uflebamosil organobs eleqtronuli formiT miewodebaT. (2) procesi, romlis mimdinareobisas sawarmoebi regularulad an moTxovnisamebr warudgenen kanonaRsrulebis organoebs TviTmonitoringis da/an informacias Sida aRricxvis monacemebis Sesaxeb. amJamad amgvari informaciis miwodeba warmoebs eleqtronuli formiT.

SELF-RECORD KEEPING The process by which companies maintain their own records of certain regulated activities they perform (e.g., shipment of hazardous waste). Self-record keeping is compulsory in many permit systems. At inspections these records have to be shown. , , (, ). . .

Sida aRricxva

SEVESO DIRECTIVE World-wide, increasing industrialisation lead to a significant increase of accidents involving dangerous substances. In Europe, in 1976 the Seveso accident in particular prompted the adoption of legislation aimed at the prevention and control of such accidents. This accident happened at a chemical plant manufacturing pesticides and herbicides. A dense vapour cloud containing tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin (TCDD) was released. Commonly known as dioxin, this was a poisonous and carcinogenic by-product. Although no immediate fatalities were reported, kilogramme quantities of the substance lethal to humans even in microgramme doses were widely dispersed which resulted in an immediate contamination of some ten square miles of land and vegetation. In response to this accident, in 1982, Council Directive 82/501/EEC on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities ­ socalled Seveso Directive ­ was adopted. The Seveso Directive was amended twice, in 1987 and in 1988. Both amendments aimed at broadening the scope of the Directive, in particular to include the storage of dangerous substances. On 9 December 1996, Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards (OJ No L 10 of 14 January 1997) - socalled Seveso II Directive - was adopted to fully replace its predecessor. Important changes have been made and new concepts have been introduced into the Seveso II Directive. This includes a revision and extension of the scope, the introduction of new requirements relating to safety management systems, emergency planning and land-use planning and a reinforcement of the provisions on inspections to be carried out. To learn more see www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/seveso

3H

procesi, romlis drosac sawarmoebi awarmoeben maT mier ganxorcielebuli garkveuli saxis, saxelmwifo regulirebas daqvemdebarebuli saxifaTo saqmianobis (magaliTad, narCenebis gadazidvis) damoukidebel aRricxvas. licenzirebis mraval sistemaSi Sida aRricxvis warmoeba

230

, . , , ,

1976 ., (). , . , , , , , . 1982 . 82/501/EEC ­ . ­ 1987 1988 . , , . 9 1996 . 96/82/EC (OJ L 10 14 1997 .) ­ II ­ , . . ­ , , , . : www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/seveso

34H

sevezos direqtiva

industrializaciis zrdam mTel msoflioSi gamoiwvia saSiS nivTierebebTan dakavSirebuli avariebis ricxvis mniSvnelovani gazrda. evropaSi amgvar avariaTa Tavidan acilebisa da kontrolisaTvis mimarTuli kanonmdeblobis SemuSavebas biZgi misca

231

incidentma, romelic moxda 1976 wels sevezoSi, pesticidebisa da herbicidebis mwarmoebel qimiur qarxanaSi, ris Sedegadac atmosferul haerSi gamoifrqva tetraqlorodibenzoparadioqsini (tqdd). es nivTiereba, cnobili dioqsinis saxelmwodebiT, warmoadgens toqsikur da kancerogenul meorad produqts. marTalia, uSualod avariis Semdeg sasikvdilo SemTxvevebi ar dafiqsirebula, magram nivTiereba, romlis adamianisaTvis sasikvdilo doza mikrogramebSi gamoixateba, kilogramobiT gamoifrqva, swrafad gavrcelda da daaxloebiT aTi kvadratuli milis farTobze niadagisa da mcenareebis mowamvla gamoiwvia. am avariasTan dakavSirebiT, 1982 wels miRebul iqna evrokavSiris direqtiva 82/501/EEC mrewvelobis zogierT dargebSi seriozuli avariis saSiSroebis Sesaxeb, e.w. sevezos direqtiva. 1987 da 1988 wlebSi direqtivis teqstSi 2-jer Sevida cvlileba, romlebic iTvaliswinebda direqtivis moqmedebis sferos gafarToebas saSiS nivTierebaTa SenaxvasTan dakavSirebiT. 1996 wlis 9 dekembers miRebuli iqna evrosabWos direqtiva 96/82/EC seriozuli saSiSroebis mqone avariebis kontrolis Sesaxeb (OJ#L10, 14 ianvari, 1977 w.), e. w. direqtiva - sevezo II, romelmac srulad Secvala winamorbedi dokumenti. axal dokumentSi Setanili iqna mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi da axali cnebebi. amgvar cvlilebaTa Sorisaa direqtivis gadasinjva da moqmedebis arealis gafarToeba, usafrTxoebis sistemebis mimarT axali moTxovnebis daweseba, saavario mzadyofnis gegmebis SemuSaveba da miwaTsargeblobis dagegmva, inspeqtirebis ganxorcielebis wesebis gamkacreba. dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/seveso.

SINGLE MEDIA APPROACH An approach that considers the environmental impacts of an installation etc to one medium (air, water, land) in isolation to the impacts on the other environmental media. This approach is commonly used in the USA and the NIS, whereas in Europe there is a continuing trend towards a cross media approach. The advantages of the single media approach are that it is simpler and that inspectors are usually experts on one media only. The disadvantage is that this approach does not consider the impacts on other media so that the protection of one media may be at the expense of the other media. , , (, , ), , . , () . , , , , . , , , , , .

erTkomponenturi midgoma

inspeqtorebi, rogorc wesi, warmoadgenen erTi dargis specialistebs. midgomis naklovanebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos is, rom iTvaliswinebs ra zemoqmedebas mxolod erT bunebriv komponentze, mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba sxva komponentebze amgvari zemoqmedebis Sedegebi. aqedan gamomdinare, garemos erTi komponentis dacva SesaZloa ganxorcieldes garemos sxva komponentebis zianis xarjze.

SITING Choosing a location for a facility. - .

moednis SerCeva

raime obieqtis gansaTavseblad adgilmdebareobis SerCeva.

SNIPS Abbreviation from Russian language: Construction rules and regulations. Legal documents containing requirements related to building structures and methods and means of planning and construction of towns and other inhabited sites, taking into account the needs of environmental protection. SNiPs were a part of the system of GOSTs, government standards of the former USSR and are still used in the NIS. The investigation of compliance with the SNiPs forms part of the procedure of state environmental review. () , , , . .

midgoma iTvaliswinebs zemoqmedebas, romelsac axdens raime obieqti garemos mxolod erT komponentze (atmosferul haerze, wyalze, niadagze) garemos sxva komponentebze misi zemoqmedebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. aRniSnuli midgoma farTod gamoiyeneba aSS-sa da axal damoukidebel qveynebSi, maSin rodesac evropaSi SeimCneva kompleqsuri farTod (integrirebuli) midgomis gamoyenebis tendencia. erTkomponenturi midgomis upiratesobas warmoadgens misi simartive, aseve is faqti, rom

232

.

samSeneblo (-ebi) normebi da wesebi

normatiuli dokumentebi, romlebic Seicaven moTxovnebs samSeneblo konstruqciebisa da mSeneblobis meTodebis, aseve qalaqebisa da sxva dasaxlebuli punqtebis dagegmarebasa da ganaSenianebis mimarT garemosdacviTi aspeqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT. samSeneblo normebi da wesebi (-ebi) warmoadgenen yofili sabWoTa kavSiris saxelmwifo standartebis (-ebis) Semadgenel nawils da amJamadac moqmedeben axal damoukidebel qveynebSi. -ebis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis saxelmwifo ekologiuri Semowmeba eqspertizis proceduris erT-erT elements warmoadgens .

SOCIETAL RISK LIMITS Societal risk limits provide a convenient tool for setting criteria for the acceptability of hazardous activities to society as a whole rather than just individuals who may be affected. They take account of the fact that, for a particular industrial installation, a whole range of accidents are possible, each with a probability of happening and a range of possible impacts on the surrounding population. As with any hazardous event, a higher probability of occurrence can be tolerated for those events with lower resulting impacts. As the consequences become more serious, the «acceptable» frequency of occurrence become lower. For instance, social risk limits have been adopted by the Netherlands. They specify, for example, that the probability of an accident resulting in ten deaths must not exceed 1 in 100 000 years (or 10-5 per year). A higher frequency is unacceptable. A frequency of 1 in 10 million years or less is negligible. , 233

, . , , . , , . , «» . , , , , , 1 100 000 ( 10-5 ). . , 1 10 . , .

socialuri doneebi riskis zRvruli

socialuri riskis zRvruli doneebi warmoadgenen moxerxebul instruments saqmianobis saSiSi saxeebis ganxorcielebis dasaSvebi kriteriumebis gansasazRvravad zogadad, sazogadoebisa da calkeuli pirebisaTvis, romelTac SesaZloa SeexoT amgvari zemoqmedeba. riskis zRvruli doneebi dgindeba imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom calkeuli teqnologiuri danadgarisaTvis arsebobs avariis SesaZlebloba, mravalgvari romelTagan arsebobs TiToeulis moxdenisa da mosaxleobaze savaraudo zemoqmedebis albaToba. rogorc nebismieri saxifaTo SemTxvevisaTvis, yvelaze maRali alabaTobis xarisxi daSvebulia avariebisaTvis, romelTac zemoqmedebis dabali done gaaCniaT. rac ufro seriozulia incidenti, miT ufro dabalia misi "dasaSvebi" sixSire. magaliTad, niderlandebSi, miRebul iqna socialuri riskis zRvruli doneebi, romlebic iTvaliswineben, rom avariis albaToba, romelic gamoiwvevs 10 adamianis sikvdils, ar unda aRematebodes erT SemTxvevas 100 000

weliwadSi (anu 10-5 SemTxvevas/weliwadSi). ufro maRali sixSiris done dauSvebelia. avariis sixSire, romelic Seadgens 1/10 mln weliwadSi an ufro naklebs, iTvleba Zalze umniSvnelod.

SOURCE A facility, installation or individual from where the pollution or information etc. originates. , , , . .

wyaro

makontrolebeli organoebi, radiaciuli kontrolis samsaxurebi da a.S.

SPECIAL WATER USE In the NIS, this is the use of water bodies with the application of equipment, technical means and facilities. Unlike general water use, special water use requires the acquisition of a licence for water use. Examples of special water use include: water use for irrigation, hydro-energy production, transportation, timber-rafting, and the extraction of minerals from water beds. : , . , . : , (), , , .

specialuri wyalsargebloba

obieqti, danadgari an fizikuri piri,

romelic dabinZurebis, wyaros. warmoadgens informaciis an garemos sxva

SPECIALISED INSPECTORATES State inspectorates that specialise in the control of specific types of activity. These might be environmental inspectorates, fishery inspectorates, epidemiological and sanitary inspectorates or services, mining and radiation inspection agencies, and so forth. , . , , , , . .

specializebuli inspeqciebi

saxelmwifo inspeqciebi, romlebic axorcieleben kontrols saqmianobis gansazRvrul saxeobaze. amgvar inspeqciaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba garemos dacvis inspeqtorati, Tevzdacvis inspeqcia, epidemiologiuri an sanitariuli inspeqciebi an samsaxurebi, samTo mrewvelobis sawarmoTa

234

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: wyalsatevebis gamoyeneba mowyobilobebis, teqnikuri saSualebebisa da nagebobebis gamoyenebiT. saerTo wyalsargeblobisgan gansxvavebiT, specialur wyalsargeblobaze nebarTvis misaRebad saWiroa wyalsargeblobaze licenziis miReba. specialuri wyalsargeblobis magaliTebia: wyalsatevebis gamoyeneba irigaciuli miznebisaTvis, energiis miRebis (hidroeleqtrosadgurebi), transportirebis, xe-tyis dacurebis, aseve mdinareTa kalapotebidan mineraluri resursebis mopovebis mizniT.

SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS These are requirements in permits etc that only apply to the activity in question. In most cases they are part of the tailor made prescriptions in permits.

, , . .

specialuri moTxovnebi

moTxovnebs ganekuTvnebian romlebic dadgenilia da sxva samarTlebriv nebarTvebSi dokumentebSi da gamoiyenebian mxolod im saqmianobisaTvis, romlis ganxorcielebaze gaica nebarTva. umetes SemTxvevaSi, isini warmoadgenen nebarTvis pirobebis specialurad SemuSavebul nawils konkretuli obieqtisaTvis.

specialur moTxovnebi,

STANDARD MEASUREMENT METHODS Monitoring must be based on recognised and validated methods, which are generally termed «standard» methods. Standard methods are produced by CEN, ISO and the national standard organisations in individual countries. In the NIS, these methods are within the jurisdiction of state agencies for standards and metrology. The standard measurement methods should be laid down in legislation. If the permit conditions for an installation require self monitoring, then the permit should specify the standard measurement methods to be used. , , , «». (CEN), (ISO) . . . , () , , .

gazomvis standartuli meTodebi

SPONTANEOUS DIMENSIONS OF COMPLIANCE Spontaneous compliance dimensions are factors, which would occur anyway in the absence of enforcement. This includes knowledge of rules, cost-benefit considerations, level of acceptance, normative commitment, and informal controls. , , . , , , , .

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis spontanuri faqtorebi

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis spontanuri faqtorebi warmoadgenen faqtorebs, romelTac adgili aqvT nebismier SemTxvevaSi, maT Soris kanonaRsrulebis ararsebobis drosac. maT SesaZloa ganekuTvnon dadgenili wesebis codna, danaxarjebisa da sargebelis analizi, misaRebobis done, kanonmorCileba, aseve araoficialuri kontrolis meTodebi.

monitoringi unda eyrdnobodes gazomvaTa aRiarebul da Semowmebul meTodebs, romelTac, rogorc wesi, "standartul meTodebs" uwodeben. standartuli meTodebi SemuSavdeba

standartizaciis

evropuli

komisiis

(CEN), standartizaciis sarTaSoriso organizaciis (ISO) da calkeuli qveynebis standartizaciis erovnul organizaciaTa mier. axal damoukidebel qveynebSi amgvari meTodebis SemuSaveba standartizaciisa da metrologiis samsaxurebis kompetencias warmoadgens. gazomvis standartuli meTodebi

235

dakanonebul unda iqnan sakanonmdeblonormatiuli aqtebiT. im SeTxvevaSi, Tu nebarTviT dadgenili pirobebi TviTmonitoringis iTvaliswinebs ganxorcielebas, nebarTvaSi aseve unda ganisazRvros mocemuli miznebisaTvis gamosayenebel gazomvaTa standartuli meTodebi.

teqnologiuri standartebi, produqciis standartebi, aseve teqnologiis standartebi. gansakuTrebul interess

garemosdacviTi inspeqtoratebisaTvis garemos xarisxobrivi imsaxureben standartebi da emisiis standartebi. ixileT agreTve -ebi.

STANDARDS Prescriptive norms that govern products or processes or set actual limits on the amount of pollutants or emissions produced. Traditionally, five big categories of standards may be distinguished according to the subjects they regulate: environmental quality standards, emission standards, process standards, product standards, and technology based standards. Of particular interest to environmental inspectorates are environmental quality standards and emission standards. See also GOSTs. , . : , , , , , . . . .

standartebi

savaldebulo normebi, romlebic aregulireben produqciis xarisxsa da teqnologiur procesebs an adgenen zRvrul parametrebs damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa an warmoqmnil emisiaTa mimarT. tradiciulad ganasxvaveben standartebis xuT kategorias maT mier regulirebadi obieqtebis tipebis garemos xarisxobrivi mixedviT:

STATE ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW In the NIS: A procedure used since 1980s and rooted in the Soviet system. It aims to warn of and avoid any possible negative impact on the environment and any social, economic or other consequences that may be connected to environmental degradation. Under this procedure, the Competent Authority reviews the environmental impact of nearly all industrial projects, as well as many modifications to existing activities. In the regulatory process, the review comes after the EIA. The review requires an extensive expert involvement, since the design documents are compared with thousands of technical or other type or requirements, set in environmental laws and regulations (see SNiPs, GOSTs, SNs). Independent assessors conduct this very comprehensive work. The Competent Authority can make binding decisions to block or modify projects. There were few provisions for public environmental review, and in most NIS these have remained underdeveloped. Since nearly all projects have to be reviewed, this leads to a huge administrative burden and limits the attention that can be devoted to each project proposal. Although quite burdensome in implementation, these reviews appear to have reduced environmental risks from at least some potentially dangerous projects. The permitting systems in the NIS work in a tight relationship with state environmental reviews, because any permit can be issued only after a positive decision of environmental reviewers. In the OECD countries, the decision-making procedures as regards environmentally significant projects do not include this stage of the regulatory cycle, but its elements are comparable to permitting. Syn.: State Environment Expertise, State Ecological Expertise.

standartebi,

emisiis

standartebi,

236

: , 80- .

. , , , . , , . . , , (. , , ). . . . , . , , -, , , , . , . , 237

.

saxelmwifo ekologiuri eqspertiza

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: procedura, romelic 80-iani wlebidan gamoiyeneba da saTaves iRebs saxelmwifo marTvis sabWoTa sistemidan. igi mimarTulia garemoze nebismieri SesaZlo uaryofiTi zemoqmedebis, aseve nebismieri socialuri, ekonomikuri da sxva Sedegebis Tavidan acilebisaken, romlebic dakavSirebulia garemos xarisxobrivi gauaresebasTan. am proceduris farglebSi uflebamosili organoebi axorcieleben TiTqmis yvela samrewvelo sawarmos, aseve arsebuli sawarmoo procesebis mravalricxovani cvlilebebis garemoze potenciuri zemoqmedebis Seswavlas proeqtebis doneze. regulirebis procesis farglebSi saxelmwifo ekologiuri garemoze eqspertiza tardeba zemoqmedebis Sefasebis (gzS) Semdeg. aRniSnuli procedura moiTxovs didi raodenobiT eqspertebis monawileobas, vinaidan misi mimdinareobisas sawarmoTa saproeqto dokumentacia mowmdeba sakanonmdeblo-normatiuli aqtebiT gaTvaliswinebul aTasobiT teqnikur da sxva moTxovnaTa Sesabamisobaze (ixileT -ebi, -ebi, sanitariuli normebi). am mimarTebiT damoukdebeli eqspertebi da konsultantebi sakmaod Sromatevad samuSaos axorcieleben. uflebamosil organoebs SeuZliaT miiRon gadawyvetileba proeqtebis ganxorcielebis akrZalvis an modifikaciis Sesaxeb. sazogadoebrivi meqanizmebi ekologiuri eqspertizis axali damoukidebeli qveynebis umravlesobaSi dRemde sustadaa ganviTarebuli. vinaidan eqspertizas gadis TiTqmis yvela samrewvelo proeqti, mocemuli procedura administraciul muSakTa did datvirTvas moiTxovs da zRudavs calkeuli proeqtis ganxilvis dros. aRniSnuli proceduris realizaciasTan

dakavSirebuli sirTuleebis miuxedavad, msgavsma Semowmebebma, xeli Seuwyo ekologiuri riskebis Semcirebas, potenciurad SedarebiT saxifaTo proeqtebis SemTxvevaSi mainc. axal damoukidebel qveynebSi licenzirebisa da nebarTvebis gacemis sistema mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli saxelmwifo ekologiur eqspertizasTan, vinaidan nebismieri nebarTva gaicema mxolod eqspertebis mier gamotanili dadebiTi daskvnis safuZvelze. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) qveynebSi garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovan proeqtebze gadawyvetilebis miRebis procedura ar iTvaliswinebs regulirebis ciklis am stadias, magram misi calkeuli elementebi Seesabamebian nebarTvis gacemis procedurebs.

STATE OF ENVIRONMENT REPORT An official annual publication summing up and systematising information on the state of the environment. In the NIS, such reports also include information on law enforcement activities. Often the results and conclusions of the report are used as the basis for future state decisions or for amending legislation. The reports of many countries, including the NIS, can be found on the UNEP Internet-site at www.grida.no

STATEMENT (FROM STATE PROSECUTION) In the NIS: A document issued by authorised personnel within the state prosecution service, ordering that a violation of regulations be rectified (for example, a statement from the state prosecutor that purification equipment be installed at an enterprise). : , (, ).

prokuroris miweriloba

, . . , , . , , : www.grida.no . .

angariSi Sesaxeb garemos mdgomareobis

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: dokumenti, Sedgenili saxelmwifo saprokuroro samsaxuris uflebamosili piris mier kanonmdeblobis darRvevis aRkveTis moTxovniT (magaliTad, saxelmwifo prokuroris miweriloba sawarmos gamwmendi mowyobilobiT aRWurvis Taobaze).

oficialuri yovelwliuri gamocema, romelic Seicavs Semajamebel da sistematizirebul informacias garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. axal damoukidebel qveynebSi msgavsi angariSebi aseve Seicaven informacias kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis Sesaxeb. xSirad garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb angariSebSi asaxuli Sedegebi da daskvnebi warmoadgenen safuZvels Semdgomi saxelmwifo gadawyvetilebis miRebisa an kanonmdeblobaSi cvlilebebis Sesatanad. mravali qveynis, maT Soris, axali damoukidebeli qveynebis angariSebi SesaZleblia ixiloT gaeros (UNEP) garemos dacvis programis saitebze: www.grida.no sinonimi: moxseneba garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb.

238

, . STATE REGISTRATION AND REGISTERS The entry in state registers of information on sites that have a negative influence on the environment. In the NIS, there are registers of dangerous wastes, dangerous sites, etc. Entry in a register, where required by the law, is an obligatory procedural demand for the issuing of licences for certain types of activity. The information is usually entered into the register on the issuing of permissions and licences (the registers of dangerous industrial sites), on the provision of individual sites for use (cadastres: land, forest, water) and based on the results of tests (registers of pesticides, agricultural chemicals, wastes). The responsibility for maintaining registers lies with the central bodies of executive power who carry out management functions in any specific sphere. According to the legislation, the information in the registers should be accessible to the public and other organisations and should be made available if appropriate enquiries are made. , . , . . , , . , , ( ), (: , , ) ( , , ). , . , 239

saxelmwifo reestri registracia da

garemoze mavne zemoqmedebis mqone obieqtebis Sesaxeb informaciis saxelmwifo reestrebSi Setana. axal damoukidebel qveynebSi arsebobs saxifaTo narCenebis, saSiSi obieqtebis da sxvaTa reestrebi. Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo moTxovnis arsebobisas, informacis Setana reestrebSi licenziis gacemisas warmoadgens aucilebel proceduras garkveuli saxis saqmianobis gansaxorcieleblad. informacia reestrebSi Seitaneba, rogorc wesi, nebarTvebisa da licenziebis gacemisas (saSiSi samrewvelo obieqtebis reestrebi), garkveuli mizniT sargeblobisaTvis teritoriebis gamoyofisas (miwis, wylis, tyis kadastrebi) an analizis Sedegebis safuZvelze (pesticidebis, sasoflo-sameurneo qimikatebis, narCenebis reestrebi). pasuxismgebloba reestrebis warmoebisaTvis ekisrebaT aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis centralur organoebs, romlebic axorcieleben marTvis funqciebs saqmianobis calkeul sferoebSi. kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, reestrebSi asaxuli informacia Riaa sazogadoebisa da sxva organizaciebisaTvis da xelmisawvdomoba uzrunvelyofilia Sesabamisi moTxovnis wardgenisTanave.

STATIONARY SOURCE A fixed-site producer of pollution, mainly power plants and other facilities using industrial combustion processes. Compare with mobile source. , , ,

. .

.

dabinZurebis stacionaluri wyaro

garemos dabinZurebis stacionalur wyaroebs ZiriTadad ganekuTvnebian eleqtrosadgurebi da sxva sawarmoebi, romlebic TavianT muSaobaSi wvis procesebs gamoiyeneben. SedarebisTvis ixileT dabinZurebis mobiluri wyaro.

Although liability is strict, it is not absolute, and a defence may be that the act complained of was an act of God or the act of a third party. Strict liability may also apply where one is vicariously liable for the acts of another, e.g. where an employer is responsible for the acts of his employees. ( ) . , . , , . , , , , , . , . . , , , .

mkacri pasuxismgebloba

STRATEGY A strategy is the outcome of a thinking and planning process defining in which way a certain goal is going to be achieved. Strategies in most cases do not show detailed implementation steps (these are executed in programmes) but only describe broad implementation lines by the policy makers. ­ , . , , ( ), .

strategia

strategia es aris azrovnebis procesisa da dagegmvis Sedegi, romelic garkveuli miznis miRwevis xerxebs gansazRvravs. garemosdacviTi politikis Semqmnelebis mier SemuSavebuli strategia, rogorc wesi, moicavs ara realizaciis etapebis detalur aRweras (isini mocemulia programebSi), aramed mxolod zogad midgomebs strategiis gansaxorcieleblad.

STRICT LIABILITY Also called n o - f a u l t l i a b i l i t y (in the USA). Responsibility for an event without having to prove intent or negligence. Strict liability attaches to those wrongs where it is not necessary for the aggrieved to prove any intent or negligence on the part of the wrong-doer. 240

mas aseve uwodeben pasuxismgeblobas braleulobis gareSe (aSS-Si). pasuxismgebloba ganzrax an gaufrTxileblobiT Cadenili qmedebisaTvis, romlis braleulobis sakiTxi ar saWiroebs mtkicebas. mkacri pasuxismgeblobis principi moqmedebs iseT SemTxvevebSi, rodesac dazaralebuls ufleba aqvs ar waradginos sasamarTlos winaSe mtkicebuleba, rom samarTaldarRveva Cadenil iqna ganzrax an gaufrTxileblobis mizeziT. marTalia, amgvar pasuxismgeblobas mkacri ewodeba, magram igi ar aris absoluturi da dacvis mxares SeuZlia daamtkicos, rom SemTxveva, romelzedac Setanilia sarCeli, warmoadgens forsmaJorul viTarebas an mesame mxaris mier Cadenil qmedebas. mkacri pasuxismgeblobis principi aseve gamoiyeneba

substituciuri (CanacvlebiTi) pasuxismgeblobis SemTxvevaSi, anu rodesac piri pasuxismgebelia sxva piris qmedebebze, magaliTad, rodesac damqiravebeli pasuxismgebelia Tavisi TanamSromlebis qmedebebze.

iReben amgvari sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi pirdapir dainteresebuli pirebi.

SUBORDINATE LEGISLATION In the NIS, there is a developed system of subordinate (departmental) legislation, which includes orders, instructions and rules adopted by bodies of executive authority. () , , , .

kanonqvemdebare aqtebi

SUFFICIENCY OF EVIDENCE Usually, a prosecution will not be commenced or continued by an environmental enforcement authority unless it is satisfied that there is sufficient, admissible and reliable evidence that the offence has been committed and that there is a realistic prospect of conviction. If the case does not pass this evidential test, it will not go ahead, no matter how important or serious it may be. It may happen that where there is sufficient evidence, a prosecution will not be commenced or continued by the authorities unless it is in the public interest to do so. Public interest factors that can affect the decision to prosecute usually depend on the seriousness of the offence or the circumstances of the offender. In such cases other non-compliance responses may be used. , , , , , . , , . , , . , , . .

samxilis sakmarisoba

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi ganviTarebulia kanonqvemdebare (uwyebrivi) normatiuli aqtebis sistema, romlis farglebSi gamoiyeneba aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis organoebis mier miRebuli brZanebebi, instruqciebi da dadgenilebebi.

SUBSIDIARITY The notion that decision-making should occur at the level at which the people most directly concerned can take responsibility. , , , , .

subsidiareba

principi, romlis Sesabamisadac gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis procesi unda ganxorcieldes doneze, romlis drosac gadawyvetilebaze pasuxismgeblobas

rogorc wesi, garemosdacviTi kanonaRsrulebis organo ar aRZravs an wyvets samarTlebriv devnas, Tu ar aris damajerebloba imisa, rom arsebobs

241

sasamarTloSi wardgenisaTvis sakmarisi, dasaSvebi da saimedo mtkicebulebebi samarTaldarRvevis Cadenisa da ganaCenis gamotanis realuri perspeqtivis Sesaxeb. Tu saqmis masalebi arasakmarisia mtkicebulebisaTvis, saqme ar aRiZreba, rogori seriozuli an mniSvnelovanic ar unda iyos igi. zogierT qveyanaSi, maSinac ki, roca mtkicebulebebi sakmarisia, kanonaRsrulebis organoebi ar aRZraven an ar agrZeleben samarTlebriv devnas, Tu saqme ar warmoadgens sazogadoebriv interess.

may include site visits/inspections, the monitoring of emissions, the periodic evaluation of licences, the performance of environmental audits and checks on transport. , , . / , , , .

zedamxedveloba

sazogadoebrivi

interesis

faqtorebi,

romlebmac SesaZloa zemoqmedeba moaxdinon gadawyvetilebaze sasamarTlo devnis aRZvris Sesaxeb, Cveulebriv damokidebulia samarTaldarRvevis seriozulobasa an samarTaldamrRvevis mdgomareobaze. amgvar SemTxvevebSi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas reagirebis sxva zomebi.

SUPERFUND This term is used especially in the USA where a cleaning up programme was established for waste (industrial hazardous waste). The fund subsidised the clean-up of polluted sites. , , , , ( ). .

superfondi

zedamxedvelobis uflebamosilebiT aRWurvili Tanamdebobis piris mier ganxorcielebuli Semowmeba. sazedamxedvelo saqmianoba SesaZloa moicavdes sawarmoebis daTvaliereba/inspeqtirebas, emisiaTa licenziis moTxovnaTa monitorings, periodul analizs, garemosdacviTi auditis Catarebas da satransporto saSualebaTa mdgomareobis Semowmebas.

SURROGATE PARAMETERS These are parameters which are closely related to direct pollutant values (e.g. concentrations) and may be measured as a convenient substitute for them. A surrogate is likely to be useful for compliance monitoring purposes if it is closely and consistently related to a required direct value, are cheaper, easier or quicker to monitor than a direct value, or give more frequent information, are capable of being related to specified limits, and are approved for use by a competent authority. Key disadvantages are higher level of uncertainty in comparison with direct measurements and lower effectiveness for legal purposes. , (, ), . 242

aRniSnuli termini ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba aSS-Si, sadac moqmedebs narCenebisagan (samrewvelo saxifaTo narCenebisagan) gawmendis RonisZiebaTa programa. aRniSnuli fondi afinansebs dabinZurebuli teritoriebis gasawmendad gamiznul RonisZiebebs.

SUPERVISION The checking by a competent official designated as a supervisory officer. Supervisory activities

. , , ; , . , , .

arapirdapiri parametrebi

find national environmental laws requiring reporting by enterprises or state institutions. Data acquisition through surveillance is a general obligation in international environmental agreements. Commonly, the more general term «monitoring» is understood as comprising surveillance. , , , , . , , , . , . , . , «» .

dakvirveba

parametrebi, romlebic mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli damabiZurebel nivTierebaTa pirdapir maCveneblebTan (magaliTad, koncentraciebTan) da mosaxerxebelia gaizomos maT nacvlad. arapirdapiri parametrebi SeiZleba kanonmdeblobis gamoyenebul iqnas moTxovnaTa dacvis monitoringis mizniT misi sidideebis dadgenil pirdapir maCveneblebTan sistematiuri SedarebiT. monitoringis mocemuli meTodi ufro ekonomiuri, martivi da swrafia, vidre pirdapiri parametrebis gazomvaTa Catareba; misi gamoyeneba ufro xSiradaa SesaZlebeli, iZleva parametrebis dawesebul sidideebTan Sedarebis saSualebas da misi gamoyeneba mowonebulia uflebamosili organoebis mier. arapirdapiri parametrebis ZiriTad naklovanebas warmoadgens miRebuli monacemebis ganusazRvrelobis maRali done im monacemebTan SedarebiT, romlebic miiReba pirdapiri gazomvebis meSveobiT, aseve samarTlebrivi sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas misi SedarebiT dabali efeqturoba.

SURVEILLANCE Acquisition of data, mainly a scientific activity, on which further actions such as monitoring can be based. Surveillance includes taking samples of the affected environments. In can be done by individual enterprises, by associations or by local or national authorities. It is common to 243

monacemTa miReba, ZiriTadad, kvleviTi saqmianobis warmarTvis procesSi, romlebsac SesaZlebelia daefuZnos monitoringis Semdgomi saqmianoba, CaTvliT. dakvirveba gulisxmobs sinjebis aRebas garemodan, romelmac ganicada zemoqmedeba da SeiZleba Catardes calkeuli sawarmoebis, sawarmoTa asociaciebis an adgilobrivi da centraluri xelisuflebis organoebis mier. rogorc wesi, erovnuli kanonmdebloba sawarmoebisa da saxelmwifo organoebisagan moiTxovs angariSebis warmodgenas. monacemTa miReba dakvirvebaTa warmoebis gziT warmoadgens zogad moTxovnas, romelic asaxulia saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebSi. Cveulebriv, "monitoringis" cneba dakvirvebaTa warmoebasac gulisxmobs.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sustainable development has been defined in the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 (the Brundtland Report) as: «the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs». Development is «real» only if it improves the quality of life. The Brundtland Report thus urged that human activity should follow a path which sustains human activity progress for the entire planet into the distant future. The characteristics of sustainable development can be identified as: maintain the overall quality of life; maintain continuing access to natural resources; avoid lasting environmental damage. « » 1987 . ( ) : «, ». «», . , , , . , .

mdgradi ganviTareba

warimarTos im mimarTulebiT, romelic uzrunvelyofs mdgrad ganviTarebas msoflio masStabiT da Soreuli perspeqtiviT. mdgradi ganviTarebis maxasiaTeblebi SesaZlebelia ganisazRvros rogorc cxovrebis xarisxis saerTo donis SenarCuneba, bunebrivi resursebiT mudmivi uzrunvelyofis SenarCuneba da garemoze grZelvadiani zianis miyenebis Tavidan acileba.

SYNERGISM A phenomenon in which the toxicity of a mixture of chemicals is greater than that which would be expected from a simple summation of the toxicity of the individual chemicals present in the mixtures. , , .

sinergizmi

movlena, romlis drosac qimiur nivTierebaTa narevis toqsikuroba bevrad maRalia am narevis SemadgenlobaSi arsebul calkeul qimiur nivTierebaTa jamur toqsikurobaze.

garemosa da ganviTarebis msoflio komisiis angariSSi 1987 wels (e.w. bruntlandis angariSi) termini "mdgradi ganviTareba" ganisazRvra Semdegnairad: "ganviTareba, romelic pasuxobs Tanamedrove moTxovnebs da ar zRudavs momavali Taobebis SesaZleblobebs maT moTxovnilebaTa dasakmayofileblad". ganviTareba "realuria", Tu igi aumjobesebs cxovrebis xarisxs. amgvarad, bruntlandis angariSma mouwoda sazogadoebas - adamianTa saqmianoba

244

T

TARGET GROUP POLICY (1) A policy focused on special arrangements between the government authorities to reduce emissions in the specific group to achieve environmental targets within a given period. The government mostly sets the limits of emissions in a covenant signed by the target group. The target group must have the full support of all its entrepreneurs in that target group. The advantage is that the most cost effective reduction can be chosen for that group. If the group does not respond properly the authorities will then enforce limitations through the existing permit system or other means at their disposal (taxes, levies, etc.). (2) A policy that targets specific (industrial) groups for emission reduction or other purposes; a group that has a proper organisation and presents the government with a soundboard to exchange views and set realistic targets. (1) , . , , . . , . , (, . .). (2) , 245 () ; , .

miznobrivi jgufis politika

(1) politika, romelic iTvaliswinebs specialur SeTanxmebebs saxelmwifo organoebs Soris specialuri jgufis mxridan emisiebis Semcirebis mizniT, raTa miRweul iqnes garemosdacviTi miznebi drois gansazRvrul periodSi. rogorc wesi, saxelmwifo adgens emisiebze SezRudvebs im nebayoflobiT SeTanxmebaSi, romelsac xels aweren miznobrivi jgufis warmomadgenlebi. amasTan, miznobriv jgufs unda hqondes sruli mxardaWera masSi Semavali yvela mewarmis mxridan. mocemuli politikis upiratesoba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom konkretuli miznobrivi jgufisaTvis SesaZlebelia SeirCes emisiaTa Semcirebis ekonomikurad yvelaze efeqturi meTodi. Tu miznobrivi jgufi daarRvevs SeTanxmebas, xelisuflebas SeuZlia uzrunvelyos dadgenili SezRudvebis Sesruleba nebarTvebis arsebuli sistemis daxmarebiT an sxva arsebuli saSualebebiT (gadasaxadebi, mosakreblebi da a. S.). (2) garkveuli samrewvelo jgufebisadmi mimarTuli politika, romelic miznad isaxavs emisiebis Semcirebas an sxva amocanebs; jgufi, romelsac gaaCnia Sesabamisi organizaciuli struqtura da uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifo organoebisaTvis azrTa gacvlisa da

realuri miznebis SesaZleblobebs.

dadgenis

TARGETING Targeting means making sure that regulatory effort is directed primarily towards those whose activities give rise to or risk of serious environmental damage, where the risks are least well controlled or against deliberate or organised crime. Action will be primarily focused on lawbreakers or those directly responsible for the risk and who are best placed to control it. The environmental enforcement authorities in the OECD countries usually have systems for prioritising regulatory effort. They include the response to complaints from the public about regulated activities, the assessment of the risks posed by a licence holder's operations and the gathering and acting on intelligence about illegal activity. , , , . , , , . . : , , , .

mizanmimarTuloba

iwveven an qmnian garemoze seriozuli zianis safrTxes da es safrTxe saTanadod ar kontroldeba. samarTlebrivi qmedebebi, upirveles yovlisa, unda warimarTon kanonis damrRvevTa mimarT, romlebsac ekisrebaT pasuxismgebloba riskisaTvis da kontroli Tanamdebobrivi mdgomareobis Sesabamisad. garemos dacvis sferoSi ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) qveynebis garemosdacviTi kanonaRsrulebis organoebs gaaCniaT meqanizmebi maregulirebeli zomebis prioritetizaciisaTvis. igi moicavs: sakontrolo saqmianobis Sesaxeb moqalaqeTa saCivrebze reagirebas, licenziis mflobelTa qmedebebis Sedegad warmoqmnili riskebis Sefasebas, ukanono saqmianobis Sesaxeb informaciis Segrovebasa da mis safuZvelze ganxorcielebul qmedebebs.

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Assistance of a scientific or technological nature provided to the facility personnel to help them comply with environmental requirements. , .

teqnikuri daxmareba

sawarmos personalisaTvis gaweuli samecniero an teqnikuri xasiaTis daxmareba maT mier garemosdacviT moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSewyobis mizniT.

TECHNOLOGY FORESIGHT A process for establishing common views on future technology development strategies. Typically it seeks views from a large number of communities, including civic groups, as well as academic, government and industrial research bodies.

mizanmimarTuloba gulisxmobs regulirebis zomebis gamoyenebas, upirveles yovlisa, winaswarganzraxuli an organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg, an maT winaaRmdeg, visi qmedebebic

246

. , , , , .

teqnologiuri prognozi

teqnologiuri ganviTarebis momavali strategiebis mimarT saerTo azris SemuSavebis procesi. rogorc wesi, azrTa gacvla mimdinareobs didi raodenobiT dainteresebul mxareTa, maT Soris sazogadoebrivi organizaciebis, akademiuri dawesebulebebis, saxelmwifo organoebisa da dargobrivi kvleviTi centrebis monawileobiT.

TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS These standards are based on the knowledge of what can be achieved with current equipment and practices. There have been a wide range of different principles used such as «best available techniques», «best available technology», «best practicable technology» or «best available technology not entailing excessive cost». All these approaches are open to interpretation and are related to establishing what are the highest levels of equipment and performance that can be reasonably be demanded from industrial plants. The technology-based standards may be expressed as (a) a specific type of pollution control technology (e.g., chlorination requirements for wastewater or a certain type of vapour recovery equipment at a bulk gasoline plant) or (b) a performance level (e.g. tons of biological oxygen demand per day). The performance level is usually based on a presumed technology and which is commonly available. See also BAT and BATNEEC. , . , , « », « », 247

« , ». , . , , (a) (, ) (b) (, ). . . BAT BATNEEC.

teqnologiis standartebi

aRniSnuli standartebi efuZneba codnas imis Sesaxeb, Tu risi miRwevaa SesaZlebeli arsebuli mowyobilobebisa da teqnologiuri procesebis gamoyenebiT. mocemul sferoSi gamoiyeneboda mTeli rigi sxvadasxva principi, iseTi, rogoricaa "saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologia", "saukeTeso mizanSewonili teqnologia", "saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologia, romelic ar moiTxovs gadaWarbebul danaxarjebs". aRniSnuli midgomebi uSveben sxvadasxva interpretaciebs da aRweren gamoyenebuli mowyobilobebisa da teqnologiuri procesebis umaRles doneebs, romelTa danergva SesaZlebelia dasabuTebulad moeTxovoT samrewvelo sawarmoebs. teqnologiis standartebi SesaZloa gansazRvravdnen: (a) dabinZurebis kontrolis teqnologiis gansakuTrebul tips (magaliTad, moTxovnebi Camdinare wylebis qlorirebisaTvis an navTobgadamamuSavebel qarxanaSi airdamWeri mowyobilobebis garkveuli tipis gamoyenebis mimarT); (b) warmadobis dones (magaliTad, Jangbadis biologiuri moxmareba tona/dReRameSi). warmadobis done, rogorc wesi, efuZneba

warmoebis savaraudo teqnologias, romelic, Cveulebriv, yvelaze xSirad gamoiyeneba. ixileT ageTve saukeTeso da xelmisawvdomi teqnologia (BAT)

saukeTeso arsebuli romelic ar moiTxovs danaxarjebs ( BATNEEC).

teqnologia, gadametebul

mdgomareobis Semdgomma gauaresebam SesaZlebelia gamoiwvios mkveTri da, savaraudod, uaryofiTi xasiaTis Seuqcevadi cvlilebebi. (2) sidide an zRvruli done, romlis zeviT da qveviT moqmedebas iwyeben gansazRvruli normativebi an SezRudvebi.

TEMPORARY EXEMPTION ORDER Temporary release from an obligation or liability by an official court decision.

.

valdebulebebisagan ganTavisufleba droebiT

THERMAL POLLUTION The degradation of, usually, water quality by the introduction of a heated effluent. It is primarily the result of the discharge of cooling waters from industrial processes, particularly from electrical power generation. , . , , .

siTburi dabinZureba

valdebulebebisagan an pasuxismgeblobisagan droebiTi ganTavisufleba sasamarTlos oficialuri gadawyvetilebiT.

THRESHOLD (1) When used in reference to a species, an ecosystem or another natural system, if refers to the level beyond which further deterioration is likely to precipitate a sudden adverse, and possibly irreversible, change. (2) A size or limit above or below which certain regulations or restrictions will apply. (1) , , , , . (2) , .

zRvruli done

Cveulebriv, igi aRniSnavs wylis xarisxis gauaresebas masSi gacxelebuli Camdinare wylebis CaSvebis Sedegad. upirveles yovlisa, es xdeba samrewvelo sawarmoebis, kerZod ki, eleqtroenergetikuli danadgarebis mier gasacieblad gamoyenebuli wylebis CaSvebis Sedegad.

TQM Total Quality Management. A management tool that describes the quality considerations of the enterprise in detailed procedures to be followed by all employees. The system is an internal quality assurances system that has been widely applied. It has an impact also on the ISO 14 001 and BS 7 750 management systems. , , . , , 248

(1) biologiuri saxeobebis, ekosistemebis an sxva bunebrivi sistemebis mimarT es cneba aRniSnavs dones, romlis gadametebisas

, ISO 14 001 BS 7 750.

xarisxis erTiani marTva (TQM)

marTvis instrumenti, romelic dawvrilebiT aRwers sawarmoSi xarisxis moTxovnebs detaluri procedurebis saxiT, romelTa Sesruleba savaldebuloa sawarmos yvela TanamSromlisaTvis. mocemuli sistema farTod gamoiyeneba rogorc xarisxis uzrunvelmyofi Sida sistema da aisaxeba marTvis sistemebSi, romlebic gaTvaliswinebuli arian ISO 14 001 da BS 7 750 standartebiT.

TRADABLE PERMITS These consist of environmental quotas, permits, and rights allocated to economic agents by a competent authority. Once the initial allocation is made, these permits can be transferred (or traded) between sources, geographical areas or time periods. Syn.: Marketable permits. , , . ( ) ( ) , . : .

nebarTvebi, daSvebulia romlebiT vaWrobac

TRADE SECRET Any confidential formula, pattern, process, device, information, or set of data that is used in a business to give the owner a competitive advantage. Such information may be excluded from public review, as set out in national legislation. , , , , , . .

komerciuli saidumloeba

nebismieri konfidencialuri formula, struqtura, procesi, mowyobiloba, informacia an monacemTa baza, romelic gamoiyeneba komerciul saqmianobaSi da uzrunvelyofs misi mflobelis konkurentul upiratesobas. erovnuli kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesabamisad amgvari informacia SesaZloa daxuruli iyos sazogadoebisaTvis.

TRANS BOUNDARY POLLUTION Pollution that crosses the borders of countries or states, such as pollution in rivers or with air pollution (acid rain). , - ( ).

transsasazRvro dabinZureba

igi moicavs garemosdacviT kvotebs, nebarTvebsa da uflebebs, romlebic gacemulia saqmianobis subieqtebze uflebamosili organoebis mier. amgvari nebarTvebis Tavdapirveli ganawilebis Semdeg isini SeiZleba gadaeceT (an mieyidoT) sxva sawarmoebs (dabinZurebis wyaroebs) an gadatanil iqnan sxva regionebSi, aseve gadavadnen drois sxva periodisaTvis.

dabinZureba, romelic gadakveTs saxelmwifoebis an teritoriuladministraciuli erTeulebis sazRvrebs, aseTia, magaliTad, mdinareebisa da atmosferuli haeris dabinZureba (mJavuri wvimebi).

249

TRANSPARENCY A principle of enforcement that makes clear what enforcement actions may be taken, in which situations, and why. Transparency helps those regulated, and others, to understand what is expected of them and what they should expect from the enforcement authorities. It also helps to maintain public confidence in the government's ability to regulate. . , . , , , . , .

gamWvirvaloba

, , . , , , , , . .

kerZo sakuTrebis xelyofa

kanonaRsrulebis erT-erTi principi. igi ganmartavs, Tu rogori sanqciebi SeiZleba iqnes gamoyenebuli, ra viTarebaSi da ratom. gamWvirvaloba aucilebelia imisaTvis, raTa daexmaros regulirebis subieqtebs da sxva dainteresebul mxareebs gaacnobieron ras elian maTgan kanonaRsrulebis organoebi da piriqiT, ras unda elodnon isini am organoebisagan. igi aseve xels uwyobs sazogadoebrivi rwmenis ganmtkicebas, rom kanonaRsrulebis organoebs SeswevT unari Seasrulon Tavisi funqciebi saxelmwifo regulirebis sistemaSi.

miwaze kerZo sakuTrebis xelyofa gulisxmobs iuridiuli safuZvlis gareSe nebismieri obieqtis ganTavsebas an gansaTavseblad pirobebis Seqmnas sxva piris sakuTrebaSi arsebul miwebze. toqsikuri nivTierebebis, mavne kvamlis an Wvartlis CaTvliT, kanonieri safuZvlis gareSe gavrceleba an maT gasavrceleblad pirobebis Seqmna, romlebic zemoqmedebas axdenen sxva piris sakuTrebaze, SesaZlebelia aseve warmoadgendes kerZo sakuTrebis xelyofas. emisia atmosferul haerSi an wyalSi, ganxorcielebuli nebarTvebis Sesabamisad da kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa dacviT, kanonier safuZvels iZleva kerZo sakuTrebis xelyofis braldebisagan Tavis dascavad.

TRESPASS A trespass to land is the placing or causing to be placed any thing on the land of another person without lawful justification. To allow or cause, without lawful excuse, noxious substances such as fumes or soot to affect another's property may be a trespass. Emissions to air or water in compliance with a permit or authorisation could be a valid defence to an action for trespass. 250

U

USER CHARGES Payments for the cost of collective services; primarily used for the financing of local authorities as in the collection and treatment of solid waste and sewage water. Tariffs may be uniform or they may differ according to the amount of effluent treated. In the case of natural resource management, user fees are payments for the use of a natural resource (e.g. park, fishing, or hunting facility). See charges. , , , . . (, , ). . .

bunebrivi resursiT gadasaxadi sargeblobis

samonadreo savargulebiT) sargeblobis gadasaxadebia. ixileT gadasaxadebi.

UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Also known as the Earth Summit, UNCED took place at Rio de Janeiro 1992. Five major agreements are associated with UNCED: Agenda 21, The Rio Declaration, The Convention on Biological Diversity, The Statement of Forest Principles, and The Framework Convention on Climate Change. , « ». - 1992 . : 21 , -, , .

gaeros garemosa da ganviTarebis konferencia (UNCED)

gadasaxadebi saerTo sakuTrebiT sargeblobisaTvis, romlebic ZiriTadad xelisuflebis adgilobrivi organoebis dasafinanseblad gamoiyeneba, magaliTad, gadasaxadebi myari narCenis Segrovebisa da gadamuSavebisaTvis an sakanalizacio wylebis gawmendisaTvis. tarifi SesaZloa iyos erTgvarovani yvela momxmareblisaTvis, an gansxvavdebodes Camdinare wylebis gawmendili raodenobebis Sesabamisad. bunebaTsargeblobasTan dakavSirebuli samomxmareblo gadasaxadebi bunebrivi resursiT (magaliTad, parkebiT, TevzWerisaTvis gamoyenebuli wyalsatevebiT an

251

gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis garemosa da ganviTarebis konferencia (UNCED), aseve cnobili "miwis samitis" saxelwodebiT. igi Catarda rio-deJaneiroSi 1992 wels. konferenciaze miRebul iqna xuTi ZiriTadi SeTanxmeba: 21-e saukunis dRis wesrigi, rios deklaracia, konvencia biousafrTxoebis Sesaxeb, gancxadeba tyeebis dacvis, mdgradi ganviTarebisa da marTvis principebis Sesaxeb da klimatis cvlilebis CarCo konvencia.

UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Established in 1964, it is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. For more information visit their web site at www.unctad.org

35H

, , . , , , . . : www.unece.org.

38H

. 1964 . , . . : www.unctad.org

36H

gaeros evropis komisia (UNECE)

ekonomikuri

gaeros vaWrobisa da ganviTarebis konferencia (UNCTAD)

gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis vaWrobisa da ganviTarebis konferencia (UNCTAD) daarsda 1964 wels da warmoadgens gaeros generaluri asambleis ZiriTad organos vaWrobis, investiciebisa da ganviTarebis sakiTxebze. dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.unctad.org .

UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. UNECE was established in 1947 and is one of the five regional commissions of the United Nations. Its aim is to encourage greater economic co-operation among its member states. It focuses on, inter alia, economic analysis, environment and human settlements, sustainable energy, trade and environment. Its activities include policy analysis, development of conventions, regulations and standards, and technical assistance. For more information visit their web site at www.unece.org

37H

gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis ekonomikuri komisia (UNECE) daarsda 1947 wels da warmoadgens erT-erTs gaeros xuTi regionaluri komisiidan. komisiis mizania - wevr-saxelmwifoebs Soris ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba. komisiis muSaobis ZiriTad mimarTulebaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba: ekonomikuri analizi, garemosa da adamianis urTierTqmedeba, energodazogva, vaWroba da garemo. komisia dakavebulia strategiebis analiziT, konvenciebis, normativebis da standartebis SemuSavebiT, aseve axorcielebs teqnikur daxmarebas. damatebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.unece.org.

( ) 1947 . . ­ -. , 252

UNEP United Nations Environment Programme. UNEP was established in 1972 to encourage sustainable development through sound environmental practices everywhere. The technical office is in Paris and the office for administrational affairs in Nairobi. UNEP promotes many initiatives including, environmental information, assessment and research and enforcement promotion. For more information visit their web site at www.unep.org.

39H

. 1972 . . , - ­ .

, , . . : www.unep.org

40H

gaeros samrewvelo organizacia (UNIDO)

ganviTarebis

gaeros (UNEP)

garemos

dacvis

programa

gaeros garemos dacvis programa (UNEP) daarsda 1972 wels msoflios masStabiT garemos dacvis sferoSi nebismieri pozitiuri wamowyebis ganviTarebis xelSewyobis mizniT. aRmasrulebeli ofisi ganTavsebulia parizSi, xolo administraciuli Stab-bina - nairobSi. gaeros garemos dacvis programa (UNEP) uzrunvelyofs iniciativebis mxardaWeras ekologiuri informaciis, garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefasebis, kanonaRsrulebiTi saqmianobis gamokvlevebisa da ganviTarebis sferoSi. dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.unep.org.

gaeros samrewvelo ganviTarebis organizaciis (UNIDO) Stab-bina mdebareobs venaSi. organizacia ZiriTad yuradRebas uTmobs samrewvelo ganviTarebis problemebs misi socialuri, ekonomikuri da teqnologiuri Sedegebis farTo ganxilvis organizebis gziT. organizacia uwevs konsultaciebs saTburi airebis emisiebis SezRudvisa da samrewvelo dabinZurebis Sesaxeb globaluri SeTanxmebebis ganxorcielebisas. dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.unido.org

UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organisation. The office is located in Vienna. UNIDO focuses on industrial development and provides a forum on its social, economic and technological consequences. It can provide advice on implementation of global agreements on reducing greenhouse gases and industrial pollution. For more information visit their web site at www.unido.org

41H

UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research. UNITAR is an autonomous body within the UN and has a mandate for training and research. It provides assistance to governments and NGOs on the development and implementation of training and capacity building programmes that meet the country's needs. For more information visit their web site at www.unitar.org

43H

. - . , , . . . : www.unido.org

42H

- . , ­ . . . : www.unitar.org

4H

gaeros saswavlo da samecnierokvleviTi instituti (UNITAR)

gaeros saswavlo da samecniero-kvleviTi instituti (UNITAR) warmoadgens gaeros damoukidebel qvedanayofs, romlis mizania samecniero-kvleviTi da saswavlo saqmianobis ganxorcieleba.

253

instituti xels uwyobs samTavrobo da arasamTavrobo organizaciebs swavlebisa da kadrebis momzadebis programebis SemuSavebasa da ganxorcielebaSi saxelmwifos moTxovnilebaTa Sesabamisad. dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.unitar.org

UNSCHEDULED INSPECTION In many cases an unannounced and not planned inspection triggered by, for example, complaints or incidents or suspicion of non compliance. These inspections must follow a strict protocol in case a court action is followed and justification and code of conduct is also challenged in court. Compare with scheduled inspection. , , , . , .

aragegmiuri inspeqtireba

rogorc wesi, es aris daugegmavi inspeqtireba Sesamowmebeli organizaciis winaswari Setyobinebis gareSe. umetes SemTxvevaSi, misi Catarebis safuZvels saCivrebi, warmoadgens moqalaqeTa momxdari incidenti an eWvi kanonmdeblobis garemosdacviTi moTxovnaTa darRvevis Taobaze. msgavsi Semowmebebi unda tardebodnen yvela formalur moTxovnaTa mkacri dacviT, Semdgomi sasamarTlo ganxilvebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlis mimdinareobisas SesaZlebelia wamoyenebul iqnes braldebebi Semmowmebeli mxaris qmedebaTa aramarTlzomierebis Sesaxeb.

254

V

VERDICT The decision of the court when determining if an alleged violator of the law is in fact guilty or not of the alleged violation. .

verdiqti

VIOLATION Non-compliance with a requirement or condition set out in the legislation or the permit. , .

darRveva

kanonmdeblobiT

sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba savaraudo samarTaldamrRvevis braleulobis an udanaSaulobis Sesaxeb.

nebarTvebiT

dadgenili an gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovnebis an pirobebis darRveva.

VERIFICATION CHECK In the NIS: Unscheduled check-up carried out by state inspectors without advance notification to representatives of the facility to be monitored. As a rule, an inspection of this type is carried out as a result of citizens' complaints. ­ , . , .

aragegmiuri Semowmeba

VIOLATOR The person or organisation or institute that shows non compliance with a requirement. , , .

damrRvevi

piri, organizacia an dawesebuleba, romelic ar asrulebs kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil moTxovnebs.

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC'S) A carbon-containing compound, such as gasoline or acetone, that vaporises at a relatively low temperature, generally below 40°C. VOCs can contaminate water, and in the atmosphere can react with other gases. In the presence of sunlight they can form ozone or other photochemical oxidants. () , , 255

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: saxelmwifo inspeqtorebis mier ganxorcielebuli aragegmiuri Semowmeba Sesamowmebeli obieqtis winaswari Setyobinebis gareSe. rogorc wesi, msgavsi Semowmebebi tardeba moqalaqeTa saCivrebis safuZvelze.

40°C, , , . . , ­ . .

aqroladi (aon-ebi) organuli naerTebi

VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE PROMOTION Educational programmes, technical assistance, subsidies or any other activity that encourages voluntary compliance with requirements. , , .

kanonmdeblobis nebayoflobiTi propaganda moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis

qimiuri naerTi, romelic Seicavs naxSirbads da orTqldeba SedarebiT dabal temperaturaze. Cveulebriv, igi ar aRemateba 400-s, magaliTad, benzini, acetoni da a.S. aon-ebs SeuZliaT daabinZuron wylebi, xolo atmosferoSi moxvedrisas - urTierTqmedebaSi Sevidnen sxva airebTan. sinaTlis sxivebis zemoqmedebiT aon-ebs SeuZliaT warmoqmnan ozoni da sxva fotoqimiuri mJangvelebi.

VOLUNTARY APPROACHES Voluntary means out of one's own free will. If an industry arranges its management according to, for example, EMAS or ISO 14 001 without being pushed by the government to do so, it may be called the voluntary approach of the industry. - , . , EMAS ISO 14 001, .

nebayoflobiTi qmedebebi

saganmanaTleblo programebi, teqnikuri daxmareba, subsidiebis gacema da

kanonmdeblobis

nebayoflobiTi stimulirebis sxva saxeebi.

moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis

raime qmedebebis nebayoflobiToba gulisxmobs maT Cadenas sakuTari surviliT, iZulebis gareSe. magaliTad, Tu samrewvelo sawarmo saxelmwifos mxridan iZulebis gareSe nergavs marTvis sistemebs garemosdacviTi marTvis da auditis sqemis (EMAS) moTxovnebis an ISO 14 001 standartis Sesabamisad, sawarmos amgvar qmedebebs SesaZloa nebayoflobiTi qmedeba ewodos.

256

W

WALK THROUGH INSPECTION Visual inspection of a facility. It is a very superficial inspection and used to get a general impression of the facility. This may help to gather information to determine whether further inspection is necessary. This type of inspection may even be called a courtesy visit or a bit like a warning visit and must follow strict protocols. - . , . « » . .

Semovla-inspeqtireba

WARNING NOTE A warning note is issued whenever a noncompliance is found. The note may explain the nature of the non-compliance and the objective of the enforcement action, the sanctions which will be applied if the enforcement action is violated, and any criminal consequences which may follow from violation. . , , , , .

werilobiTi gafrTxileba

kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevebis

aRmoCenisas sawarmo iRebs gafrTxilebas. gafrTxileba SeiZleba Seicavdes informacias darRvevis xasiaTis Sesaxeb, kanonaRsrulebiT qmedebaTa miznebis Sesaxeb, xolo sawarmosadmi wayenebul moTxovnaTa Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi, gamoyenebuli sanqciebisa da maTi Seusruleblobis samarTlebrivi Sedegebis Taobaze.

WATER ABSTRACTION This means to physically move the water from its natural site of occurrence. The amount of abstracted water, which is not returned to the site of abstraction after use, is referred to as 257

termini ixmareba sawarmos vizualuri daTvalierebis aRsaniSnavad. msgavsi Semowmeba metad zedapirulia da tardeba sawarmos Sesaxeb zogadi warmodgenis Sesaqmnelad, rac SesaZloa sasargeblo iyos ufro detaluri inspeqtirebis Catarebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis misaRebad informaciis Segrovebis procesSi. aRniSnuli saxis inspeqtireba warmoadgens "Tavazianobis vizits" an gamafrTxilebel signals sawarmosaTvis. inspeqtirebis Sedegebis Semdgomi gamoyenebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT misi ganxorcielebisas mkacrad unda iqnas daculi yvela formaluri moTxovna.

water consumption. withdrawal.

Syn.:

Water

. , , .

wyalaReba

wylis aReba bunebrivi wyarodan an wyalsatevidan. amoRebuli wylis raodenobas, romelic ar ubrundeba wyalsatevs misi gamoyenebis Semdeg wylis danaxarji ewodeba.

, , . . , , . , , .

narCeni

WATER USE Means all use of water, both in and outside the river, lake or aquifer. , .

wyalsargebloba

wylis nebismieri gamoyeneba mdinareSi, tbaSi, wyalSemcvel horizontSi an maT gareT.

WASTE Any substance that the holder discards or is required to discard. This can include, byproducts of industrial processes, broken or outdated equipment, equipment that is no longer permitted to be used by law, waste from businesses and household waste etc. EU legislation makes it clear that waste should be viewed from the point of view of the holder of the waste, and not whether the waste can be further used. EU case law has ruled that whether the waste has an economic value or not is irrelevant to the decision of whether the substance constitutes waste. , . , 258

nebismieri nivTiereba, romlis Tavidan mocilebas axorcielebs mflobeli misi saWiroebis ar arsebobis an aucileblobis gamo. narCenebs SesaZloa ganekuTvnon warmoebis procesis Sedegad miRebuli meoradi produqtebi, mwyobridan gamosuli, moZvelebuli, an kanoniT ukve akrZaluli mowyobilobadanadgarebi, komerciuli da sayofacxovrebo narCenebi da sxva. evrogaerTianebis kanonmdebloba ganmartavs narCenis cnebas narCenis mflobelis poziciidan gamomdinare da ara misi Semdgomi gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT. evrokavSiris saprecedento samarTlis Sesabamisad dadgenilia, rom narCenis ekonomikuri faseuloba mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba sakiTxis nivTiereba warmoadgens narCens Tu ara - gadawyvetisas.

WASTE DISPOSAL Waste is disposed of when it is placed in its final resting place. This means, in general, that it is either placed in a landfill site or is incinerated. A waste disposal site is a site for which the waste is in i s o l a t i o n from the environment, and is properly c o n t r o l l e d and m a n a g e d . (These are the ICM criteria for disposal sites.) Isolation means that no leachate, or negligible amounts not damaging the environment, can get outside the disposal site; controlled means that measurement can establish that no impact of the disposal site is noticeable; and managed means that a management structure is maintained that guarantees the proper environmental controls are followed. EU legislation lays down specific

requirements for landfill sites (Directive 99/31/EC) and for incineration plants (Directive 2000/76/EC). . . : , . . , , ; ; , . , ( 99/31/EC) ( 2000/76/EC).

narCenebis ganTavseba

romelic zians ar ayenebs garemos da ar scildeba ganTavsebis adgilis farglebs; kontroli iTvaliswinebs gazomvaTa Catarebas narCenebis ganTavsebis mavne zemoqmedebis gamoricxvis mizniT. marTva iTvaliswinebs marTvis struqturis Seqmnas, romelic uzrunvelyofs garemos mdgomareobaze kontrolis saTanado doneze ganxorcielebas. evrokavSiris specialur kanonmdebloba awesebs narCenebis poligonebisa moTxovnebs (direqtiva 99/31/EC) da narCenebis sawvavi danadgarebis mimarT (direqtiva 2000/76/EC).

WASTE MINIMISATION Measures or techniques that reduce the amount of wastes generated during industrial production processes. The term is very similar to waste prevention. In a broader sense it can also include waste recycling and other efforts to reduce the volume of waste going to landfills or incineration plants. , , . . , .

narCenebis minimizacia

narCeni iTvleba ganTavsebulad, Tu igi gadatanilia misi saboloo Senaxvis an gadamuSavebis adgilze. zogadad es niSnavs, rom igi moTavsebulia narCenebis an moxda misi dawva. poligonze narCenebis ganTavsebis adgilebi unda akmayofilebdnen iseT moTxovnebs, rogoricaa garemoSi moxvedris Tavidan acilebis mizniT narCenebis izolaciisa da saTanado donis kontrolisa da marTvis uzrunvelyofa (e.w. ICM narCenebis ganTavsebis kriteriumebi adgilisaTvis). izolacia gulisxmobs, rom dauSvebelia filtratebis gaJonva garemoSi. mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba maTi umniSvnelo raodenobiT gaJonva,

259

RonisZiebebi da meTodebi, romlebic uzrunvelyofen samrewvelo teqnologiuri procesebis Sedegad warmoqmnili narCenebis Semcirebas. termini Tavisi mniSvnelobiT axlosaa terminTan "narCenis warmoqmnis Tavidan acileba". ufro farTo gagebiT, igi aseve narCenebis SeiZleba gulisxmobdes reciklirebas da narCenebis poligonebze an nagavsawvav qarxnebSi gasatani narCenebis raodenobis Semcirebis sxva meTodebs.

WASTE RECOVERY Waste recovery is the extraction from a waste of some components which have a value in other uses. , .

narCenebis regeneracia

reciklireba gulisxmobs: narCenebis daxarisxebas da gadamuSavebas, rac rogorc wesi, mimdinareobs specializebul sawarmoebSi; aseve mrewvelobis sxvadasxva dargis sawarmoebs Soris meoradi nedleulis gacvlis qselebis Seqmnas. amgvarad, Tu

narCenis

ganmeorebiTi

gamoyeneba

zogierTi komponentis narCenebidan amoReba misi ganmeorebiT gamoyenebis mizniT.

WASTE RECYCLING Most commonly, waste recycling refers to the use by one producer of a waste generated by another. Recycling implies separation and treatment, which generally take place at off-site facilities, as well as setting up networks to exchange secondary materials among industries. Thus, while waste reuse is performed on-site by the same waste generators, recycling requires a more complex organisational, economic and technological structure. « » . , , . , , , , .

narCenebis reciklireba

SesaZlebelia moxdes imave narCenis mwarmoebeli sawarmos mier adgilzeve, narCenebis reciklireba ufro rTul organizaciul, ekonomikur da teqnologiur struqturas moiTxovs.

WASTE REUSE Waste reuse refers to the repeated use of a «waste» material in a process (often after some treatment or make-up). Reuse is effected by simple on-site or at-home operations to collect materials and put them back into production and consumption process, instead of disposing of them. Almost the same concept applies to waste recycling. ( ). . .

narCenis ganmeorebiTi gamoyeneba

termini "narCenebis reciklireba" umravles SemTxvevaSi niSnavs erTi mwarmoeblis mier sxva mwarmoeblis warmoebuli narCenebis gamoyenebas.

260

narCenis ganmeorebiTi gamoyeneba gulisxmobs teqnologiur procesSi "narCeni" masalis xelaxal gamoyenebas (xSirad garkveuli damatebiTi damuSavebis Semdeg). ganmeorebiTi gamoyeneba iTvaliswinebs ramdenime martiv operacias masalebis Segrovebisa da maTi warmoeba-moxmarebis procesebSi dasabruneblad maTi gatanisa da ganTavsebis nacvlad. praqtikulad, igive principi safuZvlad udevs cnebas narCenebis reciklirebis Sesaxeb.

WATER PROTECTION ZONE In the NIS: the territory bordering on a surface water body on which special regimes for the use and protection of natural resources and the carrying out of economic activities have been established. The concept of a «special regime» consists of the land-use limitations necessary to preserve the condition of the water body. Primarily, these limitations relate to the use of dangerous substances, the location of pollution sources etc. The width of the water protection zone is dependent on the size of the water body and can be found around water reservoirs, lakes, sea or major rivers. Water protection zones are not used to protect underground waters. The maximum width of the zone can be up to 500 m and contains a shore protective strip, which has a stricter regime for the use of natural resources. : , , . « » , . , . . , , ; . . - 500 ; .

wyaldacviTi zoli

SezRudvebi, upirveles yovlisa, Seexeba saSiSi nivTierebebis gamoyenebas, dabinZurebis wyaroebis ganlagebas da a.S. wyaldacviTi zolis sigane damokidebulia wyalsatevis zomebze da SeiZleba mdebareobdes wyalsacavebis, tbebis garSemo, zRvis sanapirosa da msxvili mdinareebis gaswvriv; wyaldacviTi zolebi ar gamoiyenebian miwisqveSa wylebis dacvisaTvis. zolis maqsimaluri sigane Seadgens 500 metrs; wyaldacviT zolSi Sedis sanapiro dacvis zoli bunebrivi resursebis gamoyenebis ufro mkacri reJimiT.

WHITE PAPER In the EU: An official document (mostly public) that gives the state of affairs on a certain subject. In many cases the call for a White Paper is in case of controversy between political ideas or the methods for dealing with a specific problem. A White Paper is often, but not always preceded by a Green Paper. The Commission sets out its more detailed policy sometimes in a White Paper often including proposals for legislation, so as to obtain comments from interested groups (industry, public etc). See, for example, the European Commission White Paper on Chemicals. « » : ( ), , - . « » . « » , , « ». « » , , ( , . .). ., , « » . 261

axal damoukidebel qveynebSi: zedapiruli wyalsatevis mimdebare teritoria, romelSic myardeba wylis resursebis dacvis da sameurneo saqmianobis warmoebis specialuri reJimi. "specialuri reJimis" cneba gulisxmobs SezRudvaTa dawesebas miwaTsargeblobaze, romlebic aucilebelia wyalsatevis saTanado mdgomareobis SesanarCuneblad.

"TeTri wigni"

janmrTelobis dacvis organizacia (WHO)

msoflio

evrokavSiris qveynebSi: oficialuri dokumenti (rogorc wesi, Ria sazogadoebisaTvis), romelSic mocemulia garkveul problemasTan dakavSirebiT Seqmnili stuaciis daxasiaTeba. "TeTri wignis" gamoqveynebis aucilebloba xSir SemTxvevaSi ganpirobebulia politikuri winaaRmdegobebiT an ama Tu im problemis gadaWris meTodebTan dakavSirebul azrTa sxvadasxvaobiT. "TeTri wignis" gamoqveynebas xSirad, magram ara yovelTvis, win uswrebs "mwvane wignis" gamocema. zogjer "TeTr wignSi" qveyndeba mTavrobis politikis detaluri aRwera, romelic xSirad Seicavs winadadebebs kanonmdeblobaSi cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb dainteresebuli mxareebis (samrewvelo sawarmoebis, sazogadoebis da a.S.) mxridan gamoxmaurebaTa miRebis mizniT. ixileT magaliTad, evropis komisiis "TeTri wigni" qimiur nivTierebaTa Sesaxeb.

janmrTelobis dacvis msoflio organizacia (WHO) daarsda 1948 wels, romlis mizania adamianTa janmrTelobis dacvis sferoSi mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis xelSewyoba msoflio masStabiT. organizacia adgens minimalur sanitariul kriteriumebs rigi parametrebis, maT Soris sasmeli wylis mimarT. dawvrilebiTi informacia ixileT internetis qselSi misamarTze: www.who.int

WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY The amount an individual is willing to pay to acquire some goods or service. This amount can be elicited from the individual's stated or revealed preferences. « » , - . , .

"gadaxdisaTvis mzaoba"

WHO The World Health Organisation. Established in 1948, the WHO promotes improvements in human health across the world. It establishes minimum health criteria in a number of areas, including drinking water. For more information visit their web site at www.who.int

45H

fuladi Tanxa, romlis gadaxdaze pirovneba acxadebs mzadyofnas raime saqonlis an momsaxurebis sanacvlod. aRniSnuli Tanxa ganisazRvreba pirovnebis mier gamoTqmuli an sxvagvarad gamovlenili upiratesobebis analizis safuZvelze.

. 1948 . . , . . : www.who.int

46H

WITHDRAWAL OF THE LICENCE See Revocation of Permit. . .

licenziis gauqmeba

ixileT nebarTvis gauqmeba.

262

INDEX /

Abatement 13 ABEL (computer model) 13 Abet 14 Abnormal operating conditions 14 AC IMPEL network 14 Accident 14 Accident site 16 Accidental pollution 15 Accreditation 16 Accuracy 16 AC-IMPEL 14 Acoustic quality 17 Acquis communautaire 16 Active condoning 43 Active ingredient 17 Add-on control device 17 Administrative charges 17 Administrative enforcement response 18 Administrative inspection 18 Administrative offence 18 Administrative order 19 Administrative order on consent 19 Administrative record 19 Administrative sanctions 18 Administrative tools of enforcement 19 AEWS 20 Agreement on complex use of natural resources20 Agricultural pollution 20 Agricultural waste 21 Air emissions 21 Air pollutant 21 Air pollution 22 Air pollution control device 22 Air pollution episode 22 Air quality criteria 22 Air quality standards 23 Air-quality index 23 ALARA 24 Amber list of wastes 24 Amnesty 24 APELL 24 Appeal against a decision 25 Approximation 25 Arbitration 25 Arbitration court 26 263

As Low As Reasonably Achievable 24 Assimilative capacity 26 Attenuation 26 Authorisation 26 Authorised discharges 26 Authority 26 Award compensation 27 Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level 24 Awareness Emergency Warning System 20 Background concentration 27 Background level 27 Balkan Environmental Regulatory Compliance and Enforcement Network BAT 27 BATNEEC 28 BEN 29 BEN computer model 29 BERCEN 29 Best Available Techniques 27 best available techniques not entailing excessive costs 28 Best management practice 29 Best Practicable Environmental Option 32 Bioaccumulation 29 Biochemical oxygen demand 31 Biodegradability 30 Biodegradability factor 30 Biogas 30 Biological monitoring 31 Biological standards 30 Biomagnification 30 Biomonitoring 31 Bioremediation 31 BOD 31 BOD/COD ratio 32 BPEO 32 BREF document 32 Bubble concept 33 Buffer zone 33 By-product 33 Cadastre 34 Calibration 34 Carrying capacity 34 Catchment area 34 CEN 35 Certification 35 Change in operation 35 Charges 36 Checklist 36 Chemical oxygen demand 39 CITES 36, 37 Civil judicial enforcement actions 37 Cleaner production 37 Clean-up activity 38 Clean-up costs 38 Clear cut 38 Clearinghouse 38 CLEEN 39 264

29

CLEEN network 39 Clemency 39 Clogging up of water bodies 39 Coastal shelter belt 39 COD 39 Comite Europeen de Normalisation 35 Command-and-control approach 40 Commercial waste 40 Commission on Sustainable Development 48 Community monitoring 40 Complaint 41 Compliance 41 Compliance assistance 41 Compliance history 41 Compliance monitoring 41 Compliance promotion 42 Compliance schedule 42 Compliance strategy 43 Concealment of environmental information 43 Condoning 43 Consistency 44 Construction rules and regulations 131 Contingency plan 44 Continuous discharge 44 Control dimensions of compliance 44 Control probability 44 Control Technique Guidelines 45 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Corporate environmental plan 45 Corporate environmental reports 45 Corrective action 45 Cost-benefit considerations 46 Court of appeal 46 Covenant 46 Cradle to grave 47 Criminal judicial response 47 Critical load 48 CSD 48 CTG 45 Damage 49 Damage assessment 49 Damage claim 50 Data collection 50 Depletion of water resources 50 Deposit-refund systems 51 Detection probability 51 Detection threshold/limit 51 Determinants of compliance 51 Deterrence 51 Diffuse pollution 52 Diffuse source 52 Dilution Ratio 52 Direct regulation 52 Discharge 52 Disciplinary responsibility 53 Dispersion model 53 265

36

Disposal Disposal facility Distortion of environmental information Dump EAP Task Force Eco-consumption Eco-efficiency Eco-industry Eco-label Eco-Management and Audit Scheme Economic agents Economic instruments Ecotoxicological surveys EEA Effluent Effluent charges Effluent guidelines EIA EIS Elimination Approach ELV EMAS Emission Emission ceiling Emission charges and taxes Emission factor Emission inventory Emission Limit Value Emission standards Emission taxation Emissions trading EMS End-of-pipe technology Energy recovery Enforceability Enforceable requirements Enforcement Enforcement in cases of legal collisions Enforcement indicators Enforcement powers Enforcement programme Enforcement response Enforcement response policy Environment impact assessment Environmental auditing Environmental certification Environmental conventions Environmental crimes Environmental data Environmental disaster zone Environmental dumping Environmental emergency Environmental emergency zone Environmental enforcement authorities Environmental equity Environmental funds

53 53 53 53 107 54 54 54 54 57 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 57 112 57 57 58 58 58 58 59 57 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 62 62 62 63 63 56 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 64 65 65 65 266

Environmental impact statement 57 Environmental insurance 65 Environmental law 66 Environmental liability 66 Environmental management 66 Environmental Management Systems 60 Environmental passport of the enterprise 66 Environmental policy 67 Environmental pollution 67 Environmental public prosecutor 67 Environmental quality standard 67 Environmental requirements 68 Environmental service of an enterprise 68 Environmental statistics 68 Environmental subsidies and incentives 69 EPER 69 European Environment Agency 56 European IPPC Bureau 88 European Pollutant Emission Register 69 European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law Eutrophication 69 Executive coercion 70 Exploratory investigation 70 Export Notification Schemes 70 Extended producer responsibility 70 Facility 71 Facility-specific requirements 71 Fees 71 Field citation 71 Field sampling 71 Fines 72 First line inspection 115 Footprint (ecological) 72 Formal enforcement mechanisms 72 Fugitive emissions 72 GBRs 72 General requirements 73 General water use 73 Geographic considerations 73 Geographic Information Systems 74 GHG 74 GLP 74 Good Laboratory Practice 74 GOSTs 75 Governance 76 Government Standards 75 Grandfathering 76 Green list of wastes 75 Green Paper 76 Green Plan 77 Greenhouse effect 76 Greenhouse gas 74 Guideline 77 Hazard 77 Hazardous substance 78 Hazardous waste 78 267

79

Hazardous waste passport 78 Hot lines 78 Hot spot air pollution 78 Hygiene standards 79 ICM criteria 79 Immision levels 79 IMPEL 79 Implementation 80 Impoundment 80 Inability to pay 80 Incident 80 Incineration 80 INDIPAY 81 INDIPAY (computer model) 81 Indirect discharge 81 Indirect regulation 81 Industrial pollution source 81 Industrial waste 81 INECE 82 INECE Network 82 In-field testing 82 Informal control 82 Informal report probability 83 Informal response 83 Information management 83 Information requirements 83 Infringements 84 Injunction 84 Innovative technology 84 Inspection 84 Inspection charge 85 Inspection plan 85 Inspection report 85 Inspector 85 Inspectorate 85 Installation 85 Integrated approach 48 Integrated approach to issuing permits 86 Integrated pollution prevention and control 86 Integrated product policy 87 Integrated waste management 87 International Standards Organisation 89 Inter-regional environmental protection public prosecutors Intervention value 87 Investigating officials 87 Investigation 87 IPPC Bureau 88 IPPC Directive 88 Irregular source of pollution 89 ISO 89 ISO 14 001 89 ISO 14001 89 ISO 9 000 89 Judicial intervention 90 Landfill 90 Large combustion plant 90 268

67

Law LCA Ldn Index Leachate Liability Liability payments Licence Licence for special water use Licence suspension / revocation Life Cycle Analysis Light pollution Limit for the disposal of waste Limits for the use of natural resources Line source of air pollution Load Management system Manifest Manifest violation Marketable permits Material liability Maximum acceptable concentration Maximum allowable concentrations Maximum allowable discharge Maximum allowable emissions Maximum allowable physical impacts Maximum Contaminant Level Maximum Contaminant Level Goal Maximum sustainable yield MCL MCLG Mean daily sample Medical waste Minimum criteria for inspection Mitigation Mobile incinerator systems Mobile source Model agreements (contracts) Modelling Monetary penalty Monitoring Monitoring programme Monitoring time-scales Multi-media inspection MUNIPAY computer model Natural hazards Negligence Netting Networking New Independent States New source New source performance standards NGO NIS No fault liability Noise pollution/standards Noise register

91 91 91 92 92 92 92 93 93 91 93 93 93 94 94 95 95 95 141 95 95 96 96 97 97 98 98 98 98 98 98 98 99 99 100 100 100 100 101 101 101 101 101 102 102 102 103 103 103 103 103 105 103 103 104 104 269

Non-compliance 105 Non-compliance fees 105 Non-compliance response 105 Non-conformance 105 Non-conventional pollutant 105 Non-governmental organisation 105 Non-point source of pollution 106 Normative commitment 106 Notice 106 Notice of violation 106 Nuisance 106 Objective evidence 107 ODS 107 OECD 107 Official 108 On-site visit 108 Operator 108 Order 108 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Out-of-court settlement 108 Ozone depleting substances 107 Particulates 109 Passive condoning 43 PCB 109 Penalty 109 Performance bonds 110 Permission for special water use 93 Permit 110 Persistent 110 Persistent organic pollutant 110 Phase Out Approach 112 PIC 111 Pilot projects 111 PIN 111 Plume 112 Point source of pollution 112 Policy Life-Cycle 112 Pollutant 112 Polluter Pays Principle 113 Pollution 113 Pollution charge waivers 113 Pollution control 114 Pollution prevention 114 Pollution Release and Transfer Register 117 Polychlorinated biphenyls 109 POP 110 Precautionary principle 114 Predictive Emission Monitoring 114 Pressure-state-response 114 Preventative action 115 Primary supervision 115 Prior Information Notification 111 Prior Informed Consent 111 Priority setting 115 Process standards 115 Product charges and taxes 116 270

107

Product standards 116 Prohibition notice 116 Proportionality 116 Prosecution 117 Protocol 117 PRTR 117 Public disclosure 118 Public environmental control 118 Public environmental review 118 Public Interest Factors 119 QA/QC 119 Quality Assurance 119 Quality Control 119 Real-time instruments of monitoring 120 Reclamation 120 Record of environmental offence 120 Red list of wastes 120 Register of potentially hazardous chemical and biological substances Regulated community 121 Regulation 121 Regulatory capture 121 Regulatory cycle 121 Regulatory impact analysis 121 Release 122 Remote sensing 122 Request for improvement 122 Resource Recovery 122 Responsible Care 122 Revocation of Permit 123 RIA 121 Risk 123 Risk assessment 123 Risk management 124 Safety declaration of an industrial facility 124 Sampling 124 Sampling points 125 Sanction 125 Sanction probability 126 Sanction severity 126 Sanctions dimensions of compliance 125 Sanitary norms 126 Sanitary protective zones 126 Scheduled inspection 126 SEA 127 Second line inspection 128 Secondary pollutant 128 Secondary supervision 128 Sectoral environmental control 127 Selectivity 128 Self assessment 128 Self monitoring 128 Self reporting 129 Self-record keeping 130 Self-regulation 129 Seveso Directive 130 Single media approach 131 271

120

Siting 131 SN 126 SNiPs 131 Societal risk limits 131 Source 132 Special water use 132 Specialised inspectorates 132 Specific requirements 132 Spontaneous dimensions of compliance 133 Standard measurement methods 133 Standards 133 State Ecological Expertise 134 State Environment Expertise 134 State environmental review 133 State of Environment Report 134 State registration and registers 135 Statement (from state prosecution) 134 Stationary source 135 Strategic Environmental Assessment 127 Strategy 135 Strict liability 136 Subordinate legislation 136 Subsidiarity 136 Substantial change in operation 35 Sufficiency of evidence 136 Superfund 137 Supervision 137 Surrogate parameters 137 Surveillance 137 Sustainable development 138 Synergism 138 Table of Eleven (T11) 51 Target group policy 138 Targeting 139 Technical assistance 139 Technology foresight 139 Technology standards 139 Temporary exemption order 140 Thermal pollution 140 Threshold 140 Total Quality Management 140 TQM 140 Tradable permits 141 Trade secret 141 Trans boundary pollution 141 Transparency 141 Transposition 25 Trespass 141 Taxes 36 UNCED 142 UNCTAD 142 UNECE 142 UNEP 143 UNIDO 143 UNITAR 143 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 272

142

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations Environment Programme 143 United Nations Industrial Development Organisation United Nations Institute for Training and Research Unscheduled inspection 143 User charges 142 Verdict 144 Verification check 144 Violation 144 Violator 144 VOC's 144 Volatile organic compound 144 Voluntary approaches 144 Voluntary compliance promotion 145 Walk through inspection 145 Warning note 145 Waste 145 Waste disposal 146 Waste minimisation 146 Waste recovery 146 Waste recycling 147 Waste reuse 147 Water abstraction 145 Water protection zone 147 Water use 145 Water withdrawal 145 White Paper 147 WHO 148 Willingness-to-pay 148 Withdrawal of the licence 148 World Health Organisation 148 103 - 51 15 26 18 19 18 19 19 18 18 17 19 16 71 43 17 17 116 24 91 46 121 46 273

142 142 143 143

25 25 82 25 26 26 30 30 31 30 31 31 31, 42 31 38 13 31 33 88 127 144 126 83 51 44 90 80 143 109 129 130 145 147 145 34 148 -- 114 78 140 101 148 128 128 131 58 21 58 112 110 74 74 74 78 75 135 274

29

134 75 92 42 121 95 95 124 101 88 130 53 122 53 52 52 46 144 20 () 107 135 BREF 32 108 136 35 142 69 56 28, 88 142 41 24 112 16 22 67, 113 21 113 133 91 106 - 51 110 () 16 80 39 38 76 77 75 35 65 64 65 128 106 275

146 35 59 Ldn 91 23 62 84 85 84, 85 128 115 - 145 120 83 38 80 50 53 89 80 45 41 132 50 34 34 114 - 40 49 49 141 41 () 66 70 92 101 86 86 87 48 86 87 ABEL 13 BEN 29 INDIPAY 81 37 37 136 114 - 85 44 36 142 142 33 276

(T11) 51 45 45 81 137 30 58 52 / 32 120 79 22 48 91 144 112 93 94 94 92 93 144 95 95 98 98 95 98 89 67 63 47 16 72 99 146 100 100 100 MUNIPAY 102 101 42 42 137 94 137 74 28 , 28 28 29 32 24 24 36 277

59 105, 144 95 144 105 83 83 83 80 89 105 44 81 89 105 105 106 103 106 72 74 103 103 103 121 () 59 104 104 105 / 119 61 29 73 118 40 118 73 71 121 73 73 57 131 107 78 77 78 115 107 85 108 () 65 43 113 26 278

143

71, 124 103 148 123 14 146 41 57 85 135 130 57 123 49 108 74 76 78 43 115 100 22 111 145 44 85 127 85 36 () 58 105 142 56 56 34 33 147 17 136 14 90 63 138 109 26 76 42 / 51 23 140 108 44 [] 34 105 92 279

45

109 105 61 61 37 61 62 115 111 111 70 111 58 96 97 97 57 96 97 132 114 84, 108 122 55 53 117 39 113 114 74 / 93 67 69 68 27 84 42 114 62 101 143 143 123 62 24 24 141 129 134 82 81 145 105 141 141 280

84 118, 120 51 52 118 109 110 93 141 26 - 41 / 87 71 105 122 60 104 135 114 122 144 120 147 123 77 45 56 55 ompliance check 41 ompliance control 42 ompliance check 42 142 128 129 129 - 79 - 126 () 126 63 125 125 125 50 71 52 / 122 58 53 93 51, 52 20 21 35 103 281

117 120

AC IMPEL 14 CLEEN 39 IMPEL 79 INECE 82 39 () 80 138 20 20 95 51 60 70 140 87 42 100 100 39 131 41 42 44 41 116 87 132 132 133 38 133 30 99 67 133 133 23 116 ISO 9000 14001 89 81, 135 42 102 110 111 56 127 135 43 136 126 131 136 137 58 140 282

139 115, 140 139 « » 60 () 100 59 () 60 112 125 141 25 71 116 106 106 53, 146 76 83 83 124 87 98 79 86 138 38 17 22 22 - 143 49 119 51 92 27 27 102 40 40 139 122 109 64 112 72 104 69 54 66 67 67 54 63 68 68 283

98

64 54 54 64 63 64 68 65 72 72 63 64 66 60 66 66 65 65 55 55 56 108 58 60 143 143 143 142 142 92 61 61

284

terminTa saZiebeli

Acquis communautaire adgilobriv doneze sagangebo situaciebis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrcelebisa da mzadyofnis programa - APELL administraciuli aqti SeTanxmebis Sesaxeb administraciuli dosie administraciuli inspeqtireba administraciuli miweriloba administraciuli mosakrebeli administraciuli samarTaldarRveva avaria avariis adgili akreditacia akustikuri xarisxi amnistia amouwurvadi bunebaTsargeblobis maqsimaluri done angariSi garemos mdgomareobis Sesaxeb apelacia aproqsimacia (kanonmdeblobebis SesabamisobaSi moyvana) aragegmiuri inspeqtireba aragegmiuri Semowmeba aranormirebuli damabinZurebeli nivTiereba araorganizebuli emisia araoficialuri kontroli araoficialuri Setyobinebis albaToba arapirdapiri regulireba arapirdapiri parametrebi arapirdapiri CaSveba arasamTavrobo organizacia (NGO) arbitraJi asimilaciis unari atmosferuli haeris dabinZureba atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis makontrolebeli mowyobiloba atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis "cxeli wertili" atmosferuli haeris dabinZurebis xazovani wyaro atmosferuli haeris damabinZurebeli nivTiereba atmosferuli haeris mavne nivTierebebis dabinZurebis indeqsi atmosferuli haeris maRali dabinZurebis periodi atmosferuli haeris xarisxobrivi kriteriumebi atmosferuli haeris xarisxobrivi standartebi (normebi) aqroladi organuli naerTebi (aon-ebi) aqtiuri ingredienti aqcizuri mosakreblebi da gadasaxadebi aRsruleba axali damoukidebeli qveynebi (adq) BREF- dokumenti bioakumulacia biogazi biologiuri daSlis koeficienti biologiuri daSlis unari biologiuri standartebi biomagnifikacia biomonitoringi

285

bioremediacia (biologiuri aRdgeniTi zomebi) bunebrivi resursiT sargeblobis gadasaxadi buferuli zona buStis koncefcia -ebi (saxelmwifo standartebi) gadasaxadi Camdinare wylis CaSvebisaTvis gadaxdisaTvis mzaoba" gadaxdisuunaroba gaeros garemos dacvis programa (UNEP) gaeros garemosa da ganviTarebis konferencia (UNCED) gaeros evropis ekonomikuri komisia (UNECE) gaeros vaWrobisa da ganviTarebis konferencia (UNCTAD) gaeros samrewvelo ganviTarebis organizacia (UNIDO) gaeros saswavlo da samecniero-kvleviTi instituti (UNITAR) gazavebis koeficienti gazomvaTa cdomileba gazomvis standartuli meTodebi gamosasworebeli RonisZiebebi gamovlenis albaToba gamovlenis zRvari gamocda gamokvleva/gamoZieba gamWvirvaloba garemos dabinZureba garemos dabinZureba garemos dacvis evropuli saagento (EEA) garemosdacviTi TvalsazrisiT saukeTeso praqtikulad ganxorcielebadi varianti (BPEO) garemosdacviTi marTvis sistema (EMS) garemos xarisxobrivi standarti garemosdacviTi auditi garemosdacviTi informaciis dafarva garemosdacviTi informaciis damaxinjeba garemosdacviTi kanonaRsrulebis organoebi garemosdacviTi kanonmdebloba garemosdacviTi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa dacvisa da kanonaRsrulebis balkaneTis qseli (BERCEN) garemosdacviTi konvenciebi garemosdacviTi marTva garemosdacviTi marTvis da auditis sqema (EMAS) garemosdacviTi moTxovnebi garemosdacviTi monacemebi garemosdacviTi pasuxismgebloba garemosdacviTi politika garemosdacviTi politikis sasicocxlo cikli garemosdacviTi prokuratura garemosdacviTi saqmianobis korporatiuli gegma garemosdacviTi sertificireba garemosdacviTi statistika garemosdacviTi subsidiebi da SeRavaTebi garemosdacviTi fondebi garemoSi gaSveba garemoSi gaSvebul da gadaadgilebul damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa reestri (PRTR) garemoze zemoqmedebis Sefaseba (gzS) garigeba sasamarTlos gareSe gaufrTxilebloba gafrTxileba gegmiuri inspeqtireba geografiuli sainformacio sistema (GIS)

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geografiuli faqtorebi gzS-s angariSi "dabadebidan-sikvdilamde" dabinZurebasTan brZola dabinZurebis araregularuli wyaro dabinZurebis arawertilovani wyaro dabinZurebis axali wyaro dabinZurebis gadasaxadisagan ganTavisufleba dabinZurebis Tavidan acileba (dabinZurebis prevencia) dabinZurebis integrirebuli Tavidan acileba da kontroli dabinZurebis moZravi wyaro dabinZurebis regulireba dabinZurebis samrewvelo wyaro dabinZurebis stacionaluri wyaro dabinZurebis wertilovani wyaro dagubebuli wyalsatevi dakalibreba dakisrebuli sakompensacio gadasaxadi dakvirveba damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa emisiebis evropuli reestri (EPER) damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa maqsimaluri done (MCL) damabinZurebel nivTierebaTa maqsimaluri donis miznobrivi maCvenebeli (MCLG) damabinZurebeli nivTiereba damabinZurebeli nivTierebis CaSveba damatebiTi gawmendis mowyobiloba damrRvevi danadgari danaxarjebisa da sargebelis analizi darRveva darRvevaTa profilaqtika darRvevis aqti darRvevis oqmi dasabuTebuli profesionaluri daskvna datvirTva daculi sanapiro zoli deklaracia deklaracia samrewvelo sawarmos usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb deklarirebis wesebis darRveva depozitur-anazRaurebadi sistema dispersiuli modeli distanciuri zondireba disciplinuri pasuxismgebloba difuziuri (dispersiuli) dabinZureba difuziuri (dispersiuli) wyaro eutrofikacia ekoefeqturoba ekoindustria (ekologiuri mrewveloba) ekologiuri danaSauli ekologiuri dazRveva ekologiuri dempingi ekologiuri Tanasworoba ekologiuri "kvali" ekologiuri ubedurebis zona ekomarka ekomoxmareba ekonomikuri instrumentebi ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizacia (OECD) ekotoqsikologiuri gamokvlevebiF

287

emisia emisiebi atmosferul haerSi emisiebiT vaWroba emisiebis dabegvra emisiebis reestri emisiebis saprognozo monitoringi emisiis gadasaxadi emisiis zRvruli mniSvneloba emisiis koeficienti emisiis standartebi emisiis standartebi dabinZurebis axali wyaroebisaTvis (NSPS) energiis regeneracia erTkomponenturi midgoma eqspluataciis maxasiaTeblebis Secvla eqspluataciis pirobebidan gadaxveva valdebulebaTa Sesrulebis garantiebi valdebulebebisagan droebiT ganTavisufleba verdiqti zalpuri (avariuli) dabinZureba zedamxedveloba zemoqmedeba-mdgomareoba-reaqcia zemoqmedebis araoficialuri zomebi zemoqmedebis Serbileba ziani zianis Sefaseba zRvrulad dasaSvebi gafrqveva (zdg) zRvrulad dasaSvebi gafrqvevebi da CaSvebebi (zdg/zdC) zRvrulad dasaSvebi koncentracia (zdk) zRvrulad dasaSvebi CaSveba (zdC) zRvrulad dasaSvebi fizikuri zemoqmedeba zRvruli done Tanazomiereba Tanamdebobis piri Tanmdevi produqti Tanmimdevruloba "TeTri wigni" TviTmonitoringi TviTregulireba TviTSefaseba ICM - kriteriumebi IPPC biuro (IPPC-is evropuli biuro) IPPC direqtiva ISO 9 000 da 14 001 seriis standartebi inovaciuri teqnologia inspeqtireba inspeqtirebis angariSi inspeqtirebis gadasaxadi inspeqtirebis gegma inspeqtirebis minimaluri kriteriumebi inspeqtorati inspeqtori informaciis gaxsna informaciis marTva informaciis moTxovna incidenti iuridiuli pasuxismgebloba

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kadastri kanonaRsruleba kanonaRsruleba sakanonmdeblo koliziis dros kanonaRsruleba samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebis gziT kanonaRsrulebadi moTxovnebi kanonaRsrulebadoba kanonaRsrulebis administraciuli zomebi kanonaRsrulebis administraciuli instrumentebi kanonaRsrulebis zomebi kanonaRsrulebis indikatorebi kanonaRsrulebis meqanizmebi kanonaRsrulebis politika kanonaRsrulebis programa kanonaRsrulebis uflebamosileba kanoni kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa nebayoflobiTi Sesrulebis propaganda kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesruleba kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis grafiki kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis istoria kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis monitoringi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis sakontrolo parametrebi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis spontanuri faqtorebi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis strategia kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis faqtorebi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSemwyobi saSualebebi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis xelSewyoba kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRveva kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevaze reagireba kanonmorCileba kanonqvemdebare aqtebi kerZo sakuTrebis xelyofa komerciuli narCenebi komerciuli saidumloeba kompensaciis iZuleba kompiuteruli modeli - ABEL kompiuteruli modeli - BEN kompiuteruli modeli - INDIPAY kompiuteruli modeli - MUNIPAY kompleqsuri inspeqtireba kompleqsuri midgoma konvencia gadaSenebis piras myofi veluri faunisa da floris saxeobebiT saerTaSoriso vaWrobis Sesaxeb (CITES) kontrolis meTodebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi korporatiuli garemosdacviTi angariSebi kritikuli datvirTva Ldn indeqsi limitebi bunebrivi resursebiT sargeblobaze licenzia licenzia specialur wyalsargeblobaze licenziis SeCereba/gauqmeba licenziis gauqmeba "maTraxisa da Taflakveris" meTodi maregulirebel organoebze zegavlena marTva marTvis saukeTeso meTodebi marTvis sistema marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedebebi materialuri pasuxismgebloba

289

maqsimalurad dasaSvebi koncentracia (mdk) mbrZaneblur-administraciuli meTodebi mdgradi mdgradi ganviTareba mdgradi ganviTarebis komisia (CSD) "memkvidreobiT" uflebis miReba meoradi zedamxedveloba/meore rigis inspeqtireba meorexarisxovani damabinZurebeli nivTiereba mewarmeebi mizanmimarTuloba miznobrivi jgufis politika milis boloze" kontrolis teqnologia miweriloba miweriloba miweriloba gasaumjobesebel RonisZiebaTa programis Sedgenis Taobaze miwispira dabinZurebis doneebi mkacri pasuxismgebloba modelireba moednis SeCeva moTxovnebi calkeuli obieqtisadmi monacemTa Segroveba monitoringi monitoringis droiTi parametrebi monitoringis instrumentebi drois realur reJimSi monitoringis programa mosakrebeli mosakreblebi/gadasaxadebi msxvili sawvavi danadgari mtkicebuleba mwarmoeblis gafarToebuli pasuxismgebloba mwvane gegma mwvane wigni nagavsayreli narCenebis ganTavseba narCenebis ganTavseba narCenebis ganTavsebis limiti narCenebis ganTavsebis sawarmo narCenebis dawva narCenebis dawvis moZravi danadgarebi narCenebis kompleqsuri marTva narCenebis minimizacia narCenebis mwvane sia narCenebis poligoni narCenebis reciklireba narCenebis regeneracia narCenebis yviTeli sia narCenebis wiTeli sia narCeni narCenis ganmeorebiTi gamoyeneba nawilakebi nebadarTuli gafrqveva/CaSveba nebarTva nebarTvebi, romlebiT vaWrobac daSvebulia nebarTvis gauqmeba nebarTvis gacemisadmi integrirebuli midgoma nebayoflobiTi qmedebebi nebayoflobiTi SeTanxmeba neTingi normatiuli aqti

290

obieqtze Sesvla obieqti odn operatori organuli warmoSobis mdgradi damabinZurebeli nivTiereba (POP) oqmi pasuxismgebloba danaSaulis gareSe "pasuxismgeblobiT mopyrobis" programa pasuxismgeblobisagan ganTavisufleba pirdapiri regulireba pirveladi zedamxedveloba/pirveli rigis inspeqtireba pirwminda Wra potenciurad saSiS qimiur da biologiur nivTierebaTa reestri potenciuri tevadoba praqtikulad miRwevadi udablesi done (ALARA) prevenciuli zomebi principi "dambinZurebeli ixdis" prioritetebis gansazRvra produqciis standartebi produqciisadmi integrirebuli midgoma prokuroris miweriloba pqb Jbm/Jqm Sefardebis koeficienti Jangbadis bioqimiuri moTxovnileba (Jbm) Jangbadis qimiuri moTxovnileba (Jqm) regulirebis zemoqmedebis analizi regulirebis obieqtebi regulirebis cikli rekultivacia/reciklireba resursebis regeneracia riskebis marTva riski riskis Sefaseba saapelacio sasamarTlo saarbitraJo sasamarTlo sagamoZiebo organoebis muSakebi sagangebo ekologiuri mdgomareoba sagangebo ekologiuri mdgomareobis zona sagangebo situaciebis adreuli Setyobinebis sistema (AEWS) sagangebo situaciebis moqmedebaTa gegma saerTo _ savaldebulo normebi (GBR) saerTo moTxovnebi saerTo wyalsargebloba saeqsporto Setyobinebis sistema sazogadoebrivi garemosdacviTi kontroli sazogadoebrivi ekologiuri eqspertiza sazogadoebrivi interesis faqtorebi sazogadoebrivi monitoringi saTanado laboratoriuli praqtika (GLP) saTburis airi saTburis efeqti sainformacio kliringi sakompensacio gadasaxadi samarTlebrivi devna samarTlebrivi sanqcia samedicino narCeni samrewvelo narCeni

291

samSeneblo normebi da wesebi (-ebi) samxilis sakmarisoba sanitariul-higienuri normebi sanitariuli dacvis zonebi sanitariuli normebi sanqcia sanqciebi, rogorc kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa Sesrulebis faqtorebi sanqciis dakisrebis albaToba sanqciis simkacre sapiloto proeqtebi sarCeli zianis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb sasamarTlo ganxilvaSi Careva sasicocxlo ciklis analizi (LCA) sasoflo-sameurneo dabinZureba sasoflo-sameurneo narCeni sasjelis Semsubuqeba saukeTeso arsebuli teqnologia, romelic ar moiTxovs gadametebul danaxarjebs (BATNEEC) saukeTeso xelmisawvdomi teqnologia (BAT) saSiSi nivTiereba saSiSroeba saSualo-dReRamuri sinji saCivari sawarmos angariSgeba sawarmos ekologiuri pasporti sawarmos garemosdacviTi samsaxuri saxdelebi kanonmdeblobis moTxovnaTa darRvevisaTvis saxelmwifo ekologiuri eqspertiza saxelmwifo registracia da reestri saxelmZRvanelo principebi Camdinare wylebisaTvis saxelmZRvanelo principi saxifaTo narCenebi saxifaTo narCenis pasporti sevezos direqtiva sertificireba siTburi dabinZureba sinaTliT dabinZureba sinergizmi sinjebis aReba sinjebis aReba sinjis aRebis wertilebi sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis zomebi sifrTxilis principi socialuri riskis zRvruli doneebi specializebuli inspeqciebi specialuri moTxovnebi specialuri wyalsargebloba standartebi standartizaciis evropis komisia (CEN) standartizaciis saerTaSoriso organizacia (ISO) stiqiuri ubedureba strategia strategiuli garemosdacviTi Sefaseba (SEA) subsidiareba superfondi teritoriis dabinZurebisagan gawmenda teritoriis dabinZurebisagan gawmendis xarjebi teqnikuri daxmareba teqnologiis standartebi teqnologiuri prognozi

292

teqnologiuri standartebi tipiuri SeTanxmebebi (kontraqtebi) transasazRvro dabinZureba usiamovneba uflebamosili organo uflebis miniWeba ufro sufTa warmoeba uwyebrivi garemosdacviTi kontroli uwyveti gafrqveva/CaSveba filtrati fonuri koncentracia fuladi sanqcia qseli - AC IMPEL qseli - CLEEN qseli - IMPEL qseli - INECE qseluri urTierTanamSromloba xarisxis erTiani marTva (TQM) xarisxis uzrunvelyofa/xarisxis kontroli xmarebidan amoReba xmauris reestri xmauriT dabinZureba/xmauriT dabinZurebis normebi SeTanxmeba kompleqsuri bunebaTsargeblobis Sesaxeb Semovla-inspeqtireba Semowmebis albaToba Semowmebis kiTxvari SerCeviToba Sesustebis efeqti Setyobineba akrZalvis Sesaxeb Setyobineba darRvevis Sesaxeb Setyobineba Semowmebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb Seusabamoba Sida aRricxva Sleifi Camdinare wylebi Carevis done "cxeli xazi" waqezeba winaswar dasabuTebuli Tanxmoba winaswar dasabuTebuli Setyobineba winaswari gamokvleva wyalaReba wyaldacviTi zoli wyalsargebloba wyalsatevebis danagvianeba wyalSemkrebi auzi wyaro wylis resursebis daSreta janmrTelobis dacvis msoflio organizacia (WHO) jarima

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47H

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70H

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72H

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74H

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75H

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76H

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7H

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78H

USEPA (2002), Introduction to the MINIPAY Computer Model. MUNIPAY User's Manual. USEPA, Washington D.C., http://www.epa.gov/compliance/civil/programs/econmodels/index.html

79H

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English-Russian- Georgian Glossary of Terms Used in Environmental Enforcement and Compliance Promotion