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Sixth College: About the Culture, Art, and Technology Core Program Summary: Find out what you'll learn in Sixth College's Culture, Art, and Technology Core Program. Learning goals The CAT perspective What you'll learn a. How people use culture to identify and solve problems b. How different cultures express themselves through art and technology c. How art and technology influence each other and the larger society

Interdisciplinary approach to complex issues

a. The differences between popular, textbook, and scholarly work b. How scholars in different disciplines ask questions, pursue answers, assess evidence, and make arguments

Communication strategies

a. How to read critically b. How to use the writing process to formulate ideas and deepen understanding c. How to design and structure academic essays

Creation as inquiry

a. How to use writing and media composition to communicate effectively b. How to use writing and composition to think through issues, discover patterns, and pursue interesting questions

Self-reliance and responsibility

a. To become responsible for yourself and your own education b. To pursue learning throughout your life

Reflexivity

a. To examine yourself in relation to the world b. Why self-examination is important

c. To apply your learning to your situation in the world

Working with other people

a. Teamwork b. How to become an effective local and global citizen

Question-driven learning

How to: a. b. c. d. Use information effectively Go beyond regurgitating memorized information Craft meaningful questions Seek out meaningful answers to your own questions

Sixth College: About the Core Sequence (CAT) Summary: All first-year Sixth College students take a 3-quarter interdisciplinary sequence of classes in Culture, Art, and Technology (CAT 1, 2, and 3), which:

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Examines development of and interconnections among culture, art, and technology Teaches writing, communication, and digital literacy

Note: CAT 2 and 3 satisfy Sixth College's writing requirement. Core sequence CAT 1 (Fall Quarter, 4 units) is a pre-writing program. All sections are very similar so that Sixth students share a common foundation. Prerequisites and learning goals Prerequisites: Sixth College students only. Students who have not passed the UC Entry Level Writing Requirement may take CAT 1 concurrently with SDCC 1. CAT 1 learning goals: a. Gain a global, historical understanding of principles and patterns of human development, with an emphasis on technology and the arts b. Consider how culture, art, and technology interact, and examine the causes and consequences of cultural variation c. Explore interactions of regional environments (geographic, climatic, biological) with social and cultural forces d. Learn to read and think critically e. Practice using writing as a tool for thinking and learning

CAT 2 (Winter Quarter, 6 units) courses vary in topic and time period.

Prerequisites: Sixth College students only. Requires completion of the UC Entry Level Writing Requirement and CAT 1. CAT 2 learning goals: a. Examine what happens to a culture when a major shift in art coincides with a major shift in technology during a particular time period b. Explore selected events, technologies, and works of art that have revolutionized ways of inhabiting the world

c. Begin intensive writing instruction, with featured sections on information literacy

Prerequisites: Sixth College students only. Requires CAT 3 (Spring Quarter, 6 units) is completion of the UC Entry Level Writing Requirement, CAT 1 and CAT 2, as well as one of the following: writing intensive. Courses explore contemporary · CSE 3 issues and vary in · CSE 8A topic. · CSE 11 · MAE 9 · COGS 18 · ECE 15 · A score of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement Computer Science A or AB test CAT 3 learning goals: a. Extend concepts learned in CAT 1 and 2 to examine how contemporary issues connect to innovations in culture, art, and technology b. Consider possible future developments in culture, art, and technology c. Work in teams on community projects to develop cogent technological and artistic responses to local problems d. Challenge yourself to listen and communicate across cultures e. Learn to refine your writing and information literacy and apply your knowledge to real-world concerns

Archive: Fall 2006 Core Sequence (CAT) Course Descriptions Summary: Learn about the Culture, Art, and Technology (CAT) Core Sequence tracks for first-quarter freshmen. Students in all first-quarter CAT 1 classes build a common foundation because the classes are designed to be similar to each other. In 2006, all CAT 1 classes:

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Use the same course reader, available through Associate Students' Soft Reserves AND Paul Ehrlich's book "Human Natures," available at the UCSD Bookstore

In addition to taking a CAT 1 class, all first-quarter freshmen are required to:

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Attend an evening academic orientation session during Week 3 of the quarter Attend the Sixth College Convocation

Note: Be sure to attend the first week's section, even if it falls before the first lecture. CAT 1 track CAT 1A Tue/Thur 2 p.m. ­ 3:20 p.m. Instructor: Linda Strauss Class size: About 180 students Description This course examines: a. How human beings relate to each other and their environment through culture b. How people in various cultures use art and technology to address problems c. How specific cultural solutions can sometimes lead to new problems

CAT 1B Tue/Thur 11 a.m. ­ 12:20 p.m. Instructor: Peter John Class size: About 180 students

Our purpose in this CAT track is to: a. Ask how effectively members of a culture use their arts and technologies to mediate between themselves and their natural and social environment b. Consider the implications of the fact that one culture's conception of a solution can be another culture's idea of a problem

CAT 1C Tue/Thur 12:30 ­ 1:50 p.m. Instructor: Steve Carlisle Class size: About 210 students

In this class, students will explore several aspects of culture: the technologies that shape our conceptions of who we are, and the arts that give life meaning. We will start with some of the cultural sources that give people notions about who they are, and examine them holistically -- that is, we will explore their histories and the social and political contexts in which they arise. This class will look briefly at the art and technology

involved in science, politics, advertising, and religion, as they contribute to the invention of the person. CAT 1D Mon/Wed/Fri 2 ­ 2:50 p.m. Instructor: Tara Knight Class size: About 180 students This course will investigate how differing historical periods, cultures, and individual artists have explored what it means to be human through the process of art making. We will examine a broad cross-section of artifacts: Paleolithic art, comic books, silent films, and Chinese painting, among others, will be springboards for discussions about culture, art, and technology.

Archive: Winter 2007 Core Sequence (CAT) Course Descriptions Summary: Learn about the Culture, Art, and Technology (CAT) Core Sequence courses (tracks) for Winter Quarter. CAT 2 is the beginning of the formal writing program at Sixth College. All students are required to complete the UC Entry Level Writing Requirement and CAT 1 before enrolling in CAT 2. All CAT 2 and CAT 3 courses are 6 units. All CAT 2 students will be required to complete an online tutorial on academic integrity before the end of Week 5.

CAT 2 track CAT 2A: Technology and the Sublime Tue/Thur 8 to 9:20 a.m. Instructor: Peter John Class size: About 180 students

Description This course examines: a. The concept of the "sublime" and its history in the modern world since the Enlightenment b. How the human experience of the sublime has been evoked in response to ideas, to places, to nature, to art, and to technology c. Whether the experience of the sublime and the ways in which a sense of the sublime is evoked are universal among all human beings or whether they are culturally specific d. How European and American technological change since the 19th century has created an environment that offers new potentials for experiencing profound feelings of awe, wonder and dread while obscuring

older opportunities for such experiences

CAT 2B: The This course examines: Esoteric Age Tue/Thur 11 a.m. to a. Contrasting ideas about human beings and their 12:20 p.m. relations with the universe that developed simultaneously in ancient Greece and in ancient Instructor: Steven India and Nepal Carlisle b. Comparisons between Platonic thought and the Class size: About Western rationalist world view that derived from it, 210 students and Buddhist thought and the transcendental world view that derived from it in Asia c. The impact of Buddhist and Platonic approaches on such matters as love, reason, law, art, the good, the mind, and the divine

CAT 2C: A History of Time Mon/Wed/Fri 1 to 1:50 p.m. Instructor: Tal Golan Class size: About 180 students

This course examines: a. How time is experienced and understood in different cultures b. Two cases of cultural conceptions of time -- worktime and railway time -- where time is a central mediating idea in the ways that humans understand, seek to control, and represent nature c. How individual lives changed as time and time measures become more abstracted from society d. How Western and Japanese apprehensions of time shifted in response to industrialization and its accompanying changes in the ways people moved about their world e. How technology relates to human perception, representation, and social organization

CAT 2D: Laws of Men and Laws of Nature: Science, Technology, and Law in America

This course considers: a. Historical and contemporary interconnections of knowledge and power b. The history of our modern scientific understanding

Tue/Thur 12:30 to 1:50 p.m. Instructor: Stefan Tanaka Class size: About 180 students

c. d. e. f.

of nature and of human beings How such scientific understanding plays a part in the legal system The problem of what counts as evidence in scientific and legal arguments The development of the notion of "expert knowledge" The roles and impact of science and expert knowledge in the modern legal system

Sixth College: Spring 2007 Core Sequence (CAT) Course Descriptions Summary: Learn which Core Sequence (CAT) classes are being offered Spring Quarter 2007. CAT 3 is the continuation of the formal writing program at Sixth College and the final course in the lower division Core Sequence in Culture, Art, and Technology. All students are required to have completed CAT 1 and 2 and the UC Entry Level Writing Requirement before enrolling in CAT 3. All CAT 3 courses are 6 units. CAT 3 track CAT 3A Tue/Thur 2 p.m. to 3:20 p.m. Instructor: Linda Strauss Description Natural Disasters and Human Cultures will focus on natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina, the Northridge Earthquake, and the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean, to see how they connect to human thought and activities. We will explore the roles of culture, art, and technology and how they allow human beings to depict, recall, understand, predict, cope with, and prevent natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, and floods. We will also consider how specific cultures and technologies can sometimes bring about or exacerbate the impact and scale of natural disasters. CAT 3B Noise, Signal, Blot, Diagram: In 1905, just when physicists

Tue/Thur 11 a.m. to thought they'd pretty well got everything in Newton's 12:20 p.m. theories all worked out, Einstein published papers showing that matter, energy, time, and space actually worked on an Instructor: Peter entirely different set of principles. At the same moment, the John worlds of painting, music, and literature were being revolutionized by artists such as Henri Matisse, Charles Ives, and Ezra Pound. In these and other artistic, scientific, and technical disciplines, people were seeking ways to understand, represent and control a world which only a few decades before many authorities believed to have been completely understood and under control. Reality had revealed itself to be much more complicated than previously imagined; it was hard to tell which bits of information were more significant than others. In a word, our conception of reality had become "noisier." Since then, we have sought new artistic and technological means of separating useful information (signal) from useless (noise). In attempting this, however, we discovered that noise itself might be a valuable source of signals, and that signals themselves are unavoidably ambiguous, because the human mind perceives patterns and signals whether or not they actually exist. In this CAT 3 course we will look at case studies from science, music, and other related areas of knowledge to examine questions such as the following: In a world where randomness, contingency, and chaos seem to play such a large part, how do we distinguish signal from noise? What tools do we even possess for connecting what's going on outside our minds with what's going on inside them? For that matter, what is going on inside our minds ­ and what is a "mind," anyway? What are the technological, social, and artistic consequences of the changes in the tools we use over the last 100 years? And the big question: If the world is complex and our answers to questions are always imperfect, how do we decide what to do? CAT 3C Tue/Thur 9:30 a.m. to 10:50 a.m. Instructor: Naomi Oreskes Controlling Life. Historians often think of the 20th century as a century of death, as tens of millions of individuals lost their lives at the hands of brutal dictators, in revolutions, and in two world wars. But the 20th century was also the century of controlling life, as scientific concepts and science-based technology inspired individuals and nations to try to improve on life as given in nature. The results of this

inspiration were both benevolent and malevolent. New forms of technology gave individuals new choices and opportunities, but the desire to improve the human race also led to mass murder. This course will focus on three major cultural expressions of the goal of controlling life: eugenics and racial hygiene; birth control and the contraceptive pill; and contemporary biotechnology. We will explore both the scientific and technological bases for these movements, their cultural forms, and artistic responses to the promises and the threat of controlled life. CAT 3D Mon/Wed/Fri 11 a.m. to 11:50 a.m. Instructor: Gerald Doppelt Technology, Medicine, and Ethics: In this course, we explore the key ethical and political problems raised by the advance of bio-medical knowledge: new possibilities of diagnoses, treatment, and control of the human body and mind. These advances increase our power over life and death, illness, and health, normal and abnormal, perfection and imperfection. Who makes these decisions? Are they made to serve or harm individuals' well-being? We examine concrete areas of hot social controversy and new ethical issues around these issues:

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The morality of abortion The right to live or die The role of patients and physicians in making treatment decisions involving powerful benefits and unpleasant or harmful risks/side-effects The right distribution of scarce medical services, goods, organs, or cosmetic enhancements The human genome project

Culture, Art and Technology: Invention of the Person

CAT 1C Tuesdays and Thursdays 12:30-1:50 Pepper Canyon Hall 106 Professor: Dr. Steven Carlisle e-mail: [email protected] Office: Pepper Canyon Hall, room 246 Office Hours: Tuesdays 2-4, and by appointment. TA Office: Pepper Canyon Hall, room 245

Overview: How did you get to be the way you are? Most people believe that they ended up being who they are naturally, that they were born to be become either men or women, Americans or Thais, black, white, Latino, or Asian (or all of the above). It looks simple, but in fact, it's much more complicated than that. None of these things just occur naturally ­ not your nationality, not your race, not even your gender. Who a person is ­ your identity ­ is constructed from the building blocks of your culture. In this class, students will explore several aspects of culture: the technologies that shape our conceptions of who we are, and the arts that give life meaning. We will start with some of the cultural sources that give people notions about who they are, and examine them "holistically" ­ that is, we will explore their histories and the social and political contexts in which they arise. This class will look briefly at the art and technology involved in science, politics, advertising, and religion, as they contribute to the invention of the person. When the class is done, students should have a better sense of what it means to be a person in the United States at the beginning of the 21st century. Materials: For this class, you will need: CAT 1 Reader (Note: this reader has readings for all sections of CAT 1.) Human Natures, by Paul Ehrlich

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Course Requirements: To learn effectively, students need to participate actively and consistently in their own educations. Students accomplish this several ways: by working actively with the readings they have done, and by thinking actively in class. To this end, students will be asked to submit brief written assignments almost every week. Attendance and engagement are expected of all students, and readings should be completed before class. Students' grades will be determined this way: Mandatory section participation In-class assignments Short response papers Final project Final exam 20% 10% 40% 10% 20%

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Schedule (subject to change) Sept. 21: Introductions: Seeing in the Dark Part I: Being a Person: What Are the Questions? Something Fishy Sept. 26: These articles can be found in the course reader. "Not a Real Fish," Roger Keesing "The Convenience of Being `Reasonable,'" Benjamin Franklin "Learning to See," Samuel Scudder "Technology: Practice and Culture," Arnold Pacey The Truth About "The Truth" Sept. 28: "The Core of Art: Making Special," Ellen Dissanayake "Anecdote of the Jar," Wallace Stevens "Shakespeare in the Bush," Laura Bohannan Part II: Engineering Us: The Art and Technology of Modern Living The Art of Inventing Genders Oct. 3: "The Bow and The Burden Strap" Harriet Whitehead. "The Blot and the Diagram," Lord Clark Oct. 5: Lessons from the Intersexed, Suzanne Kessler, ch. 2 The Technology of Creating Consumers Oct.10: Selection from Marx, Capital Selection from Taussig, The Devil and Commodity Fetishism Oct.12: "On the Fetish Character in Music and the Regression of Listening," Theodor Adorno Science and Inventing Race Oct. 17: Mismeasure of Man, Stephen Jay Gould, ch. 3 Oct. 19: Continued The Art of Nationalism Oct. 24: Imagined Communities, Benedict Anderson, chs. 1 & 2 "Geo-Body, History, and Nationhood," Thongchai Winichakul "The Wheels of Freedom: Bicycles in China," Fred Strebeigh

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The Politics of Morality Oct. 26: Genealogy of Morals, Essay I, sections 1-14, Friedrich Nietzsche "Earth: Nature and Culture," Yi-Fu Tuan Part III: Different Premises Different Conclusions: Visions of Reality Evolution: Mind and Body Oct. 31: Human Natures, Paul Ehrlich, Introduction ch.1 Nov. 2: "Evolution," From Life on Earth, ed. Niles Eldridge Nov. 7: Human Natures, chapters 2&4 Nov. 9: Ehrlich, ch. 6 Interpretation of Cultures, ch. 2, Clifford Geertz "Speech Sounds," Octavia Butler Religious Beliefs and the Art of Reality Nov. 14: Ehrlich, ch. 8, Calliope's Sisters, ch. 3 Nov. 16: "The Light's On but there's Nobody Home: The Psychology of NoSelf," Guy Claxton Nov. 21: Selections from Global Healing, Sulak Sivaraksa Nov. 23 ­ Thanksgiving break · Your project will be due this week. Nov. 28: In God's Image After All, Paul Ackerman, ch. 5 Nov. 30: Finishing up Exam week: Final Exam

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Culture, Art and Technology: Cultures as Solution and as Problem FALL 2006

Instructor: Peter John Office: Pepper Canyon Hall, Room 257 email [email protected] Office hrs: TBA

"Discussions in such classrooms will inevitably boil over into contentious issues of judgment, conflict, and tension that characterize a free society. This is what Dewey meant when he wrote that schools are not training grounds for democracy but the places where democracy is enacted. Either the classroom becomes a site where we learn to talk to one another, or we will suffer the enduring consequences of never having learned to do so." Sam Wineberg (2001)

Introduction

"Believing, with Max Weber, that man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun, I take culture to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaning." Clifford Geertz, Interpretations of Cultures "Culture is an adaptive process that accumulates partial solutions to frequently encountered problems" E. Hutchins, Cognition in the Wild

A culture may be thought of as set of beliefs and behaviours shared by a people for the purpose of communicating about and manipulating what they deem most salient for survival and prosperity in a given environmental niche. The interplay between a culture and its environmental niche is complex and invariably based on an insufficient understanding of how to entirely predict or control either the positive or negative effects of this interplay. This incomplete understanding and control of the forces unleashed by a culture, its arts and technologies, entails unintended consequences, consequences which may be, in the short or long run, deleterious for both the culture and the niche on which it depends. Members of a culture must necessarily reflect on how effectively their culture,

its arts and technologies, serve their efforts to successfully manipulate their environmental niche.

To elaborate:

Art and technology are part of the "adaptive process" we term "culture," a process, to use Hutchins' succinct formulation, that "accumulates partial solutions to frequently encountered problems." While culture is an "adaptive process," we must recognize that our species has achieved no unanimity about what it means to adapt, that a given culture's arts and technologies may be based in an erroneous idea of what is required to adapt, and that the environmental niche to which a culture seeks to adapt is always changing, due in part to the effects of culture itself. Human beings have invented an astonishing variety of cultures and equally various conceptions of what constitutes a problem and its solution; our purpose in CAT is to ask how effectively members of a culture use their arts and technologies to mediate between themselves and their natural and social environment, and to consider the implications of the fact that one culture's conception of a solution can be another culture's idea of a problem. Arts and technologies are instruments for amplifying our sensory, cognitive and physical abilities in order to more effectively shape our world to our own ends. Both instruments are part of a single continuum concerned with identifying, communicating and controlling what a culture judges to be salient; they are concerned, that is, with determining what must be attended to and what can be safely ignored. A culture's arts and technologies mediate--literally, stand between-- ourselves, our experience of the world and the world itself; as such, like the brain and senses from which they originate, they predispose us to attend to some things but to ignore others. One may say that our brain's interpretation of random sensory data is a process of "pattern recognition," so long as we bear in mind that re-cognition literally means to "re-know"; we recognize patterns because we invented them and imposed them on the world. Accordingly, our arts and technologies may be said to be adaptive to the extent they are based on an accurate cognitive "mapping" of our surroundings. Conversely, a culture may be said to be maladaptive to the extent that its members notice only what its arts and technologies designate as significant, while ignoring what is truly salient for the purpose of adaptation and survival. In such a "negative feedback-loop," we can at once amplify our natural capacities while utterly failing to make salient what is truly relevant to our survival, both as a species and as members of specific cultures. Our method in CAT focuses upon cultural artifacts. The term "artifact" traditionally refers to objects of cultures other than our own, objects studied by social scientists to reveal facts about the culture that made them. We wish to subsume our own arts and technologies within the category "artifact," in order to underscore our purpose to turn our gaze on our own culture. In this regard, it is important to juxtapose a natural scientist's definition of "culture" (i.e., Hutchins'), with a definition provided by a social scientist. The cultural anthropologist Clifford Geertz encourages us to think of culture as the "webs of significance" or meaning a group of people weave from their experiences. Technological and other cultural artifacts might be thought of as the nodal points in these webs. Or to use another metaphor, a culture's arts and technologies may be seen as

"diagrams" of the culture that created them. Cultural artifacts--be they domestic implements, social rituals, sculptures, paintings, religious or secular symbols, political systems, clothing, language, music, weapons, buildings, gestural signs, techniques of measurement and calculation, stylized motions, and many, many other things--are diagrams of culture we will attempt to decipher or "read." Our purpose in "reading" the "encoded" meaning of cultural artifacts is to assess how plausibly and effectively a given culture has imposed its patterns on the world. As noted, part of our approach in CAT is scrutiny of our own culture's attempts to mediate experience. Indicative of our own culture's adaptive efforts are the words "culture," "art," and "technology." Each of these words, like most words in a language, may be read as revealing artifacts of the culture that uses them. For our introductory purposes, let us limit our consideration to the word "technology." It comes from the Greek "techne," which means "art"; the cultural significance we impute to the word "technology" may best be indicated by the suffix "logy." "Logy," from another Greek word, "logos," refers to the principle or pattern of reality to which our "techne" may be correctly and effectively applied. The conjunction of "techne" and "logos" reveals our culturally inherited belief that our technologies are rooted in a logical, and so presumably effective, comprehension of the order of things. The word "technology"-- a relatively new word in the English lexicon--exposes our inherited assumption that our culture has discovered solutions to problems that are perhaps superior in their accuracy and efficacy to the solutions of other cultures, and that therefore these solutions may be applicable to the problems of all human beings. The belief that our technologies are instruments of progress is evidently supported by the power they afford us in manipulating our social and natural environment. Indeed, many of us are in thrall to the apparent potency and precision of our inventions. But we must consider whether our enthrallment is warranted. One consequence of using our powerful and sensitive instruments has been to reveal the wide-ranging and potentially lethal consequences of those instruments. Our technological servants, it turns out, are imperfect; we have given ourselves a wizard's power (you may recall Disney's allegory "The Sorcerer's Apprentice," starring Mickey Mouse), without the necessary foresight to use that power wisely, to use it, that is, in such a manner that the desired effects are not negated by the unintended consequences. Returning to the idea that culture is an adaptive process, we might say that our culture has amplified the potency of its arts (i.e., "techne") to a point beyond its power to imagine and control the consequences--in space and over time--of that power. As we will see, a traditional function of the arts has been to try to imagine, communicate, control the social and environmental consequences of human culture. A basic premise of CAT is that we, too, must bring our full imaginative and intellectual abilities, and not our instrumental prowess alone, to bear on the problems facing our culture. How might we more artfully employ our technological and other cultural capacities to identify, communicate, and so perhaps control the broad range and long term social and environmental consequences of those capacities?

Texts: Course Reader "Human Natures" (Ehrlich)

Assignments: Elucidations 50%: Using readings and subject matter from lectures and discussions, offer a concise and precise elucidation of specified terms and phrases (see below; approx. 10 terms/phrases per week). Your efforts will be collected and graded at random intervals during the quarter. All elucidations must be completed to receive this percentage of your grade. Project and Project Essay 25%: (on encoded meaning of two cultural artifacts; one contemporary and one non-contemporary artifact). Questions and Comments 15%: (judged on clarity, precision, concision, perspicacity, and relevance; the highest grades will be given only to those students who pose questions and comments in lecture as well as in discussion). Final 10%: A short dialogue or play about oneself as a cultural artifact

Preliminary and Incomplete Definitions CULTURE -- "webs of significance [mankind] [it]self has spun..." Clifford Geertz, Interpretations of Cultures, 1973) [Max Weber]; "Culture is an adaptive process that accumulates partial solutions to frequently encountered problems" (E. Hutchins, "Cognition in the Wild") ART--"Culturally significant meaning, skillfully encoded in an affecting, sensuous medium" (R. Anderson, Calliope's Sisters, 1990); "Making special" [for the purpose of adaptation] (Disanayeke) TECHNOLOGY -- "teks" (Gk): "making, creativity and ingenuity"; " to fabricate or to weave"; "tekton:... carpenter or builder"; "techne...an art, craft or skill" (T. Hughes, "Human Built World, 2004); Technologia (Gk): "systematic treatment of an art") (1658); Technology: "an ensemble of means" (Ellul); "a system of rules" for achieving an end (Strauss); "making and use of artifacts" (Durbin).

Part One: Salience

"For we are like tree trunks in the snow. In appearance they lie sleekly and a light push should be enough to set them rolling. No, it cannot be done, for they are firmly wedded to the ground. But see, even that is only appearance." Franz Kafka "We are like sailors who on the open sea must reconstruct their vessel but are never able to start afresh from the bottom." Otto Neurath

Week 1: Culture, Art and Techonology and the Problem of Salience Concepts: 1] Salience 2] Culture; "webs of meaning"; "partial solutions to frequently encountered problems" 3] Art; "making special"; "culturally significant meaning" 4] Technology; "systematic treatment of an art"; "a system of rules" 5] interplay; dialectic; feedback loop; "human factors" (e.g., evolved perceptual limitations; "evolutionary hangovers"; "social traps"; local and immediate perception; small-group animals; "boiled frog syndrome" (Gordon/ Suzuki); "Medieval origins of our ecological crisis" (White) 6] unintended consequences; social/cultural construction of technology; value-laden technology (Pacey) 7] reflexivity; defamiliarization; "Body Ritual Among the Nacirema" (Linton); "100% American" (H. Miner); "Shakespeare in the Bush" (Bohannon); 8] "bottom up " and "top down" pattern recognition

Readings: Gordon/Suzuki; White; Linton; Miner; Geertz (on culture); Bohannan

Week 2: Pattern Recognition and Pattern Imposition 1] pattern recognition-imposition/salience /brain as "meaning generator" 2] "convenience of being reasonable"; "nothing like a fish". 3] seeing (Dillard, Thuan); "drawing a fish"(Scudder); Allegory of the Cave" (Plato); Ferris' "hour-glass" and "bottleneck" 4] "the mind is what the brain does"; brain, mind, consciousness; "cognitive space" (Ehrlich) 5] the "binding" problem (Duve); the "cathedral " model of the mind (Mithen); 6] the "binding problem," narrowly and broadly conceived; religion, religare 7] "somatic marker hypothesis"; reason; interpretation (selecting, naming, framing); filtering out, filling in 8] "evolution by natural selection"; niche, selection pressure, adaptation, mutation; "tree," "shrub"; "punctuated equilibrium"; "tipping point"; contingency 9] argument from design; "blind watchmaker"; order, randomness, chaos; teleology 10] "monumental impulses"; nature-culture analogies (McNeill); phenomena, noumena, epiphenomena Readings: Franklin, Dillard; Thuan; Damasio; Plato; Ferris; Duve; Eldridge (on evolution); Dawkins; Geertz (on man)

PART TWO: Interplay Week 3: Arts as Solution and Problem 1] Dialectic, interplay, feedback-loop; ; mind-matter; nature-nurture; 2] Cultural artifact; "an object is a diagram of forces" (D'Arcy Thompson); natural artifact; cultural artifact; 3] Art; "Making special" (Dissanyake); "culturally significant meaning" (Anderson); names for beauty (Sartwell) 4] ambiguity of "encoded meaning" (Mithen) 5] Mythos, ethos; [story level/theory level]; identity, narrative, situation 6] "religion is never merely metaphysics" (Geertz); "soft technology"; 7] "anger in a unjust world" (Tavris); "as if" (Vaihinger); describe/prescribe 8] small "f" and Big "F" functional; "Cultural determinism" vs. "Structural functionalism" 9] gifts (Mauss); tattoos (Gell ) toys (Barthes); cars (McCluhan); status ("Ongka's Big Moka"; potlatch); "the dozens" 10] material conditions and consciousness (Marx); base-superstructure; hegemony 11] use value; exchange value; festishization of commodities; retail therapy; alienation; hegemony

Readings: Disannayake; Anderson; Mauss; Geertz (on religion); Tavris; Keesing; Sartwell

Week 4: Technologies as Solution and as Problem 1] technology as value-laden cultural artifact (Pacey); "culturally constructed"; "encoded meanings" of basic technologies (e.g., fire, fulcrum, wheel, irrigation, so on) "human-built world" (T. Hughes) 2] "Man's Place in Nature" (Huxley) ; "Great Ape" ; Homo sapiens (ludens, faber, aestheticus, economicus, so on); "Dance Monkey, Dance" (Cline); anthropocentrism; 3] Progress; "Great Leap" (Ehrlich); Rubicon (Huxley); Paleolithic; civilization; whig history 4] Samurai sword; assegai (Zulu); value-laden military technologies, strategies, tactics (Keegan) 5] Cadillac escalade; eyelash curlers; jet fighter; "death and taxes" 6] "bricolage"; "motley"; "local knowledge"; knowledge ecologies 7] "human factors" 8] "Venus" of Willendorf; Paleolithic art (Bahn); Acheulean handaxe (Proctor) 9] sugar; "the sadness of sweetness" (Sahlins; Mintz) 10) value-laden technologies; hegemony (Ewen, Hochschild)

Readings: Pacey, Marx, Keegan, Proctor, Barthes, Strebeigh, Bahn, Ewen, Hochshild, Vincente

Week Five: Cultures' "Ultimate Artifact": Language 1] Culture as technology (Tuan, tavris); "soft" technology; intellectual technology 2] Language; "the ultimate artifact" (A. Clark); language as art and as technology 3] alphabet; characters; etymology; words, images, things; pictographs; ideograms; metaphors 4] intellectual compression"; mnemonic; "meme" (Dawkins); sign, symbol, words 5]. Metaphor, analogy, trope; "metaphors we live by" (Lakoff and Johnson); "don't think of an elephant"; cultural coherence of metaphors; "politics and the English language" (Orwell) 6]. euphemism-dysphemism; 7]. "words think us"; abstract nouns as "empty containers" (e.g., pets); aporia; compression, clarity, communication]

8] "education by metaphor; Logos-logic; 9]. "language games"; "family resemblance"; 10] Sapir-Whorff hypothesis Read: Tuan, Lakoff/Johnson, A. Huxley

PART THREE:

Unintended Consequences

Week Six: Contests Within Cultures 1] cultural "fault lines"; words as indicators of cultural fault lines 2] sub-culture; counter-culture 2] material conditions and consciousness (Marx); base-superstructure; hegemony 3] use value; exchange value; festishization of commodities; retail therapy; alienation; hegemony 4] Bestand/"alienation" ("More") 5]. "false consciousness"; ; "Merchants of Cool"; "commodity fetishism" 6] "theory of the leisure class" (Veblen); base/superstructure/hegemony/haves and have-nots; 7] "domination and the arts of resistance" (Scott) . Read: Hebdige, Taussig, Marx, Scott; MacDonald; B. Anderson

Week Seven: Contests Between Cultures, 1] "environmental determinism" (Diamond); inevitability 2] Europe and the people without history" (Wolf; Trask); "third world"; Core/periphery; alterity; world systems ; theory; imperialism; cultural imperialism; cultural relativism 3] globalization; "parasitic capitalism"; "feral"-, "turbo"- capitalism "invisible hand"; laissez-faire 4] synchronic, diachronic; history, past. 5] "machines as the measure of man" (Adas); 6] exceptionalism; "triumphalism"; "out of Africa" vs multiregional hypotheses; "killer apes"; "machiavellian intelligence" theory; Neandertal; genocide 7] "The Worse Mistake we ever made" (Diamond); the "original leisure class" (Sahlins); "Neolithic, paleolithic 8] politics of..." (memory, identity, display; (MacDonald));

social or cultural construction of history, identity, technology; "Culture Wars" , history wars 9] "Imagined communities" (Anderson); 10] "gods, dive bombers, and bureaucracies" (Ehrlich) Read: Trask; Adas; John (on Diamond/McNeill)

Chapter Eight: Modern Conditions 1] Modernization (secularization, industrialization, urbanization) 2] Modernity; metropolis (Simmel); Nietzsche, "Twilight of the Idols", "Great Chain of Being" 3] Modernism; Total work of art; manifesto; total war 4] "autonomous technology" (Winner); megamachine (Mumford); Koyannisquatsi 5] "rationalization," "disenchantment," and "iron cage" "science as a vocation"; small v and big V vocation 6] globalization; core-periphery; Other; alterity 8] media; "the medium is the message" (McCluhan"; "social surgery without anaesthesia

Read: Simmel, McCluhan, Nietzsche

PART FOUR: Reflexivity Week 9: Knowledge or Certainty? 1] "knowledge or certainty?" 2] Blot/diagram; Noise/Signal; dichotomies information, knowledge, wisdom; ". 3] science; "not a path to truth but a limit to error" ; "what we might know although we are fallible" (Bronowski); "hidden likenesses"; thought experiments";"paradigm; falsification; fact, evidence, truth, validity, fallacy; inductive, deductive, empirical; "disagreements about things we can measure" (Patel) 4] education (educare; educere); phronesis; praxis; "knowledge a man must have" (Booth); "pedagogy of the oppressed" (Friere); horse/unicorn (Haldane) 5] "existence precedes essence" (Sartre) 6] aesthetics (beauty, sublime, kitsch, camp); "truth is beauty and beauty truth"; "whatever is is right" (Pope)

Read: Clark, Bronowski, Thomas

Week 10: The "Great Experiment": 1. "great experiment" (Seabright); trust, transparency, 2. "Asymmetry of Human Agency"; efficiency; progress; utopia; Caneiro's hypothesis 3. "perils of obedience" (Milgram); Stanford prison experiment (Zimbardo) 4.. Panopticon; self-mortification; "presentation of self in everyday life" Szasz, goffman, said 5. small world" hypothesis; "six degrees"; social distance, scaling, self-similarity, fractal, scaling, fractal, self similarity 6. pragmatism; praxis; "liberal irony" (Rorty); . skepticism; irony; cynicism; fatalism; nihilism

Read: Seabright, Milgram, Rorty Attendance Policy: One of our goals is to cultivate your ability and desire to engage one another in serious and sincere intellectual discourse. For this purpose we require your consistent attendance in lecture and discussion, and to this end--though it may seem rather Draconian--we will deduct a full letter grade for more than two unexcused absences. Also, for the purpose of encouraging promptness and, with it, respect for your fellow students, teaching assistants and instructors, attendance will generally be taken at the beginning of a class.

On Nov 14 all first year CAT students must attend the Robert Pennock Convocation lecture at 7 in RIMAC, and in the third week of class, all CAT students will be required to attend an evening 90 minute academic orientation session (time and date to be announced). Attendance will factor into the participation grade, and will be asked to write a page or two in response to each event

Culture, Art, and Technology (CAT 1)

TTH 2-3:30 PCYNH 106

Dr. Linda Strauss [email protected] Office hours Pepper Canyon Hall 249 858 822 1666 M 11-1; W 1-2; Th 4-5

OVERVIEW: CAT 1 is the foundational course in the Culture, Art and Technology Sequence. It offers an interdisciplinary examination of the nature, development, functions, and interactions of culture, art and technology. The course considers some of the various and significant ways in which these human inventions both allow and direct people in different societies to adapt to the natural and social environments in which they are living. It also considers the ways in which the implications of certain cultural adaptations themselves pose challenges for subsequent human survival and well-being. "Believing, with Max Weber, that man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun, I take culture to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaning." Clifford Geertz, Interpretations of Cultures "Culture is an adaptive process that accumulates partial solutions to frequently encountered problems" E. Hutchins, Cognition in the Wild

"A culture may be thought of as a set of beliefs and behaviours shared by a people for the purpose of communicating about and manipulating what they deem most salient for survival and prosperity in a given environmental niche. The interplay between a culture and its environmental niche is complex and invariably based on an insufficient understanding of how to entirely predict or control either the positive or negative effects of this interplay. This incomplete understanding and control of the forces unleashed by a culture, its arts and technologies, entails unintended consequences-- consequences which may be, in the short or long run, deleterious for both the culture and the niche on which it depends. Members of a culture must necessarily reflect on how effectively their culture, with its arts and technologies, serves their efforts to successfully manipulate their environmental niche. To elaborate: art and technology are part of the "adaptive process" we term "culture," a process, to use Hutchins' succinct formulation, that "accumulates partial solutions to frequently encountered problems." While culture is an "adaptive process," we must recognize that our species has achieved no unanimity about what it means to adapt, that a given culture's arts and technologies may be based in an erroneous idea of what is required to adapt, and that the environmental niche to which a culture seeks to adapt is always changing, due in part to the effects of culture itself. Human beings have invented an astonishing variety of cultures and equally various conceptions of what constitutes a problem and its solution; our purpose in CAT is to ask how effectively members of a culture use their arts and technologies to mediate between themselves and their natural and social environment, and to consider the implications of the fact that one culture's conception of a solution can be another culture's idea of a problem." ­ P. John Working Definitions of Key Terms CULTURE -- "webs of significance [mankind] [it]self has spun..." Clifford Geertz, Interpretations of Cultures, 1973) [Max Weber]; "Culture is an adaptive process that accumulates partial solutions to frequently encountered problems" (E. Hutchins, "Cognition in the Wild") ART--"Culturally significant meaning, skillfully encoded in an affecting, sensuous medium" (R. Anderson, Calliope's Sisters, 1990); "Making special" [for the purpose of adaptation] (Dissanayake) TECHNOLOGY -- "teks" (Gk): "making, creativity and ingenuity"; " to fabricate or to weave"; "tekton:... carpenter or builder"; "techne...an art, craft or skill" (T. Hughes, "Human Built World, 2004); Technologia (Gk): "systematic treatment of an art") (1658); Technology: "an ensemble of means" (Ellul); "a system of rule, tools, materials, artifacts and processes for achieving an end"(Strauss); "making and use of artifacts" (Durbin).

CAT GOALS: This course is designed to help you · understand what it is to be human, in terms of human physical, mental, social and cultural characteristics and in terms of their relationship to the larger world in which they have developed and lived understand how human beings use culture to express themselves and their nature, as well as how they use culture both to solve, and, inadvertently to generate problems concerning their relations to nature and to each other understand art and technology as particular instances of culture, with similarities and commonalities as well as differences. understand culture, art and technology in terms of their interactions, development over time, uses in different societies, and their effect on human characteristics and capacities understand the ways that art and technology shape how people think about and act upon what it means to be human.

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· ·

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CAT is also intended to help you learn how to take an interdisciplinary approach to complex issues. This includes enabling you to · · learn to read more acutely gain an understanding of how and why scholars in different fields formulate questions and problems as they do, and how they go about assembling, assessing and analyzing evidence as they make and test claims; understanding the main purposes of scholarly argument, and appreciating the inquiry-driven nature of scholarly work. learn that your work in this sequence, like that of professional scholars, is not mainly about memorizing information and giving back pre-formulated answers, but about first crafting and pursuing thoughtful, fruitful questions to see where they might lead and then seeking out meaningful answers to such questions. learn to examine problems and subjects from more than one disciplinary perspective in order to gain a more complete and deeper understanding of it bring appropriate and critical questions to bear on your own thinking and writing through a process of writing and revision, so that your writing and

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composition in other media become a means of discovery as well as communication Finally, CAT is intended to empower you start taking charge of your own education, as well of your own life. It does this by helping you to exercise · · · self reliance and responsibility reflexivity, so that you learn to apply your questions and what you are learning to yourself and your situation in the world collaboration, in teams and across cultures

General Program Requirements

Please note: For the year 2006-07 Sixth College is requiring every first-year student to maintain a portfolio containing copies of all completed written assignments (in every quarter) including those that have been commented on and/ or graded and returned by instructors or TAs. The portfolio would not include exams except for essay exams. Students must have portfolios complete and available for selection by the Associate Director for Writing at the end of the academic year. If selected, the work in these portfolios will not be returned; keep copies for your personal files separately.

Participation will be a factor in determining your grade. It entails regular, punctual attendance and attention at both lecture and section (see attendance policy below), completion of assignments on time, active, appropriate participation in group class-work and any group projects, timely preparation of readings, papers and projects and thoughtful contributions to class discussions.

Attendance Policy: One of our goals is to cultivate your ability and desire to engage one another in serious and sincere intellectual discourse. For this purpose we require your consistent attendance in lecture and discussion, and to this end--though it may seem rather Draconian--we will deduct a full letter grade for more than two unexcused absences from lecture. Absence from section will negatively affect your participation grade. Also, for the purpose of encouraging promptness and, with it, respect for your fellow students, teaching assistants and instructors, attendance will generally be taken at the beginning of a class.

Special Events: In the third week of class, all CAT students will be required to attend one of the two evening Core Sequence academic orientation sessions (Oct 10 and 11, 7 pm Mandeville Auditorium. On Nov 14, all first year CAT students must attend the Robert Pennock Convocation lecture at 7pm in RIMAC. Attendance will factor into the participation grade, and will be asked to write a page or two in response to each event COURSE REQUIREMENTS

In CAT 1A, all students are asked to sign up for and attend both the instructor's and the TA's office hours at least once during the quarter. Students may do so individually or in small groups. Grading Percentages: Reading commentaries and exercises Participation Midterm Exam Paper 1 Paper 2/project Final Exam 15% 10% 15% 15% 20% 25%

TEXTS: CAT 1 common course reader (available at AS reserves in the first week of class; if reader is sold out, a copy is guaranteed within 48 hours upon AS reserves' receipt of paid order) Ehrlich, Paul, Human Natures: Genes, Cultures and the Human Prospect (New York: Penguin, 2000)

Schedule of Assignments

(Readings are to be completed before class by the day indicated) Week 0: Understanding Culture, Art, Technology in Practice Sept 21 Learning how to approach CAT

Week 1: Perceiving and Navigating Cultural Webs Sept 26 How do cultures work? Read: Harris; Douglas (Mauss); Geertz, ch. 1; Bohannan How can we detect a cultural web? Read: Miner; Barthes; MacDonald; Trask

Sept 28

Week 2: Human Beings, Culture, and Nature--

Oct 3

How do human beings relate to the world? Read: Adams; Ackerman; Dawkins; Claxton; White; Tuan Is culture a natural phenomenon? Read: McGrew; Stevens, McNeill; Tuan

Oct 5

Week 3: Becoming Human Oct 10 Evolutionary theory and evidence Read: Eldridge; Gould (1989); Ehrlich Preface, chs 4-5 Culture as an evolutionary force Read: Geertz ch. 3; Ehrlich ch 1, ch 3 (pps 62-67 only);

Oct 12

Week 4: How We Come to Know Ourselves and Our World? Oct 17 Brains, minds and the environment Read: Ehrlich ch 6; De Duve How do we see? Physiological and cultural constraints Read: Searle, Dillard, Scudder, Bronowski, Damasio

Oct 19

Week 5: Art and Meaning Oct 24 Conventions of visual perception and depiction Read: Behrens; Clark; Ferris; MacLeod; Sartwell; Thuan Art and survival Read: Dissanayake; review Damasio

Oct 26

Week 6: Art and Culture Oct 31 Cultural uses of art Read: Anderson, R. ch 13; Hatcher Art and cultural values Read: Anderson, R. on Aboriginal Art

Nov 2

Week 7: Imagery, Language and Technology Nov 7 From hunter-gatherer to farming culture Read: Anderson on San and Sepik Art; John; Ehrlich ch 10 Art and language as "soft technologies" Read: Ehrlich, ch 7; Stevens; Lakoff and Johnson; Bahn; Mithen; Huxley; Kessing; Butler; Bierce

Nov 9

Week 8: Hidden dimensions of technology Nov 14 Tools and technological choices Read: Proctor; Pacey Technology as symbol Read: Adas; Nye; Strebeigh Week 9: Contemporary Culture and Human Nature Nov 21 Technological imperatives: does our technology fit our natures? Read: Marx; Vicente Thanksgiving Holiday

Nov 16

Nov 23

Week 10 Cultural Alternatives Nov 28 What constitutes progress? Read: Sivaraksa Reviewing CAT Final Exam Tues Dec 5, 3-6 pm

Nov 30

Sixth College: About the Practicum Summary: Learn about the Sixth College Practicum requirement. The Practicum is Sixth College's signature General Education requirement. It is an experiential learning activity that directly involves students with the topics they are studying. Practicum students apply their classroom knowledge to real-world problems via service learning, which combines service objectives with learning objectives. The Practicum has three distinctive components:

· · ·

The project proposal The Practicum project (see How to Complete Your Practicum, step 3) The writing/ reflection component (CAT 125)

Here's how it works: Under the guidance of a faculty member, you receive 4 units of credit to identify a specific need or problem within the community (the project proposal). Then, you develop and complete a Practicum project that outlines possible solutions. In the CAT 125 reflection course, you use writing and visual and/or digital expression as a tool for exploring:

· · · ·

The college theme, Culture, Art, and Technology The impact your project had on the community and on yourself The importance of personal responsibility for civic participation and engagement Your personal educational and professional values

The Practicum reflects Sixth College's commitment to:

· · · ·

Form bridges between UCSD's campus units and local and global communities Encourage students to get involved with communal issues, while fostering an ethical obligation to service Create a learning environment that challenges students to become innovative, interconnected, and aware Challenge students to take ownership and responsibility for their education

See How to Complete Your Practicum for more details. For more information, visit the Virtual Advising Center, or contact Practicum

Coordinator Ebonee Williams, (858) 534-2081.

Sixth College: How To Complete Your Practicum Summary: Learn the steps you must take to complete your Sixth College Practicum requirement. What to do 1 Learn about the 3 components of the Practicum. How to do it a. Component 1 ­ Proposal:. Your proposal should be 500-600 words and should answer the practicum proposal questions. (See step 5 for more information.) b. Component 2 ­ Project: Your project is part of a 4unit course. (See step 3 for more information.) The instructor of this 4-unit course will also serve as the faculty mentor for your Practicum project. c. Component 3 ­ Reflection: Reflect on your Practicum project the quarter after you complete it in the upper-division Practicum Reflective Writing Course, CAT 125. (See step 8 for more information.)

2

Learn more about the Practicum requirement, and determine when you will fulfill it.

a. Read About the Practicum. b. Attend a Practicum Information Session for details on how to complete your practicum and to learn about unique practicum projects. c. See a Sixth College Academic Advisor to determine when you can fit the Practicum requirement into your Four-Year Plan. Note: You must submit a Practicum proposal on the Practicum online application by week 8 of the quarter before you plan to take the Practicum. (Fall and Summer proposals due in Spring) See step 5 for more details on proposals.

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If you joined Sixth College as a freshman, you must complete the Sixth College Core Sequence (CAT 1,2,3) and have upper-division standing before you can begin your Practicum. If you joined Sixth College as a transfer student, you must complete your lower-division writing requirement before you can begin your Practicum.

3

Consider the options to fulfill the Practicum requirement.

a. Choose one of the 4 following options: 1. Approved Practicum Projects 2. Approved Practicum Courses (PDF) 3. Work on an independent study project with a faculty member 4. Contact the Practicum Coordinator to ask about doing a self-initiated project (one of your own creation). Note: All Practicum Projects must be assigned 4 units of academic credit and must have a UCSD faculty mentor.

4

Find a faculty mentor.

a. Your mentorship will depend on which of the 4 options you choose to fulfill your Practicum requirement. 1. If you choose to take an approved course to fulfill your Practicum requirement, the faculty member teaching the course will be your mentor. 2. If you choose to complete an approved project, contact the project coordinator or search the UCSD academic departments for a faculty mentor in the area(s) relevant to the project you choose. 3. If you choose to do an independent study project offered by one of the academic departments, contact the department and ask them to help you find a faculty mentor. 4. If you choose to complete a self-initiated project, visit the Sixth College Practicum Coordinator to receive assistance.

5

Complete a Practicum proposal.

a. Read the practicum proposal questions, write your proposal. b. Ask your faculty mentor to read and approve your proposal. c. Inform your faculty mentor that they will receive an e-mail from the Sixth College Practicum Application to officially approve your proposal online.

6

Submit your proposal.

a. Complete your practicum proposal online. You must complete: o My Info o My Proposal Note: Make sure you have spoken to your faculty mentor before submitting their email address as they will be e-mailed by the system. b. Submit your Practicum proposal by Week 8 of the quarter before you plan to fulfill your Practicum requirement. Fall and Summer practicum project proposals are due in Spring. Note:If the application is not working, you can download the Practicum Proposal form (PDF) and the Practicum Advisor forms (PDF). Turn them in completed to the Sixth College Office(HUB). Please e-mail the Practicum intern to report your problem.

7

Complete your proposed coursework or project.

a. Work to complete your Practicum as described in your proposal. b. Communicate regularly with your Practicum mentor. c. Keep a journal. Consult the Practicum Reflective Essay Questions to guide your entries. d. Keep a record/ document of your end product of your practicum project. It will be collected in the Practicum Reflective Writing (CAT 125).

8

Take the Practicum Reflective Writing (CAT 125) class.

a. Register for Practicum Reflective Writing (CAT 125). b. Attend the class lecture and section. c. Submit your Practicum. d. Complete the required work, using your journal when beneficial.

9

Complete your Practicum portfolio.

a. Your portfolio should include: o Your Practicum proposal o Journal entries

o o

Your finished Practicum project Your CAT 125 reflective writing paper

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