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Content Area Reading

Literacy and Learning Across the Curriculum

E I G H T H E D I T I O N

Richard T. Vacca

Kent State University, emeritus

Jo Anne L. Vacca

Kent State University, emeritus

Boston · New York · San Francisco Mexico City · Montreal · Toronto · London · Madrid · Munich · Paris Hong Kong · Singapore · Tokyo · Cape Town · Sydney

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Vacca, Richard T. Content area reading : literacy and learning across the curriculum / Richard T. Vacca, Jo Anne L. Vacca. --8th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-205-41031-6 1. Content area reading. I. Vacca, Jo Anne L. II. Title. LB1050.455.V33 2005 428.4'3--dc22 2004043669

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 09 08 07 06 05 04

Credits appear on page 472, which constitutes an extension of the copyright page.

We choose friends, not relatives

How blessed we are to have these special persons who are both

Fred and Pat Vacca Tony and Chris Vacca Tom and Patty Schmidt Gary and Courtney Vierstra

Brief Contents

Detailed Contents Preface xvii

vii

PART

one: two:

Content Literacy in a Standards-Based Curriculum

30

1

Chapter 1 Reading Matters 1 Chapter 2 Assessing Students and Texts

PART

Learners and Texts

Struggling Readers and Writers 68 Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners Learning with Trade Books 154 Learning with Electronic Texts 196 104

68

Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6

PART

three:

Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12

Instructional Practices and Strategies

Bringing Students and Texts Together 226 Devloping Vocabulary Knowledge and Concepts Activating Prior Knowledge and Interest 294 Guiding Reader­Text Interactions 318 Writing to Learn 352 Studying Texts 390 264

226

Appendix A Affixes with Invariant Meanings 430 Appendix B Commonly Used Prefixes with Varying Meanings Appendix C Graphic Organizers with Text Frames 436 Bibliography 439 Name Index 456 Subject Index 461

434

v

Detailed Contents

Preface

xvii

PART

one:

Content Literacy in a Standards-Based Curriculum

1

chapter

1 Reading Matters

1

Organizing Principle 1 Chapter Overview 1 Frame of Mind 2 Being an Artful Teacher 3 No Child Left Behind Act 3 Learning with Texts 4 Beyond Assigning and Telling 5 Understanding Literacy 7 Literacy Is Situational 7 Influences on Content Literacy 9 Incorporating Content Standards into Literacy-Based Instruction Text Comprehension in Content Areas 11 Developing Research-Based Comprehension Strategies 12 Prior Knowledge and Comprehension 14 Reader Response 20 Levels of Comprehension 21 Questioning 24 Scaffolding Instruction 25 Looking Back, Looking Forward 26 Minds On 27 Hands On 28 eResources 29

9

chapter

2 Assessing Students and Texts

30

Organizing Principle 30 Chapter Overview 31 Frame of Mind 32 High-Stakes Testing and Authentic Approaches to Assessment High-Stakes Testing: Some Issues and Concerns 33 Standardized Testing: What Teachers Need to Know 37 Authentic Assessment: The Teacher's Role 39

32

vii

viii

CONTENTS

Portfolio Assessment 42 Adapting Portfolios to Content Area Classes BOX 2.1 / Research-Based Best Practices Checklists and Interviews 45 Rubrics and Self-Assessments 49 Assessing Text Difficulty 50 Content Area Reading Inventories 52 Readability 55 FLIP Strategy 63 Looking Back, Looking Forward 65 Minds On 66 Hands On 66 eResources 67

43 45

PART

two:

Learners and Texts

68

chapter

3 Struggling Readers and Writers

68

Organizing Principle 68 Chapter Overview 69 Frame of Mind 70 The Consequences of Struggling with Text 71 73 BOX 3.1 / WHAT ABOUT English Language Learners? Low Achievement 74 Learned Helplessness 75 Explicit Instruction in the Use of Strategies 76 Metacognition and Learning 76 Strategy Instruction 78 BOX 3.2 / WHAT ABOUT Content Standards and Assessment? 80 Strategic Reading 83 Using Think-Alouds to Model Comprehension Strategies 83 Using Reciprocal Teaching to Model Comprehension Strategies 86 Using Question­Answer Relationships (QARs) to Model Comprehension Strategies 86 BOX 3.3 / Research-Based Best Practices 89 Strategic Writing 90 The Discovery Stage: Generating Ideas, Planning, and Organizing 92 BOX 3.4 / Research-Based Best Practices 94 Drafting 96 Revising 97 Looking Back, Looking Forward 101 Minds On 102 Hands On 102 eResources 103

CONTENTS

ix

chapter

4 Culturally and Linguistically

Diverse Learners 104

Organizing Principle 104 Chapter Overview 105 Frame of Mind 106 Cultural Differences in Today's Schools 107 BOX 4.1 / WHAT ABOUT Content Standards and Assessment? From Monocultural to Multicultural Classrooms 109 Ways of Knowing 112 Students' Funds of Knowledge 113 Linguistic Differences in Today's Schools 114 Dialect Use in the Classroom 114 English Language Learners 116 Vocabulary Strategies 119 Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy 121 Concept of Definition Word Maps 121 Vocabulary-Building Strategies 124 Comprehension Strategies 133 Questioning the Author (QtA) 134 BOX 4.2 / Research-Based Best Practices 135 Directed Reading­Thinking Activity (DR­TA) 136 BOX 4.3 / Research-Based Best Practices 138 Talking and Working Together 142 Scaffolding Student Talk 142 Purposes and Types of Discussions 147 Creating an Environment for Discussion 148 Looking Back, Looking Forward 151 Minds On 152 Hands On 152 eResources 153 108

chapter

5 Learning with Trade Books

154

Contributed by Barbara Moss, San Diego State University

Organizing Principle 154 Chapter Overview 155 Frame of Mind 156 BOX 5.1 / WHAT ABOUT Content Standards and Assessment? Textbook Use in Today's Classrooms 157 Reasons Teachers Use Textbooks 158 Problems with Using Textbooks 158 Rationale for Using Trade Books 161

157

x

CONTENTS

Learning through Literature 163 Nonfiction Books 163 BOX 5.2 / Research-Based Best Practices 169 Picture Books 169 Fiction Books 171 Multicultural Books 174 BOX 5.3 / Research-Based Best Practices 175 Books for Struggling Readers 176 Using Trade Books in the Classroom 177 Creating Classroom Libraries and Text Sets 177 Student Self-Selected Reading 178 Teacher Read-Alouds 180 Literature Study in Content Areas 182 BOX 5.4 / Research-Based Best Practices 183 Promoting Response to Literature 184 Making Connections: Text-to-Self, Text-to-Text, Text-to-World Process Drama as a Heuristic Response 188 Readers Theatre 190 Idea Circles 191 Looking Back, Looking Forward 193 Minds On 193 Hands On 194 eResources 195

185

chapter

6 Learning with Electronic Texts

196

Organizing Principle 196 Chapter Overview 197 Frame of Mind 198 BOX 6.1 / WHAT ABOUT Content Standards and Assessment? Rationale for Electronic Texts 200 Interactivity 201 Communication and Information Search/Retrieval 201 Multimedia Environments 202 Socially Mediated Learning 202 Electronic Texts in the Classroom 203 Learning with Hypertext and Hypermedia 203 Learning with Software Programs 205 Learning with Electronic Books 207 Learning with Word Processors and Authoring Systems 208 Learning with the Internet 209 Strategies for Online Learning 214 Internet Workshops 214 Internet Inquiries 217

199

CONTENTS

xi

Internet Projects 219 WebQuests 220 Looking Back, Looking Forward Minds On 224 Hands On 225 eResources 225

224

PART

three:

Instructional Practices and Strategies

226

chapter

7 Bringing Students and Texts Together

Organizing Principle 226 Chapter Overview 227 Frame of Mind 228 Sociocultural Context for Reading Comprehension 229 The Reader­Text­Activity Dynamic 229 Collaborative Interactions 231 Engaged Minds 231 Designing and Planning Text Lessons 231 B­D­A Lesson Structure 232 Some Examples of Text Lessons 236 BOX 7.1 / Research-Based Best Practices 238 BOX 7.2 / Research-Based Best Practices 240 Designing and Planning Units of Study 243 Components of a Well-Designed Unit 243 An Inquiry/Research Emphasis in Units of Study 247 BOX 7.3 / Research-Based Best Practices 248 A Multiple Text Emphasis in Units of Study 250 Designing and Planning Collaborative Interactions 252 Cooperative Learning Groups 252 Small-Group Processes Underlying Cooperative Learning 255 Looking Back, Looking Forward 260 Minds On 260 Hands On 261 eResources 263

226

chapter

8 Developing Vocabulary Knowledge

and Concepts 264

Organizing Principle 264 Chapter Overview 265 Frame of Mind 266

xii

CONTENTS

Experiences, Concepts, and Words 267 What are Concepts? 267 Concept Relationships: An Example 267 BOX 8.1 / WHAT ABOUT Content Standards and Assessment? 268 Using Graphic Organizers to Make Connections among Key Concepts 271 BOX 8.2 / Research-Based Best Practices 272 A Graphic Organizer Walk-Through 272 Showing Students How to Make Their Own Connections 275 Activating What Students Know about Words 276 Word Exploration 277 Brainstorming 277 List­Group­Label 278 Semantic Word Maps 279 Word Sorts 279 Reinforcing and Extending Vocabulary Knowledge and Concepts 281 Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA) 282 Categorization Activities 283 Concept Circles 283 Context- and Definition-Related Activities 284 BOX 8.3 / WHAT ABOUT ELL and Struggling Readers? 286 Magic Squares 287 Looking Back, Looking Forward 290 Minds On 291 Hands On 291 eResources 293

chapter

9 Activating Prior Knowledge

and Interest 294

Organizing Principle 294 Chapter Overview 295 Frame of Mind 296 Self-Efficacy and Motivation 297 BOX 9.1 / WHAT ABOUT Content Standards and Assessment? Arousing Curiosity 300 Creating Story Impressions 300 302 BOX 9.2 / Research-Based Best Practices Establishing Problematic Perspectives 302 Guided Imagery 306 Making Predictions 307 Anticipation Guides 307 Adapting Anticipation Guides in Content Areas 308 298

CONTENTS

xiii

Question Generation 311 Active Comprehension 311 ReQuest 311 BOX 9.3 / WHAT ABOUT ELL and Struggling Readers? Expectation Outlines 313 Your Own Questions 314 Looking Back, Looking Forward 314 Minds On 315 Hands On 316 eResources 317

312

chapter

10 Guiding Reader­Text Interactions

318

Organizing Principle 318 Chapter Overview 319 Frame of Mind 320 BOX 10.1 / WHAT ABOUT Content Standards and Assessment? Instructional Strategies 322 The KWL Strategy 322 Discussion Webs 328 Guided Reading Procedure (GRP) 331 Intra-Act 335 Reading Guides 339 Three-Level Reading Guides 339 Selective Reading Guides 345 Looking Back, Looking Forward 346 Minds On 349 Hands On 350 eResources 351

321

chapter

11 Writing to Learn

352

Organizing Principle 352 Chapter Overview 353 Frame of Mind 354 Integrating Reading and Writing 356 Reading and Writing as Composing Processes 356 Reading and Writing as Exploration and Clarification 357 BOX 11.1 / WHAT ABOUT Content Standards and Assessment? Exploratory Writing Activities 361 Unsent Letters 361 Biopoems 362 Dialogues 364

358

xiv

CONTENTS

Admit Slips and Exit Slips 365 Brainstorming and Clustering 366 Journal Writing 368 Response Journals 371 Double-Entry Journals (DEJs) 378 Learning Logs 382 RAFTing Activities 384 Establish a Context for Writing 384 Use Discourse Forms in RAFTing Activities Looking Back, Looking Forward 385 Minds On 387 Hands On 388 eResources 389

385

chapter

12 Studying Texts

390

Organizing Principle 390 Chapter Overview 391 Frame of Mind 392 Searching for and Using Text Structure 393 External Text Structure 393 BOX 12.1 / WHAT ABOUT Content Standards and Assessment? Internal Text Structure 396 Signal Words in Text Structure 398 Graphic Organizers 399 BOX 12.2 / Research-Based Best Practices 401 Using Graphic Organizers to Reflect Text Patterns 402 Using Questions with Graphic Organizers 407 Semantic (Cognitive) Mapping 409 Study Guides Based on Text Patterns 411 Classroom Examples 412 Writing Summaries 414 Using GRASP to Write a Summary 416 BOX 12.3 / Research-Based Best Practices 417 Polishing a Summary 419 Making Notes, Taking Notes 420 Text Annotations 420 A Note-Taking Procedure 424 Looking Back, Looking Forward 425 Minds On 427 Hands On 428 eResources 429

394

CONTENTS

xv

Appendix A: Affixes with Invariant Meanings Appendix B: Commonly Used Prefixes with Varying Meanings 434 Appendix C: Graphic Organizers with Text Frames 436 Bibliography 439 Name Index 456 Subject Index 461

430

Preface

hen we began writing Content Area Reading more than twenty-five years ago, we decided to set the tone of the first edition in the opening chapter by quoting a line from Simon and Garfunkel's "Kodachrome." Although we run the risk of dating ourselves, we are reminded of the provocative line because it captures the disconnect that many students have felt in their school experience, then as well as now. The opening lyrics to "Kodachrome" are a songwriter's personal reflection on education--nothing more, nothing less. Yet the juxtaposition of having learned "crap" in school with the inability to "think" critically represents an ongoing dilemma faced by content area teachers who are wedded to an academic discipline. We have never met a teacher who didn't believe that the essence of artful teaching is in showing students how to think deeply and critically about the content underlying an academic discipline. Yet, when content is taught in a vacuum without attention to the process by which it is learned, students are apt to make few connections between the powerful ideas underlying an academic discipline and the prior knowledge and experience that they bring to classroom learning situations. In this book, we explore the relationships between content and process by critically examining the literacy processes and strategies that students use to think and learn with texts.

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Major Themes in the Eighth Edition

Influenced by the role of language, cognition, culture, and social context in learning, our goal for this edition is to inspire teachers, whether novice or veteran, to examine what it means to connect literacy and learning in a standardsbased curriculum. The eighth edition continues the ambitious exploration of content literacy--the ability to use reading, writing, talking, listening, and viewing processes to learn subject matter across the curriculum. The major themes underlying content literacy and learning are reflected in the organizing principles described at the beginning of every chapter:

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All teachers play a critical role in helping studens comprehend and respond to information and ideas in the text. Instructional assessment is a process of gathering and using multiple sources of relevant information about students for instructional purposes.

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xvii

xviii

PREFACE

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Teachers respond to the literacy needs of struggling readers and writers by scaffolding instruction so that students become confident and competent in the use of strategies that support learning. Teachers respond to linguistic and cultural differences in their classrooms by scaffolding instruction in the use of vocabulary and comprehension strategies and by creating classroom environments that encourage talking and working together. Instructional practices involving the use of informational and literary trade books in content areas help to extend and enrich the curriculum. Electronic texts, like trade books, extend and enrich the curriculum. Bringing students and texts together involves instructional plans and activities that result in active student engagement and collaboration. Teaching words well means giving students multiple opportunities to develop vocabulary knowledge and to learn how words are conceptually related to one another in the texts that they study. Activating prior knowledge and generating interest create an instructional context in which students will approach reading with purpose and anticipation. Teachers guide reader­text interactions through the instructional strategies and practices that they use and the reading support that they provide. Writing facilitates learning by helping students to explore, clarify, and think deeply about the ideas they encounter in reading. Looking for and using text structure in everything they read helps students to study texts more effectively.

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Underlying these themes is our belief that students learn with texts, not necessarily from texts. Learning from texts suggests that a text is a body of information to be mastered by learners rather than a tool by which they construct meaning and knowledge. Learning with a text, on the other hand, implies that students have much to contribute to their own learning as they interact with texts to make meaning and construct knowledge.

Organization of the Eighth Edition

The knowledge base related to content literacy and learning has changed dramatically in the past twenty-five years, and so has thinking about what constitutes "best practice." Nevertheless, in making decisions related to changes in this edition, we ask the same question that guided the writing of the first edition twentyfive years ago: How can teachers make content literacy a visible part of their instructional routines without sacrificing high standards for content learning?

PREFACE

xix

Answers to this guiding question led us to reorganize the eighth edition into three parts: Part One: Content Literacy in a Standards-Based Curriculum, Part Two: Learners and Texts, and Part Three: Instructional Strategies and Practices. Part One situates issues and problems related to content literacy within the context of the standards-based movement and accountability systems that are changing the face of education in today's U.S. schools. Although the pressure to ensure that students meet content standards weighs heavily on instructional decisions, a teacher can make a difference in students' literacy development and knowledge acquisition by showing them how to use literacy processes and strategies to meet high standards for learning. Ongoing, authentic assessment in the classroom--when coupled with high-stakes proficiency assessment--provides the information that teachers need to inform their day-by-day instructional decisions about content literacy and learning. In Parts Two and Three of this edition, we build an instructional framework for content literacy and learning across the curriculum. In Part Two, Learners and Texts, our emphasis is on the exploration and clarification of issues related to struggling readers and writers, culturally and linguistically diverse learners, and the use of trade books and electronic texts to extend and enrich the curriculum. Students who continually struggle with text in reading and writing situations need to build strategic knowledge, skills, and insights related to literacy and learning. Moreover, culturally and linguistically diverse students present a unique challenge to content area teachers, especially in light of the influx of immigrant students in today's classrooms. We also examine the limitations of textbooks and explain how to use trade books and information and communication technologies such as the Internet to extend and enrich a standards-based curriculum. In Part Three, Instructional Strategies and Practices, we flesh out the instructional framework by explaining how to create active learning environments in which all students--alone and in collaboration with one another--know how to use content literacy strategies to learn with texts. To this end, Part Three offers a multitude of instructional strategies and practices that allow teachers to scaffold instruction in ways that support the following:

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development of vocabulary knowledge and concepts; activation of prior knowledge before, during, and after reading; comprehension and critical analysis of text through reader­text interactions; use of various writing activities to facilitate learning; and development of study strategies based on a search for text structure in everything that students read.

These instructional strategies and practices are designed to engage students in their strategic interactions with text and other learners. Rather than left to "sink or swim" with a text assignment, students will be more likely to know how to search for meaning in everything they talk about, listen to, and read, view, and write.

xx

PREFACE

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Features in the Eighth Edition

The eighth edition retains all of the features of the previous edition, while improving its overall coverage of content literacy topics and instructional strategies and practices.

New and Expanded Chapters

The text continues to emphasize a contemporary, functional approach to content literacy instruction. In a functional approach, content area teachers learn how to integrate literacy-related strategies into instructional routines without sacrificing the teaching of content. Our intent is not to "morph" a content teacher into a reading specialist or writing instructor. As a result, we expanded our discussions of topics in the previous edition by creating separate, new chapters for the following:

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Chapter 1: Reading Matters (with an emphasis on the impact of teaching to content standards); Chapter 3: Struggling Readers and Writers (with a renewed emphasis on writing strategies for students who struggle with the writing process); Chapter 4: Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners (with emphasis on students whose first language is other than English); Chapter 5: Learning with Trade Books (written by Professor Barbara Moss from San Diego State University, a leading expert in the field of informational literature for children and adolescents); and Chapter 6: Learning with Electronic Texts (with emphasis on learning with the Internet).

Overview

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LINGUIS TICALLY DIVERSE LEARNERS CULTURAL DIFFERE NCES LINGUIS From TIC DIFF Ways of Monocultura ERENCES Students ' Knowing to Multicult l Dialect Use Funds of ural English Lang Classroo Knowledg ms uage Lear e ners Bilingual and ESL Prog rams What Mak es Content Literacy Difficult? Sheltere d Instruct ion

CULTURALLY AND

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E LEARNE

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Aids to Understanding

VOCABU LAR STRATEGIE Y S Vocabula ry Self-Col lection Strategy (VSS) CD Word Maps Vocabula ry Building

COMPRE HENSIO STRATEGIE N S Questioning the Auth or (QtA) Directed Reading­ Thinking Activitie s (DR­TA)

TALKING AND WOR TOGHETHER KING Scaffolding Student Talk Purposes and Type s of Discussi on Creating an Environm ent for Disc ussion

e chalis all the mor the with texts re Teaching sroom, whe rsity today's clas lenging in cultural dive uistic and e the range of ling steadily sinc stuincreasing in the has been ing diversity grow in the 1960s. The n reflected ion is ofte es as dent populat ut themselv think abo e often than way learners writers. Mor kgrounds bac readers and of diverse in not, students reading and writing the struggle with Much like decontexts. academic writers we readers and urally and struggling pter 3, cult Cha n are scribed in learners ofte ly diverse re that linguistical school failu t and a cycle of caught in l achievemen to margina they are contributes Typically, out rates. re inhigh drop groups whe low-ability placed in

Organizi

tic and perience is often cha ners. Their school exracterized to linguis connection by failure, respond , and disTeachers s in their writing in acad resistance to reading and emic con difference texts. The cultural g number of increasing scaffoldin other than learners whose first ooms by language English dem classr is one inst ands liter lary ruction acy-related that is stra of vocabu tegic and sponsive n in the use instructio ategies stud , with high learning culturally reall expectation ents. St. Pau hension str s for l's era and compre ssroom of unprecedented quote wears well in an ating cla classroom day's teac and by cre diversity. her is a teac age Tothat encourers, with different lingher of all kinds of lear ents nuistic and backgrou environm nds and acad cultural ether. tog of emic needs. working their voic And es talking and

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How can teachers be linguistic responsive and cultural to diversity classrooms in their while mai ntaining high dards for content liter stanacy and lear Understand ning ing the cult ural and ling ? differences between mai uist nonmainstr nstream and ic eam learners tant first step is an imp or, as the orga ple of this chapter sugg nizing princiests: Teache respond to linguistic rs and cultura ferences in l diftheir clas srooms by folding inst scafruction in the use of vocabulary and compreh strategies ension and environmen by creating classroo m ts and working that encourage talk ing together.

n watered-dow a limited, is based on result, the struction um. As a g to instructhe curricul version of learners brin ed. that diverse app strengths ally go unt ations usu tional situ

A new design makes the text visually appealing and easy to use. Through this new, attractive design, the main features are easily identified, making the text user-friendly. Each chapter opens with a quotation to help readers reflect on the underlying theme of each chapter. The Organizing Principle gives readers a "heads-up" by introducing the rationale for each chapter and highlighting its underlying theme. A Chapter Overview depicts the relationships that exist

ng Princi

ple

PREFACE

xxi

among the important ideas presented in each chapter. A set of questions at the start of the chapter helps readers approach the text in a critical Frame of Mind as they analyze and interpret information presented in each chapter. End-of-chapter features include Minds On and Hands On activities. Minds On activities engage students individually and collaboratively in thinking more deeply about some of the important ideas that they have studied. Hands On activities engage students individually and collaboratively in applying some of the important ideas that they have studied.

Frame of Mind

1. 2.

Why are today's classrooms more diverse than they were several decades ago? What are some of the cultural and linguistic differences that students from various racial and ethnic backgrounds bring to classroom learning situations? Why do English language learners struggle with content literacy tasks, and how does sheltered instruction make content more accessible to them while providing additional language support? How can teachers scaffold instruction to develop vocabulary-building strategies for diverse learners? How are the questioning the author (QtA) strategy and the directed reading­thinking activity (DR-TA) similar? How are they different? Why is classroom talk especially important to English language learners, and how can teachers create an environment for discussion in their classrooms?

3.

4.

5.

6.

New Features

New features to this edition include marginal notations and "boxed" text segments that highlight issues related to content standards and assessment, procedures for research-based best practices, and connections between chapter content and diverse learners.

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e began our teaching careers in the 1960s in a suburban high school just outside of Albany, New York, during the height of the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War. The times were tumultuous in the wake of great social change. Practically every facet of American society was open to critical examination, if not reform, including the nation's schools. The landmark 1954 U.S. Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruled that "separate but equal" schools were unconstitutional and laid the groundwork for educational reform in the 1960s. The civil rights movement fueled the legislative agenda of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination in public institutions on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin. Also in 1964, the Economic Opportunity Act resulted in educational programs, such as Head Start and Upward Bound, that are still in existence today. In 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) established compensatory educational programs (Title 1) to provide educational opportunities for low-income students from minority backgrounds. In addition, the Bilingual Education Act of 1967 made it possible for schools to receive federal funding for minority groups who were non-English speaking. Despite the social and educational reforms taking place in the 1960s, it was business as usual at the high school where we taught. The school seemed impervious to change. In a student body of more than 1,000 students, no more than 1 or 2 percent of the students were people of color or immigrants whose first language was one other than English. Response Journal One of our students during If you currently are our first year of teaching, teaching, how would you Johnny, was the oldest son describe the cultural and of Hungarian immigrants. linguistic differences of your students? If you are He worked after school at studying to be a teacher, his uncle's garage where he describe the cultural and pumped gas and did minor linguistic differences repairs on cars. He used to that existed in your work on our beat-up, old school experiences. Chevy Impala whenever it broke down and needed repair. Anyone who took the time to get to know him could tell that Johnny was a bright young man, but in school he was mostly a quiet

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199

Response Journal In what

ways, and for what purp oses, do you use comp uters?

What about Content Standards and Assessment? Boxes positioned throughout most of the chapters. These boxes are designed to emphasize relationships between chapter content and issues/implications related to academic standards and high-stakes state proficiency assessments as well as authentic assessments in the classroom. Research-Based Best Practices. Boxes positioned throughout most of the chapters relating to instructional strategies and practices. These boxes highlight the steps and applications involved in using high-visibility strategies that are supported by theoretically sound rationales and/or evidence-based research.

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on technolo and comgies (ICT), Internet, and synthesi such as the is integral ze to the strat edge and communicate information to crea egic knowlskills that te and knowledg every stud content area e. ent in ever will need y to develop State cont tent literate ent standard to be conin the twen derscore the s, likewise, ty-first cent Practically ability to unury. all of the put technolo use for learn national edu associations gies to ing, but for catio in the vari the most continue ous academic n plines have part, state to rely on developed discis paper-and-pe rather than content stan statements ncil tests, the dards or of principl to assess stud literacies required e that imp plicitly ackn by ICT, ents' abili licitly or owledge the exties to mee standards. technologies proficient t content Donald Leu use for informa (2002), one leading scho cation. Imp tion and com of of the lars associate licit in two munieracies, argu d with the of the seve standards new lites that prof n content of the Ame iciency asse will need rican Asso Health Edu to be rede ssments ciation for cation (AA fined in the ing world HE), for exam the use of ever chan of ICT: "Th ICT to deve ple, is ge challeng develop asse lop health e will be to ssment syst literacy: I Stud ems with the cont ents will demonstrate inually chan that keep up to access eracy so that the ability ging natu valid heal re of litassessment th informa and health information data prov tion promotio ide useful for planning n products services. out a majo " and r flaw in state (p. 326). He points wide prof I Stud assessments ents will iciency related to demonst reading and "not a sing use 401 interpersonal com rate the ability to le reading writing: S assessment United Stat munication TE XT to enhance in the es currentl YI NG skills health. y evaluate the Internet : ST UD s reading R 12 The Internat and not a TE on single state ional Read sessment CH AP writing aspermits the ing Associati and the Nati use of anyt on (IRA) onal Council than pape S English hing othe r and penc of Teachers r (NCTE) are il technolo ICE of T Study the gies" (p. 326) explicit in dard for usin state prof their stan . RAC iciency asse in your cont g ICT: T P ssments ent area. To I Stud what exte assessments ents use a nt do thes , where they variety of e eracies that exist, refle and informa technologica ct the litstudents need tion resource l ences effectively to commun s . . . together Differ as well as icate search for ezoid information ap and interpre les Tr on ICT such t Isosce ure. as the Inte ded fig rnet? Four-si se

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What About Struggling Readers and English Language Learners? Boxes positioned occasionally in several of the chapters to augment the content presented in separate chapters on struggling readers and linguistically diverse learners.

les to 360 er Isosce . e at m es figure oduc nes, Pi of the allel oid rs th Two sid al -sided nonpar To intr organize ea, Jo me Three are equ . The of a trapez . c ent ar ggest so sum in length sides ual in length graphi your cont angles 9) su in Interior degrees. are eq or88­198 texts aphic to 180 er (19 nt ta gr of ou and Hu ple of eps: 286 PART ng st exam to the type ppose THR EE: an INST RUC followi e, su esent esponds TION AL sses ampl PRA CTIC 1. Pr rr Likene ES AND For ex is orga at co STRATEGI ach. er th ll read ES tto te ganiz ts wi xt pa e prewww.ablo In Chapter u plan uden ct te ngman.com/v d in th 4, we exp es e line yo xt that st e and effe acca8e lore u raise procedur guage learners e th th a te ns yo e and struggli d the role of context of th axt wi a caus that ng readers questio through th e Venn diwords that they clues in help the te ound atures stufe ar iew encounter to figure ts ntrast of th ,and English nized scover , prev in text. In out the mea ing English lanMake and co ide studen lopment language arency desc addition to . First lp them di pattern. ve and Gu learners ansp tern context clue nings of unknown leted ribed in Box eads, view. d to the de erhead tr e ts. He signal the s, struggli 8.3, particul will find context-rela subh ly comp view to th uden ov lea le, ial st ng readers es arly helpful. may ted activitie that , on an a part the tit ts re th clu that s, such as uden : First ample of text me that e them wi questions those ve st gram lp co awar id amask t an ex nd, ha to he hic dents s prov for ex Then presen aphic. Seco ggestions ying grap ern-- l word the text. t an gr r su signa e patt ing? Wha ering Venn d offe ure of ELL andeaccomp ted rend t to th ad rtant xt an . The struct pertinen in this re truc oc Strugglin e impo the te e graphic are -cons ens lop pr are th ss g Reader pp t th ve e that plete shows a cla Third, de difi to us ? Wha fects?" hat ha s? Mo en e, "W to happen m. ef g wh ed Cloze Pas ta pl e uc display nn diagra discussin it sages and ts e thes to constr uden Students by e Ve causes that caus OPIN who e ggle th st how y. th stru of th ledge s rat ma trate know us Engl and wh limitede of unities with text or have factor diffe mons ose th ish dural aphic rt proficien in the et the Supp 2. De op r- cy nn gr students from contpo abou d isosc On completi tline. them ext-related activ may benefit t a pa the Ve ading ng a brief ach gles an truct hic ou cussion on d givetivities,presen eady ities. Two such prereading ed a re trian ns grap 3. Co the causes ne an disxts re modified mplet isosceles acto co of the Civi help stud ve alr cloze passages and American ke how c outli other te ve co ha mak e hi u ents ha l War, an een em histo e ali OPIN, ag grap at yo betw e. If ow th w they ar arison words in, encour e meaning arou passage befo ry teacher assigned actic ern th nd keyences ezoids. Sh a cloze ss a text. conre students mp p ho to pr text patt ap troductio read the entir the co s to the cla to ma e n for hom les tr ular e infer to gram d with MODin team s and to us ework. See tic dia or IFIE Dne fare on the xt, re strate how well first part ually tli CLO ZE PAS a Venn rent. Ne ss you demon of the exer divid Clozec ou hi passages for cla SAG ES ffe cise. ts in sis grap and di What caus studen eir own be as the ba (discussed in Cha ed the Civi th pter 2) can ing to ns created to reinforce l War? Was evitable? by go technical krces struct nstructio However, To what exte it inzers vocabulary. the teacher nt and in ways was co Resou graphic organiWebsite andicclic usually mod what slave procedure Or their n. ifies the for teaching tent was each ry to blame? To wha anion les of Graph Comp scussio examp h for t expurposes. word, for region of di re fault Ever exam the s on the d mo s. Searc

Fin rce nation Resou Desti Web sional Profes ing on ex. r Ind ganize

BOX

t Content about . . . Standard s and As Knowing sessment how to use ? information municati

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Response Journal. The Response Journal marginal icon signals readers to use a journal while reading to make personal and professional connections as they react to ideas presented in each chapter.

y nth ple, need modified n't be dele cloze pass ted. The age will vary Typically, in length. a 200- to 500-word yields suffi text segm cient tech ent nica make the activity wort l vocabulary to hwhile. Should you consider ified cloz developing e passage a modon a segm from a read ent of text ing the text pass assignment, make sure that age is one of the mos tant parts t imporof the assig nment. Dep your obje ending on ctives, missing word students can supp ly the s either befo the entire re or after assignme reading nt. If they cloze activ work on the ity before reading, use quent disc the subseussion to build terms and to raise expe meaning for key ctations for signment as a whole. the asIf you assig passage after n the cloz reading, it e cepts attai will reinforce ned through conreading.

BOX

8. 3

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? Which were nation at more intellectu al or the emo decisive--the tional issue Any cons s? ideration of the (1) war must of the include the problem of In his seco (2). nd inaugura Abraham l Lincoln said address, was "som that slave ehow the ry cause of the The critical war." word is "(3). maintain that the mora " Some (4) be solved, l issue had the to (5), and the nation had to face the slaves had other grou to be (6). Anp of the war was historians asserts that not fought their view over (7). In , slavery serv focal poin ed as an (8) t for more fundamental involving two (9) Constitution. different (10) of the All of thes merit, but e views have no single view has unanimou won s support. (Answers can be foun d at the end chapter on of this page 292. )

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eResources. The eResources marginal icon directs readers to the Companion Website to search for Web links, Web activities, or suggested readings to engage in further learning about the topics presented in each chapter. There are also additional eResources at the end of each chapter directing students to the Companion Website for more activities and suggested readings, as well as articles from the New York Times.

Supplements for Instructors and Students

Allyn and Bacon is committed to preparing the best quality supplements for its textbooks, and the supplements for the eighth edition of Content Area Reading reflect this commitment. For more information about the instructor and student supplements that accompany and support the text, ask your local Allyn & Bacon representative, or contact the Allyn & Bacon Sales Support Department (1-800-852-8024).

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Instructor's Resource Manual and Test Bank with teaching suggestions and test items for each chapter. PowerPointTM Presentation. Ideal for lecture presentations or student handouts, the PowerPointTM presentation created for this text provides dozens of ready-to-use graphic and text images (available for download from Supplement Central at www.suppscentral.ablongman.com). Companion Website (www.ablongman.com/vacca8e) that provides online practice tests, activities, and additional Web resources to deepen and expand understanding of the text. VideoWorkshop, a new way to bring video into your course for maximized learning! This total teaching and learning system includes quality video footage on an easy-to-use CD-ROM plus a Student Learning Guide and an Instructor's Teaching Guide. The result? A program that brings textbook concepts to life with ease and that helps your students understand, analyze, and apply the objectives of the course. VideoWorkshop is available for your students as a valuepack option with this textbook. (Special package ISBN required from your representative.) VW will eventually become part of an exciting new package online called "My Lab School" currently under construction. Watch for details. My Lab School. Discover where the classroom comes to life! From video clips of teachers and students interacting to sample lessons, portfolio templates, and standards integration, Allyn and Bacon brings your students the tools they'll need to succeed in the classroom--with content easily integrated into your existing course. Delivered within Course Compass, Allyn and Bacon's course management system, this program gives your students powerful insights into how real classrooms work and a rich array of tools that will support them on their journey from their first class to their first classroom. Allyn and Bacon Digital Media Archive for Literacy. This CD-ROM offers still images, video clips, audio clips, Web links, and assorted lecture resources that can be incorporated into multimedia presentations in the classroom.

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Professionals in Action: Literacy Video. This 90-minute video consists of 10to 20-minute segments on Phonemic Awareness, Teaching Phonics, Helping Students Become Strategic Readers, Organizing for Teaching with Literature, and discussions of literacy and brain research with experts. The first four segments provide narrative along with actual classroom teaching footage. The final segments present, in a question-and-answer format, discussions by leading experts in the field of literacy. Allyn and Bacon Literacy Video Library. Featuring renowned reading scholars Richard Allington, Dorothy Strickland, and Evelyn English, this threevideo library addresses core topics covered in the literacy classroom: reading strategies, developing literacy in multiple intelligences classrooms, developing phonemic awareness, and much more.

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Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the many individuals who made this edition possible. First, we would like to thank several of our former doctoral students who came to the rescue of tired and beleaguered mentors by helping us to meet deadline commitments: Dr. Barbara Moss, San Diego State University, for revising Chapter 5, Learning with Trade Books; Dr. Christine McKeon, Walsh University, for serving in the role of Webmaster as she updated and redesigned the Companion Website for this edition; and Dr. Maryann Mraz, University of North Carolina, for revising and updating the Instructor's Resource Manual. We also wish to acknowledge the thoughtful and thought-provoking professional suggestions of those who responded to questionnaires and reviewed the text for this edition: Vi Alexander, Stephen F. Austin State University; Mickey Bogart, Kansas State University; Dr. Deb Carr, King's College and Hazleton Area School District; Ann Harvey, Columbia College; Stephenie Hewett, The Citadel; Lois E. Huffman, North Carolina State University; Luther Kirk, Longwood University; and Joyce Stallworth, The University of Alabama. This book is only as good as the editors behind it. We owe a debt of gratitude to our Acquisitions Editor, Aurora Martínez, whose graceful guidance and incisive leadership on this project made us work harder than we wanted to. And special kudos to Tom Jefferies, the finest and steadiest developmental editor with whom we have had the pleasure to work thus far. A special thanks to students, colleagues, and teachers in schools throughout the United States and Canada, too numerous to list, who have contributed immeasurably to our growth as teachers and scholars. This book has been a marriage-of-sorts for us and it's time to celebrate our silver anniversary with this edition's time cycle! Never in our dreams did we think it possible, and we thank a Power greater than ourselves for making it a reality. R. T. V. J. L. V.

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