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Europe-Africa Quality Connect: Building Institutional Capacity through Partnership Self-Evaluation Report

Of

Ahmadu Bello University Zaria

September, 2011

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1.0 Members of the self evaluation process The members of the self evaluation group were selected from a broad range of the institution's stakeholders. They included senior members of academic staff, middle ranks, the non academic members and students. The total number of the group was twenty one, which is more than ten- the maximum recommended. This exception was granted at the training workshop for institutions held in Ghana because Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) is large, made up of many varying constituent parts. The list and affiliations of the group members is presented in Table 1.

MEMBERS OF THE SELF EVALUATION PROCESS S/No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Names Prof. A. M. Adamu Prof. Kabir Bala Prof. Sani Idris Dr. M. Duru Prof. G. N. Akpa H. Y. Bappah Doris L. Obieje Dr. Maryam Aminu Mukhtar Lawal Ahmed A. Aliyu M. Mafindi Ahmed Doko Ibrahim Danjuma S. Yawas Yakubu A. Anivbassa Ahmadu Jibril Dr. M. N. Maiturare Bar. Zainab Haruna Prof. D. D. Yusuf Dr. M. F. Ishiyaku Prof. S.Z. Abubakar Dr. Balarabe Jahun Alice Mafe Njolke Departments DVC Academic Director, DAPM Deputy Director, DAPM Assist. Director, DAPM Animal Science Political Science French Microbiology Human Anatomy Bursary Department Quantity Surveying Mechanical Engineering Registry Pharmacy (Students Rep.) Business Administration Private Law Engineering Dean Student Affairs Director, NAERLS Fac. of Vet. Medicine Microbiology (Students Rep.) GSM Number 08035953950 08037264175 08037224017 08034512207 08028724980 08037798960 08037019942 08033287031 08037148592 08037024446 08035925082 08035814468 08036423248 07031278105 08036065355 08033629793 08023738634 08051316887 08035066982 08037051984 08168034089 e-mail address [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]/lawala [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]/ha [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

1.1.1 The group members collaborated with all relevant stakeholders in the University. These included faculties, institutes/centres, the bursary, registry, the Physical

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Planning and Municipal Services Unit, University Health Services and Students Affairs Division. A university-wide sensitization workshop was held at the Assembly Hall on 6th June 2011 and was well ­attended. 1.1.2 The report has been discussed widely across the University. It was severally discussed on the floor of the Senate. Deans, Directors and Heads of Departments were requested to discuss the report in their respective Units. The report was discussed with representatives of the students' body. It was also hosted on the University website and members of the university community were requested to visit the site and make inputs. 1.1.3 The positive aspects of the exercise included further insights into the enormous potentials of the University in teaching, research and community services as well as the establishment of critical areas for strengthening quality assurance. Difficulties in data retrieval, due to inefficient data management systems were encountered. 1.2 Institutional Context

1.2.1 Brief Historical Overview The University grew from the seeds nourished at the Samaru Agricultural Research Station in 1924. The Institute was one of those Institutions of Higher Learning that the UK Inter-University Council delegation visited in the late nineteen fifties when they were searching for a "University of Northern Nigeria". It later metamorphosed into the Northern Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology, which eventually became Northern Nigerian Regional University in October, 1962, and named after its founder and first Premier of Northern Nigeria. In 1975, it became a Federal University, along with other `first generation' universities (Appendix I). 1.2.2 ABU is located in Zaria, Kaduna State of Nigeria and lies between 11o 5' and 11o15' N; 7o34' and 7o6' E. Zaria is a nodal town for both road and rail transportation modes. It is a confluence of the North-Eastern and North-Western axes of the country. Beyond the campuses dispersed across Zaria, ABU also has over thirteen outstations across the country. 1.2.3 A brief analysis of the current regional and national labour-market situation The national labour-market situation is characterised by low productivity and massive unemployment. This phenomenon is more critical in the northern part of Nigeria, where ABU is located; the dominant occupation of the populace here is subsistence agriculture. Most job seekers lack skills and are not employable. Poor funding of education and non-responsive curricula are responsible for the illequipped graduate job-seekers in the labour market. Additionally, the economy lacks the capacity to absorb the teeming job-seekers. 1.2.4 Number of Faculties, Research Institutes/Centres, Academic and Non-teaching Staff and Students as shown below:

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· · · · · · ·

12 Faculties with 85 Academic Departments 12 Research Institutes/Centres Veterinary Teaching Hospital University Teaching Hospital 1974 Academic staff 6784 Non- teaching staff 38,118 Students (see Appendices II and III)

1.2.5 Autonomy with respect to: 1.2.5.1 Human and financial resource The University has absolute autonomy in the recruitment and management of its human resources. The University has reasonable autonomy in the management of its IGR while autonomy is limited with respect to government allocation. 1.2.5.2 Capacity to set its own profile for teaching, research and innovation The institution possesses the capacity to set its own teaching, research and innovation profiles. These activities are undertaken through Departments, Faculties, Institutes, Centres and the Senate. 1.2.5.3 Capacity to set its own governing structures The University also possesses the capacity to set its own governing structures as enshrined in the law. 1.2.6 A context and brief explanation of the national quality assurance system The National Universities Commission (NUC) regulates the activities of all universities in the country and sets quality standards. These include approval of academic programmes and periodic accreditation of such programmes. The NUC has also developed the instrument for overall institutional accreditation, which is due to commence in November, 2011.

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2.0

NORMS, VALUES, MISSION AND GOAL The cardinal principle upon which ABU is founded is to impart knowledge and learning to men and women of all races without any distinction on the grounds of race, religious, or political beliefs. This principle is enshrined in the University Law. Only through freedom of membership and freedom of enquiry and research can a University be drawn into the full ferment of thought from which new knowledge comes. Only if it adheres to those freedoms can it become truly great. If ABU staff and students are drawn from all parts of the world, then the mixture of international minds working together in an atmosphere of academic freedom can produce a university true to its ideal and meanings.

2.1.1 Values ABU considers as fundamental the values of quality, excellence, diversity, equity, integrity, service, accountability, entrepreneurialism; pluralism, sharing, and partnering. Our thrust has been to sustainably conserve these core values, which has ensured that the University enjoys tremendous goodwill nation-wide and abroad. 2.1.2 Vision Ahmadu Bello University shall be a world-class centre of learning and research that is responsive to the needs of its immediate community, Nigeria and the world at large. 2.1.3 Mission To advance the frontiers of learning and break new grounds, through teaching, research and the dissemination of knowledge of the highest quality; establish and foster national and international integration, develop and the promote African traditions and cultures, produce high-level human capital and enhance capacity building through retraining, in order to meet the needs and challenges of the catchment area, Nigeria and the rest of the world. ABU through its ever-expanding programmes has achieved quantifiable milestones with visible impacts in the attainment of the vision and mission. 2.1.4 Goals 1. To be an academic centre of excellence in teaching and research poised to address societal development needs and challenges. 2. To be a leader in the development of high quality human capital for national transformation, with global relevance. 3. To promote the acquisition, generation and dissemination of knowledge and skills across socio-cultural, political and racial boundaries. 4. To be the best run academic institution where transparency, accountability and efficient resource management prevails by adhering to global best practices.

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2.I.5

Governance and Management

2.1.5.1 Degree of Centralisation ABU has been characterised since its inception by a somewhat decentralised management model, which has encouraged a healthy creativity and resourcefulness among its Academic units. Recently, the Governing Council deemed it necessary to re-introduce the discourse on the collegiate system, which may result in the further devolution of power and responsibilities to the lower organizational units, particularly Departments and Faculties. 2.1.5.2 Human resources policies The recruitment, selection, and evaluation of both teaching and non-teaching staff are guided by extant rules as well as internal regulations provided in staff handbook, conditions of service and appointment and promotions guidelines. These manuals have recently been reviewed in line with the strategic objective of ensuring quality service delivery and career progression. 2.1.5.3 Quality Assurance Policy The University has a Directorate of Academic Planning and Monitoring (DAPM) which has the mandate to ensure quality control of all the academic programmes in the University. There is a system of external examination moderation at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. A new policy of lecturers' assessment by students has also been recently introduced. 2.1.5.4 Academic Profile 2.1.5.5 Balance The University synergises its teaching, research and community service. It runs conventional courses, in the humanities and sciences, agriculture, medicine, engineering and management studies. A great number of programmes like the Medical Sciences, Law, Language and Theatre have direct community services programmes. Research activities include degree based, individual and group. The University has also developed a policy for linking research to industry. 2.1.5.6 Academic Priorities The priorities are in the areas of agriculture, environmental sciences and engineering. 2.1.5.7 Student ­centred Approach ABU is mainstreaming and refocusing towards participatory learning, which encourages both the teacher and the student to enter into learning situations, exchanges and share experiences. 2.1.5.8 Academically ­related Activities The University has established institutional linkages with the immediate community and the catchment area including overseas universities and centres for linkages, exchanges, collaborative research and further training of academic, administrative and technical staff. The University has, through its institutes/centres, disseminated knowledge and skills in the areas of varietal/breeds, controlled environment, engineering designs, enlightenment campaigns, healthcare, etc imparting on the

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socio-economic status of the society, thereby addressing specific challenges of the local, regional and national communities. ABU actively engages in collaborations/partnerships, and mentoring, accessing funds for research, provision of standard student support services, consultancy services and the establishment of institutes and centers of excellence. Examples of some of these collaborators are The Nigerian Institute of Transport Technology (NITT), Nigerian Army school of Military Police (NASMP), Television College Jos, many colleges of Education, NARICT and the University of Port Harcourt. As part of its community service initiative, the University mentors new institutions through affiliations and staff exchange programmes among which are, Bayero University Kano, ATBU Bauchi, Kaduna state University, Katsina State University, Gombe State University etc. 2.1.5.9 Funding The University receives the bulk (80%) of its funding from the Federal Government (FG), while the balance is sourced through the IGR comprising of student fees, alumni, individuals, endowed chairs and corporate donors among others. However, the funding from FG is increasingly declining while the IGR is increasing gradually due to diversification of sources. Being a premier institution with thousands of graduates in leadership positions all over the country, the University enjoys goodwill across the nation and beyond thereby improving the capacity for IGR generation. 2.1.5.10 Institutional Balance The University is currently rated 3rd in Nigeria and 43rd in Africa in the Webometrix ranking. However, ABU aspires to attain and maintain the number one university in Nigeria, among the top 10 in Africa and among the top 100 in the world. 2.1.5.11 Rationale of Strategic Choices The strategic choices made by the University are based on the potential impact which the selected priorities have in enhancing the attainment of the University's goals. In addition, we harness our resourcefulness, diversity and goodwill to sustain the position attained. 2.2.0 Governance and Activities 2.2.1 Analysis of Governance and Management The governing structure of ABU has two major levels of strategic policy formulation and management; the Council and the Senate (Appendix IV). The other levels of governance which contribute to policy formulation but are largely responsible for policy implementation are the Institutes, Faculties and Departments. In addition, there is a committee system that complements the decision making process at all levels. The Principal Officers of the University constituting the University Management team include: The Vice Chancellor ­ who is the Chief Executive Officer of the

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University responsible for the general day-to-day running of the University; The two Deputy Vice Chancellors ­ who assist the Vice Chancellor in administration and academic functions. The Registrar - is responsible to the Vice-Chancellor for the dayto-day administrative work of the University; The Bursar ­ is the chief financial officer of the University responsible to the Vice-Chancellor for the administration and control of financial matters; The University Librarian - responsible for the administration of the central and all satellite libraries in the University (Appendix V). Co-ordination among the various organs takes place at central Management committee, Faculty boards and Committee of Deans and Directors. These coordinating organs have scheduled meetings. 2.2.2 Analysis of Decision-Making Process ABU operates a decentralized management structure; at the Central level is the University Management, at the lower levels are the Institutes/Centres, Faculties and Departments. Each of these levels is empowered to handle specific responsibilities towards attaining the University's mission and goals. The Faculties are managed by a Deanery, headed by the Dean whose responsibility is to coordinate the activities of the Departments. The Departments conduct teaching and research towards the award of degrees, diplomas and certificates. Research Centres and Institutes are headed by Directors. All Deans, Directors and Heads of Departments are appointed by the Vice Chancellor through consultation. Coordination takes place between the Institutes, Centres and Faculties in the form of multi-disciplinary research, joint teaching and students' supervision. The faculty boards, for instance, are usually represented by members of other faculty boards where students and staff have common academic activities. Staff from relevant faculties participate in the Boards of Centres and Institutes. Decisions related to academic activities and policies, funding, selection and promotion of academic and administrative staff, selection of students follow a decentralised framework where recommendations start from Departments, Faculties and Centres/Institutes to the central administration, Senate or Council where final decisions are taken. The existence of different approval thresholds for officers often hinders the general operational efficiency in the system. This sometimes stifles growth and development as well as the attainment of the University's goals. Consequently, the University is taking steps to address these challenges. 2.2.3 Inclusiveness in Decision-Making Process: Students and External Stakeholders ABU has always included students and other stakeholders in the decision making process. Students are usually involved in several statutory committees of the University involving welfare and safety, discipline, security, etc. External stakeholders are involved in the affairs of the University as members of Council and other Boards of the University. In addition, curriculum development and review

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process of academic programmes also involves representatives of relevant industries and professional bodies. Representatives of the host communities of the University are involved in security matters, environment protection, advocacy, etc. Important achievements have been made over the years in community development activities such as Tree Planting Campaign, organization of Achaba (commercial bikers), local community empowerment, community health outreaches etc. 2.2.4 Analysis of Human Resources Policy and Practices The human resources policy of ABU provides that staff composition is guided by the parameters prescribed by the regulatory agency. The human resource management practices involving the recruitment, selection and evaluation of all categories of staff are guided by extant rules as well as internal regulations provided in condition of service and the appointments and promotion guidelines. The core principles used include right-sizing, training, establishment of committees/task forces to undertake review, gender balance and equity, conformity to a code of conduct and approved work ethics. A challenging area under consideration is developing a human resource policy document that will redefine staff jobs and responsibilities. The principle behind this is to improve efficiency of staff, provide an objective term of reference for employment without discrimination and in line with the principles of federal character enshrined in the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The University recognises the importance of training and retraining for all categories of staff and accords high priority to providing opportunities and funding. In this regard, the University provides support for staff to attend local and international conferences and training workshops. Furthermore, the DAPM regularly organises training workshops on teaching skills and use of appropriate technologies for new and older academic staff members. 2.2.5 Inter-institutional Co-operation The University has developed several bi-lateral/multi-lateral relationships with a number of public and private institutions at national, regional and international levels in the areas of teaching, research and community service. For example, the Faculty of Law has established relations with Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Court of Justice. Similarly, the Agricultural Research Institutes of the University (NAPRI, NAERLS and IAR) have subsisting collaborations with international development agencies such as the CGIAR, FAO, IFAD, IITA etc. ABU has had a rich portfolio of international collaboration cutting across all units of the University some of which have become moribund. Presently, the leadership of the University has started making some efforts with the recent visits of the Vice Chancellor to Turkey, Cuba, Canada and the United States in an effort to renew and establish new collaborations. Moreover, the University allows and supports senior academics to serve as visiting lecturers to other educational and research institutions. Currently over 30 professors/lecturers are visiting lecturers at various locations in and outside the country. This contributes immensely to the establishment and running of new academic programmes of some younger universities and other institutions.

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2.2.6 Reflection of Management Policies on Mission and Goals The University has been developing its capacity in teaching and research by expanding and redefining its programmes and upgrading its facilities to meet the market demands thereby contributing to national and international development. However, the slow response and some level of apathy to change, especially in the area of e-governance and e-learning, have retarded the University's development in this regard. This could be corrected through systematic attitudinal re-orientation and enforcement of compliance with the new practices. 2.3 Analysis of Academic Profile The University's research and educational strategy is need-focused and demanddriven. This is achieved in two ways: initiating new programmes and establishing specialised centres. Examples include the SAFE programme on agricultural extension and the Islamic Banking and Finance programme. Other examples are Centre for Biotechnology Research and Training as well as the Centre for Disaster and Risk Management. Analysis of Academically-related Activities The services rendered by some of the University centres and institutes like IAR, NAPRI, NAERLS, ABUTH, CERT, Arewa House, CILS transcend national boundaries. Many of these centres/institutes have out-stations located in almost every geopolitical zone of Nigeria. This diversity and multi-location is an advantage to the University and enables it to, in addition to the traditional role of teaching and research, provide the following services: Diagnostic and surveillance services in medical, agricultural and environmental fields to individuals and corporate bodies; Outreach programmes on various key issues; Provision of viewing centres, demonstration farms/clinics and ambulatory services; Provision of expert support services in identified areas of need. The University has been offering these services for over three decades. Building and improving on existing synergies within the diverse disciplines in the University and with similar national and global centres is crucial for continuous improvement in the services that the University is capable of providing for sustainable national development. A pilot multi-disciplinary research agenda initially focusing on the `University village' (Samaru) and targeted at addressing the multifaceted challenges faced by urban centres can be a good starting point. 2.5 Student Support Services Student support services are organised by the Student Affairs Division. The University aims to provide all services necessary for the comfort of students in pursuance of their academic activities. The main services rendered include: Health related services, Guidance and Counselling, accommodation, sports services and ICT. The University also supports the students in their union and certain approved association activities. Other forms of support include: assistance to indigent students, scholarship to deserving students, special support programme for international students, such as language programme for non Anglophones,

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2.4

preferential on-campus accommodation and strong links with International Students Association. The University has plans to make provisions for students with special needs. 2.5 Funding issues Funding is an important determinant of attainment of set goals and objectives. Given the desire of the University leadership to reposition the university to meet global standards of best practices in the myriad areas of its activities, the actual cost and projected budget of running the affairs of the university within the current threeyear strategic calendar (2008-2012) has more than tripled i.e. from N10, 847,612.06 in 2008/09 to N37, 527,779.60 for 2012. Furthermore, Table 2 presents the pattern of funding according to sources.

Table 2: Funding pattern of the University

FUNDING PATTERN/TREND

2008/2009 Federal Allocation Research Grants /Contracts Students Fees Investment Income Gifts and Donations 88% 1% 9% 1.50% 0.03% 2009/2010 87% 3% 9% 0.90% 0.10% 2010/2011 64% 27% 7.60% 1.36% 0.02% 2011/2012 80% 15% 4% 0.80% 0.10%

Source: Bursary Department, ABU, Zaria.

Fund allocation is done by the Senate through proposals made by its Estimate Committee after harmonisation of the individual submissions prepared and defended by the various departments, faculties, centres and units. Faculties and Departments, responsible for research, teaching and training, receive 100 percent of their students' specific charges and Direct Teaching and Laboratory Costs (DTLC) from the recurrent expenditure of the University. Each department receives its share according to the number of students and the discipline. Based on the existing policy, Science-based departments are allocated 60% of operating expenses while the Arts and Humanities receive 40%. The funds are grossly inadequate. However, departments that offer part-time programmes augment their finances from the fees generated. The University also receives additional revenue from the same source. The University's business units have not been contributing any significant revenue to the system. The University Council and Management have both responded to this

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situation by directing the complete re-organisation of the business units. Furthermore, the University has transformed the Development Office into a Directorate of Advancement with the responsibility of fund generation. Good rapport between the University and national/international public and private bodies and its strong network of alumni has helped in increasing flow of research grants and donation into the institution. Such funds though constitute a small percentage of the total revenue of the University, have been assisting the university to achieve some of its goals. The Institutional leadership does not have special allocation for implementing new initiatives. However, it has over the years, been able to implement most initiatives directed at ensuring quality. It actively seeks special intervention windows such as ETF, PTDF, CBN, SHELL etc. The full cost of research and teaching activities has not been estimated over the years. This is largely as a result of absence of reliable data and low priority accorded to it, a situation that is being addressed by strengthening the Bursary and the Budget Unit.

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3.0 3.1

QUALITY ASSESSMENT PRACTICES Internal Quality Assurance The University has regulations for quality assurance for its various activities such as teaching/research and examinations. There is an established framework for quality assurance for teaching/learning and examination. Heads of Departments monitor teaching activities in their departments. In addition there is a monitoring committee at the Faculty level, composed of a representative from each department of that faculty. There is also an apex committee of Senate which monitors teaching and examination. This committee is composed of one Professor from each Faculty, the Academic Secretary as a member and chaired by the Director of DAPM. These committees at various levels ensure that lectures, laboratory practicals and examinations take place regularly and promptly. The Committees are also mandated to monitor and advice on delivery/methods and course materials. However, it has been observed that, monitoring is not very efficient and effective because some of the monitors are reluctant to report non compliance. In an effort to improve quality of teaching, the University administration recently introduced a programme of orientation for new employees of the University. A manual has been produced on the basic principles of teaching and learning, measurement and evaluation and framework for research. It is premature to assess the impact of the programme. However, preliminary assessments of the programme by participants have indicated that it was a very enriching and worthwhile experience. Course/Lecturer evaluation by students has also been introduced. Previously, students had no freedom of expressing their experiences about courses taken or the lecturers who taught them. Students' performance has not been encouraging; it is hoped that this and other strategies adopted will improve students' performance considerably. The general context of examination quality assurance is contained in the Examination Management/Regulations (Appendix VI). Issues covered comprise sanctity of question papers, internal moderation, external moderation, conduct of examination and logistics.

3.2

Research Quality Assurance Research in ABU is undertaken at three levels: research leading to postgraduate qualifications, individual, group and multi-disciplinary research. The University Board of Research (UBR) is the statutory organ charged with the responsibility of coordinating among others, the research activities of the University. The Board is also responsible for disbursing grants from the University research funds when available.

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It should be mentioned that research activities have been at low ebb for some time now. The reasons include the inability of the Board to meet its statutory functions, the paucity of research funds and the inability of the administration to institute sanctions for non retirement of grants. With the Council's recent approval of the ABU Research Policy, this trend is expected to change. 3.3 Internal Evaluation of Programmes The handbooks of Administrative Procedures and Financial Practice are used to monitor the activities of the University including internal audit. These books contain the procedures and rules concerning recruitments, promotions, schedule of duties, disciplinary measures and budgetary and financial control. There are various committees that use the documents to ensure compliance. The purpose of the Code of Ethics is to establish standards of conduct for staff and students in the University. Staff and students have to comply with all the Statutes, policies and rules established by the University. They must recognize and respect diversities that exist in the University and its community and be of good moral standing. 3.4 Link between Institution and Strategic Plan The results of various monitoring activities are fed into the University Strategic Plan reviewed every five years (Appendix ). The University Strategic Plan provides the blueprint of activities to be undertaken by the university every five years. It proceeds from the vision, mission and goals of the university which are elaborated into objectives then to activities and an implementation plan. The strategic plan revolves around the strategic development resources for the attainment of set goals and objectives. The quality practices of the University work in accordance with the strategic plan through a continuous improvement process for the curriculum and code of ethics for staff and students (Figure 1).

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Mission Needs Assessment

i. ii. iii. Alumni feedback Advisory council input Employers of our students

Vision

Outcome Assessment

Outcome based on data and trends i. Selected course assessment ii Exit grades

Evaluation Recommendation

Objective 1

Outcome 1,2,3, ..., n

· · · · · ·

Objective Based on Data and Trends

Curriculum Ethics Exam. Quality Assurance Teaching, Learning Quality Assurance Research Quality Assurance Institutional Output

Objective Assessment i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Number of Degrees Awarded Competency (Survey) Promotion/Salary Key Roles/Leadership Position Membership in Professional Organizations Advanced degrees Membership in government policy/decision formulation and implementation. Appointment into key government positions

Fig. 1: Continuous improvement process for quality assurance practices development leading to award of degrees at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, showing loops for outcome and objective assessment.

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4.0 4.1

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND CAPACITY FOR CHANGE The institution's response to the demands, threats and opportunities present in its external environment. The management's response to demands, threats and opportunities present in its external environment, can be summarized in the following six programmes of strategic interest: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Academic and Research Laboratory Computerization, Multi-media Communication and Linkage Facilities Resource Mobilization Governance and Management

4.1.1 Academic and Research program The University is enhancing its learning and research activities and capacity especially with regards to curriculum review and introduction of new programs. The essence of the curriculum review is to sustain a balance between demand driven and knowledge-driven education. It is organising workshops on quality of teaching; it has introduced and approved new academic programmmes; improved its production and publication of research policy; and strengthened its linkage and exchange programmes. Many new academic programmes have been approved by ABU Senate in the last few years. These programmes were introduced in response to demands from the external environment. 4.1.2 Laboratory Programme The University in response to the Government policy on the development of Science and Technology has established a biotechnology research laboratory and commenced the process of establishing multi-user laboratories, equipped with stateof-the-art facilities for high quality research. The University is committing a sizeable amount of its funds for equipment procurement. ABU won an International Foundation for Sciences (IFS) grant worth $400, 000 in 2008, which was used for the procurement of equipment for the multiuser science laboratory. It also established an Equipment Maintenance Development Center (EMDC) which plays an important role in training and maintenance of University's facilities holdings, including the laboratories. 4.1.3 Computerisation, Multi-media Communication and Linkage Programme To improve and enhance intra and inter-university communication, efficiency, good performance and productivity, the University is networking its various units through laying of optic fibre backbone, computerisation, digitisation and linkage of the library

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system and operations. The University has also provided Digital Learning Centres in the faculties. 4.1.4 Facilities Programme To enhance operational efficiency, the University has improved the supply of electricity on its campuses. Electricity generating plants are provided at strategic locations in the University to supplement electricity supply. Because of these, daily power supply within the University now range from 18 to 24 hours. The University has also over the years sustained its water supply from the University waterworks. In addition, boreholes were provided to supplement water supply. To ensure the development of sound and healthy minds, the Sport office of the University organises year-round sporting activities (inter-faculty, inter-hall, inter-club competitions) for the university's teaming number of staff and students. The University also actively participates in other sporting activities such as Nigerian University Games (NUGA), the West African University Games (WAUG), and the World University Games. 4.1.5 Resource mobilization Programme Over the years, the University's revenue has been almost entirely government dependent. This has since become inadequate, irregular and can no longer support the growing needs of the University. The University has therefore seen the need to be proactive in revenue generation. Hence the University is improving its resource base and income generation through improved revenue collection, revenue sourcing, resource mobilization and management in conjunction with the alumni and other stakeholders. To this effect the University Directorate of Advancement was established to coordinate, attract and generate funds for the University. The University expects to enhance its resource base through ABU Estate Management Company, ABU Consultancy Services (ABUCONS), Kongo Conference Hotel, ABU Microfinance bank, ABU Ventures, ABU Press, Iya Abubakar Computer Center, ABU Farms etc. The University is reorganising these companies to make them profitable. 4.1.6 Governance and Management To ensure competence and high productivity, the University has reorganised the registry and is in the process of concluding the review of its laws to pave way for efficient decentralisation and management. Other areas include the overhaul and development of Management and Information System, the Security System, inter and intra-university community relations, curricula and extra-curricular activities.

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4.2

Involvement of representatives from the external environment in the institution's strategic management ABU Governing Council is made up of seven (7) external members that fully participate in all the activities of the various committees of the Council. The ABU Alumni Association is also involved in the affairs of the University by organising home coming activities by the various units of the University. The board of Governors and Professional and Academic board of the research institutes and centres have defined external members who participate in the governance of the various Units. The security committee of the University comprising of traditional rulers, the police, armed forces and other security agencies in Zaria assist in maintaining law and order.

4.3

The extent to which the institution take full advantage of its autonomy The institution takes full advantage of its autonomy by self selection and appointment of the Vice Chancellor and the Principal Officers of the institution. Democratic processes are also put in place in appointing Deans of Faculties and Heads of academic Departments. It embarks on consultancy services through ABUCONS and other relevant units. The University determines its academic calendar in any given session. It established subsidiary institutions such as SBRS, Funtua, Demonstration Secondary School and Staff School thereby providing quality education to the community and responding to the social needs of the society. Changes expected to be made towards the Institute's aims Changes expected to be made towards the Institution's aims in order to consolidate and open up new frontiers for the University to attain a level of excellence are highlighted. Continued development and evaluation of an Academic Brief for the University and continuous review of curricula to make them relevant to contemporary reality; Introduction of new academic programs that respond to today's needs; Provision of state-of-the-art research laboratories for Sciences, Medicine and Engineering, development of a research policy to guide the conduct of research in the University and establishment of linkages with industry for effective research result utilisation; Development of renewable/alternative energy to counter the incessant crisis of power; continuation of the landscaping of the University; computerisation and making the University ICT compliant. Establishment of a parent company to maximize the University's commercial and income generating potentials and development of operation of a student's Workstudy plan and loan scheme; Enhancement of part-time and sub-degree programs for revenue generation; cultivation of an effective alumni body for resource mobilisation.

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4.4

Reformation accomplished by greater devolution of powers; right-sizing to get rid of redundancies and waste, and recruitment of qualified staff; reform, reorientation and re-equipping the Bursary, the Registry and Internal Audit; expanding the level of participation in administration, monitoring and evaluation; and effective coordination between the University and the Research Institutes/ Centers/ Teaching Hospitals. 4.5 Attaining a better match between the current and future mission and goals and activities (study, program, research, societal service) A better match between the current and future mission and goals and activities of the University can be attained through transparency, advocacy, simplicity, trustworthiness and striving to achieve financial stability. The following strategies should be evolved by the University to enhance its financial stability: Improve revenue generation through charges for utilities (e.g. rent, water and electricity); proper financial practices and vibrant consultancy service; improve welfare facilities for staff and students through good housing, water, electricity, communication, health services, sports and recreation; improve administrative style through transparency, accountability, participation and gender sensitivity; regular review and enhancement of the security system through retraining, equipping, coordinating and involving immediate communities; and establishment of a vibrant ABU Holdings. 4.6 What roles do quality monitoring and management play in these developments? Quality monitoring ensures prudent use of resources, cut down on leakages and wastages, stems corruption, enhances productivity, builds excellence and takes the rating of the University to its premium place of primus inter pares. The University's efforts in pursuing the realisation of its strategic projects through improvement of the physical landscape and topography of the University; rehabilitation, upgrading and expansion of research facilities; provision of municipal services, sporting, health and welfare facilities for staff and students as well as the conservation and beautification of the University environment are bringing positive transformation in the University. The DAPM monitors new and existing programmes continually. Curriculum and attendance at lectures by staff are routinely monitored. New programmes are scrutinised by the academic board and the DAPM conducts checks on space, facilities, teaching staff capacity, compliance with minimum standards and viability before processing them for Senate approval. Monitoring improves the quality of teaching, learning and organisational effectiveness. As a result of Linkages and Collaborations, many buildings, laboratories, machinery, equipment, were donated to the University. Many staff members have gone abroad for

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higher degrees and short courses which ensure a flow of valuable resources into the University. One of the major potential sources of strength for ABU remains its Alumni. This most distinguished body, which numbers well over 500,000 women and men of all nationalities and races, have made many material and non-material donations to the University which has increased research funding and welfare facilities for staff. For example, Nassarawa state government generously provided the funds with which the Faculty of Arts buildings were completely rehabilitated and refurbished. Similarly, the then Government of Niger State, donated N75 million to the University to help boost electricity supply. In the same vein, Taraba State government donated a twin lecture theatre in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Quality arrangement for community engagement has played a significant role in ensuring a safer community and reducing poverty through gainful employment, good farming practices, living in clean environment and provision of portable water. Decisions about resource allocation and management are generally made by those most directly involved: HODs, Deans, and Directors. Within this system, each Unit of the University generally maintains some degree of administrative and financial independence. In order to ensure coordinated planning, Central Administration plays an important role in facilitating an annual University-wide planning process, all of which culminate in review and/or formal approval by Senate Estimates Committee, Management and Council. 5.0 5.1 Conclusion Summary of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats The strengths of ABU include: it's pioneering role as a first generation university, diversity of staff and students, expansive land, beautiful physical research and learning environment, government ownership and funding, strong assets base, self reliant municipal services, community oriented services, nationally accredited and innovative programmes. ABU's weaknesses include: unstable revenue base, low morale/motivation of staff, size and distorted staffing structure, declining quality of learning/welfare facilities/services, high cost of maintaining the elaborate university facilities, outdated instruments of governance, outdated and inadequate teaching/research facilities and publications and poor organic linkage with industries. Opportunities for ABU include: strong alumni base, linkages and collaboration potentials within/outside Nigeria, research funding potential from industries, agencies and organisations, investments, University autonomy, corporate and individual contributions.

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The threats to ABU include: emergence of State and Private Universities which created competition over quality staff, political instability and insecurity, antiintellectual orientation of the political elite, unemployment of university graduates, government ownership and funding, cultism and other forms of counter-culture, inadequate and unstable power supply. 5.2 OBJECTIVES Specific Action Plan ACTIVITIES Notification and publicity of CR processes. Finalization and submission of reviewed and new programmes to DAPM, Senate, NUC and JAMB. Sets research agenda Sources and disburses research grants. VC to set aside N10, 000,000.00 (initially) for the research project. UBR to call for applications and administer the special project.

Curriculum Review (CR) and creation of · · new programmes - October 2010 to Date

Re-invigoration of the University Board of · · Research (UBR) to discharge its functions Dedicated fund for Special Research into · Renewable/Alternative Energy. ·

Reformation and revitalization of the PG · · school from 2010 - 2012. · Identification and promotion of linkages · · and exchanges. Ongoing · Development of the instrument for · monitoring the performance of staff (staff attendance at lectures, course outlines and · coverage in the evaluation form by students as a way of monitoring quality) ­ 2010 to date

Re-organise PG school Restructuring of PG programmes. Creation of new programmes. Develop and publicise a linkage and exchange policy; Develop proposals for linkage activities and submit to relevant bodies. Strengthening existing linkages. Develop draft Evaluation Form and submit to senate for approval and implementation. Develop criteria for monitoring academic activities

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Identification of location, equipping, · production of working manual, recruitment · and training of staff of the multi user · laboratory - November 2008 to date. · · Design and develop a Storage Area Network · (SAN) for the library Complex. · Deployment of the Optics Fibre Network ­ · On-going. Review and publication of the University · laws, procedures and governance manuals- · · On-going.

Set up a technical committee-completed Identification of location / site and designing of Laboratory-completed Appointment, orientation and training-On-going Procurement of equipment and installation-Ongoing Production of Laboratory Guides-Ongoing Upgrading the University portal and website-On-going. Design and deployment of LAN/WAN for the UniversityOn-going. Development of the Data Centre-On-going Consultations with stakeholders-Completed Organization of workshops-Completed Adoption and implementation of the reviewed university laws-Ongoing.

Completion of the comprehensive review of · the management system. 2008 to date Enhance gender mainstreaming in the · admission, recruitment and training in the University from July 2008 to date. · Strengthen the MIS Unit from July 2008 to date. To strengthen collaborations and relations · between the University and industry. 2008 to date. Step-up inter and intra community relations · for greater peace and harmony. 2008 to · date.

Complete implementation of reviews. On-going. Implement gender policy/guidelines. On-going. To provide more equipment, expansion and network facilities for the data base system. On-going

VC to empower the Directorate of Advancement to work out modalities for ABU­Industry relations. On-going.

Conclude and implement University community outreach guidelines. On-going. Extend University services to the community directly through curricula and extra-curricular activities. On-going.

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