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Equine Skull and Spine

Normal Radiographic Anatomy

Kari L. Anderson, DVM, DACVR College of Veterinary Medicine University of Minnesota

Learning Resources

· · · ·

DE Thrall

Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology, Clinical Radiology of the Horse,

JA Butler, et al Medical Imaging Website Lecture notes

Study Points

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·

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In the syllabus are lists of specific items to know for large animal anatomy. Know them! You will not be expected to know an item that is not on the lists. Radiographic views are fair game for the test.

Radiography of the Equine Skull

Equipment

Equipment

1

Equipment

Equipment

From Tech of Vet Rad, 5th ed,

Morgan JP, 1993

Restraint

· · · ·

Landmarks

·

Stocks Rope halter Cover eyes Tranquilization/sedation

External

­ Cheek teeth ­ Zygomatic arch ­ Metallic markers

·

Internal

­ Ethmoid turbinates ­ 4th cheek tooth (M1) ­ 3rd cheek tooth (PM4)

Radiographic Views

· · · ·

Radiographic Views

· · ·

Imagination! Anatomic knowledge Clinical signs Oblique views

Lateral view DV or VD view Oblique views

2

Lateral View

· · · ·

Lateral View

Broad perspective Nasal passage and paranasal sinuses Teeth alignment Guttural pouch and pharynx

From Tech of Vet Rad, 5th ed, Morgan JP, 1993

Lateral View

Lateral View

1. 2. 3. 4. Nasal bone Frontal bone Maxilla Mandible

Lateral View

1. 2. 3. 4. Nasal bone Frontal bone Maxilla Mandible

Lateral View

1. 2. 3. 4. Nasal bone Frontal bone Maxilla Mandible

3

Lateral View

1. 2. 3. 4. Nasal bone Frontal bone Maxilla Mandible

Lateral View

1. 2. 3. 4. Nasal bone Frontal bone Maxilla Mandible

Lateral View

Lateral View

Sinuses:

1. Maxillary

a. rostral compartment b. caudal compartment

2. Frontal

a. conchofrontal

3. Dorsal conchal 4. Ventral conchal

Lateral View

Sinuses:

1. Maxillary

a. rostral compartment b. caudal compartment

Lateral View

Sinuses:

1. Maxillary

a. rostral compartment b. caudal compartment

2. Frontal

a. conchofrontal

2. Frontal

a. conchofrontal

3. Dorsal conchal 4. Ventral conchal

3. Dorsal conchal 4. Ventral conchal

4

Lateral View

Sinuses:

1. Maxillary

a. rostral compartment b. caudal compartment

Lateral View

Sinuses:

1. Maxillary

a. rostral compartment b. caudal compartment

2. Frontal

a. conchofrontal

2. Frontal

a. conchofrontal

3. Dorsal conchal 4. Ventral conchal

3. Dorsal conchal 4. Ventral conchal

Lateral View

1. Infraorbital canal 2. Ethmoid turbinates 3. Bony orbit

Lateral View

1. Infraorbital canal 2. Ethmoid turbinates 3. Bony orbit

Lateral View

1. Infraorbital canal 2. Ethmoid turbinates 3. Bony orbit

Lateral View

5

Lateral View

Bones:

1. 2. 3. 4. Basisphenoid Basioccipital Stylohyoid Occipital condyles 1. 2. 3. 4.

Lateral View

Bones:

Basisphenoid Basioccipital Stylohyoid Occipital condyles

Misc:

5. Tympanic bulla 6. Temporomandibular joint

Misc:

5. Tympanic bulla 6. Temporomandibular joint

Lateral View

Bones:

1. 2. 3. 4. Basisphenoid Basioccipital Stylohyoid Occipital condyles 1. 2. 3. 4.

Lateral View

Bones:

Basisphenoid Basioccipital Stylohyoid Occipital condyles

Misc:

5. Tympanic bulla 6. Temporomandibular joint

Misc:

5. Tympanic bulla 6. Temporomandibular joint

Lateral View

Bones:

1. 2. 3. 4. Basisphenoid Basioccipital Stylohyoid Occipital condyles 1. 2. 3. 4.

Lateral View

Bones:

Basisphenoid Basioccipital Stylohyoid Occipital condyles

Misc:

5. Tympanic bulla 6. Temporomandibular joint

Misc:

5. Tympanic bulla 6. Temporomandibular joint

6

Guttural Pouch/ Pharynx

Lateral View

From Tech of Vet Rad, 5th ed,

Morgan JP, 1993

From Vet Diag Rad, 4th ed, Thrall DE

Lateral View

1. Guttural pouch 2. Dorsal pharyngeal wall 3. Stylohyoid bone

Lateral View

1. Guttural pouch 2. Dorsal pharyngeal wall 3. Stylohyoid bone

Lateral View

1. Guttural pouch 2. Dorsal pharyngeal wall 3. Stylohyoid bone

Lateral View

1. Dorsal pharyngeal wall 2. Soft palate 3. Epiglottis 4. Aryepiglottic folds 5. Arytenoid cartilages 6. Nasopharynx 7. Pharynx

7

Lateral View

1. Dorsal pharyngeal wall 2. Soft palate 3. Epiglottis 4. Aryepiglottic folds 5. Arytenoid cartilages 6. Nasopharynx 7. Pharynx

Lateral View

1. Dorsal pharyngeal wall 2. Soft palate 3. Epiglottis 4. Aryepiglottic folds 5. Arytenoid cartilages 6. Nasopharynx 7. Pharynx

Lateral View

1. Dorsal pharyngeal wall 2. Soft palate 3. Epiglottis 4. Aryepiglottic folds 5. Arytenoid cartilages 6. Nasopharynx 7. Pharynx

Lateral View

1. Dorsal pharyngeal wall 2. Soft palate 3. Epiglottis 4. Aryepiglottic folds 5. Arytenoid cartilages 6. Nasopharynx 7. Pharynx

Lateral View

1. Dorsal pharyngeal wall 2. Soft palate 3. Epiglottis 4. Aryepiglottic folds 5. Arytenoid cartilages 6. Nasopharynx 7. Pharynx

Lateral View

1. Dorsal pharyngeal wall 2. Soft palate 3. Epiglottis 4. Aryepiglottic folds 5. Arytenoid cartilages 6. Nasopharynx 7. Pharynx

8

Bovine Skull

· · ·

Dorsoventral View

Compare symmetry Midline structures Mandible

Dorsoventral View

Dorsoventral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mandible Nasal septum Middle nasal meatus Maxillary sinus Teeth

a. mandibular b. maxillary

From Tech of Vet Rad, 5th ed,

Morgan JP, 1993

Dorsoventral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mandible Nasal septum Middle nasal meatus Maxillary sinus Teeth

a. mandibular b. maxillary

Dorsoventral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mandible Nasal septum Middle nasal meatus Maxillary sinus Teeth

a. mandibular b. maxillary

9

Dorsoventral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mandible Nasal septum Middle nasal meatus Maxillary sinus Teeth

a. mandibular b. maxillary

Dorsoventral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mandible Nasal septum Middle nasal meatus Maxillary sinus Teeth

a. mandibular b. maxillary

Dorsoventral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mandible Nasal septum Middle nasal meatus Maxillary sinus Teeth

a. mandibular b. maxillary

Dorsoventral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mandible Nasal septum Stylohyoid bone Maxillary sinus Ethmoid turbinates

Dorsoventral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mandible Nasal septum Stylohyoid bone Maxillary sinus Ethmoid turbinates 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Dorsoventral View

Mandible Nasal septum Stylohyoid bone Maxillary sinus Ethmoid turbinates

10

Dorsoventral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mandible Nasal septum Stylohyoid bone Maxillary sinus Ethmoid turbinates 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Dorsoventral View

Mandible Nasal septum Stylohyoid bone Maxillary sinus Ethmoid turbinates

Dorsoventral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mandible Nasal septum Stylohyoid bone Maxillary sinus Ethmoid turbinates

Oblique Views

· · · ·

Very important! Compare opposite side Excellent for teeth roots Often perform "bumpogram"

Oblique Views

Oblique Views

From Tech of Vet Rad, 5th ed,

Morgan JP, 1993

From Tech of Vet Rad, 5th ed,

Morgan JP, 1993

11

Oblique Views

Radiography of the Equine Cervical Spine

What's wrong with this picture?!?

Radiographic Views

· · · · ·

Normal Anatomy

· · ·

True laterals VD if anesthetized Several overlapping views Occipital condyles to CT junction Lead markers

C1, C2, C6, C7 are characteristic C3, C4, C5 are nearly identical Ossification centers may be mistaken for fractures

12

Cranial Spine ­ Lateral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Cranial Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

Basisphenoid bone Basioccipital bone Occipital condyles C1 C2 a. dens (odontoid process)

From Tech of Vet Rad, 5th ed,

Morgan JP, 1993

Cranial Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Basisphenoid bone Basioccipital bone Occipital condyles C1 C2 a. dens (odontoid process) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Cranial Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

Basisphenoid bone Basioccipital bone Occipital condyles C1 C2 a. dens (odontoid process)

Cranial Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Basisphenoid bone Basioccipital bone Occipital condyles C1 C2 a. dens (odontoid process) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Cranial Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

Basisphenoid bone Basioccipital bone Occipital condyles C1 C2 a. dens (odontoid process)

13

Cranial Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Basisphenoid bone Basioccipital bone Occipital condyles C1 C2 a. dens (odontoid process)

Cranial Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

Mid Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

Mid Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Spinal canal 2. Articular process

a. cranial b. caudal

From Tech of Vet Rad, 5th ed,

3. Transverse process 4. Spinous process 5. Intervertebral foramen 6. Intervertebral disc space

Morgan JP, 1993

Mid Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Spinal canal 2. Articular process

a. cranial b. caudal

Mid Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Spinal canal 2. Articular process

a. cranial b. caudal

3. Transverse process 4. Spinous process 5. Intervertebral foramen 6. Intervertebral disc space

3. Transverse process 4. Spinous process 5. Intervertebral foramen 6. Intervertebral disc space

14

Mid Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Spinal canal 2. Articular process

a. cranial b. caudal

Mid Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Spinal canal 2. Articular process

a. cranial b. caudal

3. Transverse process 4. Spinous process 5. Intervertebral foramen 6. Intervertebral disc space

3. Transverse process 4. Spinous process 5. Intervertebral foramen 6. Intervertebral disc space

Mid Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Spinal canal 2. Articular process

a. cranial b. caudal

Mid Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Spinal canal 2. Articular process

a. cranial b. caudal

3. Transverse process 4. Spinous process 5. Intervertebral foramen 6. Intervertebral disc space

3. Transverse process 4. Spinous process 5. Intervertebral foramen 6. Intervertebral disc space

Mid Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Spinal canal 2. Articular process

a. cranial b. caudal

Mid Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

3. Transverse process 4. Spinous process 5. Intervertebral foramen 6. Intervertebral disc space

15

Caudal Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

Caudal Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Expanded transverse process of C6

From Tech of Vet Rad, 5th ed,

Morgan JP, 1993

Caudal Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Expanded transverse process of C6

Caudal Cervical Spine ­ Lateral View

1. Expanded transverse process of C6

16

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