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The 2 International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, Their Cultivation and Aspects of Uses

Petra Marriot Hotel 3-4 November, 2010

Abstracts Book

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Petra­ Jordan

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THE 2nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MEDICINAL PLANTS, THEIR CULTIVATION AND ASPECTS OF USES PETRA MARRIOT HOTEL PETRA­ JORDAN 3-4 November, 2010 Abstracts Book

Dr. Mohammad Sanad Abu Darwish Al-Balqa' Applied University

Chairman: Chief in Editor:

Dr. Mohammad Sanad Abu Darwish E-mail: [email protected] Al-Balqa' Applied University

Editors:

Ziad H.M. Abu-Dieyeh E-mail: [email protected] Dr. Ahmad H. Al-Fraihat

. . .

:

Welcome Dear Participants, It is a great pleasure to welcome you on my own behalf, and on behalf of steering, and scientific committees of The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, Their Cultivation and Aspects of Uses, as you are meeting here in the Red­Rose city of Petra; which is famous with its history and civilization. A city that was a commercial as well as a cultural center where caravans met to continue their ways from east to west. Today, we are here again for the second time, to meet these elite scientists and researchers, from different countries of the world. They came from famous universities, institutes, and research centers to present their result's researches in an old- renewable science (Plant Science). A science in which agriculture, pharmacy, medicine, and biology have interfered. By this, we confirm that humans and humanity are linked to the nature, craving to return to it, conserving it too. We also confirm that our scientific research will continue, deeping into the knowledge of medicinal plants -been cultivated, harvested, used, and studied in the laboratory- until being manufactured to various forms. It will be away to modernize the originality, and to originate the modernity. This conference will deal with your various, scientific researches in medicinal plants the following main topics: Using medicinal plants and their extracts in the pharmacological activities, Ethno-pharmacological studies on it, Using medicinal plants as food additives in food recipes, Quality control and standardization of its products, Their conventional and organic cultivation and Impact of cultivation on their biodiversity, Climate change and ethnobotanical sources, Ethno-veterinary and animal nutrition practices of medicinal plants, Using of their extracts as parts of integrated pest management programs, New approaches in bio-fuel production and their industrial utilization. Keynotes speakers, who came from different scientific institutes, will talk to us in order to enrich our conference with researches through their long ­ year's scientific research. This conference will create a great opportunity to communicate between participants; it is also a chance to exchange ideas and experiences, however, this chance will ease their future communication in order to hold new prospects of scientific co-operation. This conference is a result of your participation, and the effort of members of steering, scientific, and executive committees. Not only this, it is also a result of partnership with private Jordanian institutions that contributed to

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success of the conference, like: The Hashemite Fund for Development of Jordan Badia, Jordan River Foundation, Ministry of Planning, Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC, The Housing Bank for Trade & Finance, VAPCO Company for Veterinary Medicines, DELASS for Natural Products, Altoor Company For Olive Products, and ICAMP. All thanks and appreciation for you and them. I would like to extend my thanks to the Presidency of Al- Balqa Applied University represented by its president Professor Khleif Al-Tarawneh for supporting this conference. Once again, I welcome you in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. A country where the Hashemite leadership and its people want to be full of love, goodness and peace. We wish you all to enjoy a fruitful and stimulating meeting.

Dr. Mohammad Sanad Abu Darwish Al-Balqa' Applied University Chairman of the Symposium

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Organizing Committee:

Honorary Chairman: Chairman of the Organizing Committee:

Prof. Khleif Al-Tarawneh

Al-Balqa' Applied University

Dr.Mohammad Sanad Abu-Darwish

Al-Balqa' Applied University Ziad H.M. Abu-Dieyeh Dr. Ahmad Al-Fraihat Odeh Murad Dr. Sati Al-Dalain Khaled Al-Habahbeh Talib Al-Mseidein Omar Al-Bdoor Dr. Abed Alrzaq Al-Shqirate Ashraf Al-Shaer Khaled Al-Da-asin MohammadAbu-Hammour

Members:

Scientific Committee: Mohammad Sanad Abu-Darwish (Chairman)/Al-Balqa' Applied University, Jordan Alain Meybeck / AM Phyto-Conseil, France. Carlos Garbisu / Neiker-Tecnalia,Spain. Caroline Weckerle / University of Zurich, Switzerland. Fatma Afifi / University of Jordan. Kyslychenko V.C. / National University of Pharmacy,Ukraine Kyung-Dong Lee /Dongshin University ,Korea Mohamed R.A. Rashwan / Assiut University, Egypt Ziad H.M. Abu-Dieyeh / Al-Balqa' Applied University, Jordan Ahmad Al-Fraihat/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Jordan Faisal Awawdah / National Center for Agric. Res. and Exten., NCARE, Jordan. Kamal Khairallah / Ministry of Planning, Jordan. Mohammad Khraisha / Jordan Food and Drug Administration, JFDA, Jordan. Nasri Haddad / Inter. Center for Agric. Res. in the Dry Areas, ICARDA, Jordan. Nemer Hadadin / Ministry of Agriculture, Jordan. Omar Al- Rafie / Hashemite Fund for Development of Jordan Badia, Jordan. Abdelrahman Tawaha / Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Jordan. Anwar Elhalah / Jordan River Foundation ,JRF, Jordan. Ezz Al-Dein Al-Ramamneh / Al-Balqa' Applied University, Jordan. Hashem Taha / Delass Natural Products, Jordan. Mufeed Batarseh / Mu'tah University, Jordan. Rida Shibli / University of Jordan, Jordan. Mohammed Al-Uwadat / JUST, Jordan

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Technical Secretariat:

Iqbal Al-Rawashdeh Reem Al-Malaheem Sana'a Al-Shqirat

EXcutive Committee:

Chairman: Dr. Ahmad Al-fraihat Abdullah Arabiat RaadAl-Bakheet Adel Al-wreekat Inad Khresat Mohammad Abu-Hammour Munier Shkeerat Mohammed Raja Shkeerat Mohammad Hassan Al-Bdour Mohammed Talal Al-Bdour Adel Al-Maraiah Mohammed Khleefat Saleh Al-Bdour Mohammed Ahmed Al-Bdour Ikhlas Al-Dhiat Kafa Al-Khushman Nora Al-Hawartheh Dina Al-Habahbeh Ahmed Abbas Majeda Al-Aghawani Jamlah Al-Tarabulsi Fawwas Al-Rafiha Mohammed Al-Osofi Tahani Al-Bdour AFaf Adullah Al-Rafyha

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The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their Cultivation and Aspects of Uses

Topic 1: The pharmacological activities of medicinal plants and their extracts.

1.1 Phytomedicines Used by the Santal Tribal People of the District Purulia, West Bengal, INDIA, for the Purpose of Contraception: an Experimental Approach on Mice A. Maiti and C.K.Manna

Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, Nadia, West Bengal, India.

Abstract: The medicinal plants have been used since ancient times for the treatment of human ailments. Amongst the various types of tribal people, the Santals of the district Purulia, still continuing this type of practice from time immemorial. Purulia district of West Bengal is situated at the eastern part of INDIA. It is provided with a good number of aboriginal and tribal communities, diversified plant species. One of the key health issues associated with biodiversity is that of drug discovery and the availability of medicinal resources. A significant proportion of drugs are derived, directly or indirectly from biological sources. In order to make an on the spot study of the major folk utilization of the plants extensive field surveys were conducted time to time and the information were collected from the interview report of the medicine men. According to their belief (Ojha), the plant parts are usually collected from the different heights of the small and large hills during the time of Full moon/ New moon in an extremely clean condition. These parts are usually dedicated to the God/Goddess and prepare the medicines (Swapnanta medicines) with other ingredients (Kaviraji or chemicals) in the form of talans. Some are quite important from the standpoint of contraception. Amongst the various types of preparations used by the Santal Medicine men of the District Purulia, the root extract of Achyranthes aspera L. was selected for the present experimental study of antifertility activity in the male albino mice. Oral administration of 50% methanolic root extract of Achyranthes aspera ( Apang, common Santal Tribal name ) at the dosage of 1 g/kg.bw./day for 21 days to male albino mice caused perceptible changes on the weight of the testis and other reproductive organs, the relative percentages of the secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. On the other hand the relative percentages of the spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and Sertoli cells were increased. Amongst the biochemical parameters, significant decrease of acid and alkaline phosphatases and increase of ascorbic acid and cholesterol level within the testis were observed. The acid and alkaline phosphatases were decreased and lipid materials were increased histochemically within the testicular tissue of the treated animals. Gradual recovery in all the biochemical and histological parameters after withdrawal of the treatment suggest that the treatment of Achyranthes aspera produced reversible infertility in male albino mice without inducing any side effect. Key words: Approach, bengal, purulia, phytomedicines, santal.

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1.2 Antimicrobial and Antivectoral Activities of Traditionally Used Indigenous Medicinal Plants A. Naresh kumar and K. Murugan

Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimabtore ­ 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract: Malaria is the worldwide most important parasitic disease with an incidence of almost 300 millions clinical cases and over one million deaths per year. The increasing global spread of drug resistance to most of the available and affordable antimalarial drugs is a major concern and requires innovative strategies to combat and there is an increasing demand for active compounds with a new mode of action to replace the current ineffective drugs. In the present in vivo study, different extracts of Cocculus hirsutus, Cassia occidentalis and Datura metel were tested for the antiplasmodial activity against the Malarial parasite, Plasmodium berghei and showed significant inhibition of parasitemia after the post infection period. Among the different solvent extracts methanolic extract of Datura metel showed greater percentage of parasitemia inhibition and mice survival. Laboratory studies were also made to evaluate antivectoral activity of Cocculus hirsutus, Cassia occidentalis and Datura metel against the malarial vector, A. stephensi. The immature stages of the mosquito were much susceptible against the methanolic extracts of C. hirsutus. Lethal Concentrations (LC50 and LC90) were calculated using the percentage mortality rate. The active chemicals in Cocculus hirsutus, Cassia occidentalis and Datura metel were proved to be much effective against the malarial parasites and vectors. Key words: Antiplasmodial activity, parasitemia, larvicide, lethal concentration.

1.3 Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Abutilon indicu, Linn on DGalactosamine Induced Liver Damage by in Vivo Method A.R. Srividya, S.P. Dhanabal, J. Alin Bose, and R. Rajesh Kumar

Abstract: The plant Abutilon indicum belongs to the family Malvaceae was screened for its hepatoprotective activity in D- Galactosamine intoxicated rat model. Ethyl acetate extract of Abutilon indicum found to possess amino acids, glycosides, protein, saponins, tannins. Treatment with ethyl acetate fractions at 400 mg/ kg body weight showed significant decrease in ASAT, ALAT, ALP, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and a significant elevator in the TGL, total protein and albumin levels in serum when compared with D- Galactosamine. In ethyl acetate extract treatment group there were reduced infections, lack of lymphocytes migration and lack of macrophage infiltration, hepatoprotective activity exhibited by ethyl acetate extract of Abutilon indicum was found to be equivalent with standard silymarin. Key words: Abutilon indicu, evaluation, galactosamine, hepatoprotective, liver.

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1.4 In Vitro Antioxidant Effects and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor properties of Peganum harmala Seed Extracts Abderrahmane BAGHIANI1, Meriem DJERMOUNI1, Djamila AMENI1, Hayet TRABSA1, Noureddine CHAREF1, Sabah BOUMERFEG2, Seddik KHENNOUF3, Daoud HARZALLAH1 and Lekhmici ARRAR1

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Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas of Setif, 2Department of Biology, University of Bordj Bouariridj, 3 Department of Phytotherapy Applied to Chronic Diseases, Faculty of Nature ad Life Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas of Setif, Algeria.

Abstract: In this work, the antioxidant activities and the inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity of various extracts prepared from Peganum harmala seeds were estimated. XO was purified from fresh bovine milk with protein / flavine ratio of 5.15, a single major band on SDS-PAGE, of approximately 150 KDa and a specific activity of 2055.05 nmol / min / mg protein. The analysis of methanol (CrE), chloroform (ChE) and ethyl acetate (EaE) extracts, showed that ChE contains the highest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids (66.29 ± 1.57 mg EGA and 13.88 ± 0.13 mg EQ / g dry extract), followed by EaE (58.1 ± 1.57 mg EGA and 12.18 ± 0.08 mg EQ / g dry extract, respectively), and CrE with 27.91 ± 0.98 mg EGA and 7.39 ± 0.68 mg EQ / g dry extract. The ChE showed the highest inhibitory properties on the XO activity (IC50 = 0.055 ± 0.0053 mg / ml) and on the Cyt c reduction (IC50 = 0.037 ± 0.0008 mg / ml), followed by EaE with IC50 of XO inhibitory activity and an IC50 of the inhibition of Cyt c reduction of 0.0057±0,0141 and 0.053 ± 0.0141 mg /ml, respectively. Finally, CrE had the lowest inhibitory effect on XO activity and on Cyt c reduction with 0.252 ± 0.0051 and 0.14 ± 0.0051 mg / ml, respectively. High DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed with CrE (IC50 = 0,100 ± 0.0069 mg / ml), followed by EaE and ChE with IC50 of 0,711 ± 0,0298 and 0,744 ± 0,0198 mg / ml, respectively. The -carotene / linoleic acid bleaching assay revealed that the extracts have a very important antioxidant activity. EaE has the highest antioxidant activity (94.21 ± 0.003 %), followed by CrE and ChE with 86.24 ± 0.027% and 77.35 ± 0.032 %, respectively. Ferrous ion chelating capacity assay showed that CrE, EaE and ChE are the most active. These results suggest that these natural products could be used to treat diseases, where inhibitions of XO, free radical scavenging and / or inhibition of lipid peroxidation are warranted. Key words: antioxidant, free radical scavenging, medicinal plants, peganum harmala, xanthine oxidase. 1.5 The Phytochimical Study and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Chemical Extracts of the Dog Rose Bush Rosa canina Ait kaki Sabrina

Laboratory of research: Technologies, valuation, physico-chemical of the biological materials and biodiversity. Department of Biology. Faculty of Science.University of Boumerdès. Algeria.

Abstract: The Rosaceous constitute an important family both by the number of the species (more than 3 000) and by the vegetative variety, floral and some fruits. This family distributed geographically on all the parts of the country of the world, but are especially plentiful in the moderate regions of the hemisphere the North. Our work it is concerned a species of this family, known under the naming of the dog rose bush (Rosa canina). This study has a practice having for objective a phytochemical study which consists of the identification of the various present active principles in Rosa's leaves followed by the 7

evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, flavonoïdes and Rosa canina's, tannins on 05 microbial origins among which 04 bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Klebsiella pneumoniae and 01 reference yeast Candida albicans. And finally determine the anti-oxidizing activity of extracts, hydroalcoholic and organic of leaves and Rosa canina's fruits. Key words: Antimicrobial, essential oil, flavonoides, Rosa canina, tannins, vitamins.

1.6 Cosmetological Activities of Plant Extracts Alain MEYBECK

AM Phyto-Conseil, Courbevoie, France.

Abstract: Cosmetic products are preparations intended to be placed in contact with the external parts of the human body with a view to clean them, perfume them, change their appearance and/or protect them or keep them in good conditions. Examples will be given of how testing extracts, fractions, or purified natural molecules on skin cells in culture can give information on their potential as new cosmetic active raw materials to meet the demand of the growing global market for products which protect the skin from ageing. Anti-aging activity of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E): 20-E or beta-Ecdysone or Ecdysterone, is the most common member of the ecdysteroid family. It can be found in insects, in plants such as Cyanotis arachnoidea (C.a.), and even in edible plants like spinach . A study was undertaken in order to determine the potential anti-photoaging effects of 20-E extracted from C.a. in a model of dermal aging in vitro.The results show that 20-Hydroxyecdysone provides human BJ foreskin fibroblasts with some kind of protection against premature cellular senescence induced by repeated UV insults (UVSIPS) as showed by the dramatic decrease by 20-E of the proportion of cells expressing SA -gal. Moreover it seems that this "protection" is due to a transient stimulation of p53, often called the guardian of the genome, which probably prepares cells to face UVB injuries and induces an efficient repair process of the damages caused by UVB radiations. Further studies have shown that the mechanism of action of 20E might pass through its binding to the alternative active site of the Vitamin D receptor responsible for the rapid effects. Anti-melanogenesis activity of 5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5-HTP): There is a great demand worldwide but particularly in Asia for products aimed at controlling skin pigmentation. This is why Griffonia simplicifolia (G.s.) seed extracts were screened for an eventual inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in skin cells. An evaluation of the activity of G.s. extracts and 5-HTP on melanin pigment synthesis was carried out on normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) and murine B16 melanoma cells. In this assay on B16 stimulated by an MSH analog, 5-HTP induced 31 % melanogenesis inhibition already at 8 µg/ml, 70 % at 40 µg/ml, and 90 % or nearly complete inhibition at 100 µg/ml. This performance was better than that of Kojic acid (only 70 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml), and similar to that of Arbutin (97 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml).The results obtained show that G.s. seed extracts and their active molecule 5-HTP might be efficient "whitening" or "brightening" ingredients in cosmetic formulations . Protection by Notoginseng root saponins (NRS) against UV-induced immuno suppression:The root of Panax Notoginseng contains up to 10% saponins: ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rd, Re, and notoginsenoside R1.In a recent study, it was found that NRS have the effect in human skin fibroblasts , of up-modulating the m-RNA coding for Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a very important protecting enzyme since it leads to the formation 8

of biliverdin which is a powerful natural antioxidant , and of carbon monoxide which has been shown to protect Langerhans cells from photo-immunosuppression.It has been put in evidence that NRS are able to protect human skin against Langerhans cells depletion by UV exposure . The observed protection was up to 63 % (at 1mg/ml of NRS) , and almost as much as that of a UV filtering commercial formulation of SPF 20 . Anti-Wrinkle Effect of Extracts of Boswellia serrata: Expression lines are produced by the mechanical stress exerted on the skin by facial muscles. So relaxing skin can help prevent their formation. Three extracts of Boswellia serrata were tested on a nerve-muscle coculture model which makes it possible to recreate a motor arc by innervation of human striated muscle cells with explants of spinal cord and of spinal ganglia from rat embryos. The three Boswellia extracts tested induced inhibitions. The most active extract induced 72% of muscle contraction inhibition at the concentration of 0.005%. The four pentacyclic triterpene acids found in extracts of Boswellia serrata ( beta-boswellic acid, 3-Oacetylboswellic acid, 11-ketoboswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-ketoboswellic acid) were tested in a model of calcium flux in order to evaluate their capacity for inhibiting calcium channels and therefore their ability to relax muscle fibers. The relaxing effect of 3-Oacetyl-11-ketoboswellic acid was found significantly greater than that obtained for the other three acids tested. This effect was confirmed with the muscle-nerve coculture test which showed a contraction-inhibiting effect of 74.7% at 5 microM and of 87% at 10 microM for this compound. Key words: Activity, anti-aging, anti-melanogenesis, anti-wrinkle, boswellia serrata 5hydroxy-tryptophan, 20-hydroxyecdysone, immuno suppression, notoginseng. 1.7 Evaluation of Antioxedent Activities and Phenolic Contents of some Edible and Medicinal Plants from Kilis, Arabian /Gaziantep Floras Ali ÖZKAN1., Önder YUMRUTA2., Saadet D. SAYGIDEER2 and Muhittin KULAK1

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Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000, Kilis, 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziantep Univ., 27310 Gaziantep, Turkey

Abstract: This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of (Tymbra spicata, Gundelia tournefortii, Urtica dioica L., Malva sylvestris and Mentha pulegium) and to determine their total phenolics and total flavonoids contents. The extracts were screened for their possible antioxidant potentials by DPPH free anion radical and ABTS free cation radical scavenging, power reducing and metal chelating assays. The methanol extracts of these plants exhibited significant antioxidant activities by different assays and contained significant levels of phenolics and flavanoids. The methanolic extract of Tymbra spicata exhibited higher DPPH (13,32 ± 0,54 mmol TE/g db), ABTS (78,35 ± 0,98 mmol TE/g db), reducing power (44,23 ± 1,44 mmol AAE/g db) and metal chelating activities (3,69 ± 0,24 mmol EDTAE/g db) than the methanolic extracts of other plants and has the highest total phenolic content with value of 619,09 ± 2,04 mg g-1. The other plants have shown similar activities to that of Tymbra spicata whereas the methanol extract of Gundelia tournefortii exhibited the lowest activity. These results show that methanolic extracts of these plants could be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors. Key words: Antioxidant activity, kilis, metal chelating, phenolics, turkey.

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1.8 Effect of Stinging Nettle Seed Oil on Gastric Tissues in Experimental Colitis Alturfan EI1 , Yarat A1, Genç Z1, Yenidoan G1,Tunali-Akbay T1, ener G3, ehirli Ö3, Piiriciler R2, Ak E2, Altinta A4

Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences: Biochemistry1, Histology and Embriology2, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology3, Istanbul, Anadolu University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy4, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Abstract: Urtica dioica (UD) known as stinging nettle which is a member of the Uticaceae family, may have therapeutic value for colitis. The aims of this study were to investigate, if the proinflammatory cytokines generated in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis affect the gastric tissue and to determine the effects of orally administered UD oil on the gastric tissue. Rats were grouped as control (n=5), UD treated control (n=5), colitis (n=6) and UD treated colitis (n=6). UD seed oil, containing 83% unsaturated fatty acids and 16% saturated fatty acids, was given orally (2 mL/kg/day) 5 min after induction of colitis and the treatment was continued for 3 days. Three days after the induction of colitis, all rats were decapitated; gastric tissues were removed and homogenized. Total sialic acid (SA), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in the homogenates. Gastric tissue samples were also examined cytogically. Proinflammatory cytokinesTNF-, IL-1 and IL-6 and LDH levels were also determined in blood samples. In the UD treated control group MDA and SA levels and in the colitis group catalase, MDA and SA levels were found to be decreased in gastric tissues when compared with the control group. On the other hand UD treatments in the colitis group GSH levels were found to be increased when compared with the colitis group. Decreased gastric tissue catalase, MDA and SA levels in the colitis group suggested that inflammation of the colonic tissue activating immune system through the proinflammatory cytokines which were increased in the plasma protected the gastric tissue. Furthermore UD treatment positively affected gastric tissue by increasing GSH levels in the colitis group and by decreasing SA and MDA levels in the control group. Therefore, stinging nettle oil may have protective effects on gastric tissue. Key words: Colitis, nettle, gastric, sialic acid, stinging. 1.9 Effect of Black Cumin Seed Oil on Gastric Tissue in Experimental Conditions Alturfan EI1 , Yarat A1, Tunali-Akbay T1, Iik F1, Yenidoan G1, ener G3, ehirli Ö3, Piiriciler R2, Ak E2, Altinta A4

Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences: Biochemistry1, Histology and Embriology2, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology3, Istanbul, Anadolu University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy4, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Abstract: The black cumin (Nigella sativa) (NS), the member of Ranunculacea family, is a plant widely used as a spice in our country. Its seed oil contains 21% protein, 35 % carbohydrate, 35-38 % lipid. The aims of this study were to investigate if the proinflammatory cytokines generated in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis affect the gastric tissue and to determine the effects of orally administered NS seed oil (ORIGO ,,100 % natural Black Cumin Seed Oil , 2.5 ml/kg; orally) on the gastric tissue. Rats were grouped as control (n=5), NS treated control (n=5), colitis (n=6) and NS treated colitis (n=7). NS was given 5 minutes later than the induction of colitis and the treatment was continued for 3 days. Three days after the induction of colitis, all rats were 11

decapitated and gastric tissues were removed and homogenized 5 min after induction of colitis and the treatment was continued for 3 days. Three days after the induction of colitis, all rats were decapitated; gastric tissues were removed and homogenized. Total sialic acid (SA), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels; catalase, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in the homogenates. Gastric tissue samples were also examined cytologically. TNF-, IL-1 and IL-6 and LDH levels were also determined in blood samples. In the NS treated control group SA levels were significantly decreased when compared with the control group. In the colitis group increased plasma proinflammatory cytokines and decreased tissue catalase, MDA and SA levels suggest that activation of immune system protects the gastric tissues. On the other hand in the NS treated colitis group gastric tissue catalase activity was found to be significantly increased when compared with the colitis group indicate that thymoquinone content of black cumin has super oxide dismutase like activity. Therefore, black cumin seed oil may have protective effects on gastric tissue. Key words: Catalase, cumin, gastric, glutathione, immune.

1.10 The Role of Bitter Mellon (Momordica charantia) to Reduce the Incidence of Abnormalities in Offspring of Diabetic Albino Rats Amoura M. Abou-El-Naga

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University.

Abstract: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a commonly consumed vegetable is used as an adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus. The present study aims to evaluate the role of natural extract (Bitter melon) in improving the fetal development of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult female albino rats by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60mg/kg b. wt.). The experimental animals were divided into four groups: the first group was left as control and the second group was treated with bitter melon (300 mg/kg b. wt) through gastric intubation daily form the 6th of gestation till parturition. Diabetic rats were divided into two subgroups: the first subgroup was left untreated. The second subgroup was treated with bitter melon (300mg/kg b. wt.) daily from the 6th of gestation till parturition. The results of diabetic subgroups were compared with that of non-diabetic control groups. Results indicated that oral administration of diabetic rats with bitter melon improved the fetal growth retardation and minimize the percentage of abortion. Also, bitter melon supplementation markedly reduced the high incidence of resorption and malformation rate as well as retardation of the skeletal development. Key words: Abnormalities, bitter mellon, diabetic.

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1.11 Determination of Antioxidant Capacity of Asphodelus aestivus Brot Leaves (In Vetro) Aysegul Peksel and Sema Imamoglu

Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Chemistry, 34210 Istanbul-Turkeys.

Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that delay or prevent the oxidation of cellular oxidizable substrates. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in finding natural antioxidants since the synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), are suspected of being responsible for liver damage and carcinogenesis. Asphodelus aestivus Brot., is a common spring-flowering geophyte encountered on the Marmara, Aegean and Mediterrenean coasts of Turkey, has been utilized traditionally for culinary and medicinal purposes. The leaves of A. aestivus Brot. is commonly consumed cooked as a vegetable dish in Turkey, where it is known as "çiri otu". In traditional medicine, the tuber and roots of this plant is used against, hemorrhoids, nephritis, burns and wounds 1-3. This study investigates the antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract from A. aestivus Brot. leaves using several antioxidant tests. Ethanolic extract was prepared from leaves of A. aestivus Brot. The extract was then analysed for its radical scavenging capacity against the radicals superoxide, hydroxyl, N,N-dimethyl-pphenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD·+), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6sulfonic acid) (ABTS·+) and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. We also determined total flavonoid, carotenoid and chlorophyll contents of extract. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standart synthetic antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, trolox, ascorbic acid and -tocopherol. The ethanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activity in all tests, and the extract could be considered as a source of natural antioxidants. Key words: Antioxidants, Asphodelus aestivus, carotenoid, flavonoid, radical.

1.12 Effect of Some Medicinal Plants Grown in Turkey on Platelet Aggregation Ayen Yarat1, Refiye Yanardag2 and Sevinç Özgür1

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Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Biochemistry , 2stanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry , Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract: Plants are important source of active natural products which differ widely in terms of structure and biological properties. The leaves of some fresh plants grown in Turkey such as Eruca sativa L (Brassicacae) and Ornithogalum Sigmoideum Freyn Et Sint (Liliaceae) are consumed as vegetables. Although antioxidant activities have been examined for most of them, anti-platelet aggregatory properties have not been studied. Platelets play a key role in maintaining physiologic homeostasis in blood. They also play a major role in initiating thrombus formation which occurrs with various thrombotic disorders, including hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. Aggregation is one of the most important functions of the platelet, by which it exerts its hemostatic effectiveness under normal conditions, and which may be crucial for the development of thrombosis under pathological circumstances. Therefore, agents with anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effects may have wide therapeutic potential for circulatory diseases. On the other hand, as in many countries of the world, in our country, as folk 12

medicine, the use of herbal plant is increasing and bringing with its potential hazards. Plants and certain drugs may interact and cause adverse effects to emerge. For this reason, plant-drug interactions and side effects should be investigated. Hence plants or drugs that affect platelet aggregation or

secretion could have wide biological implications. In this study, the effect of various concentrations of water soluble extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Turkey, on platelet aggregation were evaluated in vitro by modified smear method. The study was performed on platelet-rich plasma obtained from clinically healthy subjects. The water extract was added to platelet-rich plasma before platelet aggregating agent. Aspirin, known inhibitor of platelet aggregation, was also tested as positive control. Key words: Aggregation, platelet, medicinal, plasma.

1.13 In vitro Study of the Effect of Chinese Green Tea (Reference 0071) on the Growth of Bacteria from Urinary Tract Infection BAHRI Fouad

Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences et Sciences dingénieurs. Université de Mostaganem.

Abstract: The treatment of urinary tract infections is based mainly on the use of antibiotics. The widespread prescription is often inappropriate of these officers resulted in the selection of strains resistant to multiple Hence the importance of directing research towards new ways and especially toward herbal medicine. The art of care by plants when the origin of humanity. Green tea Camellia sinensis, or

Chinese is a shrub widely cultivated in the Far East, mainly for its leaves which are widely used in Chinese folk medicine because of its multiple therapeutic effects. Our study

aims to evaluate in vitro the efficacy of Chinese green tea (reference 0071) on germs that cause bladder infections in the region of Mostaganem (Algeria). The tea extracts were prepared by different methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) at different concentrations (0.6 to 2.6 mg / ml). Bacterial strains are formed by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus from urine sample analyzed in the laboratory of bacteriology at the hospital in Ain Tedless the wilaya of Mostaganem (Algeria) during the period February to June 2008. Each sample was taken with Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 100 mg of extract to 1 ml of DMSO. The discs (paper) 6 mm diameter were impregnated with 6 l of the solution of 100 mg / ml, corresponding to 600 mg of extract per disk. The antibacterial activity of extracts of green tea China paper disc was measured, using the method by disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton (MH). The green tea extracts showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibition zones ranged from 9-24 mm. The'inhibition of these strains the tea is 100%. By cons strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae has shown a great resistance against the tea.

Key words: Antibacterial, aqueous, Camellia sinensis, phytotherapy, urinary infections. .

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1.14 Study of the Effect of the Green Tea on the Crystallization of Brushite in the Artificial Urine with pH 6.5 BAHRI Fouad

Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences et Sciences dingénieurs, Université de Mostaganem.

Abstract: The tea plant, Camellia sinensis cultivated for its sheets whose infusion and decoction allow the preparation of drink the most consumed in the world. Today, it is almost regarded as a drug. Some crystalline species are evocative of a urinary supersaturation being able to rise of very different causes. Thus the brushite of the IVd type is induced by hypercalciuria with generally hyperphosphaturia and/or hyperparathyroïdie. The description of a possible inhibiting action of the tea on phosphocalcic crystallization with pH 6.5 can have very positive repercussions on the public health. The kinetics of phosphocalcic crystallization with pH 6.5 was studied starting from the artificial urine. The crystallizable solutions of the urine artificial, and three concentrations different from the tea (C1 = 4g.L-1, C2 = 16g.L-1 and C3 = 32g.L-1) prepared by infusion (t1 = 5mn, t2 = 10mn and t3 = 15mn) and by decoction were maintained with 37C°, under constant agitation (150rpm) and with the darkness, to remain close to the physiological conditions. The follow-up of the kinetics of crystallization by optical microscope with polarized light and the spectral analysis by infra-red transformed of Fourier, reveal that, in the artificial urine without inhibitor, the formed crystals with pH 6.5 are brushite. The concentration C1 of the tea has a promoter effect. The addition of the C2 concentration prepared by infusion during 15mn and decoction caused a reduction in the average size of the crystals and aggregates. The percentage of inhibition of the average size of the crystals and the aggregates is 63% and 84% for respectively t3 and decoction. The inhibiting effect of C3 concentration on the crystallization of brushite at pH 6.5 is clearly evident in all cases. Its intensity varies according to the method of preparation. The percentage of inhibition of the average size of crystals and aggregates reaches 47%, 69%, 89% and 99% for respectively t1, t2, t3 and decoction. Key words: Brushite, crystallization, green tea, inhibition, urine artificial, whewellite.

1.15 Prebiotic Antimicrobial Effect of Natural and Synthetic flavonoids

Boubakeur, B

Tir touil Meddah. A; Meddah. B, ain-dzarit. Tiaret, City: 10 logt . Fax: 213/045-80-29-84, Algeria

Abstract: Flavonoids are a group of organic molecule ubiquitously distributed in plant kingdom. As is typical for phenolic compounds, they can act as potent antioxidants and metal chelators. They also appear to be effective at influencing the risk of pathologic diseases such as nosocomial infection; several of these flavonoids appear to be effective antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural extrate from: "Anacyclus Valentinus" and synthetic flavonoids on the growth and aggregation of probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophillus) and pathogenic bacteria. (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). All tested compounds were exhibited an antibacterial effect and prebiotic activity; the synthetic flavonoids (sweetflavonoids) were found to have the most significant activity against S.aureus as antibacterial agents (particulary P4) and L.rhamnosus as prebiotic substances (the 5 compounds have nearly a similar effect); aggregation tests were shown the stimulatory effect of natural flavonoid on probiotic aggregation and on pathogenic- probiotic coaggregation Therefore these molecules can be used as alternative or additive agents to improve the probiotic bacteria activity and to prevent the pathogenic bacteria colonization. Key words: Antibacterial activity, flavonoids, prebiotic, probiotic. 14

1.16 A Comparison between the Chemical Compositions, and Antioxidant Activity of Cultivated and Wild Lavandula dentata Essential Oil Bouchra Imelouane1, Ali Elbachiri1, Abd lbast Barichi5, Jean-Paul Wathelet2, Jacques Dubois3, Majid ankit4, Hassan Amhamdi1

1

Department of Chemistry, University Mohamed I, BP 717, Avenue Mohamed VI, 60000, Oujda, Morocco. 2 Unit of General and Organic Chemistry, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, Passage des Deportés n°2, B-5030, Gembloux, Belgium.3Toxicology and Physical Applied Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. 4ALBAYTARY Veterinary Cabinet, Building of the of the Koran house. Road of Nador. BP.9. Zaio 62900, Morocco. 5Department of Biology, University Mohamed I, BP 717, Avenue Mohamed VI ,60000, Oujda, Morocco.

Abstract: With the increased realization that many wild medicinal and aromatic plant (MAP) species are being overexploited, a number of agencies are recommending that wild species be brought into domestication or cultivation systems.The present study describes the phytochemical profile as well as the antimicrobial and antioxydant activities of Lavandula dentata essential oil of the wild, collected in eastern Morocco (Taforalt, Talazart) where the climate is sub-humide; and domesticated L. dentata essential oil cultivated in Oujda whose climate is semi-arid. We studied the effect of domestication on the physico-chemical quality as well as on the quality of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The compositions of the essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GCMS.We showed that the chemical profile of domesticated lavender collected in summer resembled, with little difference, that of the wild lavender collected in winter with a chemotype beta-pinene. Besides, the chemical profile of domesticated lavender collected in autumn resembled that of the wild lavender collected in summer with a chemotype 1.8cineole.These results which show the fast and complex changes in the chemical profile of L. dentata and a probable interconversion between the major components, calls for attention when using the essential oils of this plant.The oils of both wild and cultivated lavandula were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activities by using 2,2diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We were able to show that domesticated lavender had an antioxidant power that exceeds a bit that of wild lavender. Moreover, the domesticated L.dentata essential oil showed greater radical-scavenging activity than those collected from the wild. Key words: CMI, DPPH, essential oil composition, Lavandula dentata, wild.

1.17 Effects of Tunisian Medicinal Plant Extracts on the Expression of Cell Defense Genes in Human Leukemia Cell Line K562 Using cDNA Arrays. Correlation with Related Biological Activities Bouhlel Ines1, 2, Kilani Soumaya1, 2, Skandrani Inès1, 2, Ghedira Kamel2, ChekirGhedira Leila12

1

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Monastir, Tunisia. 2Unité de Pharmacognosie/Biologie Moléculaire 99/UR/07-03, Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Rue Avicenne, 5000 Monastir, Tunisie.

Abstract: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) cause molecular damage to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Fortunately, numerous defense systems protect cellular macromolecules against oxidation. However cell defenses against oxidative stress could be strengthened by

15

using natural antioxidant molecules or crude extracts. Some Tunisian medicinal plants; Acacia salicina, Cyperus rotundus, Pistacia lentiscus and Myrtus communis were investigated for their capacities to reduce damages induced by H2O2 in human leukemia cell line K562.The expression level of genes of K562 stressed (H2O2) cells exposed to plant extracts or molecules, was quantified using a cDNA microarray containing probes related to 82 genes of interest, essentially represented by antioxidant, DNA repair and redox control genes. Acacia salicina extracts revealed an increase in the expression of genes contributing to the regulation of redox status of cells and DNA repair. Cyperus rotundus extracts showed an increase in the antioxidant and DNA repair expression level. The antioxidant genes were significantly expressed when the stressed cells were incubated with doses of Pistacia lentiscus and Myrtus communis compounds. The induction of these genes was in good agreement with results obtained with classic biological assays such as genotoxicity and antioxidant assays. Key words: Expression, extracts, leukemia, medicinal plant, cell genes.

1.18 Essential Oil of the White Artemisia " Artemisia herba alba Asso." Chemical Composition Study and the Antimicrobial Activity Chefrour Azzedine1, Delimi Amel, Bennadja Salima1, Ait Kaki Yasmina1, Djahoudi Abd El Ghani et Hadef Youcef

Laboratory of Plant biology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar-Annaba University, Algeria.

Abstract: The white Artemisia (Artemisia herba alba Asso.) a steppe plant belonging to the low, always green, ligneous family of Asteraces, rich in essential oil is. This species has virtues evident purgatives playing a role in the control of the intestinal worms, leaves are used in traditional medicine to look after the diabetes, after bronchitis, after abscess and after diarrhea. During our modest work, an ethno-botanic investigation at the level of two regions (Annaba and Guelma), as well as a histological study of the white Artemisia were realized. An extraction of essential oil of leaves by training in the steam as well as their chemical characterizations and an experimental study of the antibacterial and antifungal activity towards the Candida albicans were made.The drug of the white Artemisia got by Souk Ahras supplied the best return with essential oil of chemotype L Verbenone, followed by that of Tebessa, rich with it thuyone, then that of Msila in camphor and Khenchela to L Verbenone. The best results of the antibacterial activity were shown by essential oil of Souk Ahras, Msila and Khenchela. As for the antifungal activity, it is essential oil of Msila and Tebessa who gave the best results. Seen, its powerful activity on anti- organic origins - resistant and on Candida albicans, the white Artemisia is a real magic grass that it is necessary to master the chemical composition and the therapeutic properties and to study in detail the mechanism of action of its constituents on these germs to be able to the used as the additives in antibiotics to increase their activities or as diffuser for the disinfection of atmospheres and as antiseptic and disinfectant of medico- chirurgical materials. Key words: Artemisia herba alba, essential oil, aromatograms, GCMS, bacterial strains, Candida albicans, terpens, oxides.

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1.19 Chemical Antimicrobial Composition and Activities of Essential Oil of Ptychotis verticillata (Family of Apiaceae) Chefrour Azzedine1, Sakhraoui Noura, Ait Kaki Yasmina1, Bennadja Salima1, Hadef Youcef et Djahoudi Abd El Ghani

1

Laboratory of Plant biology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar-Annaba University, Algeria.

Abstract: Ptychotis is a kind containing several species among which two are present in Algeria. Ptychotis " Ptychotis verticillata ", called in Arabic Etymology noukha, nounkha, el kemoun el habachi, khobz elfaraina and in Berber Atrillal or Atlillal, is an annual herbaceous plant of the family of Apiaceae, in raised stalk, streaked, hail, in numerous twigs. Rich in essential oil and in the other active principes. This plant is antiseptic effective of the intestinal gastronomic way, the vermifuge, the febrifuge, antispasmodic, diuretic and anti lithiasic. It is also used against the moths of hair and against the bites of snakes. The chemical study of essential oil of Ptychotis verticillata (extraction by The method training in the steam, the characterization of the chemical composition by GCMS) and the evaluation of the antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of this plant on isolated origins in a hospital environment gave encouraging results. The production in essential oil was averagely brought up (2, 37±0,156ml / 100g MS), with a very rich chemical composition. Ten chemical component doors, belonging to phenols of origin terpenoïdics, are a part of organic substances forming the essential oil of Ptychotis verticillata. Whose carvacrol is the leader of thread with a 48, 72 %, followed by gamma terpinene (21,86 %) and the para cymene (13,51 %). The antibacterial and antifungal activities were demonstrated by essays on various origins of bacteria and yeasts, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter sp, Escherichia coli and unicellular mushroom " Candida albicans ", indicates the importance of this last one in the treatment of the infectious diseases and mycosics. Key words: Ptychotis, GCMS, extraction, essential oil, carvacrol, gamma terpinene, aromatogram, yeast, antibacterial activity.

1.20 Anti-Bacterial Activity of Rosemary Essential Oil and Its Association with Antibiotics DJAHOUDI Abdelghani1, CHEFROUR Azzedine2, AMOURA Kamel1,. TliliAIT - KAKI Yasmina2, and BAGHLOUL F1

Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar University. 2Laboratory of Botany, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria.

1

Abstract: Results of study of anti-bactérienne activity essential oil of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis shows a broad activity on the best Genre Staphylococcus than vancomycin choice anti-staphylocoque species.The association of oil with penicillin, the oxacilline or erythromycin dramatically improves activity on same only used antibiotic resistant strains.This opens a prospect of use of this type of molecules as disinfectants and chemotherapy see antiseptics in human medicine. Key words: Antibiotics, association, essential oil, rosemary, staphylococci.

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1.21 Antidiabetic Activity of Ceiba pentandra in Streptozoticin Induced Diabetic Rats Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré ., Tédong Léonard., Dimo Théophile., Ngueguim Tsofack Florence, Tchamadeu Marie-Claire, Bilanda Danielle Claude, Kamtchouing Pierre

Department of Animal Biology and Physiology of University of Yaounde I, Po Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Abstract: In underdeveloped countries, more than 80% still use medicinal plants for their primary health care. Ceiba pendandra is a medicinal plant, empirically used to treat diabetes mellitus in Cameroon. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methylene chloride/methanol extract of Ceiba pendandra extract on type 1 diabetic rats.Diabetes was induced by intravenous streptozotocin injection (55 mg/kg) in adult male albino Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were divided in 4 groups of 5 animals each and treated for 35 days as follow: vehicle (diabetic control), plant extract at the doses of 40 and 75 mg/kg and insulin (10 IU/kg sc). A group of normal rats was also used as positive control. Daily administration of methylene chloride/methanol extract of C. pentandra significantly reduced the food and water intakes and the volume of urine excreted as well as the levels of blood glucose (71% reduction) and serum lipid profile (37% reduction), in comparison with diabetic controls. Plant extract treatment increased the level of hepatic glycogen. Immunohistochemistry of pancreas reveals a regeneration/revitalization of ßcells. The study concluded that the hypoglycaemic action of C. pentandra could be partly due to amelioration in the beta-cells of pancreatic islets causing an increase in insulin secretion. C. pentandra could be a potential source to develop new oral antidiabetic agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Key words: ß-cells, Ceiba pentandra, diabetes.

1.22 Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Three Anthemis l. Species Emel Akyüz, Leyla Açik, Ufuk Özbek, Mecit Vural

Gazi Üniversitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi, Biyoloji Bölümü, Teknikokullar, 06500, Ankara, Turkey.

Abstract: Anthemideae is one of the largest tribes of Asteraceae, comprising about 111 genera and ca. 1800 species. Anthemis L. represented with 79 taxa in Turkey. Anthemis species are used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and food industry. Some of the species are used for the treatment of hepatitis, activating urinary system, as a sedative. The antimicrobial activity of A. fumariifolia Boiss, A. aciphylla Boiss.var. aciphylla, A. cretica subsp. pontica (Willd.) Grierson were determined by agar-well diffusion method. Antioxidant activities of Antemis species were determined by DPPH. Plant samples a showed significant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus fecalis. Methanol plant extract showed higher DPPH activity than ethanol extract of the plant. The results show that the most effective plant for antioxidant activity was A. aciphylla var. aciphylla. Key words: antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, Anthemis.

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1.23 Effects of Rhizonyl Alcohol from Lobaria pulmonaria, a Lichen Species on Indomethacin -Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage, Oxidative Stress and Neutrophil Infiltration Fadime Atalay1, Fehmi Odabasoglu1, Ahmet Cakir2, Zekai Halici3, Mesut Halici4,Ali Aslan5 and Elif Cadirci6

Ataturk University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biochemistry,Erzurum, .2 Kilis 7 Aralik University, Faculty of Sciences & Arts, Department of Chemistry, Kilis.3 Ataturk University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology Erzurum.4 Ataturk University, Faculty of Veterinary, Department of Biochemistry, Erzurum.5 Ataturk University, K. K. Education Faculty, Department of Biology,Erzurum.6 Ataturk University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, 25240-Erzurum, Turkey.

1

Abstract: Lobaria pulmonaria, a lichen species has been used traditionally in folk medicine of Turkey for treatment of various diseases. This study was designed to determine gastroprotective effect of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of rhizonyl alcohol (RA), which was firstly isolated as a natural compound from L. pulmonaria acetone extract, on indomethacin-induced ulcer model in rats. The results showed that gastric lesions were significantly reduced by 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of RA with inhibition of 42.8, 56.4, 74.4 and 84.6, respectively. Furthermore, the in vivo antioxidant levels were determined in rat stomach tissues of all groups. The administration of indomethacin caused a significant decrease in the levels of Superoxide (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. In contrast to indomethacin, RA showed a significant antioxidant activity against oxidative damage in stomach tissues induced by indomethacin increasing the levels of SOD, GPO and GSH levels and reducing the level of LPO. However, catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPx) levels, increased by the administration of indomethacin were found to be lower in RA and lansoprasol administrated groups. The present results suggested that the gastroprotective effect of MELP probably due to its reducing effect on oxidative stress caused by indomethacin and on the neutrophil infiltration in the tissues. Key words: Antioxidants, gastroprotective, Lobaria pulmonaria, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil infiltration.

1.24 Critical Evaluation of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan for their AntiDiabetic Activities Fatma U. Afifi, Violet Kasabri and Rana Abudahab

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman ­ Jordan.

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be the most common metabolic disorder worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide 300 million people are currently living with DM. The disease deserves every attention to solve or at least to decrease the disease related problems. The regional prevalence of diabetes in MENA (Middle Eastern and North Africa) countries is 7.7%, ranging between 3% (in Yemen) to 18.7% (in United Arab Emirates (IDF, 2006). Jordan has the ninth highest prevalence of diabetes in this regional group of countries and stands at 10.1%. Jordan is a country with deep rooted traditions. The use of plant based preparations is a common practice by patients suffering from chronic diseases as well as by patients in the

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management of mild conditions. Our country survey indicated that more than 60 different plants, grown locally or imported, are recommended by the herbalists for the treatment or to overcome the side effects of conventional therapy in patients suffering in DM. Unfortunately only a small fraction of these plants have been screened in depth for their hypoglycemic activity, and even smaller number of research identified the active ingredients of them. Another shortcoming of this practice is that the plants are sold using their local names. More often these local names are used for the genus of a particular plant without distinguishing the species or the varieties. Sometimes even plants from different genera are given the same common name. In the present study, selected representatives of some locally grown plant species are in in vitro and in vivo experiments for their antidiabetic properties evaluated. The findings of the phytochemical and biological studies are discussed. Key words: Diabetes, Jordan, medicinal plants. 1.25 The Effects of Chard (Beta vulgaris l. var cicla) Extract on the Lung of Diabetic Rats F. Oztay1, O. Sacan2, S. Bolkent1, Y. Ipci3, L. Kabasakal3, G. Sener3 and R Yanardag2

1

Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134-Vezneciler, 2Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320-Avcilar, 3Marmara University, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, 34668-Haydarpasa, Istanbul- Turkey.

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms. The treatment of diabetes mellitus is based on oral antihyperglycemic agents and insulin. The plants used as traditional medicines are herbs and spices, vegetables and fruits. Chard (Beta vulgaris L. var cicla) is one the medicinal herbs used by diabetics in Turkey. In present preliminary study, we have focused the effects of chard extract on the lung by biochemical and structural investigations. Male, Spraque Dawley rats weighing 380-420 g were used. Rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I; Control animals given citrate buffer (n=4), Group II; diabetic animals treated with streptozotocin (STZ, as a single dose of 60 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) (n= 6), Group III; STZ-diabetic animals given chard extract (n=6). The chard extract was administrated by gavage technique to rats at a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 45 days, 15 days after animals were made diabetic. On day 60, lung tissues were taken from rats for histological and biochemical analysis. Lung tissue homogenized in 0.9% saline to make up to 10% homogenate. Additionally, lungs were fixed Bouins solutions. The homogenates were used for protein, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Lung CAT and SOD activities and GSH level were decreased and LPO level was increased in diabetic rats. Administration of chard to diabetic rats increased lung CAT, SOD activities and GSH level, but LPO levels decreased. Light microscopic investigations on paraffin lung sections reported extensive infiltration areas, alveolar dilatations and alveolar epithelial damage in diabetic rats. But, these results were regressed by chard extract administration. In conclusion, we can say that chard extract has a protective effect on the lung tissue of diabetic rats. Key words: Chard, diabetic, extract, lung.

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1.26 Anti-Tumor Properties of Iraqi Propolis: In vitro and In vivo Studies G.M. Sulaiman1, E.Erba2, A.H.Adhiah3, K.W. Al Sammarre4, R. Bagnati5, R.Frapolli2, E. Bello2, S. Uboldi2, M. Romano2, N. Panini2 and M.DIncalci2.

Department of Applied Sciences, Department of Biochemical Technology, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq. 2Department of Oncology, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy. 3 Tropical Disease Research Centre, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. 4 Biotechnology Research Centre, University of Al-Nahrain, Baghdad, Iraq. 5Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy.

1

Abstract: Cancer is one of the most hazardous and fatal diseases in the world. Scientists from the different countries worldwide are actively involved in control of this disease. Increasing interest and research on natural products have revealed its importance in treating many diseases including cancer. A natural product, propolis is a complex resinous bee product that has a wide range of biological activities. After initial experiments we found one particular extract of propolis that showed pro-apoptotic activity and a moderate antitumor activity in vivo denominated M. Free radical scavenging activity of M was evaluated by DPPH (1, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and the results showed a concentration- dependent activity, is cytotoxic to human promyeloid leukemia- HL60 and human colon carcinoma ­HCT-116 cell lines with an IC50 value of 6 g ml-1. Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation ladder indicated that M actively induced apoptosis in HL60 cells and necrosis in HCT-116. Flow cytometric measurement of Bcl-2 and Bax in HL60 revealed the increase in apoptosis level induced by M was associated with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax. These results suggests that Minduced apoptosis is related to the induction of Bcl-2/Bax regulation. Using biparametric cytometry we measured BrdUrd/DNA cell cycle in HL60 and HCT-116. The cell cycle delay was seen in BrdUrd ­positive cells and BrdUrd ­negative cells in both cell lines. The exposure of HL60 to two doses of M stimulated formation of phosphorylated histone H2AX with dose dependent manner, the expression was contribute to formation of apoptosis . In an experiment using tumor-bearing mice, oral administration of two doses (500 and 1000) M caused reduce of tumor weights 37% and 40% as compared with control, and had decrease in mitotic with increase the polyploid with enlarged nuclei cells in order to maintain the decrease in cellular proliferation that is associated with inhibition of tumor growth .thus, this study suggest to use the propolis as an effective food by people besides the chemotherapy in cancer treatment. Key words: Properties, propolis, tumor, vitro, vivo. 1.27 Free Radical, Metal-chelating and Antibacterial Activities of Methonolic Extract of Capparis Spinosa H. Bouriche, N. Kernouf, H. Belhadj, D. Harzalah, M.M. Zerroug, S. Dahamna, and A. Senator

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Sétif, 19000, Algeria.

Abstract: The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic extract of Capparis spinosa buds were investigated in this study. The antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay and the measurement of the metal-chelating activity. The antibacterial activity was tested against a

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pathogenic bacteria using agar disc-diffusion method. Results showed that the extract exerted a strong scavenging activity against DPPH radical with IC50 values of 53.53 ug/ml, and exerted a metal chelating activity toward ferrous ions with IC50 values of 190.84 µg/ml. Furthermore, the methanolic extract of Capparis spinosa buds showed appreciable antibacterial property. These findings suggest that the Capparis spinosa bud extract may be considered as an interesting source of antioxidants and antibiotics for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries. Key words: Antibacterial, antioxidant activity, Capparis spinosa, plant extract. 1.28 Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms Improve Growth, Essential Oil Yield of Marjoram and the Effect Gamma Radiation on Antimicrobial Activity of Marjoram Essential Oil I. A. El-Ghandour1, Y.G.M. Galal1, Enayat M. Desouky2, Rawahia A. Arafa2 and Abeer M.M. Abou Seer1

1

Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Department of Soil and Water Department.. 2Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science (Girls Branch), Botany (Microbiology) Department, Egypt.

Abstract: Field experiment was set up to study the response of marjoram plant grown on sandy soil to inoculation with B. polymixa and /or Bradyrhizobium sp. in combination with organic fertilizers (faba bean straw and sheep manure). Faba bean straw and sheep manure were added at rate of 1500 kg P/ ha of both residues. Residues and bacterial inoculation were incorporated into the soil ith either B. polymixa and/ or Bradyrhizobium sp. The highest oil yield was irradiated with gamma irradiation at doses of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 KGy). The chemone month prior to marjoram cultivation. Marjoram (root cutting) was inoculated wical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-Ms techniques after exposure to gamma radiation. The gamma irradiated essential oils of marjoram were tested for their antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic microorganisms. The herb and oil yield were the highest in case of the combination between sheep manure and B. polymixa at the 2nd cut than in control. The chemical composition of marjoram essential oil did not change due to the bacterial inoculation or applied residues, but the percentages of certain constituents were affected. Results also revealed that, gamma irradiation doses increased the antimicrobial activity with different magnitudes. The essential oil extracted from herb exposed to 30 KGy was found to be the most active antimicrobial with slight increases in the main components. Key words: Antimicrobial, B. polymixa, Bradyrhizobium sp., essential oil, gamma radiation, marjoram. 1.29 The Toxicity of Aloe barbadensis Miller Juice is Due to the Induction of Oxidative Stress I. E. Cock and J. Sirdaarta

Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Rd, Nathan, Brisbane, Queensland 4111, Australia.

Abstract: Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a long history of use for medicinal and dietary purposes and as a component of many cosmetic preparations. Aloe vera has antiinflammatory, immunostimulatory, antibacterial and antiviral activities and accelerates wound healing. There have also been reports of toxic effects of Aloe vera juice. Various low molecular weight components are cytotoxic to fibroblasts and normal human skin cells and tumour cells in vitro. The mechanism of toxicity is yet to be determined. Many 22

active constituents have been isolated from A. barbadensis leaves and their bioactivities studied. The anthraquinones, anthrones and chromones are effective at counteracting various diseases. Aloe emodin has been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Aloin and aloe emodin may act as either pro-oxidants or antioxidants dependent on their concentration. Therefore these compounds may act in either a protective or toxic manner at different concentrations. It has been suggested that the toxicity of Aloe vera components may be due oxidative stress induction. Conversely, at lower concentrations, these same components may act as antioxidants and protect cells from oxidative stress.This study reports on the ability of Aloe vera juice to induce oxidative stress in Artemia franciscana and the ability of vitamin E and its analogue Trolox to counteract this oxidative stress. Furthermore, this study examines the mechanism of Aloe vera juice toxicity by examining its effect on various biomarker enzymes.Exposure of Artemia nauplii to Aloe vera juice resulted in acute toxicity at dilutions as low as 4 % (24 h LC50 4.6 % ± 0.3). All antioxidants examined were also toxic when tested in high doses with 24 h LC50s in the following order of toxicity: vitamin C (203.1 µg/ml ± 11.3) > TroloxTM (283.3 µg/ml ± 25.8) > vitamin E (only low toxicity was observed at 24 h). At lower doses, vitamin E and TroloxTM were non-toxic and could block the toxicity induced by Aloe vera juice. Vitamin E was more effective than TroloxTM. Treatment of A. franciscana with antioxidants prior to exposure to juice was more effective than the simultaneous treatment of antioxidant and the toxin, suggesting that Aloe vera juice induced lethality is due to oxidative stress which can be blocked by antioxidant addition. Exposure of Artemia nauplii to sub-lethal levels of Aloe vera juice resulted in a decreased activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase by 34%, 79% and 90% respectively. Vitamin E coexposure resulted in enzyme activities closer to the control value (78%, 56% and 32% of control enzymatic activities for thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity respectively). These results indicate that exposure to sublethal doses of Aloe vera juice induces alterations in the cellular redox status of Artemia franciscana and that vitamin E addition helps the Artemia franciscana nauplii to overcome/block the juice induced oxidative stress. Key words: Aloe vera, cellular redox, glutathione, Oxidative Stress, toxicity. 1.30 Antioxidant Response of Tribulus terrestris L. Grown on Industrially Polluted Soil I. Stancheva1, M.Geneva, P.Yonova1 , Y. Markovska2

1

Acad. M.Popov. Institute of Plant Physiology ­ Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., Bl. 21,1113 Sofia, Bulgaria,2Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski", Faculty of Biology, 8 D. Tzankov Blvd., 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria.

Abstract: Possibilities for phytoaccumulation of heavy metals and antioxidant capacity of puncture vine, grown on industrially polluted with Cd, Pb and Zn soil were studied. Content of Cd, Pb and Zn in the polluted soil exceeded permissible concentrations 3, 4 and 2 times respectively. Puncture vine plants (Tribulus terrestris L.), were grown under glasshouse conditions on polluted and non-polluted control soil. Plants grown on heavy metal polluted soil accumulated in the aboveground parts 3.3 times more Cd, 4.3 times more Pb and 2.3 times more Zn, in comparison with the control plants. Heavy metals concentration in plant and soil samples were determined on the inductively ­ coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Spectrophotometric quantification of ascorbate, reduced gluthatione and vitamin E was performed through the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex. Total antioxidant capacity (free radicals scavenging activity) was measured from 23

the bleaching of the purple-colored methanol solution of free stable radical (diphenylpycril-hydrazyl, DPPH·) inhibition. All antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, dehydroascorbate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and monodehydroascorbate reductase) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Puncture vine plants possess good ability to accumulate heavy metals. Plants grown on heavy metal polluted soil accumulated heavy metals in both the shoots and roots. Cd and Pb accumulated more in the roots than in the shoots of plants both from the non - polluted and polluted soil. The observed levels of main contaminates in aboveground parts were 3.3 times more Cd, 4.3 times more Pb and 2.3 times more Zn, in comparison with the control plants. Heavy metals content in the roots of treated plants was 2.5, 2.8 and 1.4 times more than in the controls for Cd, Pb and Zn respectively. The levels of heavy metals accumulation in aboveground parts allowed supposing that Tribulus terrestris is a plant that could be used for phytoremediation, more over that higher Cd and Zn levels were found in the plants than in the soil. Absence of biomass reduction indicated that puncture vine plants tolerate the existing concentration level of Cd, Pb and Zn. The antioxidant potential of the puncture vine plants is defined by the content of antioxidant metabolites vitamin E, ascorbate, gluthatione and total phenols and antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase. From the results we can conclude that soil Cd, Pb and Zn in concentrations far exceeded permissible limit concentrations influenced only a part of antioxidant capacity of Tribulus terrestris plants. Key words: Antioxidant capacity, heavy metals, glutathione, polluted soil, puncture vine.

1.31 Modification of Lipid Profile in Albino Rats Fed Diets Incorporated with 5 and 10% Vernonia amygdalina.Del Leaves Ifeoma Irene Ijeh and Agatha Chima Egedigwe

Dept of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, P.M.B7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

Abstract: The effect of 5 and 10% dietary incorporation of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina on serum triacyglycerol, cholesterol, HDL, LDL and VLDL, was studied in albino rats. Processed and unprocessed leaves Vernonia amygdalina (PVA and UPVA) were incorporated into standard Vital feed at 5 and 10% levels and fed to adult male Wistar rats weighing 90-160g over a period of 28 days. Serum lipid profile was assayed using standard Kits supplied by Randox Laboratories Co UK. Feeding of processed and unprocessed Vernonia amygdalina resulted in significant (P0.05) decreases in serum triacylglycerol concentration(mg/100ml) in groups fed 5%PVA(146.27±2.56), 10%PVA(113.39±0.89), 5%UPVA (99.43±1.85), 10%UPVA (80.60±0.78) relative to control (159.15±0.32) fed the basal diet without the vegetable. Serum cholesterol concentration (mg/100ml) also decreased significantly in groups fed 5%PVA(187.31±2.65), 10% PVA (165.06±2.87), 5% UPVA (183.96±1.14), 10%UPVa (155.32±0.90) relative to control (195.31±4.39). Serum HDL concentrations increased significantly in groups fed 5%PVA (89.32±4.44), 10% PVA (95.93±1.19), 5% UPVA (104.48±1.36), 10%UPVA (114.74±1.03) relative to control (61.79±0.65). Serum LDL concentration decreased significantly in groups fed 5%PVA(68.74±3.52), 10% PVA (46.45±3.20), 5% UPVA (59.60±1.68), 10% UPVA (24.46±1.27) relative to control

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(61.79±0.65). Serum VLDL Concentrations decreased significantly in groups fed 5%PVA(29.25±0.51), 10% PVA (22.68±0.18), 5% UPVA (19.89±0.37), 10%UPVA (16.12±0.16) relative to control (61.79±0.65). Feeding of Vernonia amygdalina in the unprocessed form resulted in a more marked decrease in serum Triacylglcerols , Cholesterol, LDL and VLDL and increase in HDL. These findings are indicative that dietary incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina at 5 and 10% levels in both processed and unprocessed forms could have positive modulatory effect on blood lipid profile, by increasing HDL which is beneficial while reducing blood levels of LDL, VLDL and cholesterol which are considered high risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Key words: Cholesterol, triacylglycerol, Vernonia amygdalina.

1.32 The Antibacterial Effectiveness Research by Disc Diffusion Method and The Mutagenic Activity Research by AMES/ Salmonella/ Microzom Test System of Alcohol, Ether and Asetone Extracts and Oil of Lavandula stoechas L.

1

1

lknur KULCANAY AHN & 2Ercan ÇATAK

Ahi Evran University College of Health, Kirehir, Turkey. 2Osmangazi University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Eskiehir, Turkey.

Abstract: In this study research on the alcohol, ether and acetone extracts of Lavandula stoechas L., and the mutagenic activity of its oils has been done according to the Ames/ Salmonella/ Microsome test procedure. Various extracts have been taken from the plants leaf and flower divisions. In the laboratory, the above mentioned test procedure has been done according to the plate incorporation method. The bacterial cultures (TA98, TA100) of Salmonella typhimurium were used as test organisms in the experiments. At the end of the experiments, it was seen that all of the plants extracts were not directly or indirectly mutagenic effective (frame-shift and point mutations. In terms of antibacterial effectiveness, it has been concluded that Bacillus subtilis, Serratia marcescens, Basillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumania, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aerous, Enterobacter aerogenes. Key Words: Ames/ Salmonella, antibacterial effective, Lavandula stoechas L., microsome test, mutagenic activity.

1.33 Effects of Methanolic Extract of Teucrium polium on Blood Parameters and Histopathology of Liver and Kidney in Female Rat Imane KRACHE, Nadia BENZIDANE, Nacer AMRAOUI, Noureddine CHAREF, Abderrahmane BAGHIANI, Seddik KHENNOUF and Lekhmici ARRAR

Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas of Setif 19000, Algeria.

Abstract: Teucrium polium L. is commonly used as medicinal plants in Algeria against a variety of human disease. The effects of methanolic extract were examined per os on female rats Albino Wistar. Biochemical and haematological serum parameters, and morphology and histopathology of organs of treated rats were studied. The study of acute toxicity showed a low toxicity with LD50 > 2400 mg / Kg of body weight of rats. These data can be used to classify this plant in slightly toxic. However, the sub-acute treatment 25

for six weeks of rats with 75, 150 and 300 mg of methanolic extract / Kg of body weight resulted in significant increases of the studied haematological parameters. Biochemical analysis revealed significant increase of renal (urea, Creatinine, uric acid, Na and K), accompanied by increase of relative weight of kidney, lipidic (cholesterol) and hepatic (TGO) values in all treated rats. Histological examination confirmed biochemical tests by the observation of perilobular necrosis areas, bile duct and inflammatory infiltration of the liver and presence of marked intracytoplasmic vacuoles in kidney with the dose 300 mg of methanolic extract of T. polium. Use of Teucrium polium L. may cause hepatotoxicity and/or nephrotoxicity after prolonged herb administration. Key words: Teucrium polium L, methanolic extract, LD50, hematologic, liver, kidney.

1.34 The Effects of Chaed (Beta vulgaris L. var cicla) Extracts on the Lenses of Diabetic Rats Ismet Burcu TURKYILMAZ1, Bertan Boran BAYRAK1, Ozlem SACAN1, Yeim IPCI2,Levent KABASAKAL2, Göksel SENER2, Refiye YANARDAG1

Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320-Avcilar; 2Marmara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology 81010. Haydarpaa- Istanbul-Turkey.

1

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a pathological condition that results in severe metabolic imbalances and nonphysiological changes in many tissues, and oxidative stress plays an important role in its etiology1. Beta vulgaris L. species are used as a popular folk medicine for liver and kidney diseases, for stimulation of the immune and hematopoietic systems, and as a special diet in the treatment of cancer2. In the present study, the effects of chard extracts on the lenses of normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats were investigated. Male, Spraque Dawley rats weighing 380-420 g were used. Rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I; control animals given citrate buffer (n=4), Group II; streptozotocin (STZ)­diabetic animals (n= 6), Group III; STZ-diabetic animals given chard extract (n=6). Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitonal injection of STZ in a single dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. The chard extract was administrated by gavage technique to rats at a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 45 days, 15 days after animals were made diabetic. At the end of the experimental period, lens tissues of rats were taken after decaptation.The right and left lenses were both taken and homogenized with 0.9% saline solution. The homogenates were centrifuged and the clear supernatants were used for protein, glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels and enzyme activities. Lens LPO levels and aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and catalase activities were increased in diabetic rats when compared to control rats. Also, lens GSH levels were decreased. On the other hand, treatment with chard extract reversed these effects.These results suggested that administration of chard extracts for 45 days is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce the lenses damage in diabetic rats, probably by decreasing oxidative stress. Key words: Chaed, diabetic, extracts, lenses, oxidative stress.

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1.35 Effects of Malaysian Germinated Brown Rice on Atherosclerosis in CholesterolFed Rabbit Khairul Kamilah AK1, Zulkhairi A1, Azrina A2, Norhaizan ME2, Maznah I3, Hasnah B1, Taufik Hidayat M1, Mokhlas MAM1, Khairunnuur FA1, Fazali F1, Farah I. N1

1

Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor. 3Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Bioscience Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Abstract: The cardioprotective role of rice diets, which is the staple food for Asians, has been suggested since several decades ago. There are several types of popular rice consumed in Malaysia such as Basmati, long grain, white, brown and black rice. In this study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of white rice (WR), brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic induced-rabbits for 10 weeks. Forty two male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were used and grouped as; NC (normal group, n=6), HC (normal diet and 0.5% cholesterol, n=6), WR (white rice and 0.5% cholesterol, n = 6), BR (brown rice and 0.5% cholesterol, n = 6), GBR (germinated brown rice and 0.5% cholesterol, n = 6) and SG (simvastatin and 0.5% cholesterol, n = 6). The plasma samples were collected for blood lipid analyses at week 0, 5 and 10 respectively while the aorta was excised for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques at termination. The levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were lower in the plasma of rabbits fed GBR than other groups meanwhile plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) concentration was greater in GBR fed group when compared to HC group. Feeding GBR to rabbits reveals a favourable effect towards a reduction of atherosclerosis in the aorta by 70%. As a conclusion, findings from this study showed that Malaysian GBR has demonstrated positive hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effect in hypercholesterolemia induces-rabbits. However, the exact mechanism involving various compounds and antioxidant in GBR needs further investigation. Key words: Atherosclerosis, cholesterol-fed rabbit, lipid profile, rice.

1.36 Cytotoxic Effect of Artemisia Herba alba on S.U.99 Cell Line Growth Rate Khulood Whayeb Alsamarrae

Manager of biotechnology research center , Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq.

Abstract: the study aimed to determine the effect of Artemesia on S.U.99 cell line growth rate in different times of incubation (24, 48, 72 and 92 hour) and its effect on mice embryo fibroblast cell growth rate. The result showed inhibition in S.U.99 cell line growth rate in all times of incubation in comparison with the control .the effect may be attributed to certain active secondary. Metabolites found in the plant extract. Terpenes are one of these detected compounds. Key words: Cell, cytotoxic, Herba alba, growth.

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1.37 Study of Anti-Inflammatory Action of Amuse Extract of Complex Herbal Species Kyslychenko O.A., and Vihtinskaya I.L.

National University of Pharmacy, Kharkov, Ukraine. Kharkov Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkov, Ukraine.

Abstract: Combination of five different plants with various pharmacological properties in herbal species (HS) make it possible to obtain new effective and nontoxic drugs. It included Matricaria chamomilla, Calendula officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Hypericum perforatum, Mentha piperita (1:1:1:1:1). The suppressive action of HS on vascular permeability and pleurisy was studied (Suzuki, 1966). Male white rabbits weighting about 2 kg were employed. 30 minutes after the sample drug was administrated orally 5 ml/kg body weight of 1% Evans blue solution was injected into ears vein of rabbits. Immediately then 3 inflammation-inducing substances were injected into dehaired back skin, 4 sites for each substance, thus totalling 12 sites and 0,1 ml for each site. The inflammation-inducing substances were dissolved to concentrations adequate not causing tissue necrosis in preliminary experiments (0,01% histamine, 0,001% serotonin and 0,01% carageenin). One hour later the animals were killed by air embolism, the testing skin sites removed and the area where Evans blue exudated estimated. On the other hand, the skin tissue was decomposed by the action of protease, according to the method of Suzuki and the amount of exudated Evans blue was determined by colorimetry. Three to six animals were made to constitute one group for experiments and the average values and standard deviation were obtained. In the group, receiving 500 mg HS per 1 kg body weight per os the area of Evans blue exudation after injection of histamine, serotonin and carageenin were 288 mm2 ­ 230 mm2, 69 ­ 35 mm2 and 76 mm2 ­ 54 mm2, respectively, showing distinct decreases and, thus, proving the inhititing action of HS on vascular permeability. The amount of Evans blue in the exudate which was estimated simultaneously was found to decrease in all cases: with histamine from 420 mg per one spot to 365 per one spot; with serotonin from 140 mg per one spot to 160 mg per one spot and with carrageenin from 290 to 188 per one spot. As a result of the research the suppressing action of HS on vascular permeability and pleurisy was studied. By oral administration of 500 mg/kg of HS the augmented vascular permeability caused by histamine, serotonin and carrageenin was suppressed. Key words: Extract, herbal species, inflammatory, vascular.

1.38 Study of Antimicrobial Activity of Thick Extract of Rodiola coccinea Kyslychenko V.S., Diakonova Ia.V., Zhuravel I.O., Karpiuk U.V.1, Tseliuba Iu.S.

National University of Pharmacy, Kharkov, Ukraine. National O.O. Bohomolets Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Abstract: The application of synthetic preparations often has serious side effects , in particular as a result of their accumulation in an organism, that does impossible their application over a long period of time at treatment of chronic diseases. These matters are foreign for an organism, while bioactive substances of phytogenous origin are familiar, because they are synthesized by living organisms. It is well-known that 80% of the world population use remedies obtained on plant basis. Their medicinal value many is known by millenniums, and plants are successfully used in traditional medicine. Even in Western

28

countries, where basic attention is spared synthetic preparations, over 25% of medicines are obtained on plant basis. Therefore a search of new vegetable sources of bioactive compounds and creation basis of medicinal preparations on their actual tasks of modern pharmacy. The object of our research was a thick extract from rhizomes and roots of Rhodiola coccinea that is called by common people red brush, water served as an extract. Rodiola the bright red is widely used in folk medicine, for stimulation of immunity in the period of the protracted diseases and long reception of antibiotics, for the prophylaxis of womanish illnesses, such as a mastopathy, hysteromyoma, erosion, cyst, irregular monthly cycles, violation of heart work, at anemia and leucosis, at endocrine violations and as adaptogen. We developed a project of normatively analytical documentation for the thick extract Rhodiola coccinea. Identifying a thick extract is suggested to be carried out on external declaration, smell, taste, and also positive reaction on antocyanes. A dry remain, maintenance of heavy metals, microbiological cleanness and quantitative maintenance of antocyanes, was identified from numerical indexes. As Rhodiola coccinea in folk medicine is used for stimulation of immunity in the period of the protracted diseases, including those of infectious character, similarly at the long acceptance of antibiotics, it was expedient to study antimicrobial activity of the got extract. For the study of antimicrobial activity of extract the method of the successive breeding in a liquid nourishing environment and method of diffusion in a gelose were used. It was set as a result of researches, those microorganisms of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris are sensible to the thick extract from rhizomes and roots of Rhodiola coccinea. Thus, thick extract from rhizomes and roots of Rhodiola coccinea can be recommended as basis for creation of medicinal preparations, used in treatment of infectious diseases, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris. Key words: Antimicrobial, Rodiola Coccinea, red brush, rhizomes.

1.39 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. from Algeria M. Brada 1, A. Hennia 2, S. Nemmiche 2, J.P. Wathelet 3 and G. Lognay 4

Département de Génie des Procédés, Institut des Sciences et de la Technologie, Centre Universitaire de Khemis-Miliana, Algeria. 2Département de Biotechnologie et Technologie Alimentaire, Faculté des Sciences Exactes et des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université de Mostaganem, Algeria. 3Unité de Chimie Organique et Chimie Générale. 4Unité de Chimie Analytique, Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux, 2 ; Passage des Déportés, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.

1

Abstract: This study deals with the valorisation of medicinal and aromatic plants of the Algerian flora, in order to find new bioactive natural products. Myrtus communis essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twenty-seven volatile compounds were identified in the leaves essential oil; the major components -pinene (23.5 %), limonene (22.9 %), 1,8-cineole (16.1 %), linalool (13.0%), linalyl acetate (10.9%) and geranyl acetate (4.6%). The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracts was evaluated by the diffusion method and by the dilution method in liquid medium on pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Proteus sp and Klebsiella sp). The antimicrobial activity of different extracts against five strains of bacteria showed apparent sensitivities but different depending on the

pathogen. Some bacteria had been sensitive to low doses of about 2 and 5l of essential oils. These results were confirmed by those of microbial growth which was strongly inhibited in the presence of doses ranging

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from 8 to 20l of essential oils.

Their antibacterial activity would be attributed to many factors such as concentration, type of target microorganisms and the major presence of active compounds.The essential oils extracted from Myrtus communis L. from Algeria had evident antimicrobial

activity against the tested bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp and Klebsiella sp having shown the most sensitive. Key words: Myrtus communis, essential oil composition, antimicrobial activity, bacterial pathogens.

1.40 Effect of Feeding with some Egyptian Vegetables on Total Lipids and Cholesterol Fractions in Blood Serum of Albino Rats M. Kamal E Youssef 1, F. M. El-Tellawy2, S. A. Ghanem2 M. N. Zaky2 and M. M. H. Mohamed3

Food Sci. & Techn. Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University 2Home Economics, Dept., Faculty of Specific Education, Ain -Shams University, 3Home Economics Dept., Faculty of Specific Education, Assiut University.

1

Abstract: Moderate food intake is one of the very important reasons for enjoying a good health and ability of working. Less eating fresh vegetables may be leading to exposure to many diseases. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clarify the effect of the three studied vegetables namely: cabbage, carrot and radish on total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL/LDL ratio, VLDLcholesterol in blood serum of the experimental rats after feeding with three studied vegetables as well as in the control diets. The effect of feeding cabbage, carrot, and radish were tested in hyperlipidemic rats given diets containing these vegetables for six weeks. The results revealed that the treated rats with cabbage, carrot, and radish had lower levels of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDLcholesterol) than untreated group. On the other hand, radish recorded the least significant decrease in serum total lipids, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) of the experimental rats. Meanwhile, carrot recorded the least significant decrease in serum total lipids of the experimental rats. Key words: Cabbage, carrot, radish, , total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol.

1.41 The Effect of Using Certain Spices on Histopathological Structure of Some Organs in Digestive System of Albino Rats M. Kamal E. Youssef1, Sanaa M. El-Bendary2 and Rasha M. Ahmad3

1

Food Science & Technology Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 2Home Economic Dept., Faculty of Specific Education, Ain Shams University, 3Home Economic Dept., Faculty of Specific Education, Assiut University.

Abstract: Spices were the topic of many arguments due to their great importance. However, black pepper and red chilli are considered the most common spices used in Egyptian households. Two black pepper samples (Indian and Vietnamese) and four cultivars of red chilli planted in different governorates of Egypt (Aswan, Assiut, Cairo and Alexandria) have been studied. The effect of feeding the experimental animals with black peppers and red chillies on histological structure of stomach, duodenum, liver and spleen was carried out on one hundred and fourteen adult male white albino rats weighing 31

between 100 and 120 grams. The rats were classified randomly into (18) main groups of (6) rats each and the control group. The rats were fed for 30 days on basal diet containing the studied spices. The changes in the histopathological structure of some animal organs were investigated after ending the feeding program. The present investigations indicated that feeding the experimental animals during 30 days with the studied black pepper and red chilli resulted changes in histological structure of stomach, duodenum, liver and spleen. Key words: Black pepper, duodenum, liver, spleen. rats, red chilli, spices, stomach.

1.42

Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extact from Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. M. Mutluhan DOGER, Refiye YANARDAG

Don

Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320. Avcilar-Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), in the form of superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and hydrogene peroxide are generated in living organisms through many pathways. Accumalation of ROS in aerobic organisms is thought to cause oxidative damage in cells. Oxidative damage is believed to be strongly associated with certain human diseases such as mutagenesis, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, aging and carcinogenesis. Many synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone and propyl gallate have shown toxic and/or mutagenic effects, which have shifted the attention to naturally occuring antioxidants. However, the use of these synthetic antioxidants is restricted in some countries due to their toxicity. Therefore, substitution of synthetic antioxidants by natural ones and the screening of plant species for identifying new antioxidants have become critically important in recent years. The plant kingdom offers a wide range of natural antioxidants. Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don (Boraginaceae) is grown in Marmara and Black Sea regions of Turkey and is commonly used as a vegetable in these regions. The orientalis species have an expectorant, diaphoretic, and antipyretic effects. In the present study, the possible antioxidative activities of water extract T. orientalis (L.) G. Don were evaluated using different antioxidant tests. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening, total phenolics, flavonoid and proline contents of the extract were also studied. The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, Trolox and vitamin E. This study showed that T. orientalis (L.) G. Don extract exhibited antioxidant activity in all tests. These findings show that T. orientalis (L.) G. Don may be considered as an interesting source of natural antioxidants food manufactures. Key words: Antioxidant, aqueous, butylated hydroxytoluene, boraginaceae, extact.

1.43 The Effects of Nigella sativa on Subarachnoidal Hemorrhage-Induced Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

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Mehmet Ersahin1, Hale Z. Toklu2, ule Çetinel3, Berrak Ç. Yeen4, Göksel ener2

Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery; 2 School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Marmara University, 3 School of Medicine, Department of Histology & Embryology, Marmara University, 4 School of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

1

Abstract: Cerebral ischemia, related to vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of the study was to investigate the putative neuroprotective effect of Nigella sativa, a strong antioxidant, in a murine model of SAH. Male Wistar albino rats were divided as control, vehicle-treated SAH, and Nigella sativa-treated (0.2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) SAH groups. To induce SAH, rats were injected with 0.3 mL blood into their cisterna magna. Forty-eight hours after SAH induction, neurological examination scores were recorded and the rats were decapitated. Brain tissue samples were taken for blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, brain water content, histological examination or determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Na+-K+ ATPase activities. On the second day of SAH induction, neurological examination scores were increased in SAH groups, while SAH caused significant decreases in brain GSH content and Na+-K+-ATPase activity, which were accompanied with significant increases in MDA levels and MPO activity. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment reversed all these biochemical indices as well as SAH-induced histopathological alterations, while increased brain water content and impaired BBB were reversed by Nigella sativa treatment. The present data suggest that the beneficial effects of Nigella sativa may be the result of its antioxidant and vasodilatory properties, which preserve BBB permeability and reduce brain edema concomitantly. Although further studies are needed to explain the precise mechanisms of action of Nigella sativa on cerebral ischemia, we can currently suggest that this agent has novel therapeutic effects in the treatment of acute ischemic brain damage following SAH. Key words: Antioxidant, cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, Nigella sativa.

1.44 Antioxidant Activity of Propolis from Algarve Miguel MG1, Nunes S2, Dandlen S2, Cavaco AM3, Antunes MD1

Universidade do Algarve, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, DQF, Edifício 8, Centro de Biotecnologia Vegetal, IBB, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro. 2Universidade do Algarve, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, DQF, Edifício 8, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro. 3Universidade do Algarve, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Edifício 2, CEOT, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal.

1

Abstract: The term ,,propolis was used in Ancient Greece meaning: pro (for, in front of, e.g., at the entrance to) and polis (city or community); a substance that is for or in defence of the city or hive. Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from leaf buds and exudates from various plant sources, which is employed for construction and repair of the honeycomb. More than 180 compounds have been reported as being constituents of propolis: polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters), terpenoids, steroids, and amino acids. Nevertheless, its composition varies qualitatively and quantitatively with the geographical and botanical origins. Propolis possesses antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, antitumor, immunostimulating and antioxidant activities, among others. These activities are particularly dependent on the 32

chemical composition of propolis. In the present work the antioxidant activities, measured by several methods, in hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis collected at different zones of Algarve, during winter and spring, were evaluated. Phenolic content was evaluated along with the capacity of extracts of propolis for scavenging DPPH and ABTS free radicals as well as superoxide anion. The zones were spread by 3 areas in central Algarve: Mountain (Califórnia, Cabaça, Sarnadinha, Sobreira and Vila Chã Vermelhos); Maqui (Ameijoafra, Arrodeios and Pé da Serra), and the third region was an intermediate zone between those two regions, that we called as Transition (Rio Seco, Bicão Alto, Jordana, Lajo and Madeira). Independent on the collection time generally Ameijoafra, Arrodeios and Pé da Serra, all of them belonging to the Maqui region, presented the highest amount of phenols. Concerning the antioxidant activity, namely the capacity for scavenging DPPH radicals, the extracts obtained from Ameijoafra, Pé da Serra and Arrodeios (Maqui) in both collection times, and Vila Chã Vermelhos (Mountain), only in spring, was the most active. A practically similar pattern was observed when the activity was measured through the ABTS radical scavenging. These results were coincident with the highest amounts of phenols present in the extracts. Only the samples from Maqui were significant better scavengers of superoxide anion radicals than the remaining samples. Key words: Algarve, antioxidant, propolis.

1.45 Antioxdant Capacity, Nutritional and Phenolic Components of some Aromatic Plant Oils Mohamed R.A.Rashwan

Head of Food Sci. &Tech. Dept., Faculty of Agriclture, Assiut University. Assiut, Egypt.

Abstract: Essential oils were of obtained from five selected aromatic plants, namely: Fennel, rosemary, ginger, thyme and cinnamon by distillation method. Their contents of phenols were determined and phenolic components were separated and identified by using Hplc method. The antioxidant activity of extracts of all studied samples was determined using the rancimat test. The antioxidant activities were compared to synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT. The obtained results indicated that the aromatic plant extracts are considered a potential source of natural antioxidants, and it could be used in foods to replace synthetic antioxidants, which are being restricted due to their side effects such as carcinogenicity. The results showed that the aromatic plant oil extracts caused a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride. Similar results were observed in LDL. cholesterol concentration. It could be concluded that the studies aromatic plant samples might be contain polar products which be able to lower lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemia rats, and could be beneficial in preventing hyperlipidemia and related cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, aromatic plants, cholesterol, essential oils, phenols, plasma, triglyceride.

1.46 Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarix gallica L. Extracts and Isolated Flavonoids

33

Mostafa Lefahal1, Salah Akkal1, Souheila Louaar1, Merzoug Benahmed1, Ammar. Zallagui2 , Helmut Duddeck3

1

Laboratoire de Phytochimie et Analyses physicochimiques et Biologiques, Département de Chimie, Faculte de Sciences exactes, Universite Mentouri Constantine, Route dAin el Bey, 25000 Constantine, Algerie . 2 Laboratoire des produits naturels dorigine végetale, Département de Chimie,Faculte de Sciences exactes, Universite Mentouri. Constantine, Route dAin el Bey, 25000 Constantine, Algerie. 3Universität Hannover, Institut für Organische Chemie, Schneiderberg 1B, D-30167Hannover, Germany.

Abstract: A chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Tamarix gallica afforded two flavonoids, 5-Hydroxy-4,3,7-trimethoxyflavone (1) and 5,7,3-Trihydroxy-4methoxyflavone (2). The structures of the isolated compounds were established by chromatographic behaviour and by means of UV, NMR and MS spectral analysis. Moreover the Antimicrobial activity test was carried out on flavonoid extract and two isolated flavonoids: (1) and (2) of Tamarix gallica using disk diffusion method against five human pathogenic bacteria, including Gram positive, Gram-negative bacteria and one fungus Aspergillus niger. Key words: Tamarix gallica;, Tamaricaceae; flavonoids; antimicrobial activity.

1.47 Antimicrobial Screening of Viscum album L. Muhammad Altaf Hussain and Muhammad Qayyum Khan

Department of Botany, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir Muzaffarabad.

Abstract: The leaves and twigs of Viscum album L. (Family: Loranthaceae) were extracted successively with various organic solvents and water. These crude extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activities against three Gram positive bacteria, five Gram negative bacteria, one yeast and one fungus by using disc diffusion method. The Ethylacetate, chloroform, ethanol, and methanol crude extracts of selected plant parts had significant antimicrobial activities on both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The Ethylacetate and methanol crude extracts of leaves and twigs of Viscum album exhibited prominent activities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria used in comparison to other extracts which had moderate activity against all the tested bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts of the selected plant parts were more active against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. The standard reference antibiotics, Ciprofloxacin (100µm/ml) and Nystatin (1500u/ml) were used as positive control. Key words: Antimicrobial, bacteria, leaves, screening.

1.48 Antimicrobial Activity of the Crude Root Extract of Berberis lycium Royle Muhammad Qayyum Khan and Muhammad Altaf Hussain

34

Department of Botany, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Muzaffarabad 13100 Pakistan.

Abstract: The present work was carried out to study the antimicrobial activity of the aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of the root of Berberis lycium Royle (Family Berberidaceae), against Gram(+) bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis, Gram (­) viz Salmonella typhi, E. coli and a fungal strain Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using Paper-Disc method, described by Casal (1979) and Chung et al., (1990). The ethanolic and aqueous crud root extract were found to be most effective antifungal and antibacterial agents while no significant activity was shown by the petroleum ether extract against test organisms. The results were compared with the inhibition caused by commercially available standard reference antibiotic disc (Tetracycline). The inhibitory effects of all the crude extracts on the growth of both Gram (+) and Gram (-) organisms are very close and identical in magnitude and are comparable with standard antibiotic disc used. Key words: Antimicrobial, Berberis lyceum, extract, root.

1.49 The Immediate Antimicrobial Effect of Miswak Extraction

1

Nadia, A. Al-OMARI. 2Fardous N Al-Adwan., 3Jihad Qassem3, Amer Al-Omari2 and 1 Rania A. Al-efiashat

1

MSc.Pharm., 2BSc.Pharm., 3Al-Balqa`Applied University, Jordan.

Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the activity of antimicrobial components of miswak on the bacteria found in the mouth, especially (Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus). Swap was taken from tooth and cultured, and then isolation of bacteria was done. The wanted bacteria ( S.aureus and Micrcoccus ) were cultured. Broth from each bacterium was prepared and different dilutions were taken from it. Samples from the dilutions were taken and put on sterile Petri dish and incubated for 24 hours. After growth colonies were counted. The same process was done with the addition of miswak extraction on the broth. Finally comparison was done between numbers of colonies before and after adding miswak extraction. Results showed that, the number of bacterial colonies was reduced after adding miswak extraction for both Staphylococcus and Micrococcus.For Staphylococcus, the total count before adding miswak extraction for 3 samples were 9X106 cfu, 6x106 cfu, and 7x106 cfu. The count after adding miswak extraction was 6x103 cfu, 3x103 cfu, and 4x103 cfu respectively.For Micrococcus the count before was 8x105 cfu, 5x105 cfu, and 6x105 cfu.after adding miswak extraction the count was 6x102 cfu, 3x102 cfu, and4x102 cfu respectively. In conclusion,There was a reduction in the number of colonies of the bacteria found on the tooth surface, which is due to the presence of many minerals in miswak like Sodium salts, Calcium salts, and phosphate salts....etc. Key words: Antimicrobial, Extraction, miswak. 1.50 Saudi Traditional Medicine: Studies on Herbal Drugs with Anti-Diabetic Potential. Naif O. Al-Harbi, Riyadh M. Al-Ashban, and Arif H. Shah 35

Central Laboratory for Drug Analysis, Ministry of Health and Saudi Food and Drug Authority Joint Venture, King Saud Medical Complex, P.O.Box 59082, Riyadh-11525, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract: Medical plants play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus especially in developing countries. Several plants have been identified to be useful to cure diabetes in Saudi Traditional Medicine. Some of these plants are defined in Tibb al-Nabvi while others are listed in Greeko-Arab System of Medicine. Artemisia abyssinica, Teucrium polium, Clutia richardiana, Rhazya stricta, Clutia richardiana, Allium cepa, Citrullus colocynthis, Caralluma tuberculata, Momordica charantia, Cymbopogon proximus, Aloe vera, Allium sativum, Zygophyllum coccineum, Lupinus albus, Teucriurn oliverianum, Coriandrum sativum, Nigella sativa, Commiphora molmol, Gum olibnum, Ferula asafetida, Azadirachta indica, Hammada saticornica and Trigonella foenumgreacum, showed significant hypoglycemic potential in animal models. Recent literature survey revealed that some new bioactive compounds were isolated from plants which possessed hypoglycemic activity. It was noticed the anti-diabetic activity of pure compounds was more than oral hypoglycaemic agents used in clinical therapy. These findings clearly demonstrated the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes. However, a large number of medicinal plants possessed some degree of toxicity. For example, it was reported that about one third of medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes might contain toxic chemical constituents. During our work, it was found that Artemisia abyssinica and Teucrium polium possessed significant spermatotoxic potential. However, little concern is shown to the side effects and toxicity of herbal drugs which might be used for a relatively longer period of time. In continuation of our work, now Trigonella foenum-graecum treatment was evaluated for its toxic potential. Acute (24 h) and chronic (90 days) oral toxicity studies on the ethanol extract of Trigonella foenumgraecum L. (Leguminosae) seeds were carried out. Acute dosages were 0.5, 1.0 and 3 g/kg while chronic dosage was 100 mg/kg per day of the extract [6]. All morphological, biochemical, hematological and spermatogenic changes, in addition to mortality, body weight changes and any change in vital organs were recorded. Histopathological investigations were done on vital organs. Growth arrest in the treated animals was observed. The treated mice gained no significant weight during chronic treatment while there was a significant gain in body weight of the control group mice. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in blood sugar levels of fenugreek treatment groups while hematological parameters remained comparable to the control. In the treatment, male group there was a significant decrease in weight of testes as compared to the control. There was a marginal weight gain in kidney weight of mice after chronic treatment as compared to the control. Fenugreek chronic treatment caused a highly significant spermatotoxic effects in male mice. Based on the results of present study, it is suggested that special caution must be taken when fenugreek seeds and/or their extracts are added to special foodstuff formulated for people with diabetes. Furthermore, the results of the current study provide basic information about the toxicity of fenugreek seeds that might be helpful in planning future pre-clinical experiments on this potent natural drug. Key words: Diabetic, drugs, herbal, saudi, traditional medicine.

1.51 Anti-Stress Activity of Ethnolic Extract of Zanthoxylum armatum dc Leaves

36

Nitin Verma and R.L.Khosa

Department of Pharmacy, Bharat Institute of Technology, Bye-Pass Road, Partapur Meerut -250 103 (U.P.) India. Phone No. 0121-2440460, Fax No.0121-2440310.

Abstract: An exponential rise in world population coupled with rapid industrial growth has a direct impact on environment and society thus making man easily vulnerable to stress conditions. These , in-turn , causes disturbances in the normal physiological functioning of the body by way of increased free radical generation culminating in hypertension, neurosis, immune suppression and other physical and mental disorders. Global search is on, for the development of an effective antistress drug from natural source which could effectively tone up the disturbed physiological functioning of the subjects affected by such stress problem. A number of herbal drugs mostly in the form of their extracts (holistic approach) or in some as active principles isolated from them, have been evaluated for their antistress activity. Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) is extensively used in indigenous system of medicine in various ailments and as health tonic. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antistress activity of Zanthoxylum armatum in a battery of experiments, as this plant is reported be having significant antioxidant actions in various models in our lab. Taxonomically identified and authenticated plant material was defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°) and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extract was dried and made in to suspension in water containing 20% v/v propylene glycol and 0.08% Tween 80. The experiments were conducted on albino rats. The drug suspension was administered to the respective treatment group at a dose of 500 mg/kg, once daily in the morning through gastric intubation. The control animals received drug vehicle (1 ml) and the diazepam control animals received 2.5 mg/kg diazepam for a similar period. The photocell activity cage method, rotating rod method, forced swimming endurance method, autoanalgesia, open field behavior method, adrenocortical activity following restraint stress, spleen weight following restraint stress were used to investigate the antistress activity of the Z. armatum. The results of photocell and rotating rod experiments were showed that the treatment with the plant had no neurological impairing or marked CNS depressant activities. The forced swimming endurance test exhibited a significantly increased period of onset and a reduced total duration of immobility in rats thus indicating the antidepressant activity of the plant. In the analgesiometer measurements, were found to possess analgesic activity. The open field behavior aspects of ambulation, rearing and period of immobility in the 5-minutes test have shown the anxiolytic effects upon treatment with plant extract. Thus It was concluded that the Zanthoxylum armatum (500 mg /kg) possess significant antistress activity in all the parameters studied. Key words: Environment, ethnolic, extract, leaves, Zanthoxylum armatum.

1.52 Strobilanthes crispus Extract Reduces Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) in Obese Mice Fed High Fat and Low Fat Diets without Altering Food Intake

37

Norhasnida, Z , Warner, A , Ebling, F , Salter, A , and Brameld, J

1 2

1

2

2

1

1

Schools of Biosciences and Biomedical Sciences , University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Abstract: Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) is claimed to have body weight lowering effect. However, currently there is no scientific evidence to support the claim. We investigated the effects of S. crispus extract (SCE) on high fat-induced obese mice maintained on HFD or switched to LFD. All mice were fed high fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks to induce obesity, after which half were maintained on the HFD and half switched to low fat diet (LFD). At the same time, mice were given normal water or 0.1% (w/v) SCE in water at Week 0-4 which was increased to 1% (w/v) at Week 5-9. Oxygen consumption (VO2), CO2 production (VCO2), RER, locomotor activity (LMA) and heat production (HP) were measured at Week -1, 4 and 9. Food intake, water intake and body weight was measured weekly. Plasma glycerol (PG) and abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) weight were determined at Week 10. Results indicated that mice switched to LFD lost weight (p< 0.001), mainly due to decreased energy intake (p<0.001) as there were no effects on VO2, LMA or HP (p=0.931, p=0.437, p=0.621). They also had lower AAT weight and PG level (all p<0.001). SCE had no effect at either dose on body weight, VO2, VCO2, LMA or HP (p=0.08, p=0.474, p=0.605, p=0.988, p=0.698), but significantly reduced RER (p=0.034), without altering food or water intake (p=0.1, p=0.222). PG level were also increased in SCE treated mice (p=0.032). In conclusion, Switching to LFD reduced obesogenic phenotype. SCE appeared to induce lipolysis and body fat oxidation. Key words: Fat diet, obese, respiratory exchange, Strobilanthes crispus.

1.53 Nigella sativa Treatment Ameliorates Cardiac and Cerebral Injury in Hypertensive Rats Nur Taar1, Özer ehirli1, Ömer Yiiner2, ule Çetinel3, 4Berrak Ç. Yeen, 4 Emre ener, Göksel ener1

Marmara University, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology; 2Gülhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Cardiology; Marmara University, School of Medicine, 3Departments of Histology & Embryology and 4Physiology, Istanbul, Turkey.

1

Abstract: Hypertension is a lifestyle-related disease and dietary modifications are effective for its management and prevention. Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) and its active component thymoquinone have been known as sources of antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa in a renovascular hypertension model induced by placing a renal artery clip in Wistar albino rats (n= 8), while sham rats (n= 8) had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa oil (0.2 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. At the end of the 9th week, after the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) measurements were recorded, the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, creatine kinase (CK) activity, while cardiac and cerebral tissues were removed to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Na+,K+-ATPase activities. Hypertension caused increased BP and HR, along with increased plasma LDH and CK activities (p<0.05-

38

0.001). Moreover, in hypertensive animals cardiac and cerebral Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents were decreased, while MDA levels and MPO activities were increased in both tissues (p<0.05-0.001). On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP and HR, attenuated oxidative injury. In conclusion, Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced cardiac and cerebral damage via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension. Key words: Ameliorates, cardiac, cerebral, hypertensive, Nigella sati.

1.54 Assessment of Antioxidant and Acetyl Cholinesterase inhibitory Activities of Origanum haussknechtii Boiss. Nurgün Küçükboyaci1, Ilkay Erdogan-Orhan1, M. Mesud Hürkul2, Ayegül Güvenç2

1

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, 06330 Etiler, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey.

Abstract: Origanum haussknechtii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) is an endemic species to Turkey, which has been used as a tea in Erzincan-Kemaliye region of the country. The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory properties of Origanum haussknechtii. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the plant were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating effect, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. In addition, their AChE inhibitory activity, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease, was also screened by the spectrophotometric method of Ellman.The extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the test models used. The extracts displayed a mild scavenging activity against DPPH at 1000 g ml -1. Besides, they exerted a moderate effect in FRAP, while only the methanol extract had a similar activity at 1000 g ml-1 (19.86 ± 0.23) to that of the reference (26.94 ± 1.48). In the TBA method, the methanol extract showed highest antioxidant activity (IC50=23.62 ± 2.42 g ml-1) than its aqueous extract (IC50=98.99 ± 1.58 g ml-1) as compared to propyl gallate (IC50=0.24 ± 0.01 g ml-1). For the TEAC assay, the methanol extract possessed the highest antioxidant capacity (1.35 ± 0.28 mmol trolox/g) than the aqueous extract (1.22 ± 0.55 mmol trolox/g). However, both of the extracts were inactive in AChE inhibitory activity tests. Key words: Antioxidant, cholinesterase, origanum, lamiaceae, spectrophotometric.

1.55 Fifteen Years of Work on Aloe vera Nuriye AKEV1, Ayse CAN1, Nurhayat SUTLUPINAR2 39

1

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract: Medical usage and applications of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. (Aloeaceae), deal with skin disorders, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, cancer and the effects are mainly attributed to immunomodulatory or antioxidant activities. Compounds responsible for these activities were sometimes isolated and identified but some authors prefer to declare that their synergistic effects of are responsible for the beneficial effect of the plant. In our studies water extracts were prepared separately from the leaf skin and the gel parts of A. vera (ISTE 65118) which was cultivated in the green house of Istanbul University Alfred Heilbronn Botanical Garden. Our work on A. vera beginned with the separation of anthraquinones from the exudate part of the leaves (1) and continued with the purification and characterization of the lectins, namely Aloctin I and II from the leaf skin and gel parts separately (2,3). In the following study, A. vera leaf skin and gel extracts were assayed against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type I and type II diabetic rats. In acute studies significant hypoglycaemic effect was seen, the effectiveness being enhanced for type II diabetes in comparison with the known drug glibenclamide (4). On the other hand, the same effect could not be seen on chronic treatment (5). The effect of A. vera extracts on several tissues: lenses (6), kidney (7), liver (8), pancreatic -cells (9), heart and skin (10) of type-II diabetic rats was investigated consequent to the above mentioned studies. The biochemical markers for each tissue as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. For all tissues, except pancreatic -cells, an amelioration of oxidative damage provoked by STZ was determined. A. vera has shown a significant prophylactic effect on Ehrlich ascites tumour cells when injected to mice before tumour inoculation (11). This effect was also seen with the purified lectin (Aloctin I) and attributed to the immunomodulatory effect of the plant (12). There is strong evidence to suggest that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes as well as cancer. In order to continue on investigating the therapeutic properties of A. vera, and in the light of our research, assuming that its benefit could be attributed to the antioxidant activity, the antioxidant potential of the leaves was evaluated in our last study. The leaf skin extract showed good antioxidant capacity in all tests while the inner gel did not exhibit any activity (13). Key words: Aloe vera, antioxidant, antitumour, antidiabetic. 1.56 Hepatoprotective Effect of Smilax excelsa L. Nurten OZSOY1, Alper OKYAR2, Ayse CAN1, Nuriye AKEV1, Gul BAKTIR2

1

Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract: Smilax excelsa L. leaves are used widely in the Black Sea region of Turkey for consumption in the daily diet and in folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases, skin disorders and liver inflammation. The reported strong in vitro antioxidative activity of S. excelsa leaves suggests that it may also have a strong preventive effect against oxidative stress in vivo. Because free radicals and reactive oxygen species play a central role in liver diseases, dietary antioxidants have been proposed as therapeutic agents to counteract liver damage. In vivo antioxidant activity of an aqueous extract of the leaves of S. excelsa against acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in the liver was investigated in 41

the present study. The aqueous extract of S. excelsa leaves was administered orally in doses of 100 mg and 400 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 9 days. Acute hepatic toxicity was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (1 ml/kg body wt, in a 20 % v/v olive oil solution) on the 10 th day and assessed 24 h after CCl4 treatment. Rats treated with CCl4, developed significant liver damage as observed from the elevated serum levels of hepatospecific enzymes (AST and ALT) as well as severe alteration in other biochemical parameters. In addition, this potent toxicant caused significant decrease in glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase activities, depleted the GSH content and enhanced lipid peroxidation in the liver. Administration of S. excelsa aqueous extract prior to CCl4 intoxication produced the inhibition in CCl4induced toxicity by altering the levels of lipid peroxidation, and enchancing the decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as enchancing the decreased level of the reduced glutathione. When administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg of body weight the aqueous extract altered liver function and oxidative stress parameters to nearly normal against CCl4-treated rats.The results of this study suggest that S. excelsa could protect the liver tissue against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in rats probably by increasing antioxidative defense activities. Key words: Antioxidant effect, carbon tetrachloride, leaves, liver, Smilax excelsa.

1.57 Effect of Smilax excelsa L. on the Antioxedant System in Kidney Tissue Nurten OZSOY1, Alper OKYAR2, Nuriye AKEV1, Ayse CAN, Gul BAKTIR2

1

Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract: Investigation on the pharmacological activity of plant extracts used in folk medicine as well as on dietary plants has become one of the major activities of researchers worldwide. The beneficial effects of plants are mainly related to their antioxidant effects and various tests are proposed in order to prove this fact. Smilax excelsa L. (Liliaceae) leaves are used widely in the Black Sea region of Turkey for consumption in the daily diet and in folk medicine for their medicinal properties. In vitro antioxidant activity of S. excelsa L. leaves was demonstrated in a previous study in our laboratory. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract from leaves of S. excelsa against experimentally induced renal damage in rats. S. excelsa L. leaves were collected from Istanbul in Turkey (ISTE 81928). The dried leaves were extracted with boiling water. The extracts were filtered and evaporated to dryness. Female Wistar-albino rats were separated in 5 different groups. The control group received water and basal diet for 10 days, the CCl4 group received the same diet for 9 days and was treated intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight in 20 % olive oil, v/v) on the 10th day. The three other groups were treated with three different doses of the aqueous extract of S. excelsa (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) by gavage, once daily, for 9 days. Acute toxicity was induced by i.p. injection of CCl4 at the same dose, on the 10th day and animals were sacrificed 24 h after. The kidneys were excised, rinsed in ice-cold normal saline solution and a 10 % w/v homogenate was prepared. The tissue homogenate was used for the estimation of antioxidant parameters such as, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl content, reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione

41

reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and myeloperoxidase. Renal parameter carbonic anhydrase was also determined in kidney tissue. The results demonstrate that S. excelsa aqueous extract improve the antioxidant parameters and carbonic anhydrase levels impaired by CCl4 administration, nearly to the control group levels. The best effect was obtained at 400 mg/kg dose. The extracts boost also the enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system in kidney tissue, showing thus a beneficial effect for the plant. Key words: Smilax excelsa, carbon tetrachloride, antioxidant enzymes, kidney.

1.58 Invitro Assessment of the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Amaranthus lividus l. Nurten OZSOY1, Tugba YILMAZ1, Ozlem KURT1, Ayse CAN1, Refiye YANARDAG2

1

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University,Turkey.

Abstract: Free radicals are associated with various physiological and pathological events such as inflammation, diabetes, aging, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Naturally occuring antioxidants have been reported to play a major role in ameliorating oxidative damage induced by free radicals. Amaranth is an ancient plant belonging to the Amaranthaceae, which is believed to have originated from Central and Southern America. The members of the genus Amaranthus are widely distrubuted throughout the world in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions as grain crops, pot-herbs, ornamentals and dye plants. Amaranth is classified as a plant showing preventive and therapeutic (hypolipemic, antimutajenic, immune-enhancing, antioxidant, antimalaric and photoprotective) activity. Amaranthus lividus L. (locally name: dari mancari) is used as a vegetable in West Black Sea Region of Turkey. In vitro antioxidant potential of this plant has been investigated in our earlier study. The stems with leaves and flowers of A. lividus were collected from Bartin, Turkey (ISTE 83401). Water, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared, filtered and evaporated to dryness. All the extracts were kept at -20oC and dissolved in water or solvent before use. The free radical scavenging properties like superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide radical and antioxidant activity by using -carotene bleaching test were evaluated for all extracts. Ssynthetic antioxidants such as Gallic acid and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were used as standards. It can be concluded that, all the extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in all performed tests, A. lividus leaves and flowers, in the way which they are consumed as foodstuff in the Black Sea region of Turkey, can be used as an accesible source of natural antioxidants with consequent impact on their health benefits. Key words: Amaranthus lividus L., antioxidant activity, free radical, scavenging activity.

1.59 The Effects of Chard Extract on Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in the Testies of Diabetic

42

O. Sacan1, E. Kaptan2, Y. Ipci3, L. Kabasakal3, G. Sener3, R. Yanardag1 and S. Bolkent2

Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320-Avcilar, 2Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134-Vezneciler, 3Marmara University, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, 34668-Haydarpasa, Istanbul- Turkey.

1

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is the worlds most severe endocrine disease involving metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and including alterations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms. In recent years, various plant extracts have been claimed to be useful for the therapy of diabetic hyperglycemia. Chard (Beta vulgaris L. var cicla) is a herbaceous biennial leafy vegetable cultivated in many parts of the world for its year round availability, low cost and wide use in many traditional dishes. Beta vulgaris L. species are used as a popular folk medicine for liver and kidney diseases, for stimulation of the immune and hematopoietic systems, and as a special diet in the treatment of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of chard extract administration on testis of STZ-induced diabetic rat. For this purpose, male Spraque Dawley rats weighing 380-420 g were used. Rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I; Control animals given citrate buffer (n=4), Group II; Streptozotocin (STZ)­diabetic animals (n= 6), Group III; STZ-diabetic animals given chard extract (n=6). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ in a single dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. The chard extract was administrated by gavage technique to rats at a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 45 days, 15 days after animals were made diabetic. At the end of the experimental period, testis tissue of rats was obtained after decapitation. The testis tissues were homogenized with 0.9% saline solution. For histopathological evaluation, testes were fixed in Bouins fluid and followed routine processing methods, 5-6 m thick paraffin sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). Testis lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were increased and also testis Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activities were decreased in diabetic rats. Testicular LPO were decreased and also CAT and SOD activities were increased in diabetic rats given chard extract. In diabetic rat testes, germ cells were sloughed as a group into the lumina of most seminiferous tubule section. Also degenerative germ cells and residual bodies were observed in the tubule epithelium when compared to control individuals. However there was a reduction in testicular degenerative indications of diabetic animals given chard extract. Biochemical and microscopic results revealed that administration of chard extract to diabetic rats reversed adverse effects of diabetes take placed in rat testis. In conclusion, we can say that chard extract shows an ameliorating effect on testicular damage caused by diabetes. Key words: Antioxidant, chard, diabetic, enzyme, extracts, testies.

1.60 Determination of Antioxidat of Activities and Phenolic Contents of Salvia multicaulis vahl. FROM Turkey

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Önder YUMRUTA1, Saadet D. SAYGIDEER1, Nilgün ÖZTÜRK2 , and N. Bari TUNCEL 3

1

Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziantep University, 27310 Gaziantep, 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskiehir, 3Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering-Architecture, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Çanakkale, Turkey.

Abstract: Our study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of hexane and methanol extracts of Salvia multicaulis Vahl. from Lamiaceae and to determine its total phenolics, flavonoids , flavonols and phenolic acid contents. The extracts were screened for their possible antioxidant potentials by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging, power reducing, metal chelating and -carotene/linoleic acid assays. The methanol extract of S. multicaulis exhibited significant antioxidant activities determined by different assay and contained significant levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and phenolic acids. Total phenolic content were spectrophotometrically determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. They were found 73,57 ± 2,26 and 273,74 ± 1,16 mg/g dry weight, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in hexane and methanol extracts, respectively. Total flavonoid contents were determined in values of 86,48 ± 3,18 and 32,64 ± 1,16 mg/g, however flavonol contents were determined as 21,25 ± 1,88 and 10,41 ± 1,68 mg/g in hexane and methanol, respectively. The amounts of phenolic acids in the extracts were characterized by a reverse-phase HPLC method that used in the gradient elution employing diode array detection. Internal standard (IS) technique was applied for the analysis of phenolic acids to increase the precision and propylparaben was employed for this purpose. The most abundant phenolic acid detected by HPLC in methanol extract was rosmarinic acid in S. multicaulis as 2,16 mg g-1. Other phenolic acids obtained from extract were found to be vanillic, caffeic, syringic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric, ferulic and chlorogenic acids. This study show that methanolic extract of S. multicaulis have higher activities than its hexan extract. Key words: S. multicaulis; Antioxidant activity; Phenolics; HPLC.

1.61 Antiradical and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants P. Labun1, I. Salamon2

Department of Ecology, FHNS, Presov University, 01, 17 th November St., SK-081 16 Presov, Slovakia, [email protected] Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, 01, 17th November St., SK-081 16 Presov, Slovakia.

1

Abstract: Reactive oxygen species contain one or more unequal electrons. As a result, they are extremely chemically reactive. It occurs in humans when they breathe, even during normal metabolism. For protection against these pathological phenomena organism has a number of mechanisms which are disposed of free radicals. Safely to interact with free radicals may antioxidants. Terminating the chain reaction before it becomes detrimental to vital molecules in the body. Their main role is to prevent oxidative damage to the body of a reactive state. Medicinal plants fall into abundant resources of natural antioxidants. Based on the research of their efficacy, infusions of St. John's-Wort and Horsetail were compared in this contribution. Infusions of these plants degrade free radicals very effectively. Values SC50 uptake 2, 2 ­ diphenyl ­ 1 ­ picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) of oxidants were set. Results showed that St. John's Wort has a higher antioxidant activity

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than Horsetail. The infusions may be used not only in pharmaceutical but also in food industry for their many biological effects. Key words: antioxidant, DPPH, Horsetail, St. John's-Wort, free radicals.

1.62 Histopathological Studies on Animal Infected with Trichophyton rubrum and Treated with Fumaria officinalis Rafal shakeeb Al-Ani, Khulood al-Samarrae and Salim Al-Obaidi Abstract: This investigation was planned to study the histopathological changes caused by Trichophyton rubrum and study the therapeutic activity of Fumaria officinalis (ethanolic extract) on the infected skin by using light microscope (in vitro study). Light microscopic studies have shown certain degenerative changes in the infected area, these changes were represented by oedema with heavy acute inflammatory cell in dermis area extended to hypodermis, abscess formation and congestion of blood vessels. Healing after eleven day of the treatment with Fumaria officinalis extract, the incision was completely covered with newly formed epithelium and the hair seen in comparism with fugidin ointment with which the healing was represented by slower regenerative changes, crust tend to drop-off spontaneously and the incision which covered the area were less than those covered the area treated with Fumaria extract, indicating the efficiency of Fumaria ethanolic extract as antifungal agent. Light microscopic studies revealed certain regenerative changes in the infected area after the treatment with Fumaria officinalis extract, these changes were represented by more moderate inflammatory reaction with accumulation of neotrophile and monocyte in the epidermis layer. Key words: Animal, histopathological, Fumaria officinalis, Trichophyton rubrum. 1.63 Uterine Contractility Pattern After Bryophyllum pinnatum in Vitro vs. in Vivo Regula Wächter1, Jana Juhasova1, Rudolf Brenneisen2, Matthias Hamburger3, Monica Mennet4,Ana-Paula Simões-Wüst5, Martin Schnelle4, Andreas Worel4, Ursula von Mandach1

Department of Obstetrics University Hospital Zürich, 2Department of Clinical Research University of Berne, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences University of Basel, 4Weleda AG Arlesheim, 5Research Department Paracelsus Hospital Richterswil.

1

Abstract: Bryophyllum pinnatum preparations have been used since 30 years for tocolysis. The present study covers the uterine contractility pattern after the addition of B. pinnatum extracts on in vitro muscle strip preparations (myograph) compared to the changes in vivo registered in the cardiotocogram (CTG) of pregnant women with B. pinnatum tocolysis. Press juice (component of Weleda Bryophyllum Kautabletten) from B. pinnatum leaves and its chemical fractions are given to strips from myometrium obtained during caesarean section for contraction (voltage) measurements by myometry. The influence on the spontaneous uterine contraction pattern is quantified by AUC and the frequency of contractions. The results are compared with graphs performed in the CTG by pregnant women with B. pinnatum tocolysis. Results indicated that,the press juice shows

45

in vitro a concentration-dependent inhibition of the AUC. Among the fractions whose HPLC data indicate flavonoids as constituents, the AUC is more inhibited than those who are presumably contain bufadienolids or cinnamomic acid derivatives. With the decrease of the AUC, the frequency of contractions is increasing in the press juice. Initial results from the CTG are suggesting a similar pattern also in vivo. In conclusion, B. pinnatum juice and some fractions inhibit the contractility of myometrium in vitro while initial frequency increases. Consequences for mother and child will be discussed. Key words: Bryophyllum pinnatum, contractility, uterine, vitro, vivo. 1.64 Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Some Plants Against Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures in Rats S. Akbar1 and M.A. Al-Yahya2

1

College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, P.O. Box 6800, Buraidah 51452, and 2College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract: Medicinal plants have played a significant historical role in the maintenance of health and treatment of various diseases from the time immemorial. They still provide us unique chemical structures that serve as template for the development of new therapeutic entities. Plants grown under various climactic and environmental conditions may vary in their pharmacological activity and, thus, therapeutic effects. A number of plant-based drugs are widely used by the local folk medicine practitioners of Saudi Arabia. Among those are certain plant drugs that are credited for their antiepileptic activity. However, no scientific basis is provided for such claims to be valid. Pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model is one of the standard procedures to test the potential antiepileptic activity. We purchased four such drugs, Ruta chalepensis, Paeonia emodi, Delphenium denudatum and Anacyclus pyrethrum, from the local market in Riyadh and screened their ethanol extracts for anti-seizure activity against pentylenetetrazole (cardiazole)-induced (90 mg/kg, i.p.) convulsions in male albino rats. Oral administration of the extract (dissolved in distilled water) of Ruta chalepensis in a dose of 1 gm/kg body weight one hour prior to pentylenetetrazole injection, showed the maximum protection (87%) against convulsions and death. Seven out of the eight rats used did not develop any convulsions or die as a result of pentylenetetrazole injection. However, the same drug in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight produced only 25% and 37.5% protection against convulsions and death, respectively. Paeonia emodi and Delphenium denudatum protected 50% and 30% animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and 50% and 60% against death, respectively. Anacyclus pyrethrum offered absolutely no protection against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and death. The exact mechanism of induction of convulsions by pentylenetetrazole is not understood but it is considered a GABA antagonist. Similarly, to understand the mechanism of action of these drugs, further detailed studies would be required. Key words: Anticonvulsant, ethanol extracts, pentylenetetrazole.

1.65 Effects of Chard (beta vulgaris l. var. cicla) and Insulin on the Stomach of StzDiabetic Rats 46

S. Bolkent1, O. Sacan2, S. Bolkent3, Y. Ipci4, L. Kabasakal4, G. Sener4 and R. Yanardag2

Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, 34098 Cerrahpasa,2Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320-Avcilar, 3 Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134-Vezneciler, 4Marmara University, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, 34668-Haydarpasa, Istanbul- Turkey.

1

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus has been linked to the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species. Chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) is one of the medicinal herbs used by diabetics in Turkey. Several studies indicate that insulin deficiency plays an important role in the regulation of somatostatin release. Cholecystokinin regulates a variety of functions in the gastrointestinal tract. We have investigated the effect of chard extracts on the stomach by biochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Male, Spraque Dawley rats weighing 380-420 g were used. Rats were randomly divided into five groups. Group I; Control animals given citrate buffer, Group II; Streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic animals, Group III; STZ-diabetic animals given chard extract, Group IV; STZ-diabetic animals given insulin, Group V; STZ-diabetic animals given chard+insulin. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ in a single dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. The chard extract was administrated by gavage technique to rats at a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 45 days, 15 days after animals were made diabetic. The insulin was administrated by subcutaneous injection to rats at a dose of 6U/kg every day for 45 days, 15 days after animals were made diabetic. At the end of the experimental period, stomach tissues of rats were obtained after decapitation. Gastric somatostatin contents were decreased in STZdiabetic rats compared with other groups. Cholecystokinin-immunoreactive cells in the all animals were generally found to be scattered in the pyloric mucosa but not observed in the fundic mucosa. Stomach tissue was taken from animals, homogenized in 0.9% saline to make up to 10% homogenate. The homogenates were used for protein, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Stomach CAT and SOD activities and GSH level were decreased and LPO level was increased in diabetic rats. Administration of chard, chard+insulin and insulin to diabetic rats increased stomach CAT and SOD activities and GSH level, but LPO level decreased. As a result, we can propose that chard, chard+insulin and insulin could be potentially beneficial agents in reducing stomach damage of diabetic rats, probably by decreasing oxidative stress. Key words: Chard, diabetic, insulin, stomach.

1.66 Hepatotoxic effects of Retama sphaerocarpa Aqueous Extract: An Experimental Study on Albino Rats 47

S. Dahamna1 , S. Boussahel, D. Harzallah2, H. Bouriche, A. Belgeit, M. Marghem and K. Dehimi

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences & Life, University Ferhat Abbas, Sétif, 19000, Algeria Laboratories of phytotherapy applied to chronic diseases, applied microbiology, and applied biochemistry, Algeria.

Abstract: The leaves of Retama sphaerocarpaare (fabiceae) known in Algeria as "Retam", is widely used in the folk medicine. It used to treat acute respiratory diseases , eruptive fevers and diuretic. In the past it was used to heat the furnaces bakeries.. In this study, hepatotoxicity effects of Retama sphaerocarpa aqueous extract was examined. After administration of 1.0 mg/kg of aqueous plant extract to Albino Wistar rats, blood samples tissues such as liver and kidney were collected for morphological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation. Results revealed that Retama sphaerocarpa aqueous extract produced weight loss and increased plasma alkaline phosphatase, GPT and GOT. Clinical signs of intoxications appeared less than 1 hour after the treatment. However, others rats died afterwards. These changes were most severe during the first day of administration; they also persisted till 24 hours, which may suggest a possibility of an enterohepatic circulation of the drug or its metabolites. This was complemented with morphological disruption in hepatocytes on light microscopy. Key words: Retama sphaerocarpaare, biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity, leaves.

1.67 The Hepato-Toxicity of Acetaminophen and the Therapeutic Role of Neemazal W in Albino Rats Safinaz Badie Bakshwan

Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, KingDom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract: Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) is widely used as analgesic and antipyretic agent who is safe when in therapeutic doses. However, it can cause acute hepatotoxicity in both humans and experimental animals when taken in overdoses or in moderate doses in combination with other drugs or alcohol. The liver plays a key role in many of the processes of intermediary metabolism. It is also an important organ in the detoxication of drugs and carcinogens and affects the excretion of a wide range of compounds into bile. It is evident from the present work that APAP treatment for short term (15 days) or long period (30 days) caused a significant elevation in the activities of aminotransferases (ALT and ASTenzymes dependent on time of treatment by Neemazalw. Neem trees are distributed in south east and central Asia and tropical regions of Australia, Africa and the Middle East. Neem oil contains 4 or 5 compounds. Neem has several beneficial pharmacological actions such as anti-inflammatory,anti-arthiritis, antiulcer, anti-cancer, anti-tumor,anti-hormones, anti-pyretic, anti-protozoal, anti-viral, antibacteria,anti-fungal, hypotensive, hypolipidimic, hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective agents. In the present investigation, the intoxicated rats which treated with neem oil manifested a significant decrease in the liver enzyme activities and a considerable increase in serum total protein and albumin. These results may be attributed to the effect of neem oil which acts as hepatoprotective agent. They attributed this improvement in the hepatic cells to increase the level of both glutathione and protein-SH.The present study reveals a significant increase of the Hb and iron levels of APAP rat group after treatment with 60 48

ug/100g b.wt.neemazal-W, dependent on time of adminstration. However, neem oil is an anti-oxidant and plays an important role for scavenging the free radicals and increases the globin synthesis in the body necessary for the formation of haemoglobin molecule. Key words: Acetaminophen, neemazal, rats, toxicity, therapeutic. 1.68 Isolation and Characterization of Peptide(s) from Pisum sativum Having Antimicrobial Activity against Mammalian Pathogenic Bacteria Saima Rehman and Azra Khanum

PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi Department of Biochemistry Rawalpindi-46300, Pakistan.

Abstract: A number of studies have been carried out in Pakistan to extract antibacterial natural products from indigenous plants but less attention has been focused to isolate active peptides which may serve as competent candidate for the discovery of natural antibiotic. Therefore a systematic approach was taken to isolate and characterize the peptide(s) from the crude aqueous extract, solubilized plus dialyzed ammonium sulphate precipitates and purified gel filtration chromatographic fractions of seed/pod of Pisum sativum L. (garden pea). Their antibacterial activity was investigated against bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Pasterurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus and Proteus vulgaris using disc diffusion method. Crude aqueous extract was prepared in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and 75 % ammonium sulphate solution was used to precipitate the peptide (s) from the crude aqueous extracts. The peptides were purified by gel filtration chromatography and molecular weights were determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two active peptides from seed i.e. S4, S5 and pod i.e. P7, P8 were obtained having molecular weight ~19 kDa, ~22 kDa, ~10 kDa and ~11 kDa, respectively. The bioactivity of each peptide was tested against different enzymes, temperatures and pH. The results showed that the all purified peptides were susceptible to inactivation by trypsin and proteinase K, stable at temperature 4, 25 °C and active at pH 5-7. Further S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive strain based on minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value. Key words: Chromatography, isolation, peptide, sativum. 1.69 Antibiotic Activity of the Essential Oil of the Algerian East Noble Laurel On Some Bacterial Strains Salima Bennadja, Yasmina Tlili Ait Kaki, Azzedine Chefrour, Abdelghani Djahoudiand Youcef Hadef

Faculty of Medicine, department of pharmacy, University of Annaba, Algeria.

Abstract: The noble Laurel is rather common in Tell from Algiers and Constantine region, and also in the fresh stations of the forests of the Algerian coast. It is cultivated as decorative and culinary plant. In this study we suggest determining the chromatographic profile of some essential oil of Laurus nobilis collected in the Algerian East and to test its antibacterial activity, by using various concentrations and this, towards o8 bacterial strains. To characterize chemically the essential oil of the Laurel, we proceeded by the technique of the Chromatography in gaseous phase coupled with the Mass spectrometry (CPG / SM). to estimate the antibacterial activity of this essential oil at the concentrations raw , diluted in 1/2, in 1/4, in 1/8 and in 1/16) on 08 bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, 49

Serratia sp, Proteus sp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus D, Pseudomonas sp and Acinetobacter sp). And to reveal better the action of this essential oil on the various origins we established at first the effect of certain number of antibiotics on each of the origins. The results of the CPG / MS reveal that the essential oil of noble Laurel is a mixture of various classes of terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpènes) rich in a natural ether-oxide terpénique: 1.8 cinéole (35,31 %), in linalol (22.52 %), in Eugénol methyl ether (9.17 %) and in Camphène (7.37 %). Pseudomonas sp and Streptococcus D are very sensitive to the essential oil of the noble Laurel because the concentration (1/16 ) of this oil is sufficient to obtain an excellent antimicrobial action to these two origins. E.coli and Proteus sp are of a low sensibility in the dilutions 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16, it can explain by the variety of the physico-chemical properties of the middle of culture. The fluctuation in the antibacterial answer from a concentration to the other one for Klebsiella pneumoniae can be due to a saturation of the middle. Serratia sp and Acinetobacter sp are very sensitive to the dilutions. 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8. Among oxidative germs, we noticed that Pseudomonas sp is the origin the most sensitive to the essential oil of noble Laurel. Globally, the resistant germs in tested antibiotics present a bigger sensibility towards our essential oil, what would justify the complementarily of the aromatherapy and the antibiotic therapy in the affections in which these bacteria are incriminated.This antimicrobial activity is due to the synergy exercised by the various constituents which constitute this essential oil and especially in the presence of lactones sesquiterpenics. Key words: Algeria, essential oil, antibacterial activity, Laurus nobilis. 1.70 In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extract from Rumex cristatus DC Sibel KAHRAMAN, and Refiye YANARDAG

Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320 Avcilar-Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract: Plants have been used for years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. Several Rumex species (Polygonaceae) are employed in traditional medicine in many parts of Turkey as a laxative, cholagogue, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, purgative, depurative, and constipation. Rumex species are consumed as a green vegetable in several parts of the world, particularly in Turkey. Rumex cristatus DC is widely used in daily diet as a salad in Turkey. The antioxidant activity of water extract of R. cristatus DC was investigated in the different months using by different antioxidant tests All results were compared with natural antioxidants; -tocopherol acetate and synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and Trolox. Total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents of the extracts were determined. It is observed that antioxidant activity of R. cristatus DC depends on different maturing stages of plant. Generally, June extracts of R. cristatus DC showed maximum antioxidant activity. It is concluded that R. cristatus DC is a fine natural antioxidant source because it has high antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents. Key words: Antioxidant, extract, polygonaceae, -tocopherol.

1.71 Study of Antimicrobial Activity of Secondary Metabolites Extracted from Spontaneous Plants from the Area of Laghouat, Algeria Takhi Djalila

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Department of Biology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Amar Telidji University, Laghouat, Algeria.

Abstract: In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal potential of plant secondary metabolites: phenolic compounds, alkaloids and essential oils. These metabolites were extracted from eight spontaneous plants collected in the area of Laghouat, in the north of the Algerian desert. The investigated plants were: Datura stramonium, Peganum harmala, Ricinus communis, Nerium oleander, Citrullus colocynthis, Cleome arabica, Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia lentiscus. The total phenolic compounds were extracted, and then quantified by UV-Visible Spectrophotometry. The essential oils of Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia lentiscus were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GS/MS. The alkaloids were extracted from Datura stramonium, Peganum harmala, Ricinus communis, Nerium oleander, Citrullus colocynthis and Cleome arabica. The concentrations of the alkaloidic extracts were evaluated by UV-Visible. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was assessed by the agar disc diffusion method against three bacteria and three fungi strains. The MIC evaluation of the active extracts was performed by the dilution method. Results indicated that, the phenolic compounds obtained from the investigated plants did not exhibit an antimicrobial activity against the tested strains. The essential oils of Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia lentiscus demonstrated an inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli ATTC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 43300 MRSA+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27853 and against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.The MIC of Pistacia lentiscus essential oil on bacteria was 0.25% (v/v). The alkaloidic extract of Ricinus communis was effective against E. coli ATTC 25922 and exhibited an MIC of 0.02 mg/ml. Key words: Alkaloid, antibacterial, antifungal, essential oils, phenolic compounds, plant.

1.72 Alternative Treatment of Infection by Compounds Isolated from Globularia eriocephala Tir touil Aicha1,2, Meddah Boumediene1, Leke2 André, Nahnouh Noreddine3 and Canarelli Jean Pierre2

1

LRSBG, Faculté SNV ­ Université de Mascara, Algérie. 2Service de Pédiatrie, CHU, Nord Amiens, France. 3 CH de MASCARA, Mascara, Algérie.

Abstract: The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical pathogens is reviewed and its clinical impact on management is increased. Continued surveillance of resistance rates among clinical pathogens is needed to ensure that appropriate recommendations can be made for treatment of infected patients. Since, vancomycinresistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are the most important bacteria isolated in this case. Further studies addressing the clinical and bacteriological outcomes of patients infected with a resistant pathogen are needed. The leaves of Globularia eriocephala Pomel (family Globulariaceae) named "Tasselgha" are widely used in North region of Algeria as a folk medicine. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and hydromethanol extracts of Globularia alypum and essential oil were tested against some clinical pathogens bacteria. Antibacterial activities were tested against bacteria isolated from surgery in perioperative period using disc-diffusion method and MIC were determined. The compound of essential oils was confirmed using chromatography techniques. Results indicated that, The hydromethanolic extract of Globularia eriocephala leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas

51

aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activities were observed in ethyl acetate and hydromethanolic extracts of Globularia eriocephala leaves. The MIC values of the compound against Staphylococcus aureus (75.0mg/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (63.5mg/ml) and Klebsiella pneumonia (62.0 mg/ml). The combination of Chloroform extract and essential oils exerted wielded a synergistic effect for the inhibition against the growth of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria when the MICs were applied. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antibacterial activity against bacterial responsible of nosocomial infection, and the essential oil compounds showed at all a moderate activity against these bacteria. These results suggested Globularia eriocephala could be a potential source of antibacterial agents. Further investigations are in progress to determine the active constituent(s) for their application in medical research. Key words: Alternative, globularia eriocephal, infection, isolation.

1.73 Research for an Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of the Basilic (Ocimum basilicum L.) on some Bacterial Strains Tlili- Ait-kaki Yasmina, Bennadja Salima, Djahoudi Abdelghnani, Hadef Youcef and Chefrour Azzedine

Laboratory of botany, Department of pharmacy, Faculty of medicine, University, Badji Mokhtar Annaba, 23000 Algeria.

Abstract: To reveal the therapeutic properties of the basilica, (Ocimum basilicum L.) an ethnobotanic study was led, to emphasize the place which occupies our plant in the local herbal medicine. Then, we were interested, in the research and in the identification of the chemical constituents of the basilic after their extraction, namely the essential oil and the tannins, by basing itself on chromatographic methods: the CCM and the CPG, what allowed us the revealing an outfit of active substances, having in theory numerous curative properties. Analyses find the presence of 34 constituents, the chemical point of view, essential oil of the basilicum the members of the majority party of which are ß linalol (22.43 %), ß myrcene (12,48 %), Alpha Terpineol acetate (10,82 %), linalol acetate (9,49 %), myrcenol (9,18 %). The research for an activity antibiotic of the essential oil of the Basil was tested on 5 bacterial strains which are the most incriminated in the indications for which, this oil is used Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus D, Pseudomonas sp, Acinetobacter sp. For every bacterium, we used 04 different concentrations: the oil diluted in 1/2, in 1/4, and in 1/8. For the synergy, we note the presence of common chemical constituents between both oil but in uneven contents: ß linalol, the limonene and the eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) it emerges from it that quantitatively the association between both oil brings concentrations more raised in common constituents, what is going to improve the antimicrobial activity. Key words: Antifungal activity, CCM-CPG-activity antimicrobial, Ocimum basilicum, essential oil, leaves.

1.74 Study of Pharmacological Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds of some Plants of Caragana Genus Growing in Ukraine 52

Vihtinskaya, O.O.1, and Kyslychenko, V.S2.

1

Kharkov Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkov, Ukraine, National University of Pharmacy, Kharkov, Ukraine.

2

Abstract: Herbal remedies are popular due to their favorable profile of benefit-risk ratio. In the rehabilitation of the biliary tract dysfunctions it is advisable to use phytotherapy by the medical herbs with choleretic, spasmolytic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. There have been studied chemical ingredients of sprouts of Caragana arborescence, Caragana frutex, and Caragana mollis. The sum of such phenolic compounds as hydroxycinnamic acids, coumarines and flavonoids was extracted from sprouts of the researched plants. These plants are used in folk medicine for the treatment of liver pathology. In the experiment on the rats and mice it was studied comparative acute of polyphenolic complexes of Caragana arborescence, Caragana frutex, Caragana mollis (Carfen) and Silibor, produced by pharmaceutical firm "Zdorovye". It also has choleretic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The drugs are practically nontoxic and have similar specific activity. Carfen has stronger choleretic activity than Silibor but its hepatoprotective activity is weaker. In the conditions of acute hepatitis (CCl4) in the experiments on rats after intragasrical administration of polyphenolic compounds of Caragana arborescence, Caragana frutex, Caragana mollis and Silibor protect disturbance of biochemical indexes level of malonic dialdehyde, superoxiddismutase and catalase activity in liver, aspartat- and alanin-aminotransferase activity and level of protein in serum, antioxidant activity in blood. Carfen is safe and effective tool with expressed choleretic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity. Data about influence of Caragana arborescence polyphenolic compounds (Carfen) on gall acids metabolism in dogs liver are obtained. Stimulating influence of Caragana arborescence biologically active substances on out-secretary function of a liver and variation of quantitative and qualitative gall characteristics at experimental animals resumed. Combination of flavonoids, coumarines, hydroxy-cinnamic acids provides the polyvalent action of preparation, that enables to consider it as a perspective remedy from the point of clinical pharmacology and pharmacoeconomics. Key words: Caragana, pharmacological, plants, polyphenolic.

1.75 Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of some Algerian Origanum, Rosmarinus and Artemisia spp. Youcef HADEF1, Azzedine CHEFROUR2, Yasmina AIT KAKI2, Salima BENNADJA2 , Wassim OUARTANI1, Feriel BENKAZA1 and Nadjib KAARAR1

1

Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Département de Pharmacie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Badji Mokhtar, BP 205, Annaba (23000), Algérie ; 2Laboratoire de Botanique Médicale, Département de Pharmacie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Badji Mokhtar, BP 205, Annaba (23000), Algérie.

Abstract: Following the development of the mycoses related to the treatments involving a fall of immunizing defenses, with invasive therapeutic practices and the appearance of resistant stocks research the new antifongiques ones appeared like a vital need. Among the antifongiques ones of vegetable origin one can quote the essential oils secreted by various plants. The essential oils were isolated by steam distillation from the aeral parts of Origanum majorana from Touadjnia near Guelma, Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae)

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from Ichemoul, Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) from Annaba. The oils were analyzed by GC/MS. The highest oil yied was obtained from Origanum majorana (4,86%). The main constituants of oils were as follows : O. majorana, Thymol (40,69%), g-Terpinene (28,39%), Paracymene (13,57%), Carvacrol (2,41%) ; R. officinalis, a-pinene (19,7%), Camphor (12,56%), Borneol (11,22%), 1,8 cineol (7,93%) ; A. herba alba, Camphor (31,95%), Chrysantenone (24,75%), a-Thuyone (10,21%), 1,8 cineol (9,88%). Essential oils from three Algerian plants were analyzed for their potential activity against Candida albicans. The highest efficiency was obtained with the essential oil from Origanum majorana (MIC 80% = 2,685 g/ml). Key words: Antifungal, Candida albicans, carvacrol, essential oils, Origanum majorana, thymol.

1.76 Antibacterial Activity of Extracts of Ajuga iva, and Teucrium polium Zerroug, M.M1., Zouaghi, M2., Boumerfeg, S2., Baghiani, A2., Nicklin , J.3 and Arrar, L.2

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Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biology, University Ferhat Abbes of Setif, Setif, 2 Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, Department of Biology, University Ferhat Abbes of Setif, Setif, Algeria. 3School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Birkbeck College, University of London UK.

Abstract: Antibiotics provide the main basis for the therapy of microbial (bacterial and fungal) infections. Since the discovery of these antibiotics and their use as chemotherapeutic agents there was a belief in the medical fraternity that this would lead to the eventual eradication of infectious diseases. However, overuse of antibiotics has become the major factor in the emergence and dissemination of multi-drug resistant strains of several groups of microorganisms. Many plants which are used in traditional medicine contain antimicrobial compounds. In this study, the antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of Teucrium polium and Ajuga iva were tested against five bacteria, E. coli MC 4100, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas diminutus, Paracoccus paratrophus and Micrococcus luteus. T. polium and A. iva plants were collected and allowed to dry in the dark at room temperature. Dried plant material (100g) was added to 1 L of methanol and incubated at room temperature for three days. The crude solution was filtered through muslin cloth, and the filtrate evaporated to dryness. The dried material was dissolved in 2 ml of methanol. Bacterial suspensions (100 µl) were spread on tryptone soya agar (TSA) medium. Plant extracts (10 µl) were applied to discs of filter paper and placed on agar plates containing the microorganisms. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48h. After incubation the zones of inhibition around the discs was measured. Extracts of T. polium gave zones of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Paracoccus paratrophus of 3.7, 2.0 and 2.0 mm, respectively. A. iva extract only inhibited the growth of Paracoccus paratrophus, giving a zone of inhibition of 3.0.mm. The present results showed that extracts of T. polium inhibited the growth of three bacterial species. Extracts of A. iva, on the other hand, inhibited only one bacterium. Key words: Ajuga iva, antibacterial activity, plant extracts, Teucrium polium.

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1.77 Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Lavandula viridis L´Hér. Zuzarte, M.1,2, Gonçalves, M. J.1, Cavaleiro, C.1, Canhoto, J.2, Silva, M. J.3, ValeSilva, L.3, Pinto, E.3, and Salgueiro, L.1

Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Faculty of Pharmacy, Health Science Campus, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de S. Comba 3000-354, Coimbra, Portugal. 2 Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Ap. 3046, 3001-401 Coimbra, Portugal.3 Microbiology Service / CEQUIMED, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Aníbal Cunha 164, 4050-047 Porto, Portugal.

1

Abstract: In the last few years, an increase in the incidence of fungal diseases has been found, particularly among patients with impaired immune systems. Moreover, the reduced number of available drugs and the increasing resistance to classical antifungal compounds justifies the research for efficient and economic therapeutic alternatives with low side effects. Aromatic plants and their essential oils have been traditionally used as antifungal agents and therefore are an excellent option in the research for novel fungicides. In the present work we report for the first time the antifungal activity of the essential oils of Lavandula viridis from Portugal. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed by GC and GC/MS using fused silica capillary columns with two different stationary phases. In order to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against several pathogenic fungi (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, dermatophytes and Aspergillus spp.) the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using a broth macrodilution method based on the CLSI reference protocols M27-A3 and M38-A2. The influence of subinhibitory concentrations of the essential oil on the dimorphic transition in Candida albicans was then studied. The oil was characterized by high contents of oxygencontaining monoterpenes (69.5%) followed by monoterpenic hydrocarbons (17.1%). The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (34.5%), camphor (13.4%), -pinene (9.0%) and linalool (7.9%), whereas sesquiterpenic compounds attained only 4.8%. MIC and MLC values varied among the tested strains, dermatophyte, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida strains being the most sensitive (MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32 to 2.5µL/mL). For all these strains the MIC was equivalent to the MLC, indicating a fungicidal effect of the essential oil. The oil was further shown to completely inhibit filamentation in C. albicans at concentrations as low as MIC/16. This is particularly important since filamentation is crucial in C. albicans for pathogenicity. The major constituents were also assayed individually against the fungal strains. The antifungal activity of the essential oil is presumably due to both the contribution of -pinene and the synergistic effect between the different compounds present in the oil. Our results support the use of L. viridis essential oils in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases, particularly dermatophytosis and candidosis, although clinical trials are required to evaluate the practical relevance of our in vitro research. Key words: Antifungal, composition, essential oils, Lavandula viridis.

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The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses

Topic 2: The ethno-pharmacological studies on medicinal plants.

2.1 Medicinal Plants in the Holly Quran and their Therapeutic Benefits Abdulrahman E. Koshak, PharmD1Abdulaziz A. Alfaleh, PharmD1 - Prof. Essam A. Abdel-Sattar2 - Prof. Emad A. Koshak3

Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 2Department of Natural Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 3Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha Kingdome of Saudi Arabia.

1

Abstract: There are many plants with medicinal applications have been enumerated in the Holly Book of Muslims "Quran". This may point to their pharmaceutical importance in different illnesses either due to their nutritional or phototherapeutic values. This study was conducted to identify the medicinal plants enumerated in the Quran and exploring their phytotherapeutic benefits. Searching the Quran for any enumeration of medicinal plants was conducted. Then, exploration for any documentation and publication of their therapeutical benefits was explored by searching the internet websites for well referenced publications. The results indicated that, at least twelve medicinal plants have been identified in the Quran. They included: Camphor "Cinnamomum camphora L.", Date palm "Phoenix dactylifera L.", Fig "Ficus carica L.", Ginger "Zingiber officinale Roscoe.", Grape "Vitis vinifera L.", Garlic "Allium sativum L.", Lentil "Lens culinaris Medic.", Olive "Olea europea L.", Onion "Allium cepa L.", Pomegranate "Punica granatum L.", Summer squash "Cucurbita pepo, Sweet basil "Ocimum basilicum L.". Six of these plants were selected because of having several therapeutically proven values in the medical literature. Recent publications on pomegranate revealed its benefits as hypotensive, hypolipidimic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant and as cancer-preventive activities in prostate and breast cancers. Grapes and grape seeds showed hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer activities and of great benefits in cardiovascular problems. Several clinical studies proved the effectiveness of ginger in nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, vomiting in pregnancy, and motion sickness, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic activities. Clinical and animals studies proved the medicinal benefits of olive oil and olive leaves as hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, hypocholesterolemic, and antiviral, antimicrobial and as immunostimulant. Searching the Quran has identified the enumeration of at least twelve medicinal plants. Searching the medical databases revealed that there is huge number of publications on the phytotherapeutical benefits for the use of these plants. Further research work is required to explore other medicinal plants and their benefits mentioned in the Quran. Key words: Holly Quran, medicinal plants, phytotherapeutic.

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2.2 Therapeutic Values of Moroccan Plants: from Traditional knowledge to Scientific Approaches B. Lyoussi

Laboratory Physiology-Pharmacology & Environmental Health, University of Fez, Morocco.

Abstract: Ethno pharmacological surveys carried out in many parts of the world, including Morocco, have identified hundreds of plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, and studies in experimental animals have confirmed the ethnomedical use of some of these plants. To confirm the rationale for the ethnopharmacological use of herbal remedies in the treatment of pathologies, pharmacological evidence of the therapeutic activity of a number medicinal plants has been demonstrated in experimental animals, as well as direct effect of a number of herbs and plant products in humans. Studies have been carried out with the following herbs/plants, used in folk medicine to treat human diseases, to demonstrate curative effects in humans or to isolate constituents responsible for pharmacological activity. The medical use of plant-derived remedies is still based on subjective and empirical observations of efficacy on human beings. The primary purpose of modern verification is the assessment of therapeutic efficacy, as well as the establishment of qualitative and quantitative correlations between efficacy and chemical constituents. An effective approach proceeds through ethnopharmacognostical studies, action ­guided isolation and identification of bioactive constituents and controlled clinical assessment of "phytomedicines". Examples of evidence based bioactive phytoconstituents for several pathologies; cardiovascular, metabolic and renal are presented for many plants: Marrubium vulgare, Calycotome villosa, Carum, Pomegranate, Cucurbita pepo, Ficus carica, Olea europeae, Ajuga iva, tanacetum, Centaurium and Nigella sative. Results from our studies have confirmed polyphenols from Moroccan medicinal plants as a cardioprotective agent. These results indicate that plants have antioxidant properties and its consumption may prevent or delay free radical mediated diseases such as cardiovascular disease. So many therapeutically strategies have been tested to prevent the occurrence of these oxidative diseases. Polyphenolic compounds in plants exert cardioprotective effects linked to their free radical scavenging. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds which are widely distributed in plants have been reported to exert multiple biological effects, including antioxidant, free radical scavenging abilities, anti-inflammatory. There is a growing interest in the food industry and in preventive health care in the development and evaluation of natural antioxidants from plants. Some plants contain considerable amount of polyphenolic substances, which have been reported to have antioxidant activity. Key words: Antioxidant, Natural products, Phytotherapy, herbal medicine, folk remedies, ethnopharmacology.

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2.3 Medicinal, Aromatic and Spice Plants in Romanians Rites and Beliefs Georgeta Rata, Cornelia Petroman, Ioan Petroman

Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania.

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to see if medicinal, aromatic and spice plants such as used by the Romanians in their rites and beliefs hundreds of years ago could still be of any use nowadays in such fields as pharmaceutics and/or food industry. The corpus of medicinal, aromatic and spice plant common names has been taken from Elena NiculitaVoroncas "Rites and beliefs of the Romanians collected and ranged mythologically", a solid, well documented book printed in 1903 at Chernivtsi (nowadays in Ukraine). The approach is a both linguistic and botanic one: we have inventoried 62 common names of medicinal, aromatic and spice plants and then we tried to identify their scientific name, so that we can track them in modern pharmacology and gastronomy. We have found out that, as far as medicinal plants are concerned, most of the plants used in the past in the treatment of different diseases are no longer used as medicinal plants, while plants used as aromatic or spice plants still play an important role in Romanian cuisine. Research was limited by several factors: there are no Latin (scientific) names of the plants in NiculitaVoroncas book; in a few cases, the same medicinal, aromatic or spice plant common name (whose scientific name is available) applies to plants belonging to different plant families; for 10% of the medicinal, aromatic and spice plant common names we could not find the scientific name; for other 6% of the medicinal, aromatic and spice plant common names we could not find the English equivalent (necessary in the developing of the present study). The practical implications of the study consist in the fact that our findings could serve as a basis for further research in the field of medicinal plants with a view to developing new medicines for the treatment of the diseases of the modern times. The value of the paper is given by the fact that it approaches the study of a corpus of medicinal, aromatic and spice plants from a double perspective: linguistic and botanic. Key words: medicinal plants, aromatic plants, spice plants, linguistics, botany.

2.4 An Ancient Medicinal Plant: Olive Hakan CETINKAYA, Nazim SEKEROGLU, Gulcihan GUZELDAG, and H.Aysun MERCIMEK

Department of Biology, Faculty of Art and Science, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000, Kilis, Turkey

Abstract: Olive (Olea europea L.) is a characteristic plant of the Mediterranean region. One of the oldest crops, olive has mainly been cultivated (90 %) in the Mediterranean countries for its fruit and oil. Besides the Mediterranean countries, it is commercially grown in Africa, Australia and South America, as well. Olive fruit and olive oil have been used as food and traditional medicine for ages. All the plant parts have a great importance for Mediterranean people in daily life. Olive is a symbol of the peace for all over the world. Its pharmaceutical properties and food value had been discovered in Mediterranean civilizations about 4000 years ago. It is known as "Elixir of the life" in the region. Leaf, fruit seed, and olive oil are important medicinal parts of the olive tree among people. These natural drugs have been used solely for curing some ailments or an important part of 58

the traditional mixtures. Recent scientific studies have also proved the oil quality with high content of oleic acid. It is stated that pure olive oil should be consumed in daily diets for healthy and long life. Phenols in olive oil are responsible for its peculiar pungent taste and for its high stability. Recent findings demonstrate that olive oil phenolics inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (the most atherogenic ones) and possess other potent biological activities that if demonstrated in vivo, could partially account for the observed healthful effects of diets that include high-quality olive oil and other foods rich in flavonoids and phenols. Olive oil is a rich source of monounsaturated fat, which reduces the risk of heart disease by decreasing levels of artery-clogging lipids in the blood. Additionally, olive oil is a rich source of polyphenols powerful antioxidants that are increasingly attracting attention for their ability to promote good health. Olive oil is an important constituent of modern cosmetic products as well. Herbal tea prepared by olive leaf has been used for lowering blood pressure and treating diabetes in the region for a long time. Modern herbal mixtures for hypertension have a big content of olive leaf extract. Chemical composition of olive leaves are Iridodide monoterpenes (including among others, oleuropein [6-9 %], additionally 6-O-oleropinesaccharose, ligstroside, oleroside, oleroside-7, 11-dimethyl ether), triterpenes (including olenolic acid, maslinic acid), flavonoids (chalcones [olivine, olivine-4-O-diglucoside]) and volatiles. Clinical evidence has proven that the blood pressure lowering effects of olive leaf extracts. Bioassays support its antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory effects at laboratory level. A liquid extract made directly from fresh olive leaves recently gained international attention when it was shown to have an antioxidant capacity almost double to green tea extract and 400 % higher than Vitamin C. Thus, olive plant and its derivatives are thought to be of important source of food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries in the future. Key words: Antioxidant, hypertension, olive, pharmaceutical, Phenols.

2.5 Medicinal Plants of Ahaggar (Algeria) Hocine LAOUE1 and Nelly A.2

1

Laboratoire de valorization des ressources biologiques, Université Ferhat Abbas, Sétif, Algérie, 2 Faculty of Agronomy, Hally-Spirit University, Kaslik, Lebanon.

Abstract: Medicinal plants have been used as a source of remedies since ancient times. This work has the objective a survey of the species of plants and their uses as medicinal, which are utilized for therapeutic purposes in Ahaggar region of Algeria. The area of study is recognized by a moderate diversity of species of plants. As results, a total of 55 species belonging to many genera and families were recorded and also their ethnomedicinal information. This study aims at emphasizing the greatest importance of investigation of those species that have not been subject of pharmacological study, although their popular uses have already been reported. Key words: Ahaggar, algeria, medicinal plants, survey.

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2.6 Medicinal and Aromatic Plant and Opportunities for Sustainable Management in Albania Ibraliu, A1., Faslia, N1., Shehu, J.1 and Mullaj, A.2

Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment. Agricultural University of Tirana, Koder Kamez, Tirane, Albania. Tirane, Tl. (+355) 47 200624, Fax (+355) 47 200624. 2 Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana.

1

Abstract: Medicinal plants represent an important asset to the livelihoods of many people in Albania. The rural a communities rely on medicinal plants for their primary healthcare needs and income generation. Accordingly, about 300 medicinal plant species were found to be actively traded or used in Albania. These species were mostly used for the extraction and development of several drugs and chemotherapeutics from these plants as well as from traditionally used rural herbal. Some of the used species are rare, vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered and are declining from the wild. However, in different areas where habitat loss and habitat change are major threats to medicinal plant species or nature conservation aims in general, continued wild-collection may even support nature conservation. Sustainable wild-collection may thus increase among local people the awareness for the need to conserve the species and their habitats. Key words: Albania, Aromatic, Medicinal plants, rural herbal.

2.7 A Comparative Study of Medicinal Plants Cultivation and Uses in Six Latin American Cities Isabel Maria Madaleno

Portuguese Tropical Research Institute, Global Development Programme.

Abstract: Native trees and medicinal herb species are essential components in Latin American front and backyards. They can be found as hedges and flourishing bushes in gardens, in small vases on terraces and balconies, in vacant urban plots, in peripheral lots and farms. They constitute a valuable resource for low-income residents and alternative medicine for many. Central markets and weekly fairs additionally provide a wide variety of species used in mild or chronic diseases therapies, broadly appreciated by Latin American citizens. This comparative study was carried out in Lima (Peru), Santiago (Chile), Belen (Brazil), Havana (Cuba), San José, Costa Rica and Mexico City (Mexico) for over a decade. The objective of the present ethno-geographic study is to analyze traditional ecological knowledge both because garden biodiversity preservation is crucial for a healthy urban environment and because traditional healing practices and ethnobotanical knowledge are an important legacy for future generations. Key words: Latin America, local knowledge, medicinal plants.

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2.8 Comparative Analysis of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Italy and Tunisia Kamel GHEDIRA1, Maria Lucia LEPORATTI2

1

Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Rue Avicenne, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia. 2 Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Università "La Sapienza", Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy.

Abstract: Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans), facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is a to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries. The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge. Key words: Analysis, italy, medicinal Plants, traditional, Tunisia. 2.9 The Importance of Artichoke as Medicinal Plant Meliha Temirkaynak, Sadettin Küçük, Recep Çokun and Hüseyin Namal

Bati Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute, Antalya-Türkiye.

Abstract: Artichoke is most important vegetable crops in the World in terms of medicinal use. It contains cynarin and other phenolic compounds. Artichokes have been used traditionally in Europe to improve digestive and urinary tract health. Artichoke leaf extracts are currently used in Europe as a remedy for indigestion. In this review, the use of medicinal plants of artichoke has been mentioned. Keywords: artichoke, medicinal, plant. 2.10 Ethno ­ Toxicological Screaning on Medicinal Plants of Siran Valley, Northern Pakistan Mushtaq Ahmad Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Mir Ajab Khan, Shazia Sultana and Muhammad Zafar

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.

Abstract: Siran Valley is located in District Mansehra of North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Northern Pakistan. The Siran River catchments area is commonly known as, " Siran Valley". It is situated between 34o 33/ 35// and 34o 44/ 30// north latitude, and between 73o 13/ 38// and 73o 22/ 40// east longitude. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that 62 poisonous plant species belonging to 59 genera and 37 families encountered from the area 61

were being utilized for various advantageous and disadvantageous purposes by different ethnic groups and rural people of the area. The major uses of poisonous plants recorded from area are fish poison, antilice, anthelmintic, wormicide, abortifacient, antiseptic, purgative and larvicides. The present study is based on extensive surveys in the actual fields and queries with the local community of the area. Surveys were made in such a way that utility of each and every poisonous plant growing in different seasons in different localities should be recorded. Several tribal herdsmen, knowledgeable, experienced and domestic folk herbal practioners were interviewed with a view to record all the uses of poisonous plants being practiced among them in different parts of the area. Repeated queries were made from different localities in order to verify the information. Literature survey was carried out to explore chemical constituents. The voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium, Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (ISL), and Pakistan. Key words: Chemical constituents, folk uses, poisonous plants, queries, Pakistan, Siran valley, and voucher specimens.

2.11 The Most Widely Used Medicinal Plants in Iraq: Traditional knowledge. Nahida ALBAYATY

Baghdad-Iraq.

Abstract: This study was conducted to identify the most widely used medicinal plants in Iraq, and the popular medical heritage in Iraq through some of the old prescriptions prepared from a mixture of herbs and which is still used to the present day. Methods used in this research study included two axis Comprehensive knowledge of the medicinal plants mentioned in this research and The therapeutic qualities of the old prescriptions from the popular medical heritage in Iraq. Results were highlighted the most important medicinal plants used in Iraq and the popular medical heritage in Iraq. Key words: Iraq, medicinal plants.

2.12 Wild Edible Plants of Southeastern Part of Turkey Nazim SEKEROGLU1, Ufuk KOCA2, S. Burcin AKGUNLU1, and Kamil AYDIN1

1

Department of Biology, Faculty of Art and Science, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000, Kilis, Turkey. 2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, 06330, Ankara, Turkey.

Abstract: Wild edible plants have been used as food either raw or cooked for centuries all over the world. After field cultivation of some vegetable crops, they lost their popularity in the last decades. However, because of side effects of chemicals used in agriculture, insistent studies on changing of genetic structures of the cultivated plants, seeking for different tastes and longing to nature and natural products, interest in wild edible plants or wild vegetables gradually increased recently. Scientific studies for comparing chemical composition and nourishment value of wild and cultivated vegetables have also been proven better quality aspects of wild vegetables. In this mean, determination of wild edible crops in exact regions has a special significance. In the present study, 20 different wild

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edible plants used as vegetable in southeastern part of Turkey ­ especially in Kilis and Gaziantep provinces- were determined. Those plant species used as wild vegetables are Allium rotundum, Arum dioscorides, Capparis spinosa, Chenopodium album, Crocus biflorus, Echinophora tenuifolia, Gundelia tournefortii, Malva sylvestris, Mentha longifolia, Nasturtium officinale, Papaver rhoeas, Poligonum aviculare, Portulaca oleracea, Tragapogon buphthalmaides, Tragapogon porrifolius, Rumex acetocella, Sinapis alba, Terfezia boudieri, Thymbra spicata, and Urtica dioica. In the present study, their local and scientific names, harvest periods, used parts, the purpose of consumptions and the way of utilizations were also determined. Moreover, medicinal properties of the plants as a traditional remedy were also evaluated. Key words: Edible, wild, plants, turkey.

2.13 Historical Medical Use of Cultivated Food Plants in Estonia Renata Sõukand1,2, Raivo Kalle1, Ain Raal3

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Estonian Literary Museum, Vanemuise 42, Tartu, Estonia. Institute of Philosophy and Semiotics, Department of Semiotics, University of Tartu, Tiigi 78, Tartu, Estonia 3Department of Pharmacy, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, Tartu, 50411, Estonia.

Abstract: Cultivated food plants are often rejected in ethno biological study, as considered having non-indigenous, imported use. Still the medical utilization of cultivates deserves more attention as many plants already utilized for food posses good potential to be used for medical needs. Although all of cultivated food plants are indeed alien species, their everyday availability and handling allows developing independent folk healing methods. Our objectives are to test this hypothesis. The argumentation in this paper is based on the digitized Estonian herbal lore (ca 8 808 texts) collected in Estonia since 1888. We analysed the diachronic change of the use of eleven cultivates most utilized for

th

medical proposes at the turn of 20 century. Overall, quantitative methods have been applied, although the species or families of the plants mentioned in specific folklore texts were detected using text logical methods. Additionally, comparative perspective is involved, to investigate the dissemination of knowledge and health impact of cultivates. Results indicated that, stonians used for medical purposes several food plants, including Allium cepa and Allium sativum, Solanum tuberosum, cereals Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Hordeum and Triticum aestivum, also Linum usitatissimum, Brassica oleracea, Daucus carota L. subsp. Sativus, and Brassica napus ssp. Rapifera Metzg., to name the most popular. Use patterns and indications have changed over the century, corresponding to changes in cultivation and cultural preferences. Medicinal use of food plants (including moods of preparation, parts used etc) differ considerably form the their use for food purposes, including the use of raw plants and by-products. In conclusion, the use of food plants for medical purposes had little in common with suggestions given in literature, while in recent use patterns had changed and resemble more uses promoted in media. Many specific historical medical uses of food plants have actual influence on health and thus indicate the ability to discover proper utilization for health need for the plants everyday at hand. Key words: Estonia, food plants, historical, medical uses.

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2.14 Diversity in the Use of Phytomedicines by the Ethnic People of Pachim Medinipur, West Bengal, India Samita Manna

Department of Sociology, University of Kalyani, 741235, Nadia, West Bengal, India.

Abstract: Birth, disease and death are the natural outcome of the living organisms. Human beings are not exceptional one. Urban growth and development without destroying the nature is really a paradox. Modern society has brought many changes in human life due to the technological development where the use of allopathic medicines, application of surgery and other improved clinical tests are getting priority. On the other hand, the uses of phytomedicines are proliferating through out the world as these medicinal plants have some positive impact on humans. Paschim Medinipur is enriched for its ethnic population as jungles, hills, forests, etc., are the natural habitat of these people. Three ethnic groups have been selected from this area. The Lodhas ­ hunters and gatherers, the Santals and the Mundas- agriculturists have been selected for the study. The Lodhas are till today identified as Primitive Tribal Group. These entire tribal groups have very close association with the nature. Primitivism still persists in their everyday life. Their rites of passages are characterized with traditional beliefs and practices. The aim of this study is to find out how these medicinal plants are being used by the different ethnic groups for curing diseases by which they can maintain their physical and mental health .The three major aspects are various uses of phytomedicines by these ethnic groups during the time of their ailments, different ethnic groups use different medicinal plants for the same disease, and same plant has multiple applications for different diseases. All these information from these ethnic groups are really informative and it can be used as alternate medicines by the modern people. But unfortunately many of the important species of medicinal plants have become endangered due to their premature and over harvesting by the collectors and other pharmaceutical companies. This has resulted in the subsequent degradation of the natural habitat causing threat to bio-diversity.Three different blocks are selected for these ethnic groups. Generally, the gunins or the medicinal men admininistered these phytomedicines for curing the diseases. It can also be noted that most of the gunins are illiterate or they have little education but their applied knowledge is worth mentioning and these resourceful knowledges are applied through phytomedicines not only by the different ethnic groups but the whole villagers are benefited through it. So the special efforts should be given to restore the indigenous knowledge for the welfare of the humans. Key words: Bengal, diversity, ethnic, medinipur, pachim, phytomedicines.

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Topic 3: The use of medicinal plants as food additives in food recipes.

3.1 Effectiveness of Some Aromatic Plant Oils as an Inhibitor of Lipid Oxidation Magda A. A. seleim

Food Sci. & Tech. Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Abstract: Oxidative degradation of lipids is a major factor limiting the shelf life of foods. The free radical reaction of lipid peroxidation is generally responsible for the deterioration of lipid-containing foods. Use of antioxidants during the manufacturing process can minimize the extent of lipid peroxidation. Spices and some herbs have received increased attention as sources of many effective antioxidants. The effect of essential oils extracted from fennel,. rosemary and ginger on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil during storage in the dark and with light exposure was studied. The effect of heating time on the stability of oil was studied as well. The obtained results showed that the studied essential oil inhibited the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products during heating and storage of sunflower oil. It could be concluded that, essential oils of selected aromatic plants are promising as natural antioxidants. Keywords: Aromatic plants, fennel, ginger, lipid oxidation, rosemary, sunflower oil.

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Topic 4: Standardization and quality control of herbal medicinal products.

4.1 Studying the Kinetics of the Essential Oil Components of Three Algerian Thyme Kinds A.Touhami, L. Nasri, A. Azzedine; A.Djerourou.

Laboratory of Synthesis and Biocatalysis Organique: BP, 12, 23000, Annaba, Algeria.

Abstract: Recent studies showed that essential oil and their constituents present an important potential as antimicrobial agents and in several industrial and medical domains. Our work consists in the study of the kinetics of the components of essential oil of three kind of the thymus (numidicus, ciliatus and algériensis) before, during and prospering after in various Algerian regions. The chemical compositions of essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation of the air party of the plant were analyzed by Chromatography in gaseous phase coupled with the mass spectrometry CG-SM Shimadzu on 2010. The study showed a big difference in the kinetics of the components of essential oil during year; not only between the various kinds but also in the same kind. Key words: Algerian, components, essential oil, kinetics, thyme.

4.2 Phytochemical Investigation of Satureja sahendica Bornm Ahmad Reza Gohari1, Mahdieh-Sadat Nourbakhsh2, Soodabeh Saeidnia1, Asghar Davood2

1

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, PO Box 14155-6451, Tel & Fax: +98-21-64122330. 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract: Satureja sahendica Bornm is generally called Marzeh in the Persian language and belongs to Lamiaceae family which comprises 13 species in Iran. Several species of Satureja are well known for their analgesic, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiproliferative, antifungal and anti-nociceptive activities. In this study, the plant material (aerial parts of S. sahendica) was collected in September, 2008 from North-East of Iran (Azerbayjan province). Diosmetin (1), together with Luteolin (2), Oleanolic acid (3) and beta-Sitosterol (4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of S. sahendica for the first time. Different chromatographic methods were carried out on the silica gel and sephadex LH20 in order to separate of compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using the 1H, 13C-NMR and MS spectra in comparison of those reported in the literatures. Diosmetin is an important flavone which converts to Luteolin in the human body and affects on the breast cancer via binding to the estrogen receptors. Key words: Flavonoids, Lamiaceae, Salvia macrosiphon, steroid.

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4.3 Isolation and HPLC quantification of Rosmarinic acid from Hymenocrater calycinus Ahmad Reza Gohari1, Soodabeh Saeidnia1, Maryam Shekarchi2, Homa Hajimehdipoor 2, Abbass Hadjiakhoondi 1,3

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, P O Box 14155-6451. Fax & Tel: +98-21-64122330. 2Food and Drug Control Laboratories and Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center, MOH & ME. 3Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

1

Abstract: The genus, Hymenocrater (Lamiaceae), growing wildly in Iran, has been screened as a new source of rosmarinic acid (RA), a phenolic and an economically important constituent. The variation of the RA content was quantified in three samples of H. calycinus which grow in different regions (geographically and habitate) of Iran using high-performance liquid chromatography. The RA concentrations ranged from 2.4 mg g 1 (based on dried weight of plants) for Esfarayen origin to 13.2 mg g -1 for Bajgiran origin. This is the first report of RA quantification in H. calycinus which has never before been screened for this bioactive metabolite. Keywords: HPLC quantification, Hymenocrater calycinus, lamiaceae, rosmarinic acid.

4.4 Flavonoids of Marrubium deserti from Hoggar Region Ahmed Touil, Farouk Zaidi and Salah Rhouati

Laboratoire des produits naturels dorigine végétale et synthèse organique, Département de chimie, faculté des sciences exactes, Université Mentouri-Constantine, Algérie.

Abstract: Lamiaceae is a very important family in Algerian flora, many species of this family are used in traditional therapy and as sources for essential oils and some species of the genus Marrubium are used in folk medicine to treat some disease. The species Marrubium deserti (De Noe) was collected from Hoggar region in southern of Algeria. Previous study on this genus revealed the presence of diterpenoides, flavonoids and phenylpropanoides. From the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of M. deserti some flavonoids were isolated by deferent chromatographic methods (C.C., TLC) and identified by spectral techniques (UV, NMR and MS) and chemical analysis. All this compounds are identified for the first time from the species. Key words: Flavonoids; Marrubium deserti; Lamiaceae family; Spectral analysis.

4.5 Comparison of Essential Oil compositions of Some Natural and Cultivated Endemic Sideritis Species 67

Ahmet Gümüçü1, Osman Tugay2, Yüksel Kan3

Selcuk University, Cumra High Educational College, Cumra, Konya, Turkey. 2Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Konya, Turkey. 3Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, Konya, Turkey.

1

Abstract: In this study, some yield components and essential compositions of some endemic Sideritis species were investigated. These species are very important for its economical value and utilization for human health. This study carried out at the experimental fields of Cumra High Educational High College and laboratories of Department of Field crops, Faculty of Agriculture, in 2008 and 2009 years. Some characteristics of natural and cultivated plants were determined and essential oil compositions were given comparatively. The collected and cultivating species were Sideritis congesta P.H. Davis and Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. Essential oil ratio of the cultivated plants were for S. congesta and S. condensata, 0.11%, 0.016%, respectively and natural plants were 0.027%, 0.020%, respectively. According to analyses, the most important components were -pinene (28.43%), -pinene (20.14%), cubebol (16.98%) for cultivated S. congesta; caryophyllene (23.96%), germacrene (23.91%) for cultivated S. condensata. The other components of natural plants were -pinene (19.83%), -pinene (14.61%) for natural S. congesta; caryophyllene (0.67%), germacrene (0.62%) for natural S. condensata. Key words: Cultivation, essential oil composition, sideritis condensata, sideritis congesta.

4.6 Chromotochraphic Identification of Some Olive ( 0lea europaea ) Compounds Defence Induced by Alternaria conjucta Simmons Toxins

1

Anwer Noori Alkhero, 2Ayad chachan Al-Daowdy

1

Forestry Department Divisio, nCollege of Agri. And Forestry, University of Mosul. 2College of Agri. And Forestry. University of Mosul, Iraq.

Abstract: The studying aimed to study the induced defence compounds which induced by Alternaria conjucta toxins and its identification in olive( 0lea ouropeana ) leaves , the compound were Gallic acid , Ellagic acid , (+) Epicatechin and Gallocatechin , these compounds were appeared as a results of injection by Tentoxin and Tenuazonic acid toxins only .Gallic and Ellagic acid were replicated in appearance in control and fungi toxin treatment wherease ( - ) Epicatechin and ( - ) Gallocatechin appeared in control only. The results showed identification of Gallic acid which was the same of Rf value with standered value when it was measured at Thin Layer Chromotochraphy (TLC) by the solvent system Butanol: Acetic acid : Distillated water at the ratio ( 4 : 1 : 5 , v /v/v) and using iodine indicater. Key words: Alternaria conjucta, chromotochraphic, defence, olive. 4.7 The Evaluation of Time of Corms lifting and Foliar Nutrition on Morphological and Chemical Yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

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Arsham safipouriyan1, Hosain Amir Shekari2, Tybee Rajabian3, Hosain Fotokian2

1

Department of agronomy and plant breeding, 2Department of agronomy and medical plants research center, Agricultural College, University of Shahed. 3Department of agronomy, Agricultural College, University of Tarbiat modares, Tehran-Iran.

Abstract: For studying the effects of the time of corms lifting and foliar nutrition on yield morphological and chemical yield of the saffron (Crocus sativus L.) a split plat ­ experiment with complete randomized block design, was performed in three replications. The experiment was carried out in the SHAHED medical plant field and laboratory. The treatment of experience was existed in four levels consist of Dates of corm lifting(April 30th,may 15th ,may 30th,September 17th) as sub factor and four levels of solution density(blank,5%,7%.9%) as a main factor consist of different. The results showed that in level of 9% foliar nutrition the stigma has the most percent of humidity and in level of 7% of foliar nutrition we have seen the most crocin and picrocrocin content in stigmas. The most content of safranal was in sheet of 5% foliar nutrition and corm lifting in Shriver (September) has the most effects in studied qualifications. Key words: Corm lifting, crocin, foliar nutrition, picrocrocin saffron, safranal, yield.

4.8 Determination of Organic Elements of Epilobium angustifolium BY ICP-MS AND AAS Ayse Serguzel YUSUFOGLU, and Aysema SAYIK

Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Material Science 34320, Avcilar-Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract: The genus Epilobium (Order Myrtales; Family Onagrecae) is widely distributed all over the world and consists of over 200 species. Various members of the genus Epilobium angustifolium have been used in folk medicine internally for prostate disease. The Epilobium angustifolium extracts have analgesic, anti-microbial, antimotility, anti-proliferative activity on prostate cells and anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-androgenic properties. In Russia due to its sweet and pleasant taste it is usually consumed as tea for the treatment of stomach, ulceration, gastritis and sleeping disorders. The leaves and young shoot tips can be used in salads, soups or cooked as a vegetable. Because of all these properties the anorganic and organic constituents of this plant are very important. Organic part is studied in another paper by us. In this work it is aimed to analyse and determine the anorganic elements of the plant material of Epilobium angustifolium. According to the literature research there is no information about anorganic elements of Epilobium angustifolium from Canakkale, Turkey. [1-2]. The aerial parts of Epilobium angustifolium were collected in June from Canakkale, Turkey at flowered season. Collected plant was washed with deionized water and dried for 5-7 days in shade at room temperature.Two different plant samples were prepared. One was the dry sample and the other was wet sample via infusion. For the dry sample, all the aerial parts of the plants together with leaves, flowers and body were powdered and used for AAS and ICP MS. The wet sample was prepared by letting the powdered plant material to stay in boiled water for twenty minutes and then by filtration from the solid part. The dry and infusion sample were used for analysis. Thermo-Elemental ICP-MS-X Series and Analyst 200 Flame, Analyst 600 Graphit-Furnace and Hydrid Systems (Perkin Elmer) were used for qualitative and quantative analysis. The results obtained by AAS and ICP-MS were compared with each other.

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Key words: Elements, Epilobium angustifolium, filtration, prostate, qualitative.

4.9 Investigation of Flavonoid and Fatty Acid Composition of Corn Silk from Turkey, Balikesir Ayse Serguzel YUSUFOGLU and Aysema SAYIK

Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Organic Chemistry Department. 34320, Avcilar-Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract: Corn silk named as "Maydis stigma" is used for medicinal purposes as diuretic and antiseptic by people and is very cheap and wasted. In this study it is aimed to analyse the flavonoid and fatty acid composition of corn silk grown in Turkey at Balikesir region. As a result of the literature research no enough information is found about corn silk from Turkey, Balikesir region. According to the results obtained from this study corn silk could be evaluated by medicine, pharmacy, biology, cosmetic, food and chemistry industries. In some studies, the antioxidant activity of corn silk is determined; therefore the flavonoid composition of corn silk from Turkey is investigated in this study. There is no information about flavonoid content of corn silk from Turkey, Balikesir region. The corn silk is extracted with distilled water and ethanol. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts prepared are analysed by HPLC and LC-MS for their flavonoid composition.The fatty acid composition of corn silk from Turkey has not been investigated, too. The corn silk from Turkey is extracted by Soxhlet method for its fatty acids content. The Soxhlet extract obtained was evaporated and analysed by GC-MS as free acids and methyl esters on different columns. Key words: Corn silk, flavnoid, Maydis stigma, turkey. 4.10 Fatty Acids Compositions of Juniperus Species (Juniperus section) Native to Turkey Ayegül Güvenç1, Nurgün Küçükboyaci 2, Ahmet C. Gören3

1

Ankara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, 06100 Tandoan, Ankara, Turkey.2 Gazi University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, 06330 Etiler, Ankara, Turkey.3 TUBTAK, UME, Group of Chemistry, P.O. Box 54, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey.

Abstract: The genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) is represented by seven species in Turkey. The section Juniperus contains three species (J. drupacea Lab., J. communis L., J. oxycedrus L.); and the section Sabina has four species (J. phoenicia L., J. foetidissima Willd., J. sabina L., J. exelsa Bieb.). Several Juniperus species have been used to various diseases in Turkish folk medicine. Some species of the genus have been studied for their biological activities and chemical composition of different parts (stem, fruit and leaves). This study was undertaken to investigate the fatty acids of the seeds of five taxa of Juniperus section growing in Turkey. These taxa are J. drupacea, J. communis var. communis, J. communis var. saxatilis, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, and J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa. Analysis of the methyl esters have been carried out with GC-MS. Linoleic, -linolenic and oleic acids were determined as the main fatty acids in the seed oil of studied species. While erucic acid was found to be remarkable amounts in J. communis var. communis (10.1 %) and J. communis var. saxatilis (11.4 %). To best of our knowledge, the present work is the first report on the fatty acid composition of seed of Juniperus section growing in Turkey. Key words: Composition, fatty acids, juniperus, methyl esters, seeds. 4.11 Comparison of Antiradical Activities and Compositions of Essential Oils of Two Origanum spp. from Turkey

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B. COSGE1, M. KIRALAN2, A.IPEK3, A. BAYRAK2, B.GURBUZ4

1

Abant Izzet Baysal University, Mudurnu S.A.Vocational School of Higher Education, Bolu,. 2Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 3 Cankiri Karatekin University, Biology Department, Cankiri,. 4Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, Ankara, Turkey.

Abstract: Hydro-distilled essential oils from the aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum (Link) Letsw. (OVH) and Origanum onites L. (OO) were analyzed by GC/MS. Twelve compounds comprising 98.89% of the (OVH) essential oil were characterized, and the main components were thymol (58.35%) and -terpinene (23.22%). Twenty compounds representing 94.58% of the (OO) essential oil were identified, among which carvacrol (73.90%) and -terpinene (5.96%) were the major ones. Antiradical activities of essential oils investigated were tested using the DPPH radical-scavenging method. DPPH radical scavenging activities of two Origanum species essential oils were very high, and this was obviously related to their chemical compositions which were markedly rich in phenolic components such as thymol and carvacrol. Key words: Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum, Origanum onites L., carvacrol, DPPH, essential oil, GC/MS, thymol.

4.12 Hyoscyamine production from Datura sp transgenic hairy root B. HARFI1, L. KHELIFI, M. KHELIFI-SLAOUI, D. ZAOUI

1

Ecole nationale supérieure agronomique (E.N.S.A.) El-Harrach, Algerie. Laboratoire de ressources génétiques et biotechnologies (L-RGB) El-Harrach, Algerie.

Abstract: Tropane alkaloids present a great economic value in particular for pharmaceutical industry. The culture of Datura sp hairy root obtained by inoculation with A4 Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers promising prospects for alkaloids in-vitro production. The objective of our study is to try optimizing hyoscyamine production exploiting the composition of mineral fraction of the media culture. On the whole of obtained lines, those selected are DT10, DS18, DI3 and DF11 resulting respectively from the genetic transformation of Datura tatula, D. stramonium, D. innoxia and D. ferox. The most effective line is DT10. The obtained results show that the whole mediums (MS and B5) give the best biomass; the diluted mediums (½MS, ¾MS, ½B5 and ¾B5) are more interesting for hyoscyamine production. Concentrations 75 mM of nitrogen and 10 mM of calcium gave the most significant dry weights. Key words: Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Datura sp, hairy root, hyoscyamine, optimisation.

4.13 Essential Oil Composition from Artemisia campestris Grown in Algeria Belhattab R.1, Boudjouref M.1, Barroso J.G.2, Pedro L.P 2, Figueirido A.C.2 71

1

Dept.of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000, Algeria. 2Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa, DBV, Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Centro de Biotecnologia Vegetal, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.

Abstract: Aerial parts of Artemisia campestris (Asteraceae), collected in the flowering phase, from Boussaada region (Algeria) were analysed for their volatile components. The volatile fraction was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 h and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was obtained in a yield of 0.66% (v/dry weight). Fifty-eight components were identified representing 98% of the total oil. The main components were -terpenyl acetate and -pinene (19% and 18% respectively) followed by camphor (9%), camphene (8%), limonene and borneol (5% both). Key words: Artemisia campestris, Asteraceae, volatile fraction, - terpenyl acetate. 4.14 Chemical Composition of Artemisia campestris Volatile Fraction from Algeria Belhattab R1, Figueirido A.C.2, Boudjouref M.1, Barroso J.G.2, Pedro L.P.

Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000, Algeria. 2Centro de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Dep. de Biologia Vegetal, FCL, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal.

1

Abstract: Aerial parts of Artemisia campestris (Asteraceae) from Boussaada region (Algeria) were analysed for their volatile components. The volatile fraction was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger- type apparatus for 3 hours at a yield of 0,66% v/dry weight, then analysed by gas chrommatography- FID (GC-FID) and gas chrommatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 58 components were identified representing 97% of the total volatile fraction. The main components were - terpenyl acetate and -pinene (18,8% and 18,4% respectively) followed by camphore (9,2%), camphene (7,7%), limonene and borneol (5,2% both). Key words: Artemisia campestris, asteraceae, volatile fraction, - terpenyl acetate.

4.15 Analyse of the Volatile Fraction of Ruta chalepensis from Algeria Belhattab R1, Figueirido A.C.2, Selloum M.1, Barroso J.G.2, Pedro L.P.2

1

Dept.Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000, Algeria 2Centro de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Dep. de Biologia Vegetal, FCL, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal.

Abstract: The chemical variations of the volatile fractions of two populations of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) collected in two areas of north-eastern of Setif region, Algeria (Bougaa and Ainroua) were analysed. The volatile fractions were obtained from the aerial parts by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger- type apparatus (yields from 0,32% to 0,50% v/dry weight), then analysed by gas chrommatography- FID (GC-FID) and gas chrommatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 40 components were identified representing 75,8 - 90,1% of the total volatile fractions. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene total amount did not exceed 5% of the fractions. The main components were 2undecanone (67,3% - 81,1%) followed by -caryophyllene (2,6%- 1,6%). Key words: Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae, volatile, 2-undecanone. caryophyllene. 4.16 Essential Oil Composition from Two Populations of Ruta chalepensis from Algeria

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Belhattab R.1, Selloum M. 1, Barroso J.G. 2, Pedro L.P. 2, Figueirido A.C. 2

Dept.Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, 2Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa, DBV, Instituto de Biotecnologia Bioengenharia, Centro de Biotecnologia Vegetal, C2, Lisboa, Portugal.

1

Abstract: The essential oils isolated from two populations of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae), collected in the flowering phase, in two areas of north-eastern of Setif region, Algeria (Bougaa and Ainroua), were analysed. The volatile fraction was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 h and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils were obtained in yields of 0.32% (v/dry weight) and 0.50% (Bougaa and Ainroua, respectively). Forty components were identified representing 76% and 90% of R. chalepensis oils, from the plants collected in Bougaa and Ainroua, respectively. 2Undecanone was the main component in the oils isolated from plants collected in Bougaa (67%) and Ainroua (81%), followed by -caryophyllene (3% and 2%, respectively). Key words: Ruta chalepensis; Rutaceae; volatile fractions; 2-undecanone; caryophyllene.

4.17 Secondary Metabolite of Horse Chestnut in Vitro Culture Dusica alic-Dragosava1, Snezana ZdraVkovic-Korac1, Jelena Milojevic1 and BrankaVinterhalter1

1

Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research, "Sinisa Stankovi'', Bulevar despota Stefana 142, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Abstract: Plants are source of many compounds useful in medicine, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) seed extract is widely used for the treatment of peripheral vascular disorders, and in cosmetics as a remedy against cellulites. It has a general vasoprotective role by protecting collagen and elastin. By protecting these key vessels proteins, veins and capillaries stay strong and maintain their structural integrity when exposed to stress. Aescin was found to be effective as antiinflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-viral agent. Horse chestnut extracts are more powerful anti-oxidants than vitamin E, and also exhibit potent cell-protective effects, which are linked to the well-known anti-ageing properties of anti-oxidants.The present study is aimed to determine the content of aescin in horse chestnut androgenic embryos growing on media supplemented with various hormones. Aescin content was determined in globular and cotyledonary embryos grown on phytoregulator-free medium and cotyledonary embryos grown on media with various phytoregulators. Leaves and seeds collected from the nature were used as a control. Aescin analysis was conducted according to the German Pharmacopoeia (Deutsches Arzneibuch 10, 1991). As this material is available during only short period of the year, we studied the possibility of using plant tissue culture to obtain aescin. For this purpose, the content of aescin in androgenic embryos of horse chestnut was studied. Aescin content was found to be dependent on the stage of androgenic embryo development and the type of the phytoregulator supplemented to the nutritive medium. In the absence of the phytoregulators, androgenic embryos at the globular stage of development contained approximately four times less aescin than those 73

at the cotyledonary stage. Inclusion of various phytoregulators in the nutritive media stimulated aescin production. In conclusion, horse chestnut androgenic embryos produce high amount of aescin, which can be manipulated by the addition of phytoregulators. We find this approach promising for resolving the problems associated with commercial production of aescin. Key words: Aesculus hippocastanum, androgenic embryo, triterpenoid saponins.

4.18 An Approach to Develop an Olive Paste through the Production of a Natural Dye G. BACHIR RAHO, A. BELLIL, M. BELLIL

Département de Biologie, Faculté des sciences de la nature, Université de Mascara Algérie.

Abstract: The olive is the fruit of the olive tree (Olea europaea) native to the Mediterranean region, tropical and central Asia and various parts of Africa. In botany, it is a drupe, smooth-skinned, fleshy envelope rich in fat, containing a very hard nucleus, bone, which contains a seed, rarely both. His ovoid shape is typical. Its color is green at first and ripens to blackish-purple. The oil extracted from its fruit is considered by many as the best known edible oil. Our work focuses on the physical extraction of a natural food coloring from the paste of black olives. The dye has a high stability; therefore it can be used in the textile industry. The extraction process was carried out in several stages before to proceed to the chromatography and spectral analyses on the final product. The solvent mixture is practiced between acetic acid and water. The elimination of acid was carried out by crystallization and evaporation of water by discontinues distillation on four operations at 86 ° C during 10 minutes on each exercise. Key words: Acetic acid, crystallization, distillation, dye, olives, extraction.

4.19 The Impact of the Pharmaceutical Regulations on the Quality of Medicines on the Sudanese Market: Importers Perspective Gamal K. M. Ali1 and Abdeen M. Omer2

Former Dept. of Pharmaceutical Services and Planning Manager, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan1. Occupational Health Administration, Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan2.

Abstract: The strategy of price liberalisation and privatisation had been implemented in Sudan over the last decade, and has had a positive result on government deficit. The investment law approved recently has good statements and rules on the above strategy in particular to pharmacy regulations. Under the pressure of the new privatisation policy, the government introduced radical changes in the pharmacy regulations. The 2001 Pharmacy and Poisons Act and its provisions established the Federal Pharmacy and Poison Board (FPPB). All the authorities of the implementation of Pharmacy and Poisons Act were given to this board. This article provides an overview of the impact of the pharmaceutical 74

regulations on the quality of medicines on the Sudanese market from the perspective of the pharmacists working with drug importing companies. The information necessary to conduct the evaluation was collected from 30 pharmacists who are the owners or shareholders in medicines importing companies. The participants were selected randomly. 89% of respondents considered the medicines on the Sudanese market are generally of good quality. The design of the research itself may be considered inadequate with regard to selection process. However, the authors believe it provides enough evidence, and the current pharmaceutical regulations have some loopholes. The Pharmacy, Poisons, Cosmetics and Medical Devices Act-2001 and its regulation should be enforced. The overall set-up including the Act itself needs to be revised. Key words: Quality of medicines, drug importers, the Act, regulatory authorities, counterfeits medicines.

4.20 Capsaicin Contents of Different Capsicum (Red Peppers) Populations and Varieties Gulsum Yaldiz1., and Mensure Ozguven2

1 2

Rize University, Pazar Vocational School, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Department, 53300, Rize. Cukurova University, Agricultural Faculty, Field Crops Department, 01330, Balcali ­ Adana, Turkey.

Abstract: Red peppers are of the important vegetable and spice crops all over the world. They are also an important part of delicious Turkish cousins for centuries, as well. Turkey is one of the most important producers for these special crops. Because of their chemical compositions, red peppers have a special importance for daily diets. Red peppers are important sources for vitamin C both unripe green form and ripped red form. Besides their food purposes they have recently been used in pharmaceutical products. Recent scientific studies have also proven their anti-cancerous properties. The main therapeutic component of red peppers is capsaicin where synthesized in the placenta of the ripe pepper fruit. In this mean, red peppers with high capsaicin content are desired in pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, thirty-three introduced red peppers varieties from different countries and local red peppers populations were compared for their capsaicin contents. Capsaicin contents of the investigated red peppers varied from 0,04 mg/g to 4,05 mg/g. The lowest capsaicin content was obtained from the varieties C. frutescens 24 and C. sp.7, the highest value determined in the local population Aci Cicek 52. Key words: Capsaicin, pharmaceutical industry, red peppers, varieties.

4.21 Isolation and Characterization of a Compound from Semecarpus anacardium L. with Actylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity

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Hamid-Reza Adhami1, Hanspeter Kaehlig2, Liselotte Krenn1, Martin Zehl1

1

Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. 2Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 38, Vienna, Austria.

Abstract: It has been well indicated that a cholinergic deficit correlates with the severity of Alzheimers disease. The cholinergic function can be improved by AChE inhibitors that block this key enzyme in the breakdown of acetylcholine. Based on traditional medicine, during the last decade the use of herbal medicinal substances in dementia therapy has been studied.The fruits and the fruit resin of Semecarpus anacardium L. (Anacardiaceae) have been used in several systems of traditional medicine with various therapeutic properties, among those for the enhancement of cognitive performance in several herbal drug mixtures. To find new natural compounds with AChE inhibitory effect, the fruits were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol by accelerated solvent extraction. The extracts were investigated by a respective colorimetric microplate assay and by TLC bioautography (Rhee et al., 2001; Marston et al. 2002). Physostigmine was used as a positive control in these two enzymatic assays. The major active compound was isolated using several chromatographic techniques such as vacuum liquid chromatography on silica using petroleum ether-chloroform mixtures as mobile phase and size exclusion chromatography with Lipophilic Sephadex LH20 as stationary phase under elution with methanol. The structure of the active component was characterized by different spectroscopic/spectrometric methods such as one and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR (COSY, TOSCY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) and mass spectrometry. This substance was identified as an aliphatic derivative of catechol, the IC50 of which was determined as 33.2 g/ml in the assay on AChE inhibition. Key words: Actylcholinesterase, inhibition, isolation, Semecarpus anacardium.

4.22 Phytochemical Study of Tyfon (Brassica campestris f. biennis DC. x B. Rapa L.) I.G. Gurieva, V.S. Kyslychenko, Iu.S. Kolisnyk

National University of Pharmacy, Kharkiv, Ukraine.

Abstract: The search of new medicinal raw material with large material base is still a very important task of modern pharmacy. Representatives of the Brassicaceae family are spread worldwide; they have been used in national medicine of different countries owing to a broad spectrum of their pharmacologic activities. Tyfon (Brassica campestris f. biennis DC. x B. rapa L.) was created in 1976 in Netherlands as a hybrid of turnip and Chinese cabbage. The plant is 110-120 cm high, with straight stem, flowers are of yellow colour. It is widely used as a fodder crop. Cattle, which were fed by tyfon grass, gained weight very quickly because of the high content of protein and sugars. It was interesting to study chemical composition of main active substances in tyfon grass with the purpose to create a food supplement in future.Thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, atomemission spectrography and chemical reactions allowed us to discover polysaccharides, sugars, tannins, flavonoids, microelements, hydroxycinnamic (coffeic, chlorogenic) and organic (benzoic, succinic, oxalic, tartaric) acids, aminoacids and fatty (palmitic, linoleic, linolenic, oleic, stearic, lauric, myristic) acids. It was found that tyfon grass contained 15 elements, among which sodium, potassium, silicium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus 76

prevailed. Aminoacids were detected with aminoacid analyzer T339M Mikrotechna-Praha and were mainly represented by aspartic, glutamic acids, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, threonine and serine. The content of protein was found to be 11, 49 ± 0, 06%. Technological parameters of the raw material were also established. Thus, more phytochemical research should be provided for more profound study of tyfon grass. Also biological research will be carried out in future to detect most pronounced pharmacological effects of tyfon grass. Key words: Chromatography, phytochemical, tyfon.

4.23 The Level of Trace Metals and other Contaminants in Medical Plants Used in Iraq Isam, M. Jawad

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, P.O.Box 961343 Amman, Jordan.

Abstract: The level of trace metals(Pb,Fe,Cu,Cd,Cr,Zn,Mn)and the ash composition of 250 samples of deferent types of most popular medical plants used extensively in Iraq were determined. Average values of each metals and standard deviation are presented. High levels of Fe, Zn, and Pb were observed in most of the medical plants used, Total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash and alcohol extract percentages were determined for all the samples of medical plants. High levels of these extracted indicated the poor quality of some of these medical plants. Key words: Contaminants, medical plants, trace element.

4.24 Development of New Plant Drugs, Their Extracts and Final Product Preparation Ivan Salamon

Excellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, 01, 17th November St., SK081 16 Presov, Slovakia.

Abstract: Modern medicine seems to be omnipotent and information about tens of thousand diseases and hundreds of thousand symptoms, use of last achievements of chemistry and physics makes the processes in organism even more differentiated and difficult to understand. The development of new plant drugs has no end as new preparations seem to have no limit of perfection. Since time began medicinal plants played the most important part in the composition of therapeutic and various preparations which were used in popular doctoring. Modern phytotherapy is a direct successor of the rich tradition of popular doctoring in Europe. It is based on years of experience of people having direct contact with nature. Over the years this experience has been verified in practice, supplemented and classified ­ folk herbalist wisdom formed and passed from generation to generation. Are there unique matters from pharmacopoeia which have been used by people for centuries and even thousands of years? And it is said that even if they exist, then are very few in number. Several of them are represented by tree plant species: Tribulus terrestris L., Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Ilja., and Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni). A leader of natural plant production in Slovakia is the company CALENDULA, Co., which is situated in Nova Lubovna and has been establishing 77

medicinal plant processing (the essential oil, extract production, food and cosmetic products) since 1999. Our mutual research includes dry and liquid extracts and Steviana preparation with characteristics: Tribulus extractum siccum (dry matter: min. 90 %, ash: max. 14 %, saponines in dry matter: min. 10 %, content of heavy metals: max. 0.005 %, particulate density: 0.51 g.ml-1, excipiente: maltodextrine (10 %), content of pesticide residues: chlorine <0.0005 mg.kg-1, phosphate <0.0005 mg.kg-1), Leuzea extractum siccum (dry matter: min. 90 %, ash: max. 15 %, ecdysterone content: min. 1.0 %, content of heavy metals: max. 0.005 %, Particulate size: 0.355 mm /40 mesh/, min. 95 %, content of pesticide residues: chlorine < 0.0005 mg.kg-1, phosphate < 0.0005 mg.kg-1), Stevia extractum fluida (dry matter: min. 60 %, ash: max. 15 %, steviosides in dry matter: min. 25 %, content of heavy metals: max. 0.002 %, index of a light refraction: 1.440 ­ 1.460), Steviana (volume of product in an original packaging: min. 25.0 ml, dry matter: min. 20 %, steviosides in dry matter: min. 20 %, content of heavy metals: max. 0.002 %, Index of a light refraction: 1.365 ­ 1.395). Acknowledgements: My participation at The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, Their Cultivation and Aspects of Uses is supported by the Agency of Ministry of Education SR for the Structural Funds of the EU, the project: ITMS 26220120041. Key words: Cultivation, extracts, new medicinal plants, plant drugs, preparation.

4.25 Poppy Cultivation in the Czech and Slovak Republic

1

1

Ivan Salamon, and 2Jozef Fejer

Excellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, 01, 17th November St., SK081 16 Presov, Slovakia. 2Department of Ecology, Faculty of Humanity and Natural Sciences, Presov University, 01, 17th November St., SK 081 16 Presov, Slovakia.

Abstract: Poppy (Papaver somniferum L ).is a traditional crop in Central Europe .Its cultivation there has a long history .In the Czech Republic it is possible to grow the poppy on an

area of more than 100 square metres on the basis of a reporting duty and in Slovakia on the basis of a licence .In the past 10 years, the cultivation area for the plant has varied from 27,611 to 69,793 hectares in the Czech Republic and from 386 to 2,714 hectares in Slovakia. The cultivation is located mostly in eastern parts of the Czech Republic and in western parts Slovakia, near the city of Hlohovec, where a pharmaceutical company is located .The climate in those regions it is good for the cultivation and production of pharmaceutical raw materials .Farms grow the plant mainly for the food

grade seed production .The poppy straw, the basic row material for alkaloid production, is seen as a by-product of the cultivation. Cultivated varieties accumulate 0.4 ­ 0.6 %of morphine in

dried capsules .Poppy straws from farmers contain only 0.3 %of that alkaloid (average in

the period

1970 ­ 2005.

Aknolgement: My participation at The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, Their Cultivation and Aspects of Uses is supported by the Agency of Ministry of Education SR for the Structural Funds of the EU, the project ITMS 26220120041 . Key words: Czech Republic, cultivation location, food, seeds, slovakia, straw, poppy. 4.26 Screening of New Perspective Species of the Plant Raw Material and System Approach in Studying Families on its Basis

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Khvorost O.P., Gontovaya T.N., Maliy V.V., Fedchenkova Iu.A., Musienko K.S.

National University of Pharmacy, Kharkov, Ukraine.

Abstract: The aim of our research was working out the strategy of searching new medicinal plants and new medicines. The objects of our research were such taxons of rank as familia Betulaceae (genus 3), Corylaceae (genus 3), Caprifoliaceae (genus 2), Oleaceae (genus 2), Ulmaceae (genus 5), Aceraceae (genus 3), Boraginaceae (genus 16) and Violaceae (genus 15). Vegetative and generative organs were analyzed as plant raw material of the representatives of more than 100 species and 49 genera of the families. As a result of the research macro- and microscopical conformities of structure that are important at the level of family, genus and species and also some diagnostical signs for plant raw material. Conformities of accumulation of primary and secondly metabolites in plant tissues were set down. The determination of containing of different groups of the phenolic compounds, tannins and cathehins was carried out. On the basis of this research 34 species of plants were chosen as the perspective sources of plant raw material. The next step is the determination of some kinds of biological activity and comparison of the obtained data by application express methods in vitro. As the result of performed research, the list of new perspective species of the plant raw material (with taking into account availability of plant raw material such as prevalence, speed of reproduction, and simplicity of cultivation) decreased from the pharmacognostical point of view to 19 species. Key words: Betulaceae, plant raw material, screening, species.

4.27 Accumulation of Biologically Active Compounds in the Rhizomes and Roots of Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus /Maxim. et Rupr./ Maxim.) K. Baczek, Z. Weglarz, J. L. Przybyl

Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants, Warsaw University of Life Sciences ­ SGGW, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland.

Abstract: Eleuthero is a shrub growing wild in Far Eastern Asia. Its underground organs (rhizomes and roots), called "roots", are medicinal raw material with high adaptogenic activity. The aim of our study was to define the differences between rhizomes and roots in respect of their quality, concerning specially the accumulation of biologically active compounds. The objects of the study were two-, three-, four-year-old plants cultivated in the experimental field of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences ­ SGGW. The biologically active compounds were determined by HPLC using the Shimadzu chromatograph with DAD detector. Luna 5m C18 (2) 250 x 4.6 mm column was applied. The mass of rhizomes and roots were going by a ratio of 60:40. The content of the most important compounds i.e. eleutherosides B and E, was markedly higher in the rhizomes in comparison with the roots, regardless of the age of plants. The sum of these two eleutherosides both in the rhizomes and the roots excided British Pharmacopoeia requirements (80mg/100g). In contrary to eleutherosides B and E, the content of eleutheroside A (sitosterol 3-O--D glucoside) in the rhizomes was over twofold lower compared to the roots. The content of main phenolic acids (chlorogenic, rosmarinic and protokatechuic) was also markedly lower in the rhizomes. There was a clear relation between plant age and accumulation of above mentioned compounds. The content of

79

eleutherosides B, E and A in rhizomes and roots was distinctly higher in four-year-old plants whereas the content of phenolic acids ­ in two-year-old plants. Key words: Biological, eleuthero, rhizomes, roots.

4.28 The Bioactive Diterpenoid Alkaloids from the High Altitude Himalayan genus Aconitum K.S. Khetwal

Department of Chemistry, Kumaon University Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.

Abstract: Aconites are the natives of cold region wherever found all over the world. The Indian Himalayan region which is considered the Botanical Garden of the world is rich to host the plants of genus Aconitum. Out of the several Aconitum species found in the high altitudes of Himalayan region A. balfourii and A. heterophyllum are most frequently used in the Indian system of medicines and have very high market demand. A balfourii is used to cure painful conditions such as neuralgia, myalgia, arthritic complaints and migraine .In China in its traditional Phytotherapy it is used as cardiac tonic. A.heterophyllum is an important and essential ingredient of several Ayurvedic drugs and best known to cure different stomach troubles, dysentery as well as vomiting and cough. Surprisingly not much work has been done on these Himalayan species as far as their chemical investigation is concerned.Although both species are frequently being used as medicines but it is interesting to note that A. balfourii is deadly toxic while A. heterophyllum is edible. A. balfourii is purified by different specific methods before it is taken as medicine. Working on these herbs 1-3 it has been revealed that A balfourii is rich in extremely toxic unnatural diterpenoid alkaloids viz: pseudaconitine and veratroylpseudaconitine called C-19 Diterpenoid alkaloids whereas A. heterophyllum in atisine and atisinol belonging to C-20 diterpenoid alkaloids. The present status of these herbs and their recent chemical investigation reports will be discussed. Key words: Alkaloids, bioactive, diterpenoid, himalayan genus.

4.29 Improvement of the Quality and Quantity of Essential oil of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) Kazemi Saeed, F., Mirza, M. and Sharifi Ashorabadi., E.

Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, P.O.Box 13185-116, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is an annual plant belongs to Apiaceae (umbelifera) family. The seeds of cumin are aromatic due to possessing essential oil. Amount of essential oils is variable between 2.5% to 5%. Main compounds of the essential oil are aldehyds (up to 60%) including cuminaldehyde , para-menta-1,3-dien-7-al and para-menta-1,4-dien-7-al and monoterpenes hydrocarbons ( up to 52%). Cumin is the native of Mediterranean region, but it is cultivated in India, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Morocco, Turkey, Syria, Malt, Sudan, Cyprus and some parts of the Eastern Europe. Cuminaldehyde as the main compound in essential oil of cumin is a circle aldehyde, with molecular formula C10H12O and molecular weight 148/20. The compound besides of having anti-

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bacterial, anti-viruses and anti-fungi traits is known as a famous anti oxidant stronger than vitamin C, E and even BHT(BHT is a synthetic composition applied in commercial essential oils). Besides of medicinal uses, cuminaldehyde is applied as a flavorant. It is used as a fragrance in perfumery, too. It is also a soothing.-terpinen is the most important monoterpene in the essential oil of cumin. Its formula and molecular weight are C 10H16 and 136/23, respectively. Because of the high value of the compounds of the essential oil, it is necessary to develop the methods for increasing the quality and quantity of the essential oil. For this purpose, it is designed to study the effects of the different levels of soil moisture and nitrogen application on quality and quantity of the essential oil of cumin.The experiment were performed with three levels of soil moisture including filed capacity, 2/3 filed capacity and 1/3 filed capacity and four levels of nitrogen including 0 (control), 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha nitrogen as a split plot design in a filed. According to results, soil moisture had no effect on essential oil amount, while it decreased in further nitrogen application. The best Quality of the essential oil was observed in 2/3 filed capacity and 40 kg/ha nitrogen application, so that cuminaldehyde and para-menta-1,4dien-7-al increased more than 50 and 46 percent respectively. The results of the research showed that for achievement of high quality and quantity of the essential oil in cumin, a suitable ratio of soil moisture and nitrogen must be applied. Key words: Cumin, Cumnium cyminum, essential oil, cuminaldehyde, soil moisture and nitrogen application.

4.30 Studying Chemical Composition of Borage Leaves Khalida A. Shaker and Wesam S. Elewi

College of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad, Iraq.

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of Borage leaves. The samples were purchased from local market, the percentages of moisture, protein, fat, ash &fibers were determined ,besides the content of minerals which included K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, S, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn,Pb, Cd, Se..The study was extended to determine the content of leaves from saturated &unsaturated fatty acids. The obtained results revealed that the percentages of moisture, protein, fat, ash, fiber were 6.06,0.18, 1.6 ,0.08 and 9.09% respectively ,and for myerstic ,stearic , lenolic acids were 5.45 ,22.44 and 12.34 % respectively. The results of minerals content determination has showed that the Borage leaf content of K, Na, Ca, Mg,Mn,Fe,S, P were 285.05 ,83.55 ,74.97 ,2.07 ,0.55 ,1.77 ,0.33 and 0.77 mg/g respectively , while for Cu, Zn, Se ,I were 0.2 ,1.44 ,21.56 ,1.56 mg/g respectively whereas, for Co ,Pb ,Cd ,were unsensible. Key words: Borage, leaves, lenolic, myerstic, stearic.

4.31 Lignan and Iridoid Glycosides from the Roots of Cephalaria kotschyi. Khuraman Mustafayeva1, 2, Riad Elias1, Valerie Mahiou-Leddet1, Tahir Suleymanov2, Yusif Kerimov2, Evelyne Ollivier1. 81

1

Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Ethnopharmacologie, UMR-MD3, Université de la Méditerranée, Faculté de Pharmacie, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France. 2Pharmacognosy and Botanic Department, Azerbaijan Medical University, Bakikhanov Street 21, Baku, AZ 1000, Azerbaijan.

Abstract: Cephalaria kotschyi Boiss. Et Hoh. (Dipsacaceae) is an endemic plant of Caucasus region growing in Azerbaijan. The earlier phytochemical studies reported the isolation of triterpene saponins, flavonoids, and gentianine type alkaloids from the roots and flowers of C. kotschyi. In our previous study we described the isolation of iridoid glycosides, loganin and gentiopicroside from the roots of this plant. Herein we report together with gentiopicroside and loganin described previously, the isolation of three iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides: loganic acid, swertiamarine, cantleyoside, three furofuranic lignans: prinsepiol glycoside, 8-hydroxypinoresinol-4'-O--D-glucoside, 8hydroxypinoresinol-4,4-O--D-di-glucoside and two triterpene saponins: giganteoside J and dipsacoside B, resulting of an investigation of the chemical constituents of the roots of C. kotschyi. The plant was collected in Lerik region of Azerbaijan, in September 2005. A voucher specimen (C 8131005) was deposited at the herbarium of the Botanical Institute, Academy of Science, Azerbaijan. Air-dried roots (100g) were extracted by percolation at room temperature with MeOH (1L for 24 h), the obtained solution was concentrated under vacuum. The MeOH extract (5g) was submitted to Flash Column Chromatography on polyamide MN SC 6 Macherey Nagel® (70µm), using a step gradient of H2O-MeOH 90:10, 50:50 and 0:100, to give 3 main fractions (F1­F3). The fractions F1, was further purified by Low Pressure Liquid Chromatography on Prepamatic Chromatospac 10 (Jobin Yvon) with Lichroprep RP18 Merck® (25-40µm). A step gradient of H2O-MeOH (100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 67:33; 65:35; 62:38; 60:40; 50:50 and 0:100, 1L for each) allowed to obtain 20 fractions Sp1-Sp20. The fractions Sp2, Sp5, Sp7, Sp9 and Sp16 afforded respectively loganic acid (18mg), swertiamarin (73mg), gentiopicroside (250mg), loganin (75mg) and cantleyoside (230mg). Purification of the fractions Sp12 and Sp13 by the means of preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography on Symmetry C18 2O-MeOH (75:25), yielded prinsepiol glycoside (20mg) and 8-hydroxypinoresinol glycoside (18mg) respectively. The fraction Sp8 was purified by silica gel CC, Kieselgel 60 Merck® (40-63 µm), eluting with CH2Cl2: MeOH: H2O (35:12:2) mixture, affording the 1-hydroxypinoresinol diglycoside (6mg). Fraction F2 (1g) was fractionated by silica gel CC using CH2Cl2: MeOH: H2O (50:16:3) and (30:13:3) successively as eluent to give dipsacoside B (30mg) and giganteoside J (30mg). The structural elucidations of the obtained compounds were performed by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR data and confirmed by comparison with the previously reported data. NMR spectra were recorded in CD3OD spectrometer operating at 500.13 MHz and 125,13 MHz. All isolated compounds, except loganin and gentiopicroside, are reported for the first time from C. kotschyi. The iridoid glycosides loganin, loganic acid and cantleyoside have been previously reported on Cephalaria and other genus of the Dipsacaceae family. These compounds are used as chemosystematic markers for the plants of Dipsacaceae family. The secoiridoid swertamarin has been previously isolated from Dipsacaceae. The prinsepiol glycoside has been already reported on C. ambrosioides. Two other lignans, 8-hydroxypinoresinol glycoside and 1-hydroxypinoresinol diglycoside are reported for the first time from Dipsacaceae family. Key words: Cephalaria kotschyi, iridoid glycosides, lignan. 4.32 Polyphenolic Fractions of Algerian Propolis Reverses Doxorubicin Induced Acute Renal Oxidative Stress

Lahouel Mesbah and Boutabet Kheira.

82

Laboratory of molecular toxicology. Faculty of Science, University of Jijel, Algeria.

We examined the preventive flavonoids compounds effect of propolis in a rat renal oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin throughout an analytical and pharmacological study of the eastern Algerian propolis using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Ultra Violet-High Phase Liquid Chromatography (UV-HPLC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The pharmacological study was carried out in vivo on wistar rat pre-treated with propolis extract 100 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Doxorubicin at 10 mg/kg of body weight was administered intravenously on day 7th. Serum creatinine concentration, scavenging effect of flavonoids, lipid peroxydation (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were measured. Chemical analysis allowed identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds including pinostrombin chalcone(38,91%), galangin(18,95), naringenin(14,27%), tectochrysin(25,09%), methoxychrysin(1,14%) and a prenylated coumarin compound suberosin (1,65%). The total flavonoid concentration in the propolis extract was 370 mg (quercetin equivalents QE) /g dry weights of propolis extract (QE/g DWPE). Propolis extract restored the renal functions and clearly reduced the toxic effect of doxorubicin. These data shows clearly a protective effect of Algerian propolis extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress.

Abstract: Thus, we can conclude that flavonoids have the ability to protect renal cells by the free radical scavenging and inhibition of their production. Key words: Antioxidants, flavonoids, lipid peroxidation, MDA, GT, free radicals.

4.33 Essential Oil and Fatty Acid Composition of a Tunisian Caraway (Carum carvi L.) Seed ecotype Cultivated under Water Deficit. LARIBI Bochra1, KOUKI Karima1, SAHLI Ali1, MOUGOU Abdelaziz1 and MARZOUK Brahim2

1

Institut National Agronomique de Tunis. 43, Av. Charles Nicolle-1082, Tunis, Tunisia. 2Laboratoire des substances bioactives, CBBC, BP 901, 2050- Hammam-Lif, Tunisia.

Abstract: The effects of water deficit on essential oil and fatty acid composition of Tunisian caraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated. Plants grown from seeds of Menzel Temime ecotype were treated with different levels of water deficit: control (100% ETc), moderate water deficit (50% ETc) and severe water deficit (25% ETc). Essential oil extraction was performed by hydrodistillation. Total lipids were extracted by a solvant mixture of chlroform/ methanol/ hexane (4:3:2, v/v/v). Analyses were carried out using gas chromatography-FID equiped with a polar column (polyethylene glycol). Fatty acid composition revealed that drought reduced significantly seed fatty acid content and mainly that of the petroselinic one which is reduced by 15 and 20,3% compared with the control under moderate and severe water deficit, respectively. Thus, the major variation consisted in a decrease of the unsatured fatty acids in favour of an increase in satured ones. Besides, the double bond index (DBI) showed significant decrease under the different drought levels which was more pronounced in plants conducted under severe water constraint. In addition, drought increased the essential oil yield. The main essential oil constituents were carvone and limonene. This last showed an increasing of its proportions under water deficit levels. Thus, water deficit induced a significant reduction in fatty acid content and an increase in the essential oil compounds.

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Key words: Carum carvi L, ecotype, essential oil, fatty acid, water deficit.

4.34 Genetic Variability of Moricandia arvensis L. (DC.) Messaoud Ramdani1, Azzedine Zeraib1, Takia Lograda1, Pierre Chalard2

1

Laboratory of Natural Resource Valorization, Sciences Faculty, Ferhat Abbas University, 19000 Setif, Algeria. 2Ecole nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Clermont Ferrand, Laboratoire de Chimie des Hétérocycles et des glucides, EA987, 63174 Aubière Cedex 01. 3LEXVA Analytique, 460 rue du Montant, 63110 Beaumont, France.

Abstract: The hydrodistilled oils from the aerial parts of two populations of Moricandia arvensis from Sétif region (Algeria), were analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 30 compounds in the oil of M. arvensis representing 80.8% of the total oil of Sétif population and 19 compounds of Amoucha population, representing 93% of the total oil were identified. The analysis showed that the main constituents of the essential oils are rich in fatty acid (34.1% - 22.1%). The major constituent are palmitic acid (13.2% ­ 12.9%), phytol (7.9% ­ 10.5%). Sétif population is characterized by 3butenylisothiocyanate and Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1, 3-p. Key words: Algeria, essential oil, Genetic variability, Moricandia arvensis, Brassicaceae.

4.35 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils of Pituranthos scoparius Messaoud Ramdani1, Takia Lograda1, Zeraib Azedine1, Pierre Chalard2, Gilles Figueredo3

1

Laboratory of Natural Resource Valorization, Sciences Faculty, Ferhat Abbas University, 19000 Setif, Algeria. 2LEXVA Analytique, 460 rue du Montant, 63110 Beaumont, France. 3Clermont Université, ENSCCF, EA 987, LCHG, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand.

Abstract: The genus Pituranthos (family Umbelliferae, Apioidae, tribe Apieae) is represented by more than 20 species. P. scoparius is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma and rheumatism. The essential oil of P. scoparius has been described as antispasmodic. The hydrodistilled oils from the aerial parts of two populations of Pituranthos scoparius, Saharan species, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 compounds were identified representing 99.93% of the total oil of P1, and 63 compounds representing 99.68% of the total oil of P2. The analyses showed that the major constituents of the oils were -pinene (16.37% ­ 23.34%) and Sabinene (14.77% - 18.03%). Using a diffusion method, the oils showed significant antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). Key words: Pituranthos scoparius, Ombiliferes, antimicrobial activities, essential oil, Algeria. 4.36 Effects of Barley Flour and Barley Protein Isolate on Chemical, Functional, Nutritional and Therapeutic Properties of Pita Bread MUHAMMAD H. ALU'DATT

84

Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 3030, Irbid, 22110, Jordan.

Abstract: Fortification of barley flour and barley protein isolate in wheat flour at 5, 10 and 15 % levels were carried out to investigate the effects on chemical, functional, nutritional and therapeutic properties of Pita bread. Protein isolate and globulin, prolamin, glutein-1 and glutein-2 fractions of barley flour were extracted from barley flour (BF). Protein fractions and protein isolate were subjected to evaluate protein yield, chemical composition and nutritional quality of individual fractions. Highest yield and essential amino acids contents were obtained in barley protein isolate (BPI). SDS-PAGE slab gels electrophoresis indicated that fortified wheat flour with BPI and BF consist of proteins coming from wheat flour and barley proteins. The contents of essential limiting amino acids in bread were increased from 0.14 to 1.14 mg/g for lysine and from 0.095 to 1.73 mg/g for methionine as the ratio of fortification increased from 0 to 15 %. The highest content of total phenolics, antioxidant activity, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)inhibitory activity and -amylase inhibitory activity were found in fortified bread with BPI at 15 %. Results indicated that bread made from fortification of wheat flour with BF and BPI at 15 % showed superior chemical, physico-chemical, nutritional and therapeutic properties. Key words: Barley, chemical flour,, functional, pita bread, protein.

4.37 Standardization of Plant Drugs under Changing Environmental Conditions Muhammad Iqbal

Department of Botany, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India.

Abstract: Higher plants are the major source of crude drugs that help appreciably in the maintenance of human health. Substitution and adulteration practices in crude-drug trade have necessitated scientific characterization of plants of medicinal importance. The conventional morphological, anatomical, physiological or genetic parameters, normally taken into consideration for plant standardization, may no longer serve the purpose; evaluation of active ingredients of the given plant often becomes indispensable. Medicinal efficacy of a plant drug may differ depending on its cultivation or collection from areas with different agro-climatic set up. Moreover, the amounts of active ingredients responsible for therapeutic action may vary with plant genotype and with the change of habitat, depending on variation in soil characters and environmental conditions. Even within the same individual, organ-wise distribution of active ingredients may evince huge variations. The overall quantity of bioactive compound(s) also varies with the stage of plant development, plant-nutrition status, and the local environmental conditions. Degradation of environment may affect not only the quantity but also the composition of active ingredients. This situation, under extreme conditions, is not unlikely to alter the properties and hence the degree of effectiveness of the bioactive compounds. Thus, environmental degradation may have a far­reaching influence on the therapeutic potential of plants known for their medicinal utility, and this may necessitate consideration for re-fixing the drug doses, keeping in view the overall situation based on the above mentioned various estimations. This paper addresses all these aspects on the basis of data collected from relevant studies dealing with a large number of plants with medicinal importance.

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Key words: Environment, plant drugs, standardization.

4.38 Pesticides Residues in some Medicinal Plants and their Products, Jordan

Mufeed Batarseh1, Amani Al-awamleh2, Sahar Arabiat2

Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy 1Research, Mutah University, P.O. Box 3, Karak-Mutah 61710. Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Amman-Jordan.

Abstract: With the ever-increasing worldwide use of herbal medicines and the rapid expansion of their global markets, the safety and quality of medicinal plants have become a major concern for health authorities, pharmaceutical industries as well as for the consumers (Nan Sun et al. 2007). In Jordan herbal medicinal plants are widely consumed as fresh, processed or immersing in hot water for drinking. Pesticides residues in herbal medicinal plants are intensively studied worldwide, but in Jordan there is a lack in such studies. The present work is aimed to evaluate pesticide residues for most popular and commonly used medicinal plants and aromatic oils extracts in Jordan. The herbal medicinal plants will be collected from different farms in high lands and Jordan valley, and then aromatic oil extraction will be prepared. The pesticide residues will be determined for the medical plants and oil extracts after optimization of a sophisticated extraction and clean up procedure using either gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC/MS) or electron capture detector (GC/ECD). Furthermore, for comparison purposes plant and oil extracts will be collected from local market (herb stores and fresh plants) and analyzed for pesticides residues too. The detectable levels of pesticides residue will be compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) as recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the European Commission Guidelines. Key words: Medicinal plants, pesticides residues, products.

4.39 Sorption Isotherms, Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Tunisian and Moroccan Pelargonium graveolens N. Bahloul 1, M. Ketata 1, 2, E. Ammar 2, N. Kechaou 1, N. Boudhrioua-Mihoubi 1

Groupe de Recherche en Génie des Procédés Agroalimentaires, Tunisia Unité de Recherche : Mécanique des Fluides Appliquée et ModélisationEcole Nationale dIngénieurs de Sfax, Tunisia. 2Unité de Recherche : Gestion des Environnements Urbains et Côtier. Institut préparatoire aux Etudes dIngénieurs de Sfax, Tunisia.

1

Abstract: Pelargonium graveolens has been used as a medicinal and aromatic plant since ancient times. It has numerous applications in perfume industry, cosmetology, aromatherapy and food preparation. The essential oil of this plant is partly responsible for the antiseptic, antifungal and tonic effects. The leaves of Pelargonium graveolens contain more than 70% of moisture, inducing their rapid deterioration after harvest. The measurement of their moisture sorption isotherms is essential to determine their optimal conditions of storage.The objective of this work is to characterize some physicochemical and biological properties of Tunisian (TP) and Moroccan (MP) Pelargonium graveolens and to investigate the desorption isotherms of the leaves. The Tunisian pelargonium (TP) 86

contains higher contents of proteins, ash, fat and carbohydrates (17.37, 9.05, 3.23 and 71.32 g / 100 g d.m., respectively) than the Moroccan one (MP) (16.83, 7.77, 2.93 and 66.6 g / 100 g d.m., respectively). Pelargonium graveolens leaves contain high level of moisture being lower in the TP (2.88 kg water/kg d.b.) than in the MP leaves (4.4 kg water/kg d.b.). Therefore, the immediate drying is the most important operation in post harvest processing to avoid quality losses of these valuable, but perishable plants. Both TP and MP leaves contain also high amounts of minerals as, Ca (2871 and 2071 mg/ 100 g d.m., respectively), K (1030 and 775 mg/ 100 g d.m., respectively) and Na (406 and 731 mg/ 100 g d.m., respectively). The leaves are characterized by a radical scavenging activity superior than 32%. Desorption isotherms of the leaves follow a sigmoid curve and are of type II. The difference between the equilibrium moisture contents of the Moroccan and Tunisian plants at a fixed water activity is not significant for 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C. Therefore, both varieties of geranium leaves could be dried to the same average moisture content in the temperature and water activity ranging from 30 to 60°C and from 0.0456 to 0.898, respectively. The Peleg model is the most suitable for the estimation of the equilibrium moisture contents of geranium leaves in the investigated ranges of temperature and water activity. Key words: Desorption isotherms, pelargonium graveolens.

4.40 In Vitro Radio sensitivity Study of Datura sp Seeds for Increased AlkaloidProducing Mutant Lines N. Benslimani1, L. Khelifi2, M. Khelifi-Slaoui2, A. Djerrad1, B. Mansouri1

1

Centre de Recherche Nucléaire dAlger. 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon BP-399 Alger-RP, 16000. 2LRGB, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique (ex-INA), Hassen Badi El Harrach, Alger, Algérie.

Abstract: Alkaloid producing plants from the Solanaceae family. These alkaloids are known to have very important pharmaceutical properties. Moreover, their chemical synthesis was found to be more expensive than their direct extraction from their natural source, the plant itself. In addition, their concentration in the whole plant remains low even among the most productive bodies, both when grown in artificial (in vitro hydroponics.) or natural conditions. Hence, there is a rising interest for radiation-induced mutations in the perspective of producing higher extents of alkaloids through the natural process. In this context, three Algerian varieties of Datura seeds namely: Datura stramonium, Datura inoxia and Tatula were gamma-irradiated by means of a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiation doses ranged from 5 to 80 Gy. Irradiated and scarified seeds were afterwards germinated in vitro on a MS-medium in a controlled growth chamber. The obtained results indicate that the Datura inoxia variety has good radiosensitivity compared to the two other varieties. Tropane alkaloids (atropine and scopolamine) of both Datura inoxia control and irradiated seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography. This variety is expected to be used in an induced-mutation programme for the sake of obtaining mutant lines that will exhibit increased tropane alkaloid concentrations. Key words: Alkaloids, datura, germination, mutations, radio sensitivity, tropane, atropine, scopolamine. 4.41 Separation and Purification of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Extracted from Leaves of Lentisc Using Chromatographic Methods N.HAMLAT1, and A.HASSANI1,2

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Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Produits Bioactifs et Valorisation de la Biomasse, Ecole Normale Supérieure BP 92 Kouba Alger, 16308 Algérie. Tel : 213 21 29 75 11, Fax : 213 21 28 20 67. 2Centre de Recherche Scientifique et Technique en Analyses Physico-chimiques, Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Fonctionnelle Faculté de Chimie USTHB/ CRAPC BP248 ALGER.Tel, Fax : 213 21 24 74 06.

1

Abstract: The lentisc (Pistacia lentiscus) is one of the Arabic and European pharmacopeia plants which grow in the Mediterranean climate. It plays a fundamental role in the ecosystems maintenance due to its strong dryness and maquis devastation resistance. Its known of its astringent properties.The leaves are used as infusion to treat several diseases such as: hypertension, ulcers and diabetics. Within the medicinal plants Algerian valorization framework, we have been interested in extraction, separation, identification and purification of flavonoïds and phenolic acids present in leaves of lentisc. The flavonoïds are extracted by no miscible solvent, they are then analyzed by chromatographic methods (thin layer chromatography TLC: one-dimensional and two dimensional on freezed polyamide, chromatography on sephadex colunm, chromatography on paper and high performance liquid chromatography HPLC by linear gradient). The results allowed us to identify several compounds such us: quercetin, myricetin, luteolin, rutin, vetexin, orientin; vanillic acid and cafeic acid. Key words: Chromatography, flavonoïds, HPLC, lentisc, Pistacia lentiscus.

4.42 Moringa peregrine (Al-Yassar) Seeds Oil from Southwest Jordan Nasab Kasem Rawashdeh1, Ibrahim M. Rawashdeh 2, Kamal Khairallah1, and ManarTalhouni 3

1

National Center for Agriculture Research , Jordan. 2 National Center for Agriculture Research , Jordan . 3 National Center for Agriculture Research , Jordan.

Abstract: The edible Moringa peregrine oil was extracted by traditional method used by the local Bedouins; warming water up to 60 C° and ground the seeds to paste then pour on warm water separate the oil layer floating on the surface. The crude oil percentage and its fatty acid composition were determined using petroleum ether (SoxIhet). The separation pattern of fatty acids was done by GC and compared with the olive oil. The results showed that Moringa peregrine oil percentage reached (28.1%) and found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially Oleic acid (up to 78.79%). Linoleic acid (0.47%), Linolenic acid (0.02%) while in the olive oil Oleic acid (up to 71.75%), Linoleic acid, (9.25%) and Linolenic acid (0.67%). The dominant saturated acids were Palmatic (8.17%) and Behenic acid (2.60%) while in the olive oil (12.64%) and (0.12%) respectively. Moringa peregrine seeds were also founded to contain high level of crude protein that was determined by Keldhal Nitrogen Method at (20.1%). The oil extract could be useful to reducing cholesterol and for other industrial and medical applications. Key words: Jordan, Moringa peregrine, oil.

4.43 Contribution to Study the Flavonoids of Teucrium polium geyrii from the Region of Tamanrasset (Algeria). Search the Analgesic Activity of Flavonoid Extracts

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OUAFI Saida., LAICHOUBI Amine., HAMMANA Elmaamoun

Research Laboratory on Arid Zones (LRZA), USTHB, Faculty of Biology. BPN 32 El-Alia, Bab Ezzouar, 16111, Algiers, Algeria.

Abstract: The flora of Algeria is characterized by its diversity. Mediterranean and Saharan, estimated at more than 3000 species belonging to several botanical families. Its species are for the most part spontaneous. Diverse are medicinal plants especially in the Saharan region. In this work we will do the phytochemical study and research of analgesic activity of Teucrium polium geyrii from Tamanrasset. In order to isolate and highlight the main flavonic compounds responsible for the medicinal properties of this plant, by using different techniques. In Algeria this plant is common in the Saharan Atlas, Hoggar and less common elsewhere Teucrium polium geyrii is a fragrant plant is much appreciated and sought after Tuareg, it flavors the tea and has antiseptic, purifying properties. Infusion treats intestinal and stomach disorders. Is the aspirin of Tuaregs. The plant material was harvested in the Hoggar in January 2010; the pharmacological tests were performed on albino mice species (Mus musculus). The evaluation of analgesic activity is done by injection of acetic acid intraperitoneally in mice that causes a painful reaction manifested by cramps, which can be reduced by an analgesic product. This study compares the reduction in the number of cramps after administration of equal doses of the test product and reference (Aspirin). Flavonoid glycosides were extracted by maceration water-alcohol (30/70) of powder plant, and a hot hydrochloric acid hydrolysis allows the release of aglycones flavonics from the O-glycosides flavonoids. The identification of molecules is by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and NMR. The determination of phenolic compounds is by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The results showed that our species is quantitatively rich in flavonoids (flavones, flavonols: 3.26 mg / g, C-glycosides: 4.17mg / g, Glycosides: 7.43mg / g) and qualitatively (13 flavonoids glycosides and free aglycones 03 were identified). Regarding the analgesic activity, flavonoid extract (44% of reduction) has an activity that is better than the reference product(48% of reduction) which confirms its popular use. Key words. Analgesic activity, flavonoid compound, identification, medicinal plant, Teucrium polium geyrii. 4.44 To Study of Essential Oil and Agricultural Properties of Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides ) in the Southeastern of Mediterranean S. Kirici1, M. nan2, M. Turk3, E. S. GRAY3

Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana. 2Department of Field Crops, Kahta Vocational School, Adiyaman University, Kahta/Adiyaman,. 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts&Science, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

1

Abstract: Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides ), a plant of the Gramiceae family, is well known as an eco-friendly tool to prevent soil erosion, and one of the most important raw materials in perfumery industry. Its roots are usually steam distilled to obtain vetiver oil. The complex odor profile of vetiver oil is dominated by a woody and special balsamic tonality. This study was conducted to investigate and determination of essential oil content and composition and agricultural properties of Vetiver grown at the experiment area of the Field Crops Department, Çukurova University, Agriculture Faculty, during 2008 and 2009 under Çukurova ecological conditions. Plant height, number of tiller, fresh and dry herbage yield, fresh and dry root yield, essential oil content of dry root, and composition of essential oil by GC-MS were determined during autumn. Twenty four components were 89

detected in the oil from cultivated vetiver. Khusinol (19.15% and 15.67%), b-vetivenene (9.76% and 8.16%) and dehyro-aromadendrene (7.34% and 9.66%) in the experiment years were present as the major components in the essential oil. Key words: Agriculture, essential oil, vetiver.

4.45 Comparative Studies of the Trace Elements Content of some Herbal Tea Consumed in Jordan Sati Y. AL-Dalain 1 , Mohammad S. Abu-Darwish 2 and Ahmed, H. Al-Fraihat1

1

Department of agricultural Sciences , Al-Shouback University College, Al-Balqa` Applied University. 2 Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Al-Shouback University College, Al-Balqa` Applied University, Jordan.

Abstract: Six mineral and trace elements (Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn) were determined in the five Samples of herbal teas commercially available in Jordanian Pharmaceutical market, such as Sahha Fennel Tea (SFT), Sahha Chamomile Tea (SCT), Sahha Herbal Tea (SHT), Miltea Herbal Tea (MHT) and Miltea Chamomile Tea (MCT). The mineral and trace elements content of the studied samples showed a wide variability. Mn was not detectable in SFT and SCT. It was ranged from 1.73 ppb in MCT to 5.95 ppb in SHT. The highest Cu content was 1.956 ppb in SCT and the lowest value was 0.939 ppb in SHT. However, it was not detectable in SFT, MHT and MCT. Cd ranged from 6.86 to 26.25 ppb in MCT and SHT respectively. Maximum concentration of Ni was 47.68 ppb in SHT while the minimum was 6.55 ppb in MCT. On the other hand, Zn Concentration was not detectable in all studied samples. The results of this study indicated that, that the herbal teas that are consumed in Jordan did not contain toxic elements. Key words: Dietary intake, herbal tea, medicinal herbs, mineral, trace elements. 4.46 Determination of the Chemotype of the Pine of Aleppo, Pinus halepensis Mill in the North of Algeria Souici Leila1, Tlili-Ait-kaki Yasmina2,, Djahoudi Abdelghani2, Bennadja Salima2 Hadef Youcef 2, Chefrour Azzedine2 and Brinis Louhichi1

1

Institute of Biology, Faculty of Science, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria. 2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria.

Abstract: The pine of Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) is a conifer of the family of Pinacaes., its geographical distribution is essentially around the Mediterranean Coasts, and more mainly in Algeria, in Spain and in Morocco.The pine of Aleppo is considered as a main forest essence in Algeria. It occupies the biggest forest cover 60 %. Pines are much estimated for their properties and their multiple manners; the industry, the medical domain, in cosmetic, in perfume shop and in soap factory. Our research with impact on the pine of Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) in the Algerian Mediterranean North, at the level of the East (El-Kala), the Center (Algiers) and the West (Oran). An ethnobotanic investigation in summer made at the level of three regions of studies with the aim of collecting the maximum of information about the knowledge and the use; therapeutics of the pine of Aleppo.

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Followed by a quantitative analysis (Extraction of essential oil by hydrodistillation) and quantitative (Identification of the chemical composition and the chemotype by CPG). Three samples were collected at the level of the regions of study during various periods of the year (Mars, in May, July, September). The quality variation of essential chemotypes oil of every harvest depends on several factors: the species and the botanical origin. Chemotype, the vegetative cycle and other environmental factors. Key words: Algeria, chemotype, essential oils, pine of aleppo.

4.47 Correlation Between Environment and Essential Oil Production in Medical Plants Svetlana Stevovi1, Dusica ali-Dragosavac2, Vesna Surcinski Mikovilovi1, Snezana Zdravkovi-Kora2, Jelena Milojevi2, Aleksandar Cingel2

1

Department of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Protection, University Union, 11000, University of Belgrade, Serbia . 2Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for biological research "Sinisa Stankovi'", University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Abstract: Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare, Asteraceae) is one of the most spreaded species and medical plant on the same time. However, tansy is principally used in tradition medicine as antihypertensive, antispasmodic, antihelminthic, carminative, antidiabetic and diuretic. The Tanacetum species are rich in essential oils, bitter components and sesquiterpene lactones. Environmental adaptability of the plants can be tested through from essential oil contents. Essential oil helps to easily submit plant environmental stress conditions: drought, intense radiation, high temperature, heavy metal contents. Also, essential oils are not constant in the qualitative and quantitative terms. Quality of essential oil depends on the external environmental condition. Natural selection favors survival of the population with the composition of essential oil which has a higher adaptive value. The goal was to measure the quantity and quality of essential oil, as adaptability indicator and to prove the statement that the plants answer on environmental stress by production of essential oil.The laboratory experiment is realised by analizing the essential oil contents in tansy from two completally different locations: one location was the purest environment, but the other location was the most poluted industrial zone.Essential oil constituents were separated and identyfied using the GC-MS chromatography.Results showed that the plants react on environmental stress by higher production of essential oils.In conclusion, elevated content of the essential oils in tansy on the same time presents the high level of environmental adaptability. Key words: Adaptability, environment, essential oil, medical plant, tansy.

4.48 Quantification of Procyanids in Rumex Confertus Underground Organs and Fruits T.M. Kriuchkova National Pharmaceutical University. Kharkiv, Ukraine.

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Procyanidins are a group of oligomeric flavan derivatives (catechins, anthocyanidins and leucoanthocyanidins), widespread in world Flora. Sven and Bate-Smith noticed, that leucocyanidin was found in 35% and leucodelphinidine in 19% of investigated ngiosperms.Catechins are probably even more widespread than leucocyanidins. Six basic anthocyanidins are often found in plant organs (leaf, flower and fruit of angiosperms). Cyanidin, delphinidin and pellagronidin are found the most frequently. According to data from the literature, Rumex confertus rhizomes and roots contain dcatechin, l-catechin, epi-catechin gallate, catechin dimer; leucopellagronidin, leucodelphinidin, leucodelphinidin glucoside, leucocyanidin, anthocyanins; fruits contain catechines: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin. Moreover there are up to 17.00% of tannins in rhizomes and roots, and more than 7.00% in fruits. A part of them is possibly presented by the polymeric flavan derivatives. O.K. Kabiev and S.M. Verminichev have persuasively proven that purified total of catechines and luecoanthocyanidins, obtained from underground organs of Rumex confertus shows anti tumor activity. The same authors proved that greater antitumor effect is shown by total drug of leucoanthocyanidins, that inhibits the growth of implanted to rats Plisse lymphosarcoma to 50,7 and 84,3%, given intraperitoneally in doses 80 and 150 mg/kg respectively. A weaker (growth delay of 46,7 ­ 55,8%) was observed against tumor, Walker carcinosarcoma (growth delay of 40,3 ­ 62,2%) and sarcoma - 45 (growth delay of 37,0 ­ 39,9%), alveolar mucous liver cancer PC-1 with rats (delay of 55,2 -57,2%). At oral dose of 250 mg / kg the degree of growth inhibition of sarcoma - 180 reached 78,2%. The drug, which contains catechins and leucoanthocyanidins was more active in rats's sarcoma - 45 (growth delay of 65,5%) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma of mice (growth delay of 54,1 ­ 67,7%). Work carried by Zhuravliov M.S., Abu Zaher Khaled and Martynov A.V. on the study of antitumor activity of the total of catechins and leucoanthocyanidins, extracted from rhizomes and roots of Rumex thyrsiflorus, Rumex pulcher, Rumex dentatus verified researches of Kabiev O.K. and Vermenichev S.M. In our work we carried out quantification of procyanidins in the underground organs and fruits of Rumex confertus. Rhizomes and roots for the researches were prepared in the vicinity of village Borova in Zmievskiy district (Kharkiv region, Ukraine) in 2009-2010 yrs. Quantification was carried out using modified Porter's method, in the basis of which lies acidic hydrolysis of procyanidins to anthocyanidins. Procyanidins from the roots and rhizomes of Rumex confertus. Specific index of absorption ( ) of the reaction product of procyanidins with Porter's reagent was determined for the amount of procyanidins from Rumex confertus fruits, extracted and purified by preparative chromatography. 9,10±0,47% and 12,10±0,71of procyanidins respectively were found in underground organs and fruits of Rumex confertus. Moreover, in the Pharmacology department of National Pharmaceutical University, under the leadership of prof. Dragovoz S.M. was proved antioxidant effect of procyanids. Key words: Fruits, procyanids, quantification, Rumex Confertus.

4.49 Ecological Standards of Medicinal, Aromatic, Spicery and Poisonous Herbs of Georgia Tamara Kacharava, Avtandil Korakhashvili, kacharava Ketevan

Georgia.

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Abstract: A rich and unique genetic fund of Georgia represents a natural-historic treasure calling for permanent conservation-rehabilitation.. The issue is important to our country while the number of cultural plants and their wild ancestors originate from Georgia as their primary and secondary hearth of origin. In Georgia those unique medicinal, aromatic, spicery and poisonous plants are spread which cannot be found anywhere in the world. The referred above topic results in protection of human health in any country. It is not necessary to assert the significance of pure natural fermentative medical preparations made from plants grown in our eco-systems. Natural complex chemical compounds, as a rule, have less harmful and specific impacts on human body rather than its synthetic analogues and substances with artificially made structures, thus, enabling their use in cases of chronic and acute diseases. This can be explained in the way of the process of the vital functions during ontogenesis period, various substances are formed. Many of these substances have explicit impact on human and animal organisms. Biogenesis occurring in plants on the basis of assimilation of simple molecules in systems of extremely complicated complexes of biologically active substance, goes even beyond the opportunities of complex modern chemical (synthetic) and plants of Chemical Synthesis. Purpose is searching for and cataloguing germplasm of the medicinal, aromatic, spicery and poisonous plants of Georgia, including the unique plants and those on the verge of extinction, wild and cultural species, establishment of data bank of the present pharmacological peculiarities to ensure preservation of flora resource and sustainable use of its components, updating of the seed bank based on differentiated goods value to facilitate further raw material production and development of pharmaceutical industry as a basis of project viability. On the base of pharmacological studies (1999-2009) for the standardization and quality control of herbal medicinal plants, we have developed recommendations concerning historical and traditional priority ­ technology of production of ecologically sound standards of raw materials and products of medicinal, aromatic, spicery and poisonous plants of our country : Foeniculum vulgate L - essential oils- 3-5%, flvonoids -0,5%; Valeriana officinalis L - exstracted solids 27,8%, essential oils- 2%, isovaleric acid 0,91%; Calendula officinalis L ­ karotiods ­ 31mg%, Melissa officinalis L - essential oils ­ 0,33%, vitamins C 150 mg%, carotins 7mg%; Carum carvi L essential oils ­ 7,2%; Thymus vulgaris L - essential oils 2,2%, Salvia officinalis L- 2,5%; Hyoscyamus niger L ­ alkaloids -0,5%; Datura stramonium L ­ alkaloids 0,14%, impact of ecosystems on productivity, quality of raw materials and products is differentiated. Key words: Ecological, Georgia, medicinal, poisonous, spicery, herbs.

The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses.

Topic 5: Cultivation of medicinal plants (Conventional and Organic).

5.1 Response of Onion to Nitrogen and Sulphur Application

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A. Abd El-Kader 1 H., Abdel Aziz2 ., I. El-Ghandour 2 and B. Singh3

1

Soils and Water use Dept. National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, 2Soil and Water Research Department Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Abou-Zabl, 13759, Egypt. 3Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Norway.

Abstract: Field experiment was carried out at El-Saff region , El- Giza governorate , Egypt to explore the effect of three rate of nitrogen 20, 40, and 80 Kg N / Acre in the form of NH4 NO3 and two rates of elemental sulpher(S) (250,S1 and 500,S2 kg/ Acre in two application methods) on the yield quality , and nutrients uptake of onion (Allium cepa L.) .Results showed that, the vegetative growth of onion plant, as well as bulbs yield were increased with the gradual increase of N and S. In case of elemental S, the increase was only with M1 (Incorporated method). The study revealed that, a considerable response of onion to macro and micronutrients was significantly observed. How ever, the response to N3 and S2M1 was more distinct in comparison to the other two N rates and the other rate of S and M1 application. Ndff determination in whole plant of onion was decreased parallel to decreasing rates even S applied incorporated (M1) or broadcasting (M2). EFU by onion bulbs was lower under 20Kg N/ Acre (42.4%) than 80 Kg N/Acre (59.85%). The nutrient dose that maximized yield (80-500Kg NS /Acre) as well as S as incorporated method. Key words: Broadcasting, incorporated, onion, response N and S.

5.2 Using Plant Tissue Culture Techniques to callus initiation from Thymus vulgaris L. Plant to produce Thymol AbedAljasim M. Jasim1, Essam FAl .Jumaily2 and Laith Ahmed Al ­Shaigy2.

1

Biotechnology Research Centre Al-Nahrain University ­Baghdad. 2Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Post Graduate studies ­ Baghdad University, Iraq.

Abstract: Different explants (leaves, stems and roots) were obtained from seedling of thyme plant (Thymus Valagaris L.) .These explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D ( 0, 1.5 , 3 , 4.5 and 6) mg / l to callus initiation. The results revealed that best callus initiation was observed on explants cultured on 1.5 mg / l . Leaves were superior in callus production as compared to stem and root explants . The results also showed that the average of callus fresh and dry weights under light condition were best as compared with dark conditions, to all different explants except the root which revealed that the best average dry weight was in the dark conditions. Thymol was detected by using thin layer chromatography method and the value of retardation factor (Rf) was (0.38) which compared with the value of retardation factor of slandered thymol compound . Also High Performance Liquid chromatography method was used to detect thymol substance and to know its concentration in callus induced from leaves which observed that rotation time of standard compound was identified with rotation time of thymol substance and it was (5.25) minute also the concentration of thymol substance in callus was 4.5 gm / kg. Key words: Callus, thyme, tissue culture, thymol. 5.3 Effect of Organic and Biofertilizers on Growth, Herb Yield and Volatile Oil of Marjoram Plant Grown in Ajloun Region, Jordan Ahmad H. Al-Fraihat1, Sati Y.Al-Dalain1, Mohammad Abu Darwish2

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1

Department of Agricultural Science, 2Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Ash-Shoubak University College, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan.

Abstract: This experiment was carried out during two successive seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 in Ajloun region, to study the effect of organic manure (farmyard manure and poultry manure at a rate of 75 m3/ha as fertilizer of each) and biofertilizers (Nitraboein and Halex-2 at a rate of 988 gm/ha of each as well as their interactions on growth, yield of herb and volatile oil of Majorana hortensis , L., using drip irrigation system. The results indicated that the application of a poultry manure as an organic fertilizer to marjoram plants recorded the maximum values of herb fresh and dry yield, N, P and K contents and its uptake by herb in the early cut, volatile oil percentage, oil yield/ plant and per hectare, while in the late cut the highest values in this respect were obtained by farmyard manure application. Marjoram transplanting treated with halex-2 biofertilizers gave the highest values of herb fresh and dry yield, N, P and K contents and its uptake by herb in the early cut. In addition to, volatile oil percentage, oil yield/ plant per hectare, while plants treated with nitrobein biofertilizers gave intermediate values at different cut in this respect. The combination of poultry manure and halex-2 proved to be the superior treatments, which reflected in the greatest influence upon all the studied characters, i.e., fresh and dry herb yields, mineral contents, highest volatile oil percentage and oil yield/ plant of marjoram plant, followed by FYM combined with the same biofertilizers and may be recommended under similar conditions of this work. Key words: Biofertilizers, Jordan, halex-2, marjoram, nitrobein, Organic, poultry manure, volatile oil. 5.4 Effects of Gel Extracts of Aloe vera L. on Mitotic Index and Phase Index of Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa L. Ali Irfan ILBAS1, Umut GÖNEN2 and Semih YILMAZ2

1

Erciyes University, Seyrani Agriculture Faculty, Field Crops Department, 2Erciyes University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Kayseri, Turkey.

Abstract: In the study, effects of gel extracts of Aloe vera L. derived from leaves on mitotic index and phase index of root tip cells of Allium cepa L. were investigated. In the pre experiment, 20% gel concentration was determined as EC50. Root tip cells of Allium cepa were subjected to different concentratinos of Aloe vera gel extract (2, 5, 10, 20 and 40%) for 24 and 48 h. Increasing the concentration of the Aleo vera gel extract decreased the root length and mitotic index of the Allium cepa. Concentration effect on mitotic index was more obvious compared to application period. Cytotoxic effect was determined in both application periods (24 and 48 h) when 40% Aleo vera gel extract was applied. A strong positive correlation between Aleo vera gel extract concentration and prophase index and a poor negative correlation between concentration and other mitotic phases (metaphase, anaphase and telophase) were determined. Key words: Allium cepa, Aloe vera, mitotic index, phase index. 5.5 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants as a Means of Conservation and Poverty Alleviation in Developing Nations Amujoyegbe Bamidele Julius 95

Department of Crop Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awo Lowo University, IleIfi, Nigeria.

Abstract: Plants, whether wild or domesticated are fundamental components of ecosystems on earth. They form the productive bases and the physical structures, support diversity of animals and other organisms. Human economies are highly dependent on plants for supplies of material resources, such as food, construction materials, fuel, craft materials and medicines. The nature of the plant cover significantly influences the quality of the climate, the availability of water supplies and the stability of the soil. How people use and manage wild plant resources will significantly influence the sustainability of their livelihoods and the conservation of their diversity. Cultivation of highly valued medicinal plants should be creating new dimension in the field of agriculture in developing nations. The need for developing countries to acquire technologies and techniques for programmed cultivation of medicinal plants within the cropping system is a current issue.

Key words: Cultivation, developing, medicinal plants, poverty.

5.6 Seasonal Variations in the Essential Oil Composition of Lavandula dentata, Growing in Eastern Morroco B. IMELOUANE 1, A. ELBACHIRI 1 J.P. WATHELET 2, H.AMHAMDI 1

Laboratory of physical chemistry and natural resources and environment, Department of Chemistry, University Mohamed I, BP 717, Avenu e Mohamed VI ,60000, Oujda, Morocco. 2Unity of General and Organic Chemistry, Faculty of the Agronomic Sciences of Gembloux, Passage of the Prisoners 2, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.

1

Abstract: The chemical compositions of plants are determined by genetic and environmental factors and their interaction. In this study, we determined the seasonal variation of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of Lavandula dentata growing in eastern Morocco (Taforalt). Volatile components obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS. Oil yields increased from December to July. We examined the evolution of oil composition along the vegetative life of the plant. Major fluctuations in the composition of Lavandula dentata oil included: I-8,Cineol , betapinene, Pincarvol, Sabinol and Myrtenol. These results show the fast and complex changes in the chemical profile of Lavandula dentata and a probable interconversion between the major components. This study calls for attention when using the essential oils of this plant to know the chemotype that we need. Key words: Chemotype, essential oil, Lavandula dentate, seasonal variation.

5.7 Variability in Ethiopian Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L): Implications in Improvement, Cultivation and Utilization.

1

Beemnet Mengesha, 2Getinet Alemaw and 3Bizuayehu Tesfaye

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1

Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 198, Shashemene, Melkasa Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 436 Nazareth. 3Hawassa University, P. O. Box 05 Hawassa, Ethiopia.

2

Abstract: Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice, aromatic and medicinal herb that belongs to the family Umbelliferae. Even though it has got diverse uses and Ethiopia is a center of primary diversity for the crop, the current knowledge about its biology, variety development and agronomy are neither complete nor conclusive under Ethiopian conditions. This hinders the cultivation and utilization of coriander in the country. To contribute in filling some of the existing gaps, a field experiment was conducted during the main rainy season of 2007/08 at Wondo Genet and Kokate, southern Ethiopia. Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications is the choice for this activity. Data for 15 agronomic and quality traits were measured and statistically tested. Mean squares from the combined ANOVA reveled a highly significant variation (P<0.01) among the accessions for 11 of the 15 traits and significant variation (P<0.05) for days to end flowering while no significant variation (p<0.05) was observed for number of basal leaves, plant height and fatty oil content. The study revealed the presence of considerable variability in Ethiopian coriander accessions. Hence, the possibility for further improvement using these variations is great. Therefore, some of the major economical traits of coriander which are important for consumption, processing and trade can be improved for agronomic performance and quality. Key words: Coriander, Ethiopia, variability.

5.8 Micropropagation of Catharanthus roseus in order to produce Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids in vitro Benyammi R., Khelifi-Slaoui M., Bakiri N., Harfi B., Khelifi L.

Laboratoire de Ressources Génétiques & Biotechnologies, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique, Algiers, Algeria.

Abstract: The Catharanthus roseus produces monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, which have high therapeutic interest. The biotechnological approach with in vitro shoot cultures remains an alternative to the field culture of Catharanthus roseus for the production of such compounds. In this investigation, Catharanthus roseus shoot were induced from a cotyledons of seedlings, on semisolid MS containing various concentrations of 6benzyladenine (BA : 1.0, 1.5 or 2mg/l). After 40 days, a concentration of 2 mg/l of BA showed a better average of shoot formation (7 shoots / explant). After shoot formation, liquid cultures are induced by transferring clusters into MS liquid media. Shoots showed a quick proliferation and biomass accumulation during a monthly culture cycle, and the maximal biomass values were reached around day 22 of the culture cycle. Key words: Catharanthus roseus, in vitro shoot cultures, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, 6-benzyladenine. 5.9 Agroforestry: A new horizon for the cultivation of medicinal plants Brajeshwar Chandelia and Avinash K. Sharma

Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), New Delhi, India.

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Abstract: Agroforestry in India has proved itself as an integral element not only in the farming system, but also a key component of sustainable agriculture. Poplar and eucalyptus based plantations intercropped with traditional agriculture crops viz. wheat, sugarcane, pulses, vegetables, fodder etc are practiced by farmers in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Plains of Himachal Pradesh in India. Apart from traditional farming in the initial years of plantations, cultivation of medicinal plants intercropping may be viable alternative cash crops among the farming community at the lateral stages of plantations. Taking these facts in to consideration, an Agroforestry based experiment was conducted at Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India) during the year 2003-04 to assess the performance of the medicinal plants viz. kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), akarkara (Spilanthes acmella) and chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica) under twelve year old plantations of eucalyptus hybrid (Eucalyptus citriodora x Eucalyptus torellina) grown at the spacing of 3x3 meter. All medicinal plants were raised through seeds in the month of April 2003 in nursery and then transplanted under eucalyptus plantations in the third week of June. Only farm yard manure (FYM) @ 2 t/ha was applied to plots before transplanting and no any inorganic fertilizer was applied. The short duration medicinal plants except chitrak were harvested in the month of September to October of the year 2003 and 2004 simultaneously. However, Chitrak (a perennial crop) was harvested in the month of October 2004 only. The medicinal plants were harvested at their different physiological phases. Morphological parameters like survival percentage, plant height, collar diameter, leaf area, biomass yield were recorded along with plants grown in open field conditions simultaneously. An economic analysis of medicinal plants cultivation was also done to work out the cost benefit ratio of intercropping. The medicinal plants were found to be suitable for intercropping with eucalyptus plantations based on their performance. Thus, present paper discusses the results of this experiment and also the scope of introduction and cultivation of medicinal plants as under crops with commercial eucalyptus plantations. Key words: Akarkara, chitrak, cultivation, eucalyptus, kalmegh, poplar. 5.10 Agricultural Research Activities in Turkey Bülent Sayal

General Directorate of Agricultural Research (TAGEM) .Tarimsal Aratirmalar Genel Müdürlüü (TAGEM). Yenimahalle/Ankara-Turkey.

Abstract: Agricultural Research in Turkey is conducted mainly by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Universities and TUBITAK (Turkish Scientific and Technological Council). The Research Organization under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs is consisted of below components: General Directorate of Agricultural Research, Agricultural Research Counsil, Research Advisory Committees, Programme Coordinators, Programme Evaluation Working Groups. General Directorate of Agricultural Research (TAGEM) is the headquarter of national agricultural research system. Development of research strategy, determination of priorities and coordination of research programmes are the main objectives of TAGEM. Keywords: Agriculture, research, TAGEM, türkiye. 5.11 Investigation the Effect of Cultivation Season and Irrigation Period Inrevenue Operation and Essential Oil on Salvia officinalis L. S. sclarea L. S.hypolecua Benth. and Thymus vulgaris L. in Khojir (Iran-Tehran province)

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1

Ebrahim Farahani,1. Golamreza Naderi Brojerdi2 Zahra.Rafiei Karhroodi3

2

Scientific member board of Tehran Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center. Scientific 3 member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, Department of agriculture, Arak. Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, Department of plant protection, Iran.

Abstract: Ecological condition which are different from a region to another as well as agronomical factors have their own influence on the product yield. In this research the effect of planting season and irrigation period on shoot yield and amount of essential oil on Salvia officinalis L. S.sclarea L. S.hypolecua Benth. and Thymus vulgaris L. have been tested. Effect of planting season (fall, spring) and irrigation period (no irrigation, 21days irrigation period, 14days irrigation period, 7days irrigation period) in factorial experiment by using of randomized complete block design were investigated. In each plot, dry weight plant average and yield, plant height and essential oil percentage and yield were measured. Treatment averages were compared according to Dankans test. Nearly in all samples more irrigation period have an absolute positive effect an plant height, wet weight plant, dry weight plant, essential oil percentage and yield and dry weight yield in hectare with significant factor of P<0.01.Only in Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil percentage was not in the above limitations. Approximately in all samples, plants season (fall) were more effective in above mentioned qualifications and between then (spring, fall) significant factor at the rate of 0.01 can be recognized. Except in Salvia officinalis L., S.hypolecua Benth, Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil percentage & yield, in S. sclarea L. plant height, did not shown significant difference. Key words: essential oil, irrigation, khojir research station, Salvia officinalis, Shypolecua benth. and Thymus vulgaris L. season.

5.12 Effect of Kinetin on Seed Germination of Some Lines of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) Erman BEYZ, and Ali rfan LBA

Erciyes University, Seyrani Agriculture Faculty, Field Crops Department, Kayseri, Turkey

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate effects of kinetin on seed germination of Fenugreek in Erciyes University Seyrani Agriculture Faculty in 2010. In this study, 7 Fenugreek lines, was obtained Dicle university agriculture faculty field crops department, (Hat 1, Hat 3, Hat 18, Hat 23, Hat 29, Hat 33, Hat 34) are used. Dosages of kinetin were determined as 100 M, 200 M and pure water was used as kontrol. According to results of the study, increased dosages of kinetin affects root length, root fresh and dry weights negatively. Effects of kinetin applications on germination rates were not significant. Inreasing dosages of kinetin decreased shoot length but increased shoot fresh and dry weights. Key words: Fenugreek, germination, kineti, length, root, seed, turkey. 5.13 Propagation of Tilia argentea by Seeds and Stem Cuttings

1

Ezz AL-Dein M. Al-Ramamneh, 2Mostafa M. Qrunfleh

99

1

Department of Agricultural Sciences, AL-Shouback University College, Al-Balqa Applied University, AL Shouback, Maan, Jordan. 2Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan.

Abstract: Seeds of Tilia argentea collected from Prince Hashem Garden in Amman were subjected to different durations of stratification and acid scarification. The seeds were subjected to cold-moist stratification at 5 °C for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. The effect of soaking seeds in concentrated (98%) sulfuric acid for 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes on the subsequent germination of seeds was also investigated. Germination percentage of seeds was significantly raised into 12.50% and 7.5% when seeds were stratified for four months or soaked in concentrated sulfuric acid for 10 minutes under greenhouse conditions, respectively. However, seeds firstly soaked in sulfuric acid for 10 minutes and then stratified for four months recorded significantly the highest germination percentage (28.75%). Propagation of Tilia argentea by cuttings was also attempted. Softwood cuttings were taken once during August and twice during September and treated with nine different concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA), viz. 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 30000 ppm. IBA significantly improved rooting of cuttings compared to untreated control. The maximum rooting percentage (31.25%) was recorded for cuttings taken on the 2nd of September and treated with IBA at 10000 ppm. Cuttings taken on the 2nd of September and treated with IBA at 4000 ppm resulted in the highest mean root number per cutting (11.52). However, cuttings taken on the 2nd of September and treated with IBA at 3000, 4000, 5000 and 10000 ppm produced, on the same level of significance, the highest mean root length per cutting (2.12-2.47 cm). The low overall rooting response of cuttings (6.25%) collected on the 15th of September and treated with IBA at 5000 ppm indicates that this date was too late for collecting cuttings of Tilia argentea. Key words: Cuttings, scarification, seeds, stratification, Tilia argentea. 5.14 Effect of Chemical, Manure and Biological Fertilizers on Yield and Essential Oil of Satureja hortensis L. Farahani Ebrahim1, Melikyan, Andreas2, Naderi Bourjerdi Ghallam Reza3 , and Rafeii Zahra4

1

Faculty member of Tehran Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Iran. 2Vegetable breeding department of Agriculture Academy.3 Faculty member of Islamic Azad University of Arak. 4 Faculty member of Islamic Azad University of Arak, Iran.

Abstract: Savory genus (Satureja) is from Labiatae family and has 15 species in Iran from which nine species are exclusive. Essential oil of different species of Savory because of having Carvacrol has especial importance. The vegetative shoot of this plant has effective materials that causes sweating and remove of gout. This plant is anti bloat and helps to food digestion too. The Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) essential oil uses in cannery and making beverages industries. Essential oil of this plant has anti bacterial properties and prevents growth of some types of bacteria. In essential oil of Savory obtained from distillation, 17 combinations identified that the most of them were Carvacrol (48.1%) and Gamma Terpinen (38.4%). In order to study the influence of different methods of soil fertility on performance and essential oil percent of Savory, an experiment with 10 treatments and 3 replications in a CRB design carried out in Khojir station in 15 km from East of Tehran in 2009. The treatments were including control experiment (without fertilizer), three levels of chemical fertilizer (N50P40K50, N100P80K100 and N150P120K150), 111

three levels of manure (10, 30 and 50 ton/ha.) and three levels of biological fertilizer (Nitroxin, Barvar 2 and mixture of both). The results showed there was significant difference between treatments with respect of various traits (P<0.01). Studying the comparison of traits mean including height of stem, yield of flower branch, yield of aerial stem, essential oil percent and its yield showed the superiority of all fertilizer treatments than control. The essential oil of entire treatments than control had significant difference (P<0.05). The second level of manure (30 ton/ha) showed the best yield of essential oil with 32.4 kg/ha. Application of biological fertilizer than control treatment showed significant superiority in all of traits. Key words: Biological fertilizer, essential oil, khojir, manure, Satureja hortensis L, yield

5.15 Effects of Priming by Salsilik Acid on Resistance to Pigweed Allelophatic Compounds and their Interaction on Germination and Seedling Growth of Cuminum cyminum Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi1, M. Yarnia2, V. Ahmadzadeh3

1

Islamic Azad University, Malekan Branch. Iran. 2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University. 3Agronomy Department, Tabriz University, Iran.

Abstract: Allopathic interaction is one of the main decrasing factors with a complex mechanism, which influences all growth and development aspects of plants. One of the most important effects of salisilic acid return to the activity of plant hormones. Nevertheless, there are not any information in case of effects of the interaction of these two cases in germination level, so the main goal of this research is evaluating the interaction between salisilic acid and allelopatic interference. Results showed that applying the priming by salsilik acid were influenced seed activitied directly. Not only in normal conditions increased germination and seedling growth of Cuminum cyminum but also under the interference of allelopatic compounds the decreasing rate were reduced. This experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design based on a factorial experiment with three replications in order to evaluate effects of priming with different times of applying salsilik acid and its interaction with Allopathic compounds in germination and seedling growth stage. Treatment were factor A (priming with salsilik acid m10-3 and priming with distilled water) and factor B (6,12 and 18 hours) and factor C (concentration of 1 to 10, or 20% pigweed extract and control). Considering the results, root length, shoot, dry weight, germination percentage and germination rate coefficient had significant difference in the 1 percent level, except the seedling lenght extract allopathic × hormone interaction coefficient and rate of germination the interaction of hormones and the effect of extracts Allopathic × trilateral showed. These attibute had significant difference in the 5 percent level. Key words: Allelophatic compounds, Cuminum cyminum, pigweed, priming, salsilic acid.

5.16 Effects of Priming on Seed Germination of Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Fatemeh Ganji Arjenaki1, Majid Amini Dehaghi2, Reza Jabbari1

111

1

Department of Agronomy, Shahed University, P.O.Box: 18151/159 Tehran, Iran. 2Department of Agriculture Faculty and Research Center of Medicinal Plant, Shahed University, Iran.

Abstract: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the priming on seed germination of Marigold( Calendula officinalis .)Experiment carried out in randomized complete block design with three replications in 2008 at the Research Laboratory of the University of Shahed, Iran .Treatments were( control ,PEG: Polyethylene glycol 6000 at -3, -6 and -12 bar .)Marigold seeds primed for 24 hour in treatments solution in room temperature and then transferred to Petri dish for germination. Analysis of variance for laboratory data showed that priming significantly improved germination percentage ,root and shoot length ,seedling weight and germination rate, compared to control. Germination percentage, root and shoot length and germination rate for seeds primed with PEG 3-( bar) was higher than those for unprimed seeds but seedling weight was statistically similar. Thus, priming with PEG solution could be used as a simple method for improving seed germination of Marigold in the Laboratory. Key words: Marigold, pretreatment, priming, seed germination 5.17 Improving the Overall Quality of Medicinal Crops Following GACPs and Focusing on Post Harvesting Handling Techniques Relating to cGMPs Fletcher, E.J1, R. Mead2, T. Gerecke3, and L. Kandarian5

1

Strategic Sourcing Inc., Banner Elk, NC 28604, 2 United Agri Products, Fresno, CA 97320, 3United Agri Products, Fresno, CA 97320, and 5Central Valley Plant and Seed, Riverdale, CA 93656.

Abstract: The primary focus for crops cultivated for the medicinal industry in the past was on increasing biomass production. However there is a growing need to improve marker constituent levels and overall quality in raw materials to comply with the newly released cGMPs. Adhering to GACPs and techniques such as selective breeding, specific cultural techniques and post harvest handling practices that influence and effect the development of crop, we can increase the overall quality of the botanical raw materials. Although the new cGMPs do not directly address many of the raw material suppliers, i.e. growers and collectors, what these suppliers do is important to their customers who must followed cGMPs. Providing raw material of improved quality by following the GACP guidelines resulting in raw materials that comply with the cGMPs also increases the market value of the crops. I will show and give examples how these techniques impact the plants during their growth cycles, harvesting and specifically during the post harvest handling process. Our findings prove that with proper monitoring and management, the dollar per pound value of the raw material can be enhanced resulting in better returns for the farmer/grower, and increased quality of the botanical raw materials for medicinal products in todays market. The cGMPs will be considered a threshold of quality in future years. Key words: Botanic, harvesting, medicinal crops.

5.18 Investigation of Biological and Manure Effect on Decreasing Demand Chemical Fertilizer in Hyssopus officinalis L.) in Arak, Iran

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Gholamreza Naderi Broujerdi,1 Andreas Melikyan2, Hamid Madani3, Ebrahim Farahani4, Sina Taherabadi5

Armenian State Agrarian University, Department of Agronomy. 2Armenian State Agrarian University, Vegetable breeding department of Agriculture Academy. 3Scientific member of Islamic Azad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, Department of agriculture. 4Scientific member board of Tehran Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center. Iran5Expert Agriculture of Iran Combine Company.

1

Abstract: Phosphor, after nitrogen, is considered as one of the highly consumed elements for the herbs. This element is involved in all the biochemical process, energy and message transferring mechanisms, being among the nutritious substance for the plants that has influence on their growth and performance. Shortage of this element, currently, is compensated by applying chemical fertilizers. The chemical fertilizers have harmful impact on the environment and decrease the quality of the agricultural products. This test was carried out in order to analyze the phosphate solving bacterium type Bacillus lentus (p5) and Pseudomonas putida (p13) as the organic fertilizers and chemical phosphorus from the super phosphate Triple source as the chemical fertilizer. The effect of the two phosphorous factors (phosphor solving bacterium, chemical phosphor) and the medicinal herb "Hyssop" was analyzed by applying a factorial test as a complete random blocks in three times during the agricultural year of 2009 in Arak. There was significantly difference between effect of the main two factors and their interaction with certain strains such as the height of bush, length of flower branch, number of flower branch, wet shoot yield, dry shoot yield, seeds yield, percent of essential oil and yield of essential oil per hectare. Of course, there was not significant difference between the effect of phosphor releasing bacteria that was examined in certain strains such as essence percentage, also the results indicated that the application of phosphate solving bacterium had a meaningful effect on the studied strains, leading into increase of the performance elements parameters such as: dry shoot yield in phosphor releasing bacteria treatment alone, application of the phosphor releasing bacteria with 115 kg phosphate fertilizer, yield of essential oil per hectare in 90kg of phosphate fertilizer in the treatments that was used phosphate solving bacterium, comparing with the chemical treatment and Contour, had significantly difference. There was at least 50% decrease in consumption of the phosphate chemical fertilizers of super phosphate Triple source by applying phosphor releasing bacterium. Key words Phosphate solublizing bacteria, phosphor, hyssop, yield and essential oil. 5.19 Effect of KCN and Temperature on Sesame Germination Gholamreza Zarei1, Hossein Shamsi1 and Danial Abadikhah Dehali2

1

Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Maybod Branch, 2Agronomy M.Sc. Student, Islamic Azad University, Maybod Branch, Iran.

Abstract: Cyanide-resistant respiration is a usual pathway in plants. If plants do this pathway, it decreases

energy producing and finally decreases growth and yield. For increasing growth and yield in plants one of ways is inhibiting of cyanide-resistance respiration. This research investigates cyanide-resistant respiration in Sesamum indium on germination stage. An experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different cyanide-resistance on sesame in germinating and seeding stage in a completely randomized design with three replications. Experiment was carried out separately at 15°C and 20°C. Cyanide levels applied were zero (control), 0.005, 0.001, 0.0005 and 0.0001 M. The following measurements were carried out: germination percentage, germination index, seedling dry weight, germination rate, 5% germination rate (D5), 50% germination rate (D50), 90% germination rate (D90) and KCN resistant index. Result showed there was no significant difference in traits between different concentrations of KCN at 20°C. But there was significant difference between KCN levels at 15°C. According to results at 15°C the highest amounts of germination rate, germination percentage, KCN resistant index, and germination index and seedling dry weight were related to control and the lowest related to 0.005 M. About D5, D50 and D90 the highest

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amounts were related to 0.005 M and the lowest related to control at 15°C. It is concluded KCN decreases germination and seedling growth in sesame at 15°C and with increasing temperature, it shows resistant against KCN. Keywords: Cyanide-resistant respiration, sesame, Sesamum indicum, kcn.

5.20 Effect of N and P Fertilizers on Yield and Essential Oil of Matricaria chamomilla

in Tehran, Iran

Gholamreza Naderi Brojerdi1, Ebrahim.Farahani2, Reza Habibi2, Zahra.RafieiKarahroodi3, Seyed mehdi Nabaei3

Armenian State Agrarian University, Department of Agronomy, 2Scientific member board of Tehran Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center. Iran. 3Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, Department of plant protection

1

Abstract: Matricaria chamomilla is an annual, short plant. The leaves are green like the leaves of dill. The most important activities of Matricaria chamomilla are bactericidal and antifugal, especially for positive gram bacteria and candida fungi. In this study , the effect of N and P was studied, each one in 4 levels (totaly 16 treatment) and 3 replication (48 plots) in case of factorial test ,on yield and essential oil of Matricaria chamomilla. The results showed that N and P fertilizeres have significant effect on the yield of it . this cause increasing the yeald of essential oil. it has done at different concentrations of N and P fertilizer, N90 and P67.5 are very suitable for increasing of yield N135 and P67.5 had the best yields of arial organic and N0P0 had the least yields. Also N and P fertilizers increased amount of essential oil. Key words: Essential oil, Matricaria chamomilla, nitrogen.

5.21 Detection of Best Cultivation Time, Plant Concentration, Irrigation Period for Growth of Airial Parts and Effective Subctances Derived from Medical Plant of Hyssopus officinalis in Arak Province Golamreza Naderi Broujerdi1, Seyed Mehdi Nabaei2, Mehdi Changizi2, Zahra.Rafiei2

2

Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, Department of agriculture, Arak. Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, Department of agriculture, Arak, Iran.

1

Abstract: Medical plants as basic subestance of some drug producers have a special importance. With a view to world necessity to these drugs the cultivation area of medical plants are increasing and in our country as strategic plants in without oil economy are mentioned. Hyssopus officinalis belongs to family lamiaceae. Extracted Essential oil of it contains pinokamphen, alpha and beta pinen and sesquiterpen alcohols. In this survey essential factor of irrigation period (A) with 4 level, every 5 days, every ten days, every 15 days and without irrigation and two factors of B in three cultivation time, 4 Apr., 14 Apr. and 25 Apr. and C in three plant contration 30*30, 40*40 and 50*50 are considered. According to results best time of cultivation is 14 Apr. The best time for production of essential oil is 14 Apr. the best time for production of essential oil is 14 Apr, and the best plant concentration is 30*30 in areas that involved with little water and irrigation problem the irrigation period of every 15 days can be considered.

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Key words: Cultivation, growth, irrigation, medical plant.

5.22 Study the Effect of Sowing Date and Different Cultivated Levels of Nitrogen on the Yield and Percent of Essence in Safflower H. Tahmasebi Zadeh1, G.N. Boroujerdi2, M.yousefi 3,I. Farahani4., E. Farmahini5.

1

Islamic Azad University Arak. 2Faculty member of Islamic Azad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, Department of agriculture, Arak, Iran. 3Expert Iran Combine Co. 4Islamic Azad University Arak Branch.5Islamic Azad University Arak Branch, Iran.

Abstract: Medicine plants are one of the important plants, to produce primary material in the pharmacology. Iran has many weather conditions; therefore, this is a suitable place for cultivating this herb. Safflower is a medicine plant, not also it is a medicine plant; but also it belongs to the eatable/edible plants type. In the past, safflower was used. Agricultural Safflower is a one year plant and belong to the kasni family. Oil of safflower has significant quality. In this oil, amount of Linoleic Acid is between 73 and 85 percent. Linoleic Acid has many properties, such as, reduce cholesterol, and hardness of blood vessels. In this research, we evaluate the effect of planting date and chemical fertilizer on yield and percent of essence (extract) in the herbs. This types belongs to Esfahan region. This type has no barb. Date of cultivating are (2008/july/10-2008/may/10) and levels of N fertilizer are (138-98-49). Analysis of statistical calculation is done by MSTAT-C software. Results show that the effect of date of cultivating on the seed yield, weight of hundreds seeds, the number of seed in boll, total weight of bush, pure weight of flowering, thickness of stem, yield of oil, percent of essence and yield of essence was significant/meaningful and highest yield related to the first cultivate, so that, with use of weather condition, first cultivating has highest yield. As results showed that, highest yield belongs to the first cultivating and 138 and 98 kg urea fertilizer. The results show that different level of on the below characteristic are meaningful/ significance, characteristic of seeds yield, weight of one hundred seed, the number of boll in the bush, total height of bush, branching, pure weight of physiologically mature level of thickness of secondary branch , the number of secondary branch, percent of essence, and yield of essence. Key words: Plant density, essence, Nitrogen, safflower, yield.

5.23 Medicinal Plants Cultivation in Pakistan: Case Study of the Introduction of Vernonia anthelmentica as Commercial Crop Habib Ahmad and Muqarrab Shah

Department of Botany Hazara University, Mansehra Pakistan.

Abstract: The need of cultivating medicinal plants as profitable commercial crop is increasing with the increasing demand of herbal medicine and realizing the need of minimizing extraction pressure on plants from the natural sources. The introduction of medicinal plants in the cropping system needs evaluation of the desired germplasm and transfer of cropping technology to the selected communities. We in WWFP conducted

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Training workshop for "On-farm Technology Transfer for Cultivation and Sustainable Harvesting of Medicinal Plants" during the years 2002-2005. The species used for capacity building of farming communities included: Matricaria chamomila, Saussurea lappa, Crocus sativus, Primula denticulata, Podophyllum emodi, Paeonia emodii, Viola canescens, Bistorta amplexicaulis, Valeraina wallichii, Mucana pruriens, Withania somnifera, Ocimum basilicum, Vernonia anthementica, Mimosa pudica, Cardiospermum helicacabum, Lallemantia royleana, Sida cordifolia and Ginkgo biloba. Among these 18 species only Vernonia anthementica found its place in the farming as a marginal Rabi crop. This paper communicates an overview of the achievements of medicinal plants in general and in particular the cultivation of Vernonia anthementica, in Mansehra District of Pakistan. Key words: Cultivation, medicinal plants, pakistan, Vernonia anthelmentica.

5.24 Wild Celery: A Valuable Medicinal Plant but Near to Extinction Hamed Shafie1, and Fatemeh Najafi 2

1

Dedesertificatin Specialist, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran, 2 plant breeding Specialist, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran.

Abstract: "Wild celery" with scientific name "Kelussia odoratissima" and local name "Kelos" is one of pasture plants and is native to Iran, which has been paid to values. Growth of this plant and its growth time depends on the amount and type of precipitation to the region. In the years that more precipitation occurs as rain, this plant from the first half of March will begin to grow. Especially in the mountains which are located in the southern slope, Wild celery growth sooner and faster. But, during the years that the precipitation is snow, with covered snow melting, Wild celery will begin to grow. Wild celery generally is found in areas with a minimum height of 2500 meters above sea level and the annual average of more than 450 mm rainfall and at least 60 percent of its should be as snow falls. Wild celery has medicinal properties and use in the pharmaceuticals and food consumption and nutrition, with high economic value can also be a good source of income for local communities and villagers and nomads as well. Today, due to rapid population growth and desire of individuals for high income, extraction and harvesting of this plant is too much and if not protected, perhaps decades later it will completely disappear. Key words: Indiscriminate harvesting, iran, mountains, wild celery, zagros.

5.25 Cell Suspension Culture Establishment of Natural Tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. (Elçi Red Clover) and Determination of Isoflavanoids in the Culture Hatice ÇÖLGEÇEN1, Murat KARTAL2, Ufuk KOCA3, H. Nurhan BÜYÜKKARTAL4

Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Biology, 67100 ncivez, Zonguldak, TURKEY, Tel: +90 0372 257 4010-1128, 2Ankara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, 06100 Tandoan, Ankara,TURKEY, Tel: +90 0312 212 67 20-1051, 3Gazi University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, 06330 Etiler, Ankara-TURKEY, Tel: +90 0312 202 31 87, 4Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06100 Tandoan, Ankara,turkey.

1

Abstract: Species such as Trifolium sp. and Medicago sp. from Fabaceae family are known for their phytoestrogenic compounds. Trifolium pratense, which is cultivated world-wide have been investigated for its phytochemical characteristics. The main goal of the study to establish callus and suspension cultures of selected species and compare their isoflavanoid production. The subject of this study is establishing cell suspension culture

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by using previously produced callus cultures of natural tetraploid T. pratense (Elçi red clover), which is a noteworthy plant for its pharmacological aspects besides their values as pasture plant cultivated in our country. The seedling were obtained from the the experimentation garden of Ankara Uni. Faculty of Science. After surface sterilization, seeds were germinated on hormone-free MS medium. These aseptic seedlings were used as explants to produce callus production. This callus culture was transferred to the liquid MS medium to establish suspension culture. Cultures were grown for 20 days were filtered and the cells were extracted with methanol. The extracts were analyzed by LC and LC-MS for their isoflavone content (formononetin, biochanin a, daidzein, genistein). Key words: Callus, culture, isoflavanoids, red clover, tetraploid. 5.26 Effect of Biofertilizers and Organic Phosphorus Amendments on Growth and Essential Oil of Marjoram (Majorana hortensis L.) Ismail. A. El-Ghandour1, Yehia G.M. Galal1, Enayat M. Desouky2, Rawahia A. Arafa2 and Abeer M.M. Abou Seer1

1

Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Department of Soil and Water. Egypt. 2Al-Azhar University, Faculty of Science (Girls Branch), Botany (Microbiology) Department, Egypt.

Abstract: The effect of bacterial inoculation (biofertilization) and application of faba bean straw and sheep manure considered by the authors to be organic phosphorus sources to marjoram plants that cultivated in field experiment of Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt was studied. Faba bean straw and sheep manure were added at rate of 1500 kg P/ ha of both residues. Residues were incorporated into the soil one month prior to marjoram cultivation. Marjoram (root cutting) was inoculated with either B. polymixa and/ or Bradyrhizobium sp.The results showed that, growth parameter of marjoram plants were positively affected by bacterial inoculation as well as organic phosphorus sources at three cuts. The herb and oil yield were the highest in case of the combination between sheep manure and B. polymixa at the 2nd cut than in control. Nutrient uptake of marjoram plants positively responded to bacterial inoculation and the concerned organic phosphorus sources. The chemical composition of marjoram essential oil did not change due to the bacterial inoculation or applied residues, but the percentages of certain constituents were affected. Key words: B. polymixa, Bradyrhizobium sp., marjoram, organic phosphorus.

5.27 Seed Germination of Persian Shallot as a Function of Temperature, Length of Storage and Sulfuric Acid Treatment Duration J. Mohammadi1, J.A. Olfati-Chirani2, S.A. Khasmakhi-Sabet3, M.Golshani4 and S.N. Mortazavi5

Islamic Azad University, Abhar branch, Horticultural Department , Iran -Islamic Republic. 2University of Guilan, Horticultural Department, Rasht, Iran-Islamic Republic.3University of Guilan , Horticultural Department, Rasht , Iran -Islamic Republic.4University of Zanjan , Horticultural Department, Zanjan , Iran Islamic Republic. Islamic Azad University, Abhar branch, Horticultural Department , Iran -Islamic Republic.

1

Abstract: Persian shallot (Allium aflatunense,L.) belongs to Alliaceae family and is one of the important edible alliums in Iran . Since Persian shallot grows as a wild plant only in some mountains of Iran , very little information is available about different aspects of this species especially in seed germination needs. The aim of our research was to study the relationship between different temperatures, seed age and duration of sulfuric acid

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treatment on Persian shallot seed germination. Interaction between above factors had a significant effect on the germination and emergence percenaget after 60 and 90 days. Due to present approaches, suitable condition for Persian shallot seed germination is scarification of one year old seeds with concentrated (98%)sulfuric acid for 15 minutes, and stratification at 4 degree centigrade. In fact Persian shallot seeds need both scarification and stratification for seed germination improvement. Keywords: Allium aflatunense,L. germination, Persian shallot, scarification, stratification. 5.28 Effect of Spraying Zinc and the Extract of the Liquorices Roots of on Growth and Flower Spanish Iris bulbs Iris xiphium L. Jamal Ahmed Abbass, Mushtaq Talib Hammdi

Dept. of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Kufa University, Iraq.

Abstract: Iris bulbs are one important medicinal plants and has many uses, the plant has been included for the first time in the Pharmacopoeia of America between 1820 and 1895, native to North America, the view of aromatic oil and resin. Used to remove toxins from the body mainly it increases urination and bile production, and has a laxative effect of the stomach and treatment hypersensitive skin. Some believe it helps to reduce weight. This research was conducted in a private nursery (Worood Al-Najaf

nursery) in Najaf city through 2008\2009 season to study the spraying effect of Zinc and Liquorices roots extract and their interaction growth and flowering of Spanish Iris (Iris xiphium L.). Factorial experiment was conducted in (3x3), first factor is three concentrations of Zinc (0, 15, 30 mg.L-1), second is three concentrations of Liquorices roots extract (0, 1.5, 3 g.L-1) in complete randomized blocks design (R.C.B.D.) with three replicates. Results showed spraying zinc in concentration 30 mg.Zn.L-1 was significant effected in growth and flowering characteristics of plant, whereas increasing of total leaves numbers, leaf area, percentage of dry leaves weight, total chlorophyll content of leaves and diameters of flowers stem compared with untreated bulbs. In addition to increasing leaf content of carbohydrate, Zinc, phosphorus. Spraying liquorices roots extract at concentration 3 g.L-1 was significant effected in growth and flowering characteristics of plant, whereas increasing of total leaves numbers, leaf area, total chlorophyll content of leaves and diameters of flowers stem compared with unsparing plants. Spraying plants at concentration 30mg Zn.L-1 and 3g.L-1 of liquorices roots extract was increased significantly of total leaves number, leaf area, total chlorophyll content of leaves, diameters of flowers stem and leaf content of carbohydrate, Zinc, phosphorus compared with unsparing bulbs which gave the lowest values. The highest averages of flower stem and leaf content of carbohydrate (20.23cm and 8.40 mg.kg-1) as compared with (18.03cm and 4.67 mg.kg-1) in control plants. Key words: Extract, flower, iris bulbs, roots, zinc. 5.29 Effect of Bacterial and Fungal Elicitors on the Production of Active Compounds in Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Callus Cultures In vitro Khaleel I. Rashid and Kadhim M. Ibrahim

Technical Institute of Baquba, Dyala, Iraq College of Science/Al-Nahrian University. Baghdad, Iraq.

Abstract: The yield of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) callus from secondary products was studied. Callus was initiated from leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog 118

medium (MS) supplemented with 2 mg/l of dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5 mg/l of benzyl adenine (BA). Callus cultures were treated with biotic (bacterial or fungal) elicitors at different concentrations. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of active compounds was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The most abundant compounds found in untreated callus cultures were, quinoline, phytol, cineole, camphor, verbenone, borneol, bornyl acetate, ferruginol and isocarnosol. Higher percentages were obtained from callus treated with 2 ml/l of the fungal elicitor extracted from Fusarium oxysporum and the most abundant compounds were, cineole, camphor, verbenone, borneol, bornyl acetate, -pinene, -pinene, camphene and terpineol. Fungal elicitor was the most effective in stimulating secondary products in rosemary callus as compared with the bacterial elicitor extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and untreated callus (control). Key words: Bacterial, elicitors, fungal, rosemary, secondary compounds. 5.30 Response of Sage (Salvia offcinalis L.) to Selenium and Organic Fertilizers Khalid A. Khalid

Department of Cultivation and Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Abstract: Sage (Salvia offcinalis L.) herbs were enriched by selenium using Sodium selenate (Na2SeO4), and/or sheep manure application. Solutions of Sodium selenate at 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg L-1 +10, 15, or 20 m3 feddan-1 (4200 m2) were added on the Sage plants. Yield characters, essential oil content, chemical constituents of essential oil, Se, N, P, K content and uptake rate of Se-N- P- K were estimated. Greatest yields, accumulations of essential, major compounds biosynthesis, nutrient content (Se-N-P-K) and uptake of Se and N were obtained in the 20 m3 of sheep manure + 8 mg L-1 of Na2SeO4. The highest mineral uptakes for P and K were observed in the 20 m3 of sheep manure + 6 mg L-1 of Na2SeO4. Key word: sheep manure, selenium, yield, essential oil, nutrient content.

5.31 Effects of Elicitation and Permeabilization on Hyoscyamine Production Via Datura Hairy Roots Khelifi L., Zarouri B, Amdoun R., Morsli A., Harfi B., Khelifi-Slaoui M.

LRGB/ENSA, EL Harrach, Algiers, Algeria.

Abstract: This study focused on the production of tropane alkaloids (hyoscyamine) through biotechnology process which is commonly used to enhance production of secondary metabolites of interest. To do this, hairy roots of 3 species of Datura were obtained following genetic transformation of hypocotyls using A4 strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The results show differences both between species studied than between the induced root lines. This variability affects both growth of hairy root and their alkaloid content. The B5 medium is more favourable for the production of hyoscyamine (0.4 mg/20 ml). In addition, the elicited hairy root with 1 to 2 g / l NaCl produces hyoscyamine 3 times more than the control. Furthermore, yeast extract and jasmonic acid hasnt shown a positive effect on the accumulation of hyoscyamine in this study. The permeabilization of 119

the hairy roots with Tween 20 liberates at least 25% of hyoscyamine in the culture medium facilitating hyoscyamine extraction and maintaining alive hairy roots. Key words: Alkaloids, Datura, elicitation, Hairy roots, Hyoscyamine, permeabilization.

5.32 Effect of Nitrogen Rates, Plant Density and Cultivation Regions on Seed and Essential Oil Yield of Cumin (Cumin cyminum L.) Under the Climatic Conditions Lorestan province- Iran Khosro Azizi1, Majid Amini Dehaghi2, Saeid Heidari3

Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Lorestan.2Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Shahed, 3Department of agronomy and plant breeding, college of agriculture, University of lorestan, khorram abad -Iran.

1

Abstract: According to climatic condition and extension of medicinal plants like cumin (Cuminum cyminum) , this experiment was conducted to study effects of cultivation regions in 3 levels ; tropical , temperate and cold of lorestan province ­Iran , different levels of Nitrogen fertilizer and plant density on growth , yield and essential oil of cumin in the form of split plot per place on the basis of RCBD Design with 4 replications in 3 regions of lorestan province ­ Iran ; Pol-e Dokhtar (tropical region) , Khoram abad ( temperate region) and Azna (cold region) in 2006- 2007 crop year. Nitrogen fertilizer as main plot had 4 levels; 0, 25, 50 and 100 kg of N per hectare and plant density as sub plot had 3 levels; 80, 120 and 160 plant/m2. Extraction of essential oil was done by Clevenger and its quantitative analysis had been done by GC-MS QP5050S himadzu system. Results showed that there were significant differences among 3 regions of cultivation for yield, seed yield components, biological yield, percent of essential oil and harvest index (HI) at 1% level. Yield, seed yield components and essential oil percent was affected by N fertilizer at 1% level. Maximum number of umbels per plant (39.94) , seed per umbel (9.19) , the highest biological yield (1878 kg/ha) , seed yield (903.00kg/ha), 1000 seeds weight (4.37g) and essential oil percent (2.07%) were related to 50 kg of N per ha. treatment and max. HI. equal to 50.53% was related to 25 kg of N per ha. treatment. Max. number of umbel per plant (37.51), max. number of seed per umbel (8.03), max. number of seed per plant (303.51) and max. 1000 seeds weight (4.19g) were related to 80 plant/m2 density and the highest seed yield (758.80 kg/ ha.), biological yield (1656kg/ha.), max. HI. (74.70%) and essential oil percent (1.87%) obtained from 120 plant/m2 density. Temperate region was the best for all traits except for 1000 seeds weight. The highest 1000 seeds weight was related to cold region. Main compositions of essential oil were cuminaldehyde, paramenthe -1, 3, D. N. -7 al and paramentha ­ 1, 4, D. N. 7- al. Maximum cuminaldehyde obtained from 80 plant/m2 density without N fertilizer application. Maximum of the sum of the paramenthe -1, 3, D. N. -7 al and paramentha ­ 1, 4, D. N. 7- al obtained from 120 plant/m2 density with 50 kg of N fertilizer per ha. Finally, 120 plant/m2 density with 50 kg of N fertilizer per ha. treatment in temperate region had maximum essential oil percent (2.69%) and also high seed yield (1050kg/ha.) was recommended as the best treatment. Key words: Cumin (Cumin cyminum), essential oil, nitrogen fertilizer, plant density. 5.33 Effects of Biofertilizer Application on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil in Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

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M. Amini Deheghi1 , H. Ramazani2 and Kivan Agahia3

1

Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Center of Research Plant Medicine, Shahed University. 2 Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Shahed University,.3Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract: Biofertilizer Application in Medicinal Plants Production in Sustainable Agriculture With aim of remove or reduce the chemical input in order to reach to quality increasing and sustainability of yield is very important. The main aim of this study determining the effects of Biofertilizers on quantitive and quantitation yield on fennel.The experiment was conducted during 2008 in field Research station in shahed university, Tehran, Iran. The factors were Mychorizal inoculation (inoculation and non-inoculated) Phosphor biofertilizer (Barvar-2) (inoculated and non- inoculated) and Phosphor fertilizer (0, 50, 100 kg/ ha). The experiment design was factorial experiment in the base of randomized complete blocks design with eighteen treatments and three replications. Also, one plot was allocated to control in each replication and only chemical fertilizers (NPK: 90, 60, 90 kg/ha) were used. Data obtained from control plots were used for comparison to other plots. Results showed that the highest umbel no/ plant, claw no/ plant, Biomass Dry plant, Biomass Dry total/ ha, essential oil yield, obtained in plots with Barvar-2 treatment.The highest umber no/plant, claw no/plant with inoculated Sebacina vermifera treatment Mychoriza. And lower Biomas dry one plant, Biomass dry total/ ha and 1000 seed weight with inoculated Piriformospora indica treatment Mychoriza.The highest claw no/plant, seed yield, biomass dry one plant, biomass dry total/ha and essential oil yield with 100 kg/ha phosphates treatment but umbel no/ plant and 1000 seed weight in 50 kg/ha phosphates fertilizer treatment was higher of 100 kg/ ha phosphates fertilizer treatment.The result of study, inoculation with phosphates fertilizer and barvar-2 fertilizer treatment was significant in 1% as 1000 seed weight, essential oil yield, seed yield and claw no/ plant but umbel no/ plant significant in 5%. The highest biomass dry one plant, biomass dry total/ ha, essential oil yield, umbel no/plant and claw than instance treatment and seed yield and 1000 seed weight NPK was heights mentioned traits. Key Words: Biofertilizer, barvar-2, essential oil, fennel, mychorriza, phosphor fertilizer, yield components. 5.34 Priming Effect of Seed Size and Convolvulus arvensis L.Weed Extract Treatment on Germination and Seedling Growth of Medicinal Plantago psyllium M.B. Khorshidi Benam1, M. Yarnia2, E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi3, V. Ahmadzadeh4

2

Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch. Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic 3 Azad University, Tabriz Branch. Islamic Azad University, Malekan Branch. Iran 4 Agronomy Specialist, Tabriz University, Iran.

1

Abstract: An experiment was performed to evaluate priming effect and seed size and composition region major Convolvulus arvensis L.allelopathic damage on the Plantago psyllium germination and growth in vitro. The results showed that priming had significant effect in reducing the allelopathic impact of compounds. In this test, germination percentage and germination rate coefficient of psyllium seeds and leaf area were allelopathic sensitive traits, but priming declined the severity of the allelopathic compounds effect strongly. Despite of not existing significant effect of 20 hours priming in the control level on traits, but in terms existing allelopathic compounds (especially ivy shoot extract with higher negative power), Convolvulus arvensis L. extract always have a positive effect on resistance to allelopathic compounds. The results also showed that the 111

extract probably only reduce the growth of tendril roots and have no effect on dry matter accumulation. In addition, although seed size had no effect on germination of seeds under control, but the allelopathic interaction effect were less tiny seeds than big seeds. Key words: Allelopathic compounds, Convolvulus arvensis L. priming, psylle, seed size.

5.35 The Effects of Varying Phosphorus Doses on Yield and Some Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.) M. Tuncturk1, R. Tuncturk1, B. Yildirim1

1

Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yuzuncu Yil, 65080, Van-Turkey.

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effects of different phosphorus doses (0, 20 and 40 kg/ha) on yield and some yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) in Van ecological conditions in 2006 and 2007. Field trials were designed by Completely Randomized Block Design with three replications at the experimental fields of Agricultural Faculty of Yuzuncu Yil University. In the study, plant height (cm), the number of branch (branch/plant), the number of capsule (capsule/plant), the number of seeds in the capsule (seed/capsule), thousand-seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg/ha) were determined. According to statistical analysis, significant differences were determined among the phosphorus doses applications for the number of capsule, thousand-seed weight and seed yield. Seed yield increased by increasing phosphorus doses. According to the results, the highest values were obtained from the application of 40 kg P/ha for seed yield (597 kg/ha) and thousand-seed weight (2.48 g). The highest mean values for the number of capsule (5.68 capsule/plant) from 20 kg P/ha doses application. Key words: Black cumin, medicinal plants, phosphorus, seed, yield.

5.36 Effect of Extract Allelophatic Weed Chenopodium album Salsilik Acid Priming under Aging Condition Seeds on Germination and Seedling Growth Foeniculum vulgare M. Yarnia1, E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi2, M.B.Khorshidi Benam3, V. Ahmadzadeh

1

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch. 2Islamic Azad University, Malekan Branch. Iran. 3Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch. 4 Agronomy Specialist, Tabriz University, Iran.

Abstract: Currently importance of medicinal plants lost their earn. However, lowering factors intensity medicinal crops, such as the stress factors will increased. Now a days medicinal plants become more important, even though yield decreasing factors of plants such as stress cousing factors will increase. Weed interference is the major problem of crop production. This experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the interaction of allophatic compounds of one of the major weeds of the region Chenopodium album on germination and seedling growth of Foeniculum vulgare under conditions of aging seeds to different reactions in response of the priming and aging allelophatic seeds in laboratory conditions, so the effect of allelophatic compounds, priming and quality on damage control of allelophatic compounds were evaluated. This experiment arranged in

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completely randomized design based on factorial with three repllications. treatments included seeds (agining seeds and healthy seeds), different types of priming (priming salsilik acid, hydropriming and control) and total weed Chenopodium album extract ( 1 to 15 and control). The results of variance analysis of germination percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight, germination rate index, R/S were showed significant difference for the interaction of agining and different concentrations of extract pigweed on germination percentage at 1%. The results showed that applying priming by salsilik acid, the germination rate and seedling growth were incresed 12% and 21 in compare of the control. Treated with salsilik acid were decresed the germination rate and seedling growth 32 and 43 percent respectively, even in the condition of presence of allelophatic componds. Effect of aging on seed germination and seedling growth were 9 percent more than the effect of compounds in compare with allophatic. Most allophatic effects were observed in radicle length, while the influence of aging was in the length of seedlings. Key words: Aging, allelophatic compounds, Foeniculum vulgare, priming.

5.37 Effects of Different Rates of N Fertilizer on Physiological Indices of Growth and Yield Components of Cumin Majid Amini Dehaghi1, Abdollah Mollafilabi2 and Hadi Shoorideh2

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Center of Research Plant Medicine, Shahed University. 2Azad Islamic University of Torbat-e-Jam, Department of Agriculture, P.O.Box 95715-9, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran.

1

Abstract: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is one of the most important medicinal plants and is one of the non-oil items for export. It has devoted about 40000 ha of Khorasan lands for its cultivation. Despite of its extensive cultivation, unfortunately, few researches have been conducted on its fertilizers, and on its other agronomic aspects. So, effect of different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, 150, and 200 Kg N/ha) was investigated on Cumin growth indices, yield and yield components in the statistical method of R.C.B.D with four replications. Characters measured were: Total of dry weight (TDW), leaf area index (LAI), leaf dry weight (LW), Crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf weight rate (LWR), specific leaf area (SLA), relative growth rate (RGR). Growth parameters were calculated during six growth stages by harvesting samples from leaf area and dry weight and determination of regression coefficients. On the basis of obtained results, in the early stages of growth, due to low use of N by plant, nitrogen has less effect on growth indices and by advancing in time, and development of growth stages, rate of N use increases in plant and LAI, CGR, LWR, and LAR, and SLA have increased and among rates of N, difference was observed. NAR of photosynthetate and RGR during Cumin growth showed decreasing trend, as well. With respect to obtained results, 100 kg N/ha, had lowest effect on number of umbel, biomass, 1000 seed weight, and yield and 150 Kg/ha N had highest effect on 1000 seed weight and yield. Highest biomass and number of umbel was obtained in 200 Kg N/ha. Key words: Cuminum cyminum, medicinal plant.

5.38 Evaluation of Some Drought Resistance Criteria in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Landraces

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Majid Amini Dehaghi1, Abdollah MollFilabi2 and Fatemh Abedin3

1

Department of Agronomy and Research Center of Medicinal Plant, Shahed University, 2Department of Agronomy Khorasan Research Center of Food Science and Technology, 3Azad University, Iran.

Abstract: Cumin is one of the most important herbal drug crops used in traditional foods. It needs low water for growth cycle, and grows in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Two experiments under drought stress and normal conditions were performed. Leaf water potential, osmotic potential, harvest index and stress susceptibility index (SSI) were studied on cumin landraces. Sarvestan-e Fars, Tabriz and Sabzevar landraces were distinguished as tolerant landraces. Cluster analysis with single linkage method, classified genotypes into three groups. Sabzevar, Sarvestan-e Fars, Tabriz and Khorasan2-374 landraces made the first group. Second group included Zeirkoh-e Quen, Qunabad and Ferdous landraces. Kerman landrace, alone, was located in the third group. Key words: Cumin, drought resistance, Cuminum cyminum L.

5.39 Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Soil Characters on Growth and Essential Oil of Thymus vulgaris L. Majid Amini Dehaghi1, Alireza Dadkhah2 and Kivan Agahia3

1

Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences and Medicinal Plant Research Canter, Shahed University. 2Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Ferdowsi University. 3Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran-Iran.

Abstract: Experiment was carried out at field of Medicinal Plant Research Canter in Karaj city (Iran) in 2007. Four net N fertilizer levels were used including 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha. The garden thyme aerial parts were harvested in full blooming time. In order to drying, the samples were placed at shade (room temperature). The aerial parts essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results showed that nitrogen fertilizer had significant effect on essential oil of Thymus vulgaris so that plants grown at 100 kg/ha net nitrogen fertilizer had the highest essential oil (1.57% (v/w)). The N levels had a significant effect on growth traits, essential oil and its composition. The maximum (15.3%) and minimum (2.5%) content of thymol were observed at 100 kg/ha and 0 kg/ha of N level respectively. There was also positive correlation between N fertilizer and carvacrol content. The maximum (14.2%) and minimum (8.6%) contents of carvacrol were related to 100 kg/ha and 0 kg/ha of N level respectively. The results showed that there were significant correlations between chemical character of soil and medicine ingredients material. There were positive correlation among essential oil percent and Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous elements. Keywords: Essential oil, metabolites, nitrogen fertilizer, Thymus vulgaris L.

5.40 Immature Harvesting of Medicinal Plants from Natural Forests of Central India and Its Impact on Raw Material Quality Manish Mishra and P.C. Kotwal¹ Research Associate,Sr.Gr., Indian Institute of Forest Management, 114

¹Indian Institute of Forest Management, Nehru Nagar, Bhopal (M.P.) India.

Abstract: The tropical dry deciduous forests of central India are known to have rare germplasm of the medicinal species i.e Aonla (Emblica officinalis), Safed musli(Chlorophytum spp.), Kali haldi (Curcuma caesia), Satawar (Asparagus racemosus), Baibirang (Emblia tsejaram-cottom), Sarpgandha (Rauvolfia serpentina) etc. The rural poor, tribals and other forest dependant population harvest the fruits, roots, tubers etc. much before the maturity and sell them in raw form in the local markets. During the survey of different natural forest areas of central India (Madhya Pradesh- Katni district; and Chattisgarh- Dhamtari district and Maharashtra-Nagpur district), it was observed that due to increasing demand of Ayurvedic medicines and raw materials, the primary collectors harvests fruits, tubers of commercially important medicinal species like Aonla, safed musli, Baibirang, Sarpgandha, Satawar, Kali haldi etc. at unripe stage. The harvested raw material are kept in direct sunlight or rains, in sub-standard godown, having dust, fungus, termites and rats etc. which adversely impacted the raw material quality as well as medicinal properties. The report broadly examines the raw material quality of few medicinal species of central India on the basis of organoleptic evaluations like color, shape, size, smell etc. The raw material quality of the medicinal plant is also adversely impacted due to less weight of the unripe fruits/roots etc; bad and small shape of fruits and roots, less potency due to infection because of unripe collection; bad smell and taste; smaller size of fruits/roots etc. The present study provides a valuable tool for those who depend on macroscopic assessment techniques for assessing raw produce quality (of medicinal plants) and hopefully will encourage others to incorporate this simple, yet highly effective technique. Key words: Harvesting, forests, medicinal plants, quality.

5.41 Investigation of Genetic Variation and Relationship between Cytogenetic Parameter on Silybum marianum

1 1

Mansourh Sarrami, Hossein Zeinali2, GHolamreza Bakhshi Khaniki3

Department of Biology, Payame Noor university, Tehran. 2 Department of Medicinal Plant, Research Center of Agriculture, Esfahan,3Department of Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, Payame Noor university, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract: This investigation was carried out on different nine populations of Silybum marianum. The base number of chromosomes in total studied populations were equal x=17. All investigated populations were diploid. On based of two ways Stebbins table, eight populations located in the second class and one population located in the third class that indicated number population 9 has more asymmetric than others. Analysis of variance showed significant differences for the total chromosome length, the largest chromosome length, sum of small arms, sum of long arms, interchromosomal index, asymmetric index, coefficient of variation centromic index.(p<0.01), arm ratio (p<0.05). Factor analysis introduced two factors that justify nearly 88 percent from total variation among data. In the first factor, difference of relative length, interchromosomal asymmetry index had highly load factor and named as asymmetric factor. In the second factors, total chromosome length, sum of long arms had highly load factor and named as length 115

chromosome factor. Cluster analysis grouped populations in 4 groups. The least Euclidean distance observed between Mashhad and Semirom population and the highest Euclidean distance was between Meshkinshahr and Mobarakh. Analysis of variance on traits among of clusters showed significant differences for all traits among groups. Mashhad, Semirom and Molasani populations in the first group had at least traits than other investigated population. Kashan and Braan shomali population in the third group were better from total chromosome length, sum of small arms, sum of long arms, the largest length of chromosome than other investigated population. Meshkin shahr population located in the forth group had maximum amount of difference relative length, inter chromosomal asymmetry index, asymmetric index, variation coeffeicent of centromic index and arm ratio other populations in the group others. Key words: Chromosome, cluster analysis, karyotype, Silybum marianum.

5.42 Economic Culture, Extension, Educational, Medicinal Plant Cultivation Mentha piperita in Province Arak, Iran Masoud yousefi1 Gholamreza Naderi Boroujerdi2 -Ebrahim.Farahani 3 MohammadReza .Hojt Shamami 4- ­Roohollah Hasanzadeh5

1

Expert Iran Combine Co . 2Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, Department of agriculture, Arak, Iran, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center. Iran. 4PhD. Student Of English Translation. 5Faculty member of Payame Nour University.

Abstract: In this project 1500 square meters land for cultivation of medicinal plants pepper mint foot Salz 1385 season in the fields of Islamic Azad University of Arak was considered (selected because of this plant, adaptation to climatic conditions Province, low cost production, market Card appropriate internal and external, a few years these plants, and income yielding multi (sold dry tendon, production and sales slip, sweat-making, and production of oil - seasoning - T-Bag) is. scion desired in May 1386 plan were planted in the earth. for cutting cultivation of the mint (Ryzvm and root) were used. scion Game on the stack distance of 40 cm with a dual time was under cultivation to increase the percentage of green product. the with that of farm soil is class 3 and the average was about soils, so the soil irrigation once in 7 days was considered. during the implementation process to enhance the plants did not use any fertilizer. the existence 2 on field weeds in the first year and once in the second year under the weed was September 86 in plant height between 35 to 40 cm of variables. Stem number produced between Dec. 13 had 17 different numbers. Of the mean number of leaves per plant, leaf production plant in the first year between 50 to 60 leaves were observed. And in II mean leaf production per plant between 90 to 100 leaf is different. Ryzvmhay production per plant between 15 to 20 numbers is counted in the first year. Yield produced shoot fresh weight in the first year of mint Mrzh (1500 sqm) and 750 kg in the second year is 1100 kg. So that more Price per kg shoots pepper mint 4000 Rls are internal market. 1500 square meters for the first year of 3,000,000 Rials ha with a yield of 5 tons of shoots in the first year net income will be equivalent to 20 million rials. In the second year yield 5 / 7 tons per hectare more shoots will get the equivalent of 30 million rials Mdkhals will. Agriculture in the third and fourth performance of this plant 20 percent to 30 percent will increase in times of economic ha yield of very appropriate and was yielding is also significant. So that the second year of this project with a total of 5 students education courses attempted economic culture of this plant in the central province have in 1387. So that cultivation of this plant in the province 116

5 / 1 ha in 1387 and in 1388 to 5 / 3 ha increased the price and good profits are forecast this plant cultivation of this plant in 1389 to 7 hectares in the province reached. Now this plan and promote training and research continues for the students and place design farm incomes above the measurement units were supplied sweat. Good extension that reflects the central province of media (radio and television was with) Results and suggestions plants of economic plan are the cultivation of this plant during the 2 years were the result of plant cultivation in the central province of Wayne fit any climate conditions is compatible province. Drksht Bhtrast the cutting of this plant (roots Ryzvm and division) should be used. The best plant density for the economic cultivation of this plant density is 30 30 because in addition to increasing the density of the second product in the amount of plant growth Weed largely reduced. Experiment proved that this plant grown in rocky soils with texture or abandoned lands can also be economic. Key words: Cultivation, culture, economic, educational, medicinal plant, Mentha piperita.

5.43 Effects of Different Levels of Phosphorous and One level of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Biological Phosphorous Fertilizer (BARVAR2) on Yield, Yield Components and Essential oil of Matricaria recutita Maysam Alijani1 and Majid Amini Dehaghi2 1 Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Shahed University. 2Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences and Medicinal Plant Research Canter, Shahed University. P.O. Box: 18151/159, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract: In order to inspect the effect phosphorous in three levels (0,30,60 p2o5, Kg/he) fertilizer and Urea in one level (80 N, Kg/he) and biological phosphorous fertilizer on the yield and Essential oil production of the planted experimental Chamomile in the form of factorial on the basis of Randomized Complete Block design in three replication was conducted research field of Shahed university. Results shows that phosphorous fertilized treatment in respect of yield a significant difference was and the most yield related 60kg/he phosphorus by producing 452/93 number of flower and 7/74 gr in per bush the highest yield in comparison whit control treatment by producing in contrast ,500/4 number of flower and 11/06gr in per bush have had minimum amount of yield and dry weight respectively with respect to this , so the most convened treatment for maximum yielding, NP2 by use of 30 kg phosphor and80 kg Nitrogen by biological phosphorous fertilizer in each hectare is recommended with respect of Essential oil amount significant

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difference was seen between different treatments so, in any way 80 kg of Urea and 30 kg of triple super phosphate is recommended for the amount of yielding and Essential oil percent in Chamomile. Key Words: Chamomile, phosphorous, nitrogen, biological phosphorous, essential oil.

5.44 Effect of Harvest Time on Essential Oil Composition of Thymbra spicata L. Growing in Flora of Adiyaman Memet NAN1, Muzaffer KIRPIK1, Saliha KIRICI2

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Program, Kahta Vocational School, Adiyaman University., 02400, Adiyaman, Turkey. 2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agricultural, Çukurova University., 01330, Adana, Turkey.

1

Abstract: Thymbra spicata L. is an aromatic shrub growing wild in different regions of Turkey. This plant has traditionally been used in different purposes by local settlements. Leaves of Thymbra spicata were collected from Kahta district of Adiyaman (684 m, 370 43 N, 380 39 E) in three different harvest time as follows: before flowering (10 May 2010), in flowering (21 May 2010) and after flowering (10 June 2010). Essential oil contents of the plant samples were determined by Hydro-distillation in Clevenger Apparatus with three hours. Composition of the essential oils was also determined by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). All the laboratory analysis was achieved in three replications. In conclusion, the highest and the lowest essential oil contents of Thymbra spicata were obtained from the full blooming harvests (% 3,56) and after flowering (% 3,38), respectively. The lowest essential oil content was found in post flowering harvest (% 3, 10). Besides essential oil contents, essential oil composition of Thymbra spicata was also affected by different harvest times. Key words: Composition, essential oil, harvest, Thymbra spicata. 5.45 Mycorrhizal Inoculation for Increase of Growth and Secondary Metabolite Production during Cultivation of Medicinal Plants, Herbs and Vegetables Miroslav Vosátka1,3, Jana Albrechtová 1,2,3, David Püschel1, Marcela Kováová1 and Ales Látr3

1

Research Centre of Bioindication and Revitalisation, Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 252 43 Pruhonice, Czech Republic. 2 Department of Experimental Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, CZ. 3Symbiom Ltd. Sazava 170, 563 01 Lanskroun, CZ.

Abstract: Mycorrhizal fungi are being used as biofertilizers and growth enhancers in commercial cultivation of numerous crops. During last few years, however, there is increasing focus on non-nutritional effects of mycorrhiza in particular enhancement of production of secondary metabolites. Inoculation of plants with mycorrhizal fungi has potential and capacity to support growth and yield and change pattern or increase significantly contents of phytohormones, contents of essential oils, sugar contents and also antioxidant capacity of crop tissues and fruits. Mycorrhizal inoculums had been formulated to target these desirable plant parameters and several plant species including vegetables, herbs and medicinal plants were tested in pot and field trials to assess the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation. Particular interest was paid to cultivation of knotweed Reynoutria sp. where factors like growing media, plant clone, inoculation with fungi, mechanical stress imposed on plants had significant effects on production of reservation and other stilbenes like piceid, emodin etc. Potential of using mycorrhizal inoculation in

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practical cultivation of medicinal plants is discussed in respect to use this biotechnology for substantial enhancement of target compound production. Authors acknowledge support of the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic via the grants 1M0571, Eurostars Microfruit (E!4366) project, COST project Mycotech OC09057 (Action No.870) and the project of Ministry of Industry and Trade FR-Tl1/299. Key words: Cultivation, growth, herbs, medicinal plants, mycorrhizal inoculation. 5.46 New Approaches in Biotechnology and Organic Farming of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Potentials and Future Strategies in Egypt Mohamed Fathy Salem

Lecturer of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Consultant of Organic Farming, Department Environmental Biotechnology, Head of Medicinal Mushroom Research and production Unit, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, GEBRI, Minufiya University, Sadat City,P.O.Box:79,Minufiya, Egypt.

Abstract: There is a great demand for our agriculture systems in Egypt to be changed completely. This means to cultivate our endemic flora in Egypt to be fruitful for both farmers and agribusiness for pharmaceuticals production, especially for certain epidemic diseases, like kidney failure, liver cirrhoses and cancer, etc. This necessitates registering and protecting our plant flora, and fauna. In addition, we need more and more research work about the active ingredient compounds for this important flora. The last decade introduced a significant growth of activities in the field of organic farming. This has been linked to an increased awareness regarding both, environmental protection and food safety. These activities have reflected in agricultural practice and scientific exploration Nowadays, there is a great need for good and safe food in Egypt. This presentation concentrates on four main aspects: (1) The potential of biotechnology in medicinal plants production. (2) The potential of organic farming in medicinal plants production and marketing worldwide. (3) Using of medicinal plants as food additives. (4) Using certain medicinal plants as animal feed additives. Key words: Approaches, biotechnology, medicinal plants, organic. 5.47 In vitro Juniper Plants Formation from Multiplication of Buds Mozahim K. Al-Mallah1 and Sumood H. AL-hadeedy2

1

Biotechnology Dep. College of Educatioin, University of Mosul. 2Forestry Dep. College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul. Iraq.

Abstract: Eastern Juniper trees or shrubs represent one species of Juniperus Genus which are the largest genus of Cupressaceae family, this family produces volatile oils that most important economicaly which used often medically. Results showed vegetative multiplication of shoots from one bud in culture media (MS). so this culture ( MS) examined by adding the following concentration of Benzyl Adenine BA ( 0.0 , 0.5 , 1.0 , 2.5 , 5.0 , 7.5 ) mg/l and the media with 1.0 mg/l of BA stimulate vegetative growth of all buds and recorded multiplication of 100%. Also the same media stimulated callus initiation at a time the callus regenerated of new shoots and its fitness for rooting of juniper plantlets. This study aimed to overcoming difficulties of germination and

rooting transplants of this species.

Key words: Buds, formation, juniper.

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5.48 The Role of Medicinal Plants in Rural Livelihood Improvement and Ecosystem Sustainability in CWANA. Nasri Haddad1 and Ahmed Amri2 1 Regional coordinator, West Asia Regional Program. 2Head of Genetic Resource Section, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) . Abstract: This paper present information on the contribution of medicinal and aromatic plants to the livelihoods of rural people and to the sustainability of the ecosystem. Medicinal and aromatic plants are promising commodities for reducing rural poverty in the CWANA region because of their higher water use efficiency and relatively higher economic return per unit area compared to traditional crops. Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP)-based livelihood systems are often mediated by the market forces and/or related directly to employment and income of the poor people. Supporting small farmers to grow and market non-traditional agricultural commodities, like medicinal plants and herbs, has a very positive impact on agricultural growth, rural employment and leads to poverty reduction in rural areas. Improved management of this natural resource can make a bigger contribution to local economies, subsistence health needs and biodiversity conservation. It was found that MAP and other biodiversity based livelihoods can not only become poverty reducing they can also be made socially equitable and gender balanced. There is now broad consensus that cultivation offers the best prospect for conserving many medicinal plants currently found in the wild. In addition to maintaining or expanding supply, cultivation is seen as facilitating enhanced species identification and improved quality control, as well as species improvements. Key words: Ecosystem, improvement, medicinal plants, rural livelihood.

5.49 In Vitro Production of Colchicine from Callus and Cell Suspension Cultures of Wild Colchicum hierosolymitanum Feib Nidal M. Daradkeh1, Rida A. Shibli2, Feras Alali3, Ibrahim M. Makhadmeh 4

1

National Center for Agriculture Research and Extension, Baqa'a, Jordan. 2Deaprtment of Horticulture and Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan;3 Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan. 4Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology.

Abstract: The medicinal value of colchicum is due to the presence of colchicine, the main alkaloid, which was isolated from all species of colchicum which is widely used in breeding studies and as drug to treat gout. Callus and suspension cell cultures are of the most valuable commercial sources for the synthesis of medicinal substances. In the current study callus was induced from seeds of Colchicum hierosolymitanum Feib. Seeds were inoculated on the surface of MS media supplemented with 0.45 µM 2,4Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under dark conditions. Friable callus from the fourth generation was transferred to liquid MS media supplemented with 0.54 µM 1Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to form cell suspension. Cells were successfully subcultured every 27 days on the same liquid media supplemented with 0.54 µM NAA. ()-Colchicine was identified in callus and in cell suspension of Colchicum hierosolymitanum by performing HPLC analysis. Colchicine alkaloid was highest (0.09 mg g-1DW) at 0.1 M of sucrose on the fourth week. No (-)-colchicine alkaloid was 121

detected in callus grown on sucrose free media. Cell suspension had 0.012 mg g-1 DW (-)colchicine from suspended cells grown under dark. Key words: Callus, cell suspension, colchicine, HPLC analysis.

5.50 Organic Vs Chemical Fertilization of Medicinal Plants: A Concise Review of Researches. Nubila Yehya Mohamed Naguib

Department of Chemistry, Jazan College of Medicinal Sciences, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia P.O.B. # 114 Jazan, KSA.

Abstract: Traditionally, medicinal plants are collected from areas where they are wildly and naturally grown. Many factors, however, have invited and necessitated their cultivation such as global phenomenon of desertification, raised global temperature, excessive harvesting, to count only few of the factors that threaten the existence of such plants and that would lead, if left unattended, to their extinction. In researches, chemical fertilization and plant hormonal applications were primarily tried to stimulate growth or to increase the medicinally active ingredients in plant extracts. With the thrust and international interest in organic cultivation, researches in growing of medicinal plants have shifted to the use of organic supplementation instead. The present paper; is intended to review some researches performed by the National Research Center (NRC) Egypt to elaborate the benefits of organic cultivation of medicinal plants compared to other researches using chemical and/ or hormonal treatments. Key words: Fertilization, medicinal plants, organic, review.

5.51 Response of Achillea millefolium cv. "Proa" to different Moisture Ccontent of Soil: Essential Oil Content and Chamazulene Rate Özgür TATAR1, Angel KONAKCIEV2, Çidem SÖNMEZ1, Emine BAYRAM1, Aglika EDREVA3

1

Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, Izmir-TURKEY. 2 Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Sofia-Bulgaria. 3 Bulgarian Academies of Science, Institute of Genetic, Sofia-Bulgaria.

Abstract: The species of Achillea millefolium group is one of the valuable medicinal plants since chamazulene content of their essential oil. Response of A. millefolium cv "proa" to different water applications in terms of essential oil and chamazulene production of plants were investigated in the frame of a joint project between Turkey and Bulgaria. Plants were grown in a climate chamber where air condition was controlled and soil moistures of the pots were regulated for different treatments as well. Essential oil rate increased when insufficient water applications for most of culture plants were treated (20 % and 80 % of soil water holding capacity). Chamazulene rate in essential oil of the plants increased while soil moisture decreased. In order to optimize chamazulene production of the plants, different response of essential oil content and composition to the soil moisture should be considered.

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Key words: Achillea millefolium, Proa, chamazulene, water, essential oil.

5.52 The Effects of Varying Nitrogen Doses on Yield and Some Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.) R. Tuncturk1, M. Tuncturk1, and V. Ciftci

1

Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yuzuncu Yil, 65080, Van-Turkey.

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effects of different nitrogen doses (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg/ha) on the yield and some yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) in Van ecological conditions in 2006 and 2007. Field trials were designed by Completely Randomized Block Design with three replications at the experimental fields of Agricultural Faculty of Yuzuncu Yil University. In the study, plant height (cm), the number of branch (branch/plant), the number of capsule (capsule/plant), the number of seeds in the capsule (seed/capsule), thousand-seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg/ha) were determined. In conclusion, the effect of nitrogen doses on the yield and some yield components were statistically significant except for thousand-seed weight and the number of seeds in the capsule. Plant height, the number of branch, the number of capsule and seed yield increased by increasing nitrogen doses. According to the results, the highest values were obtained from the application of 60 kg N/ha for seed yield (575 kg/ha), the number of capsule (7.5 capsule/plant) and the number of branch (4.51 branch/plant). Key words: Black cumin, medicinal plants, nitrogen, seed, yield.

5.53 Effect of Different Nutrition Methods of Iron and Nitrogen Elements on Essential Oil and Chemical Composition of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) Reza Jabbar1,, Majid Amini Dehaghi2, Ali .M. Modares Sanavi3, Kayvan Agahi4

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Department of agronomy and plant breeding, Agricultural College, University of Shahed, 2Department of agronomy and medical plants research center, Agricultural College, University of Shahed, Tehran. 3 Department of agronomy, Agricultural College, University of Tarbiat modares. 4Department of agronomy and plant breeding, Agricultural College, University of Shahed, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract: Nutrition plays a key role on the amount of essential oil compounds among medical plants. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the different application methods of Iron and Nitrogen nutrition elements on essential oil and chemical composition of thyme. The experiment was carried out at research fields of medical plants, University of Shahed, Iran, in 2008. The effect of Iron and Nitrogen elements on thyme seedlings was assayed separately by conducting two randomized complete block designs with four replications. Treatments included soil and foliar application of these elements. Results showed that Nitrogen foliar application increased the vegetative yield, amount and percentage of essential oil, and chemical compositions of thyme. On the other hand, application of Iron had a suppressing effect on the studied traits. Keywords: Thyme (Thymus vulgaris).

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5.54 Effect of Harvest Times in Different Growth periods of Dry Matter Yield and Quantity of Essential Oil in Menthe piperita Drgyah Pharmaceutical in Arak, Iran Roohollah Hasanzadeh1, Gholamreza Naderi Boroujerdi2, Gilda Rabiei3, Noshin Javadi4, M.Yossefi5

Faculty member of Payame Nour University.2Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, Department of agriculture, 3Bashgah Pajoheshgran javan IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, 4Bashgah Pajoheshgran javan IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch. 5Expert Iran Combine Co.

1

Abstract: The use of plants to treatment on human life is the time. Man of all time historic plants had no choice but to resort. Although the past half a century of chemical and synthetic drugs was introduced, but extremely harmful to their works quickly their lives because the plants were reconversion. Iran to seek pardon from the brilliant history of medicine, talent potential geographic, climatic (11 of 13 climate Global climate), Vdamnh daily temperature changes (50 º C) and sunny 300 days a year, with 8,500 plant species from 10 to 15 percent that it comprises plants. Peppered mint plant drug with the scientific name gramineous plant Mentha Piperita, perennial Lamiaceae family and contains two types of stem with leaves of the creeping underground cross, elliptical, sharp, serrated, and slightly covered with Kirk, a length of 4 to 7 cm and 3 cm instead of 2. All parts of air conditioning plant and the smell is fragrant smell, but if you are Jvydh, in addition to the smell of oil, feel the chill is in the oral mucosa. Stem of this plant, square miles and red purple to violet, or is willing to. Flowers in the months of August and appearing in the Persian month Shahrivar, rose more or less clear or purple are willing to violet. Scientists believe these plant-Blood Prince is true. That in fact this plant a natural cross of 2 species M. viridis and M. aquatica is Project Summary: This project peppery mint plants in the fields of natural resources Agriculture Faculty, Islamic Azad University of Arak cultivated were used. Part of the farm, pepper mint in order to implement the severance plan Vtymarha tests three harvesting date (A) before flowering, during flowering and after flowering is Tuesday now harvest treatment (B) morning and afternoon and evening of the three Total 9 treatments Total project which is repeated Contains plot is 27 In this experiment, statistical factorial design most basic design randomized block design was used. Finally, the notes conducted Vasans capture and statistical analysis revealed the highest yield and pepper mint oil plant in the plant leaves and stem essential oil lowest available and the best harvest time highest percentage of pepper mint oil and dry matter in treatment and flowering time is morning Statistical analysis: Based on information harvested Zyz described results were announced Reviews graph harvest time (morning) day performance peppermint essential oil plants of the plant showed precocious performance in different plant essential oils in the morning than in other harvest times (afternoon - evening). Performance of essential oil (withdrawal morning) in leaves is higher than other organs. Reviews graph harvest time (noon) the day of the performance of essential oil plants of the plant shows peppery mint. Performance in the different plant essential oils in the interpretations PM & after Zhrkmtr Azmlkrd is harvested in the morning. Performance in the essential oil (interpretations of PM & after noon) in leaves is higher than other organs. Chart review of harvest times during the day at different stages of plant growth performance peppermint essential oil in leaves of plants showed precocious. Highest yield of essential oil in leaves to plant growth stages of flowering time is Vbrdasht morning. The lowest oil yield in leaves to plant growth stages after flowering time after Vbrdasht AM. Effects of harvesting at different growth stages of plant organs

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shows the highest essential oil when the leaves of flowering plant essential oil are Vkmtryn percent after flowering. Key words: Dry matter, essential oil, growth, pharmaceutical, Quantity, yield. 5.55 Assessment of Diversity of Essential Oils and Cultivation Potential of Coridothymus Capitatus (L.) Reichenb. Fil. in Jordan S. Saifan1, M.Duwayri2, F. Alali3

Directorate of biodiversity, genetic resources and medicinal plant, National Center for Agricultural Research and Extensin, 19381, Amman. 2Department of plant horticulture and agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan. 3Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology. Irbid, Jordan.

1

Abstract: Coridothymus capitatus (L.) Reichenb. fil., is an aromatic and medicinal plant growing wild in Jordan and locally known as Zatar Farisi. Diversity and potential cultivation study comprised fifteen wild populations of Coridothymus capitatus. Essential oils were quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Significant diversity was obtained among wild Coridothymus capitatus populations. Thymol percentage ranged from 0.03 to 0.57 %, and carvacrol percentage ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 %. Populations showed average dissimilarity of 10.68. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmatic Mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis revealed thymol and carvacrol chemotypes. Monthly quantitative changes in thymol and carvacrol were obtained. Coridothymus capitatus populations introduced for cultivation showed a good stand and potential toward producing dry herbage yield (3046 kg/ha). Cultivated populations showed phenotypic variation in the investigated traits, and also variation in relation to their essential oil content. Thymol percentage ranged from 0.01 to 0.90 % and carvacrol percentage ranged between 0.10 and 0.87 %. The genetic diversity among cultivated population was estimated at the molecular level using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. A total of 235 bands were scored using ten selective primer combinations. Five groups of Coridothymus capitatus were identified by the UPGMA clustering indicating genetic variation among populations.The results obtained pave the road for a potential commercial and large-scale cultivation and essential oil production from Coridothymus capitatus species. Key words: Assessment, cultivation, essential oils, jordan, reichenb.

5.56 Responses of Basil Plant to Various Concentrations of P Nutrition Sadrollah Ramezani1 and Fatemeh Ramezani2

1

Department of Horticulture Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran 2 Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract: Basil is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, is used all over the world, and includes many species. One of the most important commercially grown species is Ocimum basilicum L. The present study describes the effects of phosphorus fertilization on the essential oil content, fresh and dry weight, plant and flower cluster height and chlorophyll content of basil. Field experiments were conducted during 2008 year in the Experimental Farm of Shiraz University located in the southwest region of Iran (a clay silt loam soil, a semi-arid moderate climatic area). The experiment was established as Randomized Block Design with three replications. In this study six 124

Phosphorus levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 %) at two time of plant growth (20 and 60 % full flowering) by foliar spray method were examined the effects of yield and related components in basil. The dried herb of basil was subjected to water distillation (hydro distillation) for 3 h using an all glass Clevenger-type apparatus, to extract oil according to the method recommended by the European Pharmacopoeia. According to the results, phosphorus spray treatments had marked effects on the essential oil content of basil. Application of phosphorus significantly increased the essential oil content. The treatment of 2 % produced the highest essential oil content (0.93 %) in aerial parts and 10 % treatment produced the maximum amount of plant and flower cluster height (54.33 and 17.73 cm). Key words: Basil, chlorophyll, Essential oil, fresh and dry weight, plant height.

5.57 Effect of Different Harvest Dates on Growth Characteristics of Aloe barbadensis Miller Saeid Hazrati1, Zeinolabedin Tahmasebi Sarvestani 1, and Sadrollah Ramezani2

1

Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, 2Department of Horticulture Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Abstract: To investigate the effect of different harvest stages on growth characteristics of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller), an experimental was carried out at faculty of agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran under greenhouse conditions during 2008 and 2009 years . The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4 replications. The treatments were

three harvest times including before flowering, early flowering and full flowering. Harvest time was arranged in 12, 16 and 18 months after planting. The results showed that the different harvest stages had significant effect on some growth characteristic of aloe vera. The lowest and highest leaf length were obtained at the before flowering and full flowering, respectively. Significant difference was observed between treatments in the weight and diameter of leaf, so that maximum of these traits were obtained in early flowering. Also, harvest at early and full flowering resulted in the highest fresh and dry weight of gel, respectively. However, some traits such as leaf width, dry matter weight surrounding gel and gel weight to total leaf ratio were not affected by treatments. In general, the best time for harvest is early flowering to obtain the economical yield of aloe vera. Key words: Aloe vera, flowering, harvest date, leaf, yield.

5.58 Effect of N Fertilizers and Spacing on Yield and Quality Essential Oil of Thymus Vulgaris, Iran. Arak

Said Hassan pour , Mojtaba Jafarzadeh , Hadi Shafiei , Gholamreza Naderi Broujerdi Department of agriculture and natural resources, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak. 2Faculty member of IslamicAzad University Brujerd branch. 3Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch. 4Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) ­ Arak branch, Department of agriculture, Arak, Iran.

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Abstract: Pharmaceutical plants have outstanding importance as the main sources of raw materials for pharmaceutics factories. Since these medicines have low side-effects if any, in comparison with chemical medicines, human being is more inclined to use plant-based medicines so that large medicine producer countries have implemented extensive researches about its processing and proper applications in pharmacology industry. Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris) is woody perennial plant belonged to mint family.Its effective material i.e aroma is produced and stored in growing stand of the plant. To date, more than 36 terpenic and terpenoidic combinations of the aroma have been identified among which the most important are Thymol and Carvacrol. These two materials especially Thymol have strong anti-bacterial and anti-fungus effects beside their effective application in coughing treatment and as anti-oxidant and natural food preservative agents.The present study was implemented to evaluate nitrogen fertilizer and density effects on quality and quantity of Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris) aroma. Two factors influences including nitrogen fertilizer (0,75,150 kg/ha) and density (13.2,6.66,4.44 m2) were evaluated using factorial test on random plots with four repetitions in Pharmaceutic Plant Research Station depended on Arak Agricultural Jihad and Natural Resources Research Center. Both factors effects and their interrelations on some traits such as bush height , bush wet weight , bush dry weight , aroma percent , Thymol percent , Carcacrol percent, wet matter function per ha , dry matter function per ha , aroma function per ha , Thymol function per ha and Carcacrol function per ha were examined. Results showed that nitrogen fertilizer application lowered the wet weight function, dry weight function, aroma function, Thymol function and Carvacrol function in statistically meaningful manner. Additionally, density reduction caused the increase of bush dry and weight (bush unit) , bush aroma percent(in density 2.13 bush/ha) and aroma,wet matter and dry matter functions per ha (in density 2.13 bush/ha).There were no correlation between nitrogen quantity and some traits such as bush wet and dry weight, aroma percent , bush height , and Thymol and Carvacrol percents. The increase of nitrogen fertilizer impaired some other traits.The increase of density resulted in bush wet and dry weights (single bush) and aroma percent to increase but it increased Thymol function per ha. Key words: Aroma, carvacrol, thyme, thymol. 5.59 Effect of Fertilization on the Amount of Oil from the Fennel Plant (Foeniculum vulgar) Saleh Al-Rashidi

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mosul- Iraq.

Abstract: Fennel is a medicinal plants known that it was mentioned in old medical books as well as stated in the books of prophetic medicine (Al ­ Sunnah), fennel used to Vhoavid in flu, asthma, and cough and relieve intestinal cramps. and can take plants or seeds ,boiled and filtered and then used as needed A field study was carried out in the fields of the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry University of Mosul, in two different soil texture ,the first is Silty loam and the second is Clay loam , with a combination of fertilizer (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) ( K0 k20, K40, - Po, P20, P40 and , NO, N60.N120 ) The results showed that the amount of oil obtained from the distillation of seeds suited positively correlated with levels of fertilizer added, especially in low levels while the best combination to obtain a higher amount of oil production in the soil was in the first treatment , N120KP30 K20 The amount of oil, 53.42 liters / ha, while the amount of oil in the soil when the second treatment N120KP30 K40 .The amount of oil in this treatment 36.76 liters / ha, while the amount of oil in the treatment comparison without fertilization

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(12.58 and 10.56) for Silty Loam and Clay Loam respectively . These results indicated the importance of fertilization and Soil Texture in the production of oil from, medical Fennel plant. Key words: Fennel plant, fertilization, oil. 5.60 Response of Aloe vera L. plant to Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization Shadia Kotb Ahmed

Head of department of medicinal and aromatic plants, Horticultural Institute ARC Egypt.

Abstract: Field trials were done in the experimental Farm of medicinal and aromatic plants department in 2006-2007 and 2008 to study the effect of calcium supper phosphate with three rates and potassium sulphate with two rates on the vegetative growth and active substance of Aloe Vera. The data indicate that, the different treatments of Fertilization have significant effects on increasing vegetative growth and the yield of leaves. As for active ingredients, the different fertilizations have significant effects on the Aloin content and Mucilage percentage. Key words: Aloe vera L., phosphorus, potassium. 5.61 In Vitro Propagation and Secondary Metabolites Production in Wild Germander (Teucrium polium L.) Tamara S. Al- Qudah1, Rida A. Shibli2, Feras Q. Alali3

1

Department of Horticulture and Agronomy, 2Department of Horticulture and Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan.

Abstract The current study aims to increase the mass production of Teucrium polium L. by in vitro propagation. Micropropagation of T. polium was initiated from axillary buds. Axillary buds were surface-sterilized and inoculated on the surface of half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 2.0 mg l-1 Gibberellic acid (GA3). MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 6-Furfurylaminopurin (Kin) and 0.1 mg l-1 1Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were used for multiplication of mother stock obtained from developed seedlings. Proliferation was experimented with different levels of Kin, 6benzyladenine (BA), or Thiadiazuron (TDZ). Highest proliferation of T. polium was obtained when BA and Kin were used at (2.0 and 1.6 mg l-1; respectively). TDZ gave maximum shoot proliferation at 0.8 mg l-1. Rooting was experimented at different levels of Indol-3-butric acid (IBA), Indol-3-acetic acid (IAA) or NAA. Highest root number (15.9) and length (6.9 mm) was achieved at 0.8 mg l-1 NAA. IBA and IAA failed to promote root induction. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized successfully with 75% survival and grown in the greenhouse. In vitro and in vivo grown plants were analyzed for essential oil production. In vitro grown T. polium on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 BA and 0.1 mg l-1 NAA gave higher oil yield (0.40% w/w) than that grown on hormone-free MS media (0.18% w/w). In vivo (wild) grown T. polium produced different oil yield when collected in April (0.55% w/w) and October (0.47% w/w). -caryophyllene, identified by Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis, was used as a marker compound. In vitro grown T. polium on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 BA and 0.1 mg l-1 NAA yielded higher -caryophyllene (3.0% w/w) than in vivo (wild) grown T. polium collected in April (0.4% w/w). No -caryophyllene was detected from either in vitro grown T. polium on hormone- free MS media or in vivo (wild) collected in October. Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to identify other components of in vitro cultures and compared with in vivo grown plants. 127

Key words: -caryophyllene, essential oil, in vitro propagation, Teucrium polium.

5.62 Genetic Diversity of Indigenous Fennel (Foenivulum vulgare mill.) Germplasm in Pakistan Assessed by Rapd Markers Zahid, N.A. Abbasi, I.A. Hafiz

Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi. Pakistan.

Abstract: Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.) is an important well-known aromatic and medicinal herb. It is grown in tropical and subtropical regions of Pakistan up to an altitude of 2000 m and grown as annual crop. Fifty accessions of fennel were collected from different parts of Pakistan and evaluated for important characteristics like seed germination percentage (germination %), days to initiation of flowering, plant height, stem girth, nodal distance, umbel diameter, days to 50% maturity, days to harvesting, seed yield per row, weight of 100 seeds and harvest index (%). Genomic DNA of the accessions was extracted through CTab method and subjected to RAPD analysis in order to ascertain their genetic diversity. Twenty-four out of 30 decimer primers generated 145 clear bands and 70 (48 %) were polymorphic. Sixteen primers OPA-01, OPA-03, OPA-04, OPA-05, OPA07, OPA10, OPA-11, OPA-14, OPA-15, OPA-18, AC-11, AC-14, AC-15, AC-16, AC-18 and AC-20 gave polymorphism for different characters. About 66.6% of polymorphic primers generated the highest index to resolve genetic diversity even in small number of accessions. Genetic variations among different accessions also show variability ion morphological characters. Seven accessions from Punjab, three from NWFP, one from Balochistan and one from Northern Areas of Pakistan had appeared with promising characters. Key words: Fennel, genetic diversity, germplasm, markers.

5.63 Effects of Plant Population Density and Harvesting Age on Leaf, Essential Oil and Artemisinin Yield of Artemisia (A. annua ANAMED) Zewdinesh Damtew

Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center Addis Ababa Sub Center, P.O. Box 395, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to examine the effect of plant population density and harvesting age on leaf, essential oil and artemisinin yield of A. annua at Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center from March, 2001 to December 2002 E.C. The experiment consisted of factorial combinations of four harvesting ages (four, five, six and seven months after transplanting) and five levels of plant population density (6,944, 10,000, 15,625, 27,777 and 49,383 plants ha-1). The design was split- plot with three replications. Harvesting age was assigned to main plot and plant population density on sub plot. The effect of harvesting age and population density were assessed by analyzing data on stem number, plant height, number of main branch, leaf area index, shoot dry weight, dry leaf yield, harvest index essential oil content, essential oil yield, artemisinin content and artemisinin yield. Result revealed that interaction effect of harvesting age and population density was significant on stem number plant-1, stem number ha-1, plant height, leaf area index, shoot dry weight plant-1, dry leaf yield ha-1, harvest index and artemisinin

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yield. Dry leaf yield plant-1 and artemisinin content was affected significantly by harvesting age and population density; and branch number plant-1, essential oil content and essential oil yield was affected significantly by plant population density. In this study maximum dry leaf yield of 3.15 t/ha was attained at planting density of 27, 777 plants ha-1 harvested at 5 MAT. Essential oil yield of 19.2kg/ha was also recorded at planting density of 27,777 plants ha-1regardless of harvesting ages. The maximum artemisinin yield of 10.9 kg/ha was obtained at planting density of 27,777 at 7 MAT. There was no significant artemisinin yield increment above this density. Therefore, optimum dry leaf, essential oil and artemisinin yield can be achieved by planting at density of 27,777 plants ha-1; and harvesting at 5 MAT for dry leaf yield and 4 to 7 MAT for essential oil yield. Since artemisinin yield is increased up to 7 MAT, it is difficult to know the optimum limit. Therefore, further investigation needed. It is also recommended that, these results are from only one season at one site and hence such studies may be repeated to reach at concrete recommendations. Further more, planting time, fertilizer requirement, irrigation requirement, drying condition and processing technique should be addressed to obtain optimum yield of the crop. Key words: A. annua, population density, harvesting, leaf biomass, essential oil.

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Topic 6: Climate change and the ethno-botanical sources.

6.1 Climatic Changes Effect on the Essential Oils Yield and Chemical Composition of lavandula stoechas at National Park of El kala, Country of Ain Khiar, North-East of Algeria I. Fellah¹, A. Djahoudi², Y. Tlili-Ait Kaki ², A. Chefrour², and L. Brinis¹.

1

Biotechnology and Plants Amelioration Laboratory - Biology Department, ²Pharmacy DepartmentMedicine Faculty, Badji Mokhtar University-Annaba.

Abstract: Our research has been conducted on an aromatic and medicinal plant, Lavandula stoechas at National Park of El Kala, country of Ain Khiar, North-East of Algeria. This work was focused on a qualitative and quantitative essential oils study and antibacterial study as well. Tree harvests of Lavandula stoechas were realised during three months (March ­ April ­ May). Essential oils extractions of each harvest and chemical caracterisation and antibacterial activities study have allowed us to gather the follow results: Difference in the yield between the three harvests was often conditioned by climatic changes, there was a difference in chemical essential oils composition. Results of aromatogramme showed a real activity for the tested samples. This was reported by literature. However, this activity differs in function of the harvest period, concentration and type of bacteria targed. Then, essential oil of Lavandula stoéchas may be used either as disinfectant of surfaces (subjects- hands), urinary disinfectant or epidermal disinfectant. Key words: Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, essential oil, Lavandula stoechas. 6.2 Effect of Planting Dates and Organic Fertilization (Humus) on Vegetative Yield in Sweet Basil Plant Ocimum basilicum var. basilicum L. Saad A. Ihsan

Pharm. College ­ Babil University, Iraq.

Abstract: Two experiments were performed during spring 2009 in two locations in Al Najaf District in Iraq to study the effect of three planting dates and spraying with three concentrations of organic fertilizer (Humus) on growth parameters and vegetative yield of sweet basil plant (Ocimum basilicum var. basilicum L.) . The experiments were designed in randomized complete block design in three replicates with two factors , the first three planting dates (15/3/2009 , 1/4/2009 , 15/4/2009) and the second three organic fertilizer concentrations (0, 3, and 6 ml. L) , the means were compared according to Duncans test on probability of (0.05). The first date increased significantly on the other dates in all growth parameters that studied for the two locations , also spraying with fertilizer concentration of (6 ml. L) increased significantly in all the growth parameters in the two experiments with the two locations also. The results of the interaction between the two factors showed that the first date plants and the spraying with organg fertilizers at concentration of (6 ml.L) gave the higher values for each vegetative growth parameters and the quality of yield characterstics of the basil plants in the two locations respectively. Key words: Fertilization, Ocimum basilicum, planting date, vegetative, sweet basil.

The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses

Topic 7: Impact of cultivation and gathering of medicinal plants on biodiversity.

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7.1 Some Weeds Playing Important Role as Medicinal Plant and Existing in the Pastures of Turkey A. Esen CELEN, Emine BAYRAM

Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

Abstract: There are many pasture weed species from different families in Turkeys pastures. Most of these weeds are dangerous and they can negatively affect animal health, quality and quantity of the animal products. At the same time, these pasture weeds can affect the existence and health of the pasture vegetation and they can decrease the production capacity of pastures. At the other hand, these weeds contain some compounds such as alkaloids, glycosides and some other effective substances and because of this; they can be used as medicinal plant in Turkey. In this paper, some weeds used as medicinal plant existing in the pastures of Turkey will be described. Key words: Medicinal plant, pasture, turkey, weed. 7.2 Evaluation of plants endemic to Pakistan as a potential source of cultivated medicinal plant species Abdul Majid, Habib Ahmad, Azhar Hussain Shah and Muhammad Fiaz

Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra Pakistan.

Abstract: Pakistan is considerably rich in its flora having about 6000 flowering plant species. Among these, 2000 species have been reported as medicinal plants. The number may be even more as many areas are unexplored with respect to ethno medicinal knowledge. Majority of the population is dependent on crude drugs from plant origin for basic health care. Ayurvidic, Unani and Folk medicinal systems are practiced successfully and thus, the dependency on medicinal plant material is more evident. Generally material is obtained from wild collection and cultivation practices are very less. Such collections are the great threat to the medicinal plant population and thus the rate of unavailability of the drugs is very high. Considerable number of drugs has been replaced with the substitutes with no or very poor therapeutic effects. One of the important plant groups are endemic species. These are the species having less distributional range with small population size. These can be good source of certain active constituents as the phenomena like polyploidy etc. are involve in the evolution of these populations. Endemic species in this way may have more amounts of certain active ingredients. Because of their less availability, very few of them have been evaluated chemically. Pakistan has considerable number of endemic plant species. About 400 plant species are reported as endemic to the country. Half of them are restricted to small ranges while others are found with in comparatively broad ranges. In present work, these endemic species have been evaluated for their medicinal value. A total of 76 endemic species have been recorded as being utilized by various communities as medicinal source. These are practiced for various ailments. Collection of the material is made from wild only. Even a single species could not be reported as being cultivated for medicinal use. Ten of the species are reported as commercially available in market. The exploitation from the wild has made the availability of these species very difficult and substitutes are being used. A few of the species have been analyzed phytochemically with good results. It is concluded that the introduction of cultivation practices with respect to these species is utmost need because this is the only way to conserve these species so that they may be utilized in future with more better techniques. Key Words: Pakistan, endemic plants, medicinal value, cultivation. 7.3 Morphological and Anatomical Study of Two Medicinal Plants from Genus Mentha

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Adel Nadjib Chaker, Habiba Boukhebti and Rachid Sahraoui

Laboratoire de valorisation des ressources végétales VRBN, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, UFA ­ Setif ­ Algeria.

. Abstract: Labiatae family contains around 200 genera and 4000 species, fast majority have economical values due to their use as medicinal plants. Large number of its genera considered as a source of active substances especially essential oils. Among these is genus Mentha from which we choose two species, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium to carry out morphological and anatomical studies. Our study shows similarities and differences between the two species. They are both herbal plants and have squared forms of crosssections of stems, with differences in their inflorescences. However, M. pulegium has a particular feature which is the presence of lacunar parenchyma tissues in all sections. Trichomes were present on the epidermis of stems and leaves and they are unicellular or multicellular which form either glandular or protective cells. Their difference in number and form is clear between the two species as well as their differences in different parts depending on the age of the plant. Key words: Labiatae family, morphological and anatomical studies, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium.

7.4 Defining Collecting Protocols to Improve Gene Bank Diversity of Genus Mentha L. in Spain David Draper Munt

Departamento de Biolog?a Vegetal, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agr?nomos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. Av. Complutense s/n. 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to design a collection strategy in Spain, identifying sampling areas to ensure greater genetic diversity of Mentha L., both intraspecific and interspecific, and to minimize collecting fieldwork. The main objective of any wildspecies gene bank is not just to preserve a large number of species, but also to maximize for each species the genetic diversity contained in the accessions in an efficient way. Spain is one of the most biodiverse countries in medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) in Europe. This important biological heritage must be preserved both for the use of their own country and for future generations. Because of this, is necessary to provide conservation measures both in situ and ex situ to ensure conservation of these genetic resources. Spain houses over 2000 MAP samples spread over different gene banks considering ex situ conservation. In spite of this, there are important gaps in the collections when compared with the available diversity. One of the most striking gaps referred to the genus Mentha is that in spite of being represented in Spain for 13 taxa (including hybrids), only represents 0.01% of the samples preserved ex situ. This is paradoxical given the commercial importance of its species and hybrids as MAP. This genus has been neglected in collecting missions but is widely distributed across the country. The methodology applied involves the use of Geographic Information System tools (GIS), based on species presence data taken from herbarium records and georreferenced before incorporated to GIS. We used Worlclim environmental and relief layers to identify the most extreme as well as centred environmental population for each species. The results indicate that the species whose populations have higher out of range values are M. aquatica and M. pulegium. The intraspecific approach to priorize populations emphasizes the importance of collecting plant material in the province of Almeria (Southeast Spain) due to the presence of at least four taxa populations in this province. Results also show that sampling in Galicia 132

(Northwest Spain), will increase the collection in three taxa. Other provinces of interest include M?laga, Granada, Cordoba (all in the South of the country) and Girona (Northeast Spain) to complete the collection with the species M. cervina, M. arvensis and M. spicata. Thus, this strategy will permit to design a stratified sampling method to maximise the genetic diversity collected, minimising the field effort. Key words: Genetic diversity, mentha, spain.

7.5 Intraspecific Variability in Hypericin Content and Productivity of Hypericum maculatum Crantz growing Wild Under Different Management Regions I. Salamon1, B. Taylorova2

1

Excellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, 01, 17 th November St., SK081 16 Presov, Slovakia. 2Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Nature Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University, 1, Tr. A. Hlinku, 065 01 Nitra, Slovakia.

Abstract: The intraspecific variation in the hypericin content and productivity was studied in wild populations of Hypericum maculatum Crantz growing in Levocske Mountains under Slovak climatic conditions. The plant material for hypericin studies was collected during the full flowering stage from five mountain meadows under two different management regimes (with management and no management). The soil samples from each locality were analysed. Dried Hyperici herba was extracted to methanol and the content of naftodiantron derivates was determined by the spectrophotometric method (Ph. Eur. 6) and expressed as hypericin. Hypericin content in Hyperici herba during the stage with fully opened flowers varied from 0,161 ­ 0,196 %. Measurements of plant production to assess the yield were made at the end of vegetation period. Fresh and dry weight was recorded to estimate the biomass. The dry weight varied from 26,11 g/m2 ­ 65,34 g/m2. The results of evaluation showed the higher total yield in meadows without management. Key words: Biomass, hypericin, management, Hypericum maculatum, crantz. 7.6 Most Widely Traded Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Turkey K. Husnu Can Baser

Anadolu University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey

Abstract: Flora of Turkey which is rich and diverse is well documented in 11 volumes. Being in a geography with land in two continents under the influence of three different climates and at the junction of three phytogeographic regions, its natural diversity blended with cultural richness, throughout centuries has brought about a wide inventory of useful plants. This lecture will focus on the most widely traded medicinal and aromatic plants of Turkey. They include opium poppy, oregano, thyme, sage, sideritis, rose, laurel, anis, licorice,gypsophila, salep, etc. which have been used and traded since ancient times. Information on their uses and export figures will be given. Key words: Aromatic plants, medicinal, turkey, widely. 7.7 Morphologic and Genetic Variability of Helichrysum italicum/microphyllum Complex in Sardinia

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L. Carta2 & S. Melito 1, D. Rau3, A. Porceddu3, I. Camarda1

1

Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. 2 Department of Botany, Ecology and Geology. 3 Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetic. University of Sassari.

Abstract: The genus Helichrysum Miller is largely widespread in the Mediterranean countries and in Sardinia island, grows frequently in different environments: dry cliffs, sandy soils, garrigues, degradates areas, from the coast to 1800 m of altitude. The high morphologic variability of several phenotypic characters (leaves, branches and capitula) complicates its taxonomy. Helichrysum has significant ecological and pharmacological properties and there is a great interest for its potential uses. Even though significant ecological and pharmacological properties have been attributed to the essential oils of Helichrysum species, the taxonomy of this genus needs further investigation. In Sardinia two endemic species have been clearly discriminated (H. montelinasanum Schmid and H. saxatile Moris), however the identification of H. italicum (Roth) Don seems to be still a controversial issue. H. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman is considered the most common subspecies of H. italicum. A genetic approach was begun in this research to explore evaluate and complete the study genetic variability and the evolutionary processes shaping the genetic structure of the genus Helichrysum in Sardinia. About fifty locations were selected to collect the corresponding native population samples, guided by the support of Global Information System (GIS) at 1:25000 scale. Every population included 6 samples randomly collected; information related to each population (habitat, altitude, UTM ED50, soil, main species) was registered. Samples of cultivated plants are also analyzed. AFLP (Amplified Fragments Length Polimorphysm) was used to valuate the genetic variability among more then 300 Helichrysum italicum/microphyllum genotypes. Two AFLP primers combinations were used to explore the variability of Sardinian genotypes. Preliminary data suggest the presence of separated genetic groups. Further studies considering ecological and pedological parameters will be performed to complement the phylogenetic and molecular analysis of the Helichrysum italicum complex in Sardinia. Key words: Ecological, gene, morphologic, variability. 7.8 Collection, Conservation and Use of some Medical and Spice Plants of Armenia Margarita Harutyunyan, Alvina Avagyan, Marina Hovhannisyan

Armenian State Agrarian University, # 74 Teryan Str., Yerevan 0009, Armenia.

Abstract: Due to the landscape diversity and climate and relief characters the Armenian flora existing on a territory of about 30 000 km2 is extremely rich in different species and forms and comprises about 3,600 species of vascular plants, which makes about half of entire Caucasian flora. The essential part of it is presented by medical plants that from the ancient times helped human to win a victory over wounds, diseases and even senility. The medicinal plants make more than 10% of Armenian flora, contain vitamins, valuable organic acids, proteins, enzymes, microelements, etc. and therefore have been used by the local population in folk medicine from the ancient times. About 50 species of medicinal plants are the main active agents in folk medicine and used pure, as well as in different mixtures, they are used both professional and amateur cookers as flavouring or even main dishes. Most of these species is collected in nature or cultivated in small plantations. Moreover according to preliminary assessment made by researchers theoretically about 800 species in the Armenian flora can be used as medicinal and aromatic plants. However because of raised human impact, increased pests and diseases virulence, climate changes and environmental disasters, as well as non regulated gathering from the nature many 134

populations of medicinal and spice plants are now threatened. The establishment of monitoring systems, reliable conservation both in situ and ex situ and sustainable use of a gene pool of local medicinal and spice plants are priority issues requiring feasible solutions. In some extent the Laboratory of Plants Gene Pool and Breeding of the Armenian State Agrarian University is dealing with these issues. Since it's establishing in 1981 the Laboratory is dealing with study of crops and their wild relatives and ex situ conservation of cereals, grain-legumes, vegetables, medicinal and spice plants. The seed collection missions are organized annually and aimed at precise definition of habitats, identification of possible changes in populations composition and number as well as collection of traditional knowledge of utilization of medicinal and spice plants of local origin. Some data on existing accessories of medicinal and spice species are available through European catalogue ­ EURISCO. Nowadays the most of the widely used medicinal and aromatic plants are growing in natural ecosystem, but cannot be collected in commercial quantities. Further activities in expansion of utilization of the medicinal plants are aimed at creation appropriate conditions for their production in conventional or organic agriculture. Key words: Armenian flora, aromatic, medical, spice plants.

7.9 Sustainable Use and Conservation of some Endemic Medicinal Plant Species in Georgia Mikatadze-Pantsulaia T., Barblishvili T., and Khutsishvili

Tbilisi Botanical Garden and Institute of Botany, 0105, Botanikuri street 1, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Abstract: Georgias flora is estimated at 4,100 vascular plant species, one-fifth of which are endemics. The country holds a great number of species of medicinal value, with over 700 species utilized in Georgian traditional medicine and 200 species registered in the official pharmacopoeia. Hundreds of Georgian plant species are threatened with extinction or serious genetic erosion. Many species of medicinal plants in Georgia are gathered from the wild and in some cases are heavily exploited, potentially threatening their continued existence in nature. This makes urgent the subject of development of methods for cultivation of threatened medicinal plants. Structural aspects of seed fromation have been investigated in 5 plant species of Georgian Flora: Cyclamen colchicum (Albov) Albov; Dioscorea caucasica Lipsky; Paeonia caucasica (Schipez.) Schipez.; Gymnospermium smirnowii (Trautv.) Takht.; Convallaria transcaucasica Utkin ex Grossh.; Helleborus caucasicus A. Br.. Data on curative properties and uses of species under study are found in the oldest Georgian and foreign written sources and medicinal books. Propagation capacity of these species was evaluated. Ex-situ conservation works have been carried out. Seed bank is created for species under study and seeds deposited at the Caucasus Regional Seed Bank and the duplicates sent to the Millennium Seed Bank of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. Seed collection, processing and deposition in seed bank was performed using the techniques described in (Bowers B.G., Bowers B.G. 1998; Baskin F. and Baskin. C., 2002). Collection of seedling of these species is created on the experimental plot of the Department of Plant Conservation. Key words: conservation, seed reproduction, germination, seed bank. 7.10 Economic Importance for The Production and Marketing of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Egypt

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Mohamed Abdel Wahab Abu Nahoul

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt.

Abstract: Egypt is one of the oldest countries that produce medicinal and aromatic plants in the world. The total area cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants in Egypt about 62.60 thousand acres, about 188 million pounds is the Egyptian exports value of these plants, representing about 3.83% of the total Egyptian agricultural exports value in 2009. Given the importance of the sector of medicinal and aromatic plants (herbs and spices) in Egypt, will shed light in this lecture on ways to improve the marketing situation of the sector, whether in Egypt or in the global markets and the most important European and the U.S markets. The results of an analysis of the development of marketing to this important sector in the Egyptian economy through the following: Study the production of medicinal and aromatic plants in Egypt, study of the most important problems of the marketing chain (quality and experience absent of the farmers and lack of awareness of farmers to harvest the appropriate deadlines), review the problems related to post-harvest operations (particularly drying, storage and screening), highlight the manufacturers sector (the number of manufacturers in the sector, sizes, and their whereabouts as well as the technology used in manufacturing and the types of products that are traded), and review of the marketing chain to this sector (from the production process to the final consumer in the domestic market and in global markets). Key words: Economic, egypt, importance, marketing, medicinal plants.

7.11 Identification and Conservation of Important Plant areas for Medicinal, Aromatic and Economic Plants in Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range. Mohammad Al-Yemeni, Hassan Sher and Arif H. Shah

Department of Botany, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O.Box 2455, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract: A study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in different ecologically and economically important sites in Hindukush-Himalaya Region of Pakistan. IPAs are the most important places in the world to study wild plant diversity which can only be managed on specific sites. Several such plants are used in traditional medicine. Needless to say that traditional herbal medicine supported and till date it provides basic healthcare to many more people worldwide, as compared to conventional medicine. World Health Organization (WHO) launched global recommendations and programs for global integration of herbal medicine in health care system. To achieve such a goal, proper identification of medicinal plants, the conservation of sites where such plants are grown naturally, is considered essential. In several countries, well planed research projects, and official moves are part of contribution to Target-5 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. In current study, sites selection was made in HindukushHimalaya mountain range where each site met the minimum requirements: (1). Exceptional botanical richness for a biogeographic zone; (2). Presence of medicinal wildly growing herbs with threatened species of global or regional concern, and (3). Presence of threatened habitats with medicinal and economic importance. It is worth mentioning that, the selected sites possessed: (i). Most valuable medicinal and economic plants for local livelihood, (ii). Wild germplasm; (iii). Traditional knowledge about remedies and folklore medicinal uses of plant species along with the understanding of their collection,

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cultivation, management and conservation was available in the elderly tribal population of different areas under study. WHO well documented that 80% population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary health care? The popularity of herbal drugs in the Middle East, Indo-Pak subcontinent, China, Japan, Europe, South America and in other developed countries is increasing day by day. Scientific surveys already concluded that growth and harvesting of medicinal plants are the main income source for different tribes living in remote areas. However, commercial harvesting threatened the availability of more than 15000 medicinal plants and posed a serious problem as regards biodiversity conservation issues are concerned. During current study, besides the complex natural interactions between plants and other organisms, medicinal and aromatic plants, and their interdependence under environmental severity, along with the knowledge of local inhabitants and significance of landscape, was also taken into consideration for effective conservation. The results of current investigations will be presented in detail. Key words: Aromatic plants, conservation, himalaya, plant areas.

7.12 Medicinal Orchids of Bangladesh and their Conservation Status: Exploitation Vs Reproductive Failure Mohammed Kamrul Huda1, and C. C. Wilcock2

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Department of Botany, University of Chittagong. Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh. 2School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Abstract: Twenty six orchid species was found medicinally important and used by the tribal people of Bangladesh to treat different diseases. Some of the medicinally important orchid species has been investigated in different areas of Bangladesh to study the natural fruiting success, effects of post pollination and pollinia removal as well as capsules structure both in the field and Orchidarium of Chittagong University. Factors affecting natural reproductive success of some medicinally important Orchids have been studied. On the contrary, different exploitation processes were observed in the present study to find out the possible reasons of rarity in the studied species. Natural fruiting success was found not so satisfactory in the natural habitat especially in epiphytic orchids with compare to terrestrial counterpart. Pollinia removal alone in emasculated flowers causes early floral abscission in the most studied orchids reveal that orchid flowers shorten the life span after losing pollinia as the flowers have been turned into male sterile. Some species were found self incompatible in our study indicating the rarity of orchids. A comparative study on capsules of orchids showed the variation in size and shape of capsules in different studied orchids. Cross pollinated capsules were found larger and heavier than self and geitenogamous pollinated capsules in the different orchid species proving their potentiality to be diversified in the nature. Reproductive failure may be one of the major reasons for the depletion of medicinally important orchid species in nature. However, collection of orchids for its ornamental values, medicinal uses, research purposes and logging off the host trees were found major reasons for losing the population as well as the diversity. So natural reproductive failure and artificial exploitation of orchids make the situation more complicated and seems as a competition which resulting the rarity of the orchid species. Key words: Bangladesh, conservation, exploitation, medicinal orchids, reproductive. 7.13 Assessment of Plant Availability in the Commercial Markets for Medicinal Plants and Plant Parts of Cairo (Egypt) Using Diversity Indices 137

Monier M. Abd El-Ghani & Rim S. Hamdy

The Herbarium, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

Abstract: An emergent trend in ethnobotanical studies has been the use of quantitative methods to describe patterns of plant use and availability in surveys or assessments of natural resources (Prance et al., 1987; Cunnighham, 2001), thereby allowing for a more rigorous statistical approach to the discipline. Among the main benefits of this approach: (1) greater depth to understand the subject, (2)a conscious attempt at reporting and refining collecting methods, (3) ability to describe more precisely the results of surveys, and (4) economy and description of patterns in the data. A relative increase in the commercialization of medicinal plats in Egypt as well as in many other neighboring countries is obvious, and resulted in over-harvesting and, in some cases, near extinction of some valued indigenous species. Several factors have estimated the rise, including: (a) a rapidly growing and urbanizing population, (b) the affordability, accessibility, and acceptability of traditional medicine over western medicine, and (c) low level of formal education especially in rural areas. These factors together have resulted in the commercial exploitation of economically valuable plants by commercial gatherers to obtain an income. The harvesting of medicinal plants was formerly the domain of trained traditional medical practitioners, renowned for their skills as herbalists and diviners. With the advent of urbanization and the consequent commercialization of traditional health care, however, the demand for medicinal herbs has increased. As a result, harvesting has become the domain of untrained, and often in different, commercial gatherers with no other income source. This work is planned to identify the species being traded in Cairo markets, the plant parts harvested, the suppliers of the plants, and the sources of supply. This study will attempt also to broaden the spectrum of diversity indices to include measures of richness, evenness and diversity with the goal to apply IUCN conservation measures for each medicinal plant. Key Words: Diversity, egypt, quantitative ethnobotany, medicinal plants, survey. 7.14 Initial Assessment of Medicinal Plants Across the Libyan Mediterranean Coast Mounir Louhaichi1, Amin Khatib Salkini1, Hasan Estita2, and Suliman Belkhir2

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International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo ­ Syria. 2Agricultural Research Center (ARC) ­ Libya.

Abstract: The Libyan Mediterranean Coast is characterized by its rich biodiversity. These natural resources constitute a source of income for many poor rural people. Several multipurposes plants are used for extraction of essential oils for cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses, honey-bees pasture, ornament, feed, food, etc. However, this biodiversity and particularly major medicinal plants are in danger of extinction, which is due to a combination of many factors including global climate change, overgrazing, uprooting and wood cutting. To address these concerns, it was necessary to set some goals for the mitigation of the Libyan Coast biodiversity depletion. Amongst the anticipated activities 1) Ex-situ conservation of important plant genetic resources in the national genebank, 2) establishment of field genebank in the two major agro-ecological zones and 3) conservation of each specimen in the national herbarium. In collaboration with ICARDA, ARC Libya has conducted collection missions for inventorying and collecting seeds of 138

multi-purpose plant species. The field visits took place during the spring/summer 2010 where 26 sites across the Western and Eastern coast areas of Libya, which cover a wide range of geographical areas and ecosystems including mountain areas (Jabal Gharbi and Jabal Akhdar), valleys, plains, protected areas, salty lake reserve (Al Hesha) and road sides were surveyed. During the collection mission, a total of 133 species belonging to 30 families were recorded. The most dominant family was Chenopodiaceae (27%), followed by Fabaceae (14%). Only 27 species with pharmaceutical benefits were encountered. Among the medicinal plant Fabaceae and Lamiaceae families were more prevailing with 30% and 12% respectively. Major medicinal plants were classified into three classes depending on their life form and aspects of uses. For instance, trees such as pods and roots of Acacia tortilis are used to treat skin infections, allergic dermatomes and as a vermifuge; Parkinsonia aculeata is used as an antipyretic and to treat diabetics; pods of Ceratonia siliqua are used as a laxative and have demulcent qualities. Leaves and flowering tops of Coridothymus capitatus are used as a bronchoantispasmodic and to treat asthma. Other herbs such as Datura inoxia is used as an antispasmodic, narcotic and hypnotic. Seeds of Citrullus colocynthis incite abortion, and are used as a laxative and vermifuge. Leaves and flowers of Marrubium alysson are used for colds, coughs and asthma. Nevertheless, further steps are needed to enhance the capacity building toward the conservation of this biodiversity. First a comprehensive inventory and mapping of all potential medicinal plants in Libya and their status should be maintained up-to-date. Decision makers should develop clear policies for the protection/conservation, production, transportation and marketing of medicinal plants. In particular a national program for seed collection and conservation of key medicinal plants in the national genebank should be based on scientific standards. Furthermore, medicinal plants that are commonly used by the poor rural communities to improve their livelihood should be given a high priority. Key words: Assessment, libya, medicinal plants. 7.15 Review on the Most Important Medicinal Plants that Present in Wadi Araba Desert South West Jordan Nawash, Oraib Saleh

Higher Council for Science and Technology, PO Box 36, 11941 Amman-Jordan.

Abstract: This paper reviews the most important medicinal plants present in the desert of Wadi Araba in South-West Jordan. The flora in this area was investigated by many botanist and plant ecologist but the analysis of the medicinal and economical value of those plants is still lacking. Many of those plants are also common in the deserts of other neighboring countries such as Arabic gulf countries, Egypt, Palestine and Sudan. From those medicinal plants are: Calligonum comosum, Artemisia judiaca, Moringa peregrina, Ochradenus baccatus, and Salvadora persica. Most of those species are still used by the local inhabitants however; the traditional and indigenous knowledge of the medical utilization of those plants is poorly recorded and is suffering from dramatic erosion besides the biological erosion. Consequently, further investigations regarding the value of native medicinal plants and the documentation of its traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge is an indispensible priority in Wadi Araba in particular and in the Arabic world in general. The aim of this review is to gather information about scientific literature concerning the indigenous knowledge of the most important medicinal plants that present in Wadi Araba fragile desert ecosystem in order to; (1) draw attention of the share holders in the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan and beyond about the important medical values of those plants (2): emphasize the importance of documenting the ethnopharmacological

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knowledge as a part of the cultural heritage and (3) preserve the biological diversity from genetic erosion. Key words: Wadi Araba, medicinal plants, genetic erosion, indigenous knowledge, biodiversity, ethnopharmacology.

7.16 Medicinal Plants Diversity in the Flora of Langaroud of Iran

1

1

Seighali N.,2Ghomi M., 3Zaker S., 4Ramezanighara M. ,5Karimi P.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University ,Parand branch, Parand ,2,3 Faculty of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University ,Parand branch , Parand , Tehran..4 Department of chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University,Parand Islamshar, islamshahr, Iran.5Department of Enviroment, Maysore University,Maysore, India.

Abstract: A preliminary survey on the medicinal plant diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made with the seven families, viz., Asteraceae, Poaceae , Fabaceae, Brassicaceae , Rosaceae,Lamiaceae and Apiaceae as an initial study. These families are represented in the flora with 157 species (i.e. 48% of the total species), and individually with 37, 33, 22, 19,17,16 and 13 species respectively. Of these, 72 species, so far investigated, are medicinal, distributed in these seven families as follows: 22, 5, 8,7,15, 9 and 6 respectively. The Asteraceae has the highest number (22) of medicinal plants among them. The medicinal properties and uses of each species are cited. This communication aims at emphasizing the importance of setting up conservation priorities, and sustained development of various medicinal plants of Iran. Key words: Diversity, medicinal plants, flora, conservation, Iran.

7.17 Threatened Ethnomedicinal Plants of South Africa: Red-Listed Species, Conservation ,,Hot Spots and the Impact of Harvesting VL Williams

School of Animal Plant & Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050, South Africa.

Abstract: Ten percent of South Africas indigenous flora are known to be used for traditional medicine, and 3% are regularly traded in large traditional medicine markets in urban areas such as Durban and Johannesburg. Unsustainable harvesting practices have resulted in notable declines in the abundance and distribution of many species, and 4% of the countrys flora are threatened with extinction as a result of exploitation for the extensive, commercial, cross-border trade in traditional medicine. A further 2% of species are of conservation concern. The threats to species used for traditional medicine were recently evaluated and completed as part of South Africas landmark publication the "Red List of South African Plants, 2009" ­ an assessment 20,456 plant taxa according to 2001 IUCN Red List criteria. The threatened medicinal plants include 14 Critically Endangered, 18 Endangered and 48 Vulnerable species. Two species are already extinct in the wild, including Encephalartos woodii. Medicinal plants are challenging to assess according to IUCN Red List criteria because many popularly traded species are widespread, occur in hundreds of locations, and thus dont qualify as threatened using the restricted-range criteria. Therefore, most medicinal species could only be assessed using the population decline criterion, however these information are rarely published, difficult to obtain and

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mostly sourced via personal communications with knowledgeable experts. Several conservation ,,hot spots were identified during the course of the research, namely areas in South Africa that have the most number of threatened medicinal plants. There is a trend towards more vulnerable species being restricted to a band along the eastern coastline of South Africa, whereas less vulnerable species extend from the coast to the interior of the country. Key words: Ethnomedicinal, harvesting, plants, threatened, south africa, species.

7.18 The Biological Properties of Artichoke (Cynara Scolymus) Grown in the Ecological Conditions of Gasiantep, Turkey Yusif ZEYNALOV1 and Ali ÖZKAN2

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The Botanical Garden of Gaziantep Metropolitan Municipality. 2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kilis 7 Aralik University, Kilis, 79000.

Abstract: Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a perennial plant which belongs to the Asteraceae family and 50- 180 cm in height. It grows wild in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. Its leaves are long and partial in many parts and blue-purple in color. It has a virgate stem and it is hairy. It has pharmaceutical importance regarding that it contains a huge amount of vitamin A and B and it roles as a solvent for liver diseases, dissolving the harmful fat in the human body as well as preventing cirrhosis. Artichoke has being produced in Gaziantep since 2001. Its seeds are sown in the months of January and February. It has 99 % germination ability and the seedlings germinated from the seeds bloom abundantly until the 25th of May and the end of June. After the flowers fully open, the seeds become completely mature in the following 1, 5 months. Artichoke is not affected by the bitter cold in Gaziantep. Artichoke preserves its green color. Therefore, it is widely used for landscaping. Artichoke can be utilized both cultivated and planted in the extensive lands in the pharmaceutical and food industries. At the same time, it is important in feeding animals during the winter and summer seasons, of which there is a lack of nutrients. In this respect, artichoke is one of our important plants. Key words: Artichoke, Cynara scolymus, cirrhosis, liver diseases.

7.19 The Effect of Esential Oil of Saccocalyx satureioides Coss. et Dur On the Growth of Ascochyta rabiei and the Production of Solanapyrone A ZERROUG, M.M1. and LAOUER, H2.

Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biologie, University of Sétif, 19000, Sétif, Algeria.2Laboratory of Valorisation of Natural Products, Department of Biology, University of Sétif, 19000, Sétif, Algeria.

1

Abstract: Essential oils represent very complex mixtures of compounds, mainly monoterpenes and sequeterpenes. Although in some plant species one main constituent of the oil may predominate, in many no single compound predominates and instead, there is a balance of various components. Essential oils are known to; possess a variety of biological properties including antimicrobial activity. Most of the work on the antimicrobial effects of essential oils has been performed on human pathogens, spoilage micro-organisms, and

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dermathophytes, with very little research on phytopathogenic micro-organism. In this study the effect of and Saccocalyx satureioides essential oils was test against the growth of Ascochyta rabiei and the production of solanapyrone A by the fungus. The essential oil was extracted by water distillation using a Clevenger apparatus. The oil was first dissolved in water containing tween 80 (10% v/v) at a solution concentration of 10 % (w/v). two ml of this solution was added to 28 ml of CDCLM medium and a series of dilution was made, form 0.6% (6 mg/ml) to 0.01875 % (0.1875 mg/ml) with three replicates for each dilution. The medium was inoculated with 30 l solution (107 spores /ml) of Tk21 isolates and incubated at 20 C for 14 days. After incubation, the dry weight was obtained by filtering the mycelium through four layer of muslin and dry at 70°C four for 72 h. The culture filtrate of the fungus was partitioned three times with 1/3rd volume ethyl acetate, and taken to dryness on a rotary evaporator at 35 C. The residue was dissolved in 2 ml methanol and analysed by analytical high performance liquid chromatography. After 14 days the mycelium was collected and the dry weight measured. A. rabiei did not grow at a final concentration of 6 and 3 mg/ml, at 1.5 mg/ml and 0.625ml there was little growth of the fungus with a dry weight of 8 mg and 42 mg respectively compared to the control with 519 mg dry weight, but there was no solanapyrone A produced. Key words: Antifungal activity, Ascochyta rabiei, essential oil, Saccocalyx satureioides.

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Topic 8: Industrial utilization of medicinal plants.

8.1 Study the Possibility of Using Jojoba Oil as a Fuel Enhancer Al Kadhem Niyaf N., Al Samerraei Khulood W., AlDoori Zainab K., Al Dulaimy Ahmed and Abbasi Noor N.

Biotechnology Research Center, Al-Nahrain University.

Abstract: Jojoba (Simmondsia) seeds were collected from the plant cultivated in Iraq. Oil of Jojoba was extracted by mechanical method in Biotechnology Research Center (Al Nahrain University). Separatory the oil was mixed with ethanol in a step for preparation of biofuel. After the separation by extracted funnel, gas oil was added in different ratios :( 0:100, 40:60, 60:40, 100:0) Jojoba oil : gas oil ratio , to achieve the combustion process. After estimation of pollutant produced from the oil combusted in an (engine 2.5 HP)m using gas analyzer the results showed decrease in the percentage of atmosphere pollutant (including :Co,H2S, So2 ...etc) to 50% in a ratio 40:60 Jojoba oil: gas oil, the other important results using scanning electron microscope, examining the filter papers that exposed to the combustion pollutant is the fibers that were deformed and denatured in their structure. Key words: Fuel enhancer, jojoba oil.

8.2 Producing of Date Paste (phoenix dactylifera L) with Powder from Three Aromatic Plants: sesame (Sesamum indicum), Common Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Anise (Pimpinella anisum ): Physicochemical Characteristics of Date Paste Amina Hasnaoui1, Mohammed Aziz Elhoumaizi1, Abdeslam Asehraou1, Souhail Besbes2, and Hamadi Attia2

Laboratoire de Biologie des Plantes et des Microorganismes, Université Mohamed 1er Oujda MAROC.2Unité Analyses Alimentaires, Département de Biologie, Ecole Nationale dIngénieurs de Sfax, Tunisie.

1

Abstract: In morocco, the date palm (phoenix dactylifera L) constitutes an important part of the Sahara environnement since it plays an important role in the protection of interplant cropping systems and stabilization of the ecological system. In addition to human consumption and animal feeding, the date palm assures a wide range of utilization products. Most of the premium quality dates are either consumed fresh or in ripened form. Several efforts have been made to identify alternatives uses of low quality dates such as date syrup date jam, vineagre, date past etc.This study attemped to produce a date paste with the addition of powder of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) ,common fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare) and anise seeds( Pimpinella anisum) to add value of second-grade dates(with a hard texture and small caliber) from Aziza bouzid date palm cultivar, growth in Figuig oasis of Morocco. Dates have been cleaned, steamed, destined, macerated and 5% (5g / 100g of date paste) of fennel powder, 5% of anise powder and 5% of sesame powder were added to convert the components to semi - solid form known as paste with approximately 20% moisture content and a water activity below 0.60. Results showed that "date paste could be considered as a potential

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source of sugar but also of fibre and phenolic compounds which have many health benefits. The addition of these three plants has improved the organoleptic quality and texture of the date paste which presented a higher overall acceptability compared with common date paste. These results revealed essential information that could promote the commercialization of date past. Key words: Anise, chemical composition, date paste, sesam, fennel.

8.3 A Study of Dispersion of Medical Species in Filter-Packages Kyslychenko O.A., Bondarenko A.S., Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V.

National University of Pharmacy.

Abstract: Development and introduction of remedies on the basis of domestic plant raw material is the actual task of pharmaceutical science. Technology of phytoteas includes a few stages, each of which differs the row of features and needs scientific ground. It includes such aspects as, for example, the degree of grinding down the plant raw material, duration of interfusion of multicomponent vegetable mixtures. That is important because the ground up particles of plants have a different size, form, specific mass, density, and hereupon, ability to stratification. We studied dispersion of more than 30 types of plant raw material which is planned to the issue in filter-packages, different morphological groups of raw material: leaves, herbs, flowers, fruits, bark and underground organs. The conducted researches showed that correlation of stems, leaves and flowers in fractions of herbs which are studied, differs for different plants. It is connected, first of all, with morphologo-microscopical description of plants (tomentose, sizes of leaf plate, by character of inflorescence and structure of flower et cetera). In vegetable objects, correlation of stems, leaves and flowers is in direct ratio to the size of particles: with the increase of dispersion of raw material maintenance of stems (it is much more difficult to reduce them to fragments) diminish and maintenance of leaves and flowers, which mainly contain bioactive substances, is increased. But there are species of medical plants which do not submit this conformity to the law. So, the grass of yarrow in all of factions is presented mainly stems, that is related to the presence at this plant of thick, branching stem and small foliage by the size, and similarly shallow (not more than 5 mm), numerous small baskets of the stems collected on an apex in a compound corymb. At the increase of dispersion of leaves and flowers the exit of bioactive matters from them is increased, that, in same queue, influences quality of water extractions which were got from this type of raw material. For a morphological group of herbs it was set that with the increase of grinding down rises at factions percentage of flowers and leaves and maintenance of stems goes down. It is set that in filter-packages dominant fractions for a grass are parts of raw material with a size of 2,0-0,5 mm; for a bark are 2,0-1,0 mm; for fruits are 2,0-0,5 mm, rhizomes with roots are 2,0-1,0 mm. Key words: Filter-Packages, foliage, leaves, medical plants, stems.

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The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses

Topic 9: Medicinal plants in ethno-veterinary practice and animal nutrition.

9.1 Comparison study of Measurement of Sheep Meat Tenderness Fed on Medicinal Plants by a Device Manufactured Locally with Chemical, Physical and Sensory Methods Abdulrazzak A.Jasim1, 2Amera M.S. Al-Rubeii, and 1Muddaffer K.Abdulla

1

Mechanized Agriculture Department, 2Animal Production Department Agriculture College, Baghdad University, Iraq.

Abstract: Equipment used to measure meat tenderness was designed and manufactured similar to Warner_Bratzler shear force devices .This device measures meat sample strips (10*1.3 cm cross-section) shear force with stenless steel blade at shear angles 10° .This blade moves by hydraulic pressure on longitudinal axis of the meat sample. Units of measurement appear as kilo paskal (Kg/cm2) on gradually scale. Many measurements have been taken: chemical measurements such as, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), protein solubility of myofibril and collagen contain. And some physical measurements such as, fragmentation index (FI), and fiber diameter. As well as, sensory evaluation (flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptance) for samples. Two types of sheep meat were used: Inferaspinatus and Semimembranosus muscles from sheep feeds on medicinal plants: Nigell Sativa and Rosemary as comparing with control diet. Show the comparative effects in meat tenderness, and the measurement accuracy of the device. The results were showed appositive correlation between the chemical, physical and sensing tests with the shearing force measured by the device. The meat from sheep feeds on medicinal plants: Nigell Sativa and Rosemary more tender than meat control diet. Key words: The device used to measure meat tenderness, sheep meat, and medicinal plants chemical, physical and sensing tests.

9.2 Effect of Nigella Sativa Supplementation and Different Levels of Rume Degradable Nitrogen on Quality Characteristics of Karadi Lambs Meat Amera M. S. Al­Rubeii, Shaker A.Hassan, M.J.H. Al­Tamemmy

Dept. of Anim. Res., College of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad , Baghdad , Iraq.

Abstract: Twenty four individual Karadi male lambs were used , they were 7 months old Their average weight was 34.70 kg , lambs divided into 6 groups , 4 lambs to group (T1T6) , The diets were formulated to be given 60% feed concentrate and 40% barley straw treated with NaOH ( 60% concentrate : 40% roughage ratio ) , This experiment were used to investigated the effect of two levels of NIGELLA SATIVA (NS) (0 and 7.5 g / kg dry matter) and three levels of RUMEN DEGRADABLE NITROGEN (RDN) (1.0 , 1.3 and 1.6 g / MJ of ME) on the quality characteristics of meat of their carcasses . Lambs were slaughtered after 9 weeks, then carcasses chilled were for 24 h at 2 cº . After that, several measured were taken in including: quantity and quality characteristics of meat of their carcasses such as: The chemical analysis of leg, water holding capacity (WHC), pH, physiological fragmentation index (FI) thiobarbituric acid(TBA) , myoglobin concentration , cooking loss and thaw loss percentage, total plate count (TBC)and sensory

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evaluation characteristics of Longissimus Dorsi . Results could be summarized as follows: NS significantly increased percentages of moisture , protein , ash and reduced fat percentage of leg's meat. Occurrence improved in water holding capacity (WHC%) consorted with decreased of Fragmentation index (FI%) and increased volume of filter Water by addition of NS and increased level of RDN and this was reversed on improved of tenderness. NS supplementation and high level of RDN reduced Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) , and NS supplementation was reduced Total Plate Count (TBC). NS supplementation and level of RDN Improved the sensory evaluation characteristics of LD. Iinteraction between NS and RDN significantly improved many characteristics in this experiment. We can be concluded from this study that using Nigella Sativa with different levels from Rumen degradable nitrogen were improved the quality characteristics of their carcasses from Karadi lambs. Key words: Nigella Sativa, Lamb, meat, rumen degradable nitrogen.

9.3 Ethnopharmacological Application of Medicinal Plants Against Veterinary Ailments Arshad Mehmood Abbasi*, Mir Ajab Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad and Muhammad Zafar

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Abstract: Present investigation was conducted to document ethno pharmacological application of medicinal plants against veterinary ailments in remote areas of Pakistan including Indo-Pak, Pak-Afghanistan, Pak-China, and Pak-Iran borders. Semi-structured interviews and observation were used to collect data from traditional veterinary healers residing in these remote sites. Eighty seven medicinal plant species belonging to 46 families were recorded for their applications against veterinary diseases. All plant species were indigenous to the study areas. Dysentery, diarrhea, indigestion, gas trouble, constipation, colic, worms, ulcer, wounds, scabies, sores, infections of mouth, throat, lungs, foot, hooves; fever, cough, lactation, unequal memory glands, weakness, mastitis, arthritis and urethra prolepsis were frequently reported veterinary ailments. Forty one plant species were reported in more than two conditions. Commonly used routes of drug administration were oral and dermal. Validation of these ethno veterinary practices for their quality, efficacy and standardization of doses and screening for active substances that may lead to the discovery of some new, safer and cost effective medicines. Key words: Ethnopharmacological application, medicinal plants, veterinary ailments.

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9.4 Secondary Metabolites of Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus MAXIM.) and their effect on Biochemical Parameters of Poultry Blascakova, M., Poracova, J.

1

Excellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University, 01, 17 th November Street, 081 16 Presov, Slovakia.

Abstract: Eleutherococcus senticosus (Eleutherococcus senticosus MAXIM.) is one of the

promising medicinal plants. It is significant for its secondary metabolites, called glycosides ­ eleuterosides. Secondary metabolites (eleuterozid B, C, D, syringaresinol, sesamin), contained in the plant possess a wide range of beneficial effects on human organism and animals. Eleutherococcus senticosus MAXIM. has antioxidant, antiglycemic, anti-stress, antibacterial, immunostimulating effects, it has also the ability to reduce insulin levels, it has an inhibitory effect against free radicals. In the model experiment (8 weeks) we observed the impact of dry extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus on the level of triglycerides and cholesterol in blood serum of laying hens Hisex braun hybrid. In the model experiment 15 pieces of laying hens of Hisex Braun hybrid were included. Laying hens were divided into three groups - control group (CG = 5 pcs), I. experimental group (EGI = 5 pc), in which the extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus was added (eleuteroside B 0.71% 1.14% eleuteroside E, the extraction agent 30% ethanol) at a concentration of 0.1% / kg, II. Experimental group (EGII = 5 pc) in which the extract was added at a concentration of 0.5% / kg. Observed parameters (triacylglycerol and cholesterol) in blood serum were determined before the administration of the extract (1 st measurement), after 4th week (2nd measurement) and after 8th week experiment (3rd measurement). Laying hens were kept in three storey battery cage and fed with a feed mixture HYD - 06 until 3rd week of experiment, from 4th week of experiment hens were fed with a mixture HYD ­ 10. Feed and water were available ad libitum. Low-molecular substances - triacylglycerol and cholesterol in the blood serum of poultry were determined using automatic analyzer ADVIA 1200 (Siemens, Germany). The achieved data were processed by computer program MS Excel 2003. Individual parameters were evaluated using non-parametric analysis of variance Kruskal - Wallis test. To find the differences we used the Dunn test in program UNISTAT version 4.53h anad Statistica v. 6. In the statistical evaluation of triglycerides using the Kruskal - Wallis test we found significant changes (p <0.05) between control and I. experimental group (12.823 mmol. L-1, 5.518 mmol. l1) where a decrease of values in I. experimental group was observed . Other significant changes (p <0.05) were monitored between I. and II. Experimental group in 2nd measurement (5.518 mmol.l-, 11.388 mmol. l1), where we observed an increase in levels of values in II. Experimental group in which more extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus was administrated. Also significant changes (p <0.05) between control group and II. Experimental group in 3rd measurement were monitored (15.032 mmol. L-1, 11.338 mmol. L-1), the decrease in values in II. Experimental group was found. . We assume that the longer duration of experiment will lead to significantly higher statistical importance of triglycerides and cholesterol in laying hens with a dry extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus of a dose higher than 0.5% / kg.

Acknowledgements:This research is supported by the Agency of Ministry of Education SR for the Structural Funds of the EU, the project: ITMS 26220120023 Key words: Biochemical, metabolites, parameters, poultry, siberian.

9.5 Herbal Extracts and their Effect on Production Parameters of Poultry Blascakova, M.1, Poracova, J.1, Zahatnanska, M.2, Mydlar, J.

Excellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University, 01, 17 th November Street, 081 16 Presov, Slovakia, 2 Presov University in Presov, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Department of Education, 01, 1 Novem7th ber Street, 081 16 Presov, Slovakia.

1

Abstract: Herbal extracts and essential oils are suitable and promising sources in production of healthy food of animal origin. Eleutherococcus senticosus MAXIM. and Matricaria recutita L. belong to the natural antimicrobial substances which affect against 147

exhaustion, stress; have hypoglycemic, immunomodulating, antibacterial and antiflammatory effects. Significant antiflammatory effects of Matricaria recutita L. conditioned by chamazulen and - bisabolol accelerate the treatment of inflammatory diseases

of the mouth, throat, skin and mucous membranes. In the model experiment (8 weeks) we focused on the influence of herbal extract (Eleutherococcus senticosus MAXIM.) and essential oil (Matricaria recutita L.) on the eggs of 32 Hisex Braun hybrid laying hens,which were kept in three storey battery cage and divided into three groups. In first model experiment laying hens were divided into control group (CG1 = 5 pc) and experimental group (EG1 = 5 pc) in which dry extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus (eleuteroside B 0.71% 1.14% eleuteroside E, the extraction agent 30% ethanol) was administrated at a concentration of 0.1% / kg. In the second experiment laying hens were divided into control group (CG2 = 8 units) and experimental group (EG2 = 8 pieces) in which essential oil of German chamomile was applied into feed mixture (bisabololoxid A, B and bisabololoxid bisabolonoxid to 3% farnesen 43 ± 2% , bisabolol 20 ± 1% chamazulen 4.6 ± 0.2%) at a concentration of 0.1% / kg. To 3 rd week of experiment laying hens were fed a feed mixture HYD - 06. From 4th week of experiment laying hens were fed a mixture of HYD 10. Feed and water were available ad libitum. Laying of eggs was monitored daily in both experiments. The achieved data were processed using program MS Excel 2003. Individual parameters were evaluated using nonparametric analysis of variance. For statistical evaluation Mann-Whitney U-test in program Statistica v. 6. was used. Administration of dry extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus and essential oil of German chamomile into feed mixtures had no effect on laying of eggs of hens. Statistical significance between control and experimental groups were not confirmed in the experiments. We assume that the reason was a short period of experiment (8 weeks) or low concentration of extract and essential oil (0.1% / kg) in feed mixtures. The aim of our work was to reveal the effects of two plants (Eleuterococcus senticosus MAXIM., Matricaria recutita L.) which encourange appetite, do not endanger health, enhance

the immune system and antimicrobial system of poultry. Acknowledgements:This research is supported by the Agency of Ministry of Education SR for the Structural Funds of the EU, the project: ITMS 26220120023. Key words: Hens, herbal, extracts, laying poultry.

9.6 Effects of Supplementation Gibberllic acid ,Vitamin D3 , Fennel Seeds to Diet of Aged Laying hens on some Productive and Physiological Parameters

1

1

Dhia Khalil Ibrahim,2 Waleed M. Razuki, 1Hala Abdul- Hameed Mousa Ali

Animal Resources Dept. College of Agriculture- University of Baghdad2 Agriculture Research -Ministry of Agriculture.

Abstract: Large economic lost occurs each year with fewer eggs production, poor egg quality (soft shells or shell-less eggs ) and impaired skeletal integrity of aged laying hens . The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of supplementing Gibberellic Acid (GA3), Vitamin D3 (D3), GA3 + D3 and Fennel seeds (FS) to aged laying hens diets on some productive and physiological parameters . Four hundred and fifty Lohman Brown laying hens at 73 weeks of age were used. Hens were randomly assigned to five treatments (T1-T5) and each treatment contained three replicates (30 hens/replicate). The experiment was included two periods: the first period was continuous for 8 weeks (73-80) weeks, hens fed diet (contain 15.1% crude protein and 2800 Kcal ME/ Kg diet . The treatments as follow: T1 control , birds fed diet without supplementation , T2 birds fed diet supplemented with 40 mg GA3/ kg diet , T3 birds fed diet supplemented with 500 IU 148

D3 / kg diet , T4 birds fed diet supplemented with 40 mg GA3+ 500 IU D3 / kg diet and T5 birds fed diet supplemented with 0.3% FS , and the second period of experiment (recovery period) all the hens fed control diets T1 for 4 weeks. The results revealed that average egg production percentage (H.D%), were increased significantly, ( p<0.05) in T3 in some treatment periods and recovery periods whereas, T5 increased only in recovery periods compared with T1. There were significant increase in relative egg shell and shell thickness in T2,T3,T4,T5 in most treatment and recovery periods compared with T1,whereas yolk cholesterol reduced significantly in T3,T4,T5 during treatment periods compared with T1, meanwhile there were a significant (P<0.05) increase in calcium, phosphors , estradiol hormone level in blood serum of hens of treatments T2,T3,T4 compared with control group T1 at the end of recovery periods for calcium and phosphors and at the end of treatment periods for estradiol hormone. The supplementation of GA3(T2) , D3(T3) ,GA3 + D3 (T4) and Fennel seeds (T5) to diet caused a significant increase in level of protein blood serum in T4,T5 at the end of treatment periods and glucose level in T2,T3, while there was a significant decrease in cholesterol level in T3, T4,T5 at the end of treatment periods compared with T1 , whereas albumin level was not affected in treatments groups. There were a significant increase in tibia calcium content in T2, T3, T4 and calcium retention in T3, T4 at the end of the recovery period in compared with T1. We can concluded that there were some improvement in some productive and physiological parameters especially eggs shell percentage and thickness, calcium retention and calcium contain in tibia bone and estradiol hormone as a results of supplementation GA3,D3,GA3+D3 , Fennel seeds to diets of aged laying hens. Key words: Calcium, gibberllic acid, fennel seed, hens.

9.7 In Vivo and In Vitro Studies Related to Antibacterial and Antiviral Effects of Mentofin® Essential Oils Elie K. Barbour, Rindala G. El-Hakim, and Ryan H. Yaghi

Dept. of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences American University of Beirut, Beirut-Lebanon.

Abstract: Two objectives are included in this study. The first objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of eucalyptus and peppermint essential oils (Mentofin®) in the protection of the respiratory system of broilers against controlled challenges by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and/or avian influenza virus H9N2. Seventy 1-day-old broilers were reared in 7 groups (10 birds/group) up to 1 week of age. Group 1 was the control (nontreated with Mentofin and unchallenged); challenged groups were Group 2 (non-treated with Mentofin and MG challenged), Group 3 (Mentofin treated and MG challenged), Group 4 (non-treated with Mentofin and H9N2 challenged), Group 5 (Mentofin treated and H9N2 challenged), Group 6 (non-treated with Mentofin and MG/H9N2 challenged), and Group 7 (Mentofin treated and MG/H9N2 challenged). At 1 week of age, an intratracheal challenge of the birds with MG (2 hemagglutination units/0.5 mL/bird) and/or H9N2 (2 hemagglutination units/0.5 mL/bird) was given to specific 149

groups mentioned previously. Essential oils of Mentofin were administered for 6 days, effective 1 day post-challenge. Histopathological observations were concluded at 6 days post-challenge and revealed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in microscopic tissue lesions of birds treated with Mentofin in comparison to birds deprived from this treatment but challenged similarly. The significant (P < 0.05) reduction in microscopic lesions included a decrease in tracheal deciliation in MG- and MG/H9N2-challenged birds, a decrease in mucosal hypertrophy in MG-, H9N2-, and MG/H9N2-challenged birds, a decrease in goblet cell degeneration in MG and MG/H9N2-challenged birds, a decrease in mucus accumulation in MG-challenged birds, and a decrease in heterophil infiltration in MG/H9N2-challenged birds. The second objective of this research is to determine the safety and virucidal activity of different levels of Eucalyptus-peppermint essential oil (Mentofin ®) against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and NewCastle disease virus (NDV) in presence and absence of 1 % skim milk. All five concentrations of Mentofin® (2.78x10-3, 2.78x10-2, 2.78x10-1, 2.78, 13.9, and 27.8%) were safe when administered in 0.1 ml/chick embryo, resulting in 100% survival of embryoes. The virucidal activity against AIV started at the Mentofin® concentration of 2.78x10-1 % and 30 minutes contact time at room temperature, only in the absence of skim milk. The complete virucidal activity in presence and absence of skim milk, against AIV and NDV occurred at the 2.78%, and 13.9%, respective concentration of Mentofin®, using the 30 minutes-contact time. The need for a higher concentration of essential oil to inactivate the NDV (13.9%) in comparison to a lower concentration needed to inactivate the AIV (2.78%) is discussed at the level of differences in the structure of the two viruses. Key words: Antibacterial, antiviral, essential oils, mentofin®, vivo, vitro.

9.8 The Effect of Supplementation Different Levels of Anise (Pimipnella anisum) Seeds to Diet on Layer Performance Firas .M.Al-Kilani and Sinbul .J.Hamoudi

Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agric -Baghdad University.

Abstract: An experiment was conducted at poultry station, State Board of Agriculture research, Ministry of Agriculture, to study the effect of supplemental Anise seeds to the laying hens diet. A total of 480 white Hy-Line laying hens 30 weeks old were used in this study from 4/12/2007 to 1/7/2008 they were randomly distributed to 4 treatment . Anise seeds were supplemented at levels of 0.2 , 0.4 and 0.6 % and compared with the control group for 210 days .The result showed a significant (p> 0.05 ) increase in egg production percentage ; accumulative egg number , egg weight. Egg mass, feed conversion ratio and egg interior quality. The result showed also a significant (p>0.05) decrease in mortality and E.coli. Staphylococci in intestines and colon, in Anise seeds group compared with the control group. Key words: Anise, layer performance, seed.

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9.9 Updating the Italian databank on Ethnoveterinary Medicine L. Viegi, R. Vangelisti

Department of Biology, Botany Unit, Via L. Ghini, 5, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.

Abstract: Folk veterinary practices are well known throughout the world and played an important role in Italian agricultural society in the 19th and 20th centuries (many herbs were used to treat sheep, cattle and pigs). Some ethnoveterinary plants are still used in Italy in several rural areas. Here we provide additional information on traditional veterinary practices in Italy, obtained by examining all references on folk remedies for animal care appearing in the literature since 2003. In our previous paper we gathered information on more than 280 plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine (256 species and 71 families). We have now identified more than 580 plants (different taxa: species, subsp., var., and undetermined species), corresponding to 535 species, belonging to 98 families including Fungi, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae. The family with the most medicinal plants is still Asteraceae (11%), followed by Lamiaceae (7.6%), Fabaceae (7.4%), Poaceae (6%), Apiaceae (5.1%), Liliaceae (4.6%), Rosaceae (4%) and Ranunculaceae (3.7%). We confirmed the preponderance of Asteraceae reported in folk botanical literature. Therapeutic uses recorded in the census accounted for more than 60% of all uses; prophylactic uses exceeded 7%. Some plants were used for ichthyotoxic (6%) and others for magic (1.46%) purposes. Internal and external uses accounted for 60% and 34%, respectively. In detail, plants were exploited for the following properties, in decreasing order of frequency: as regulators of reproductive function (e.g. Alchemilla sp., Hedera helix, Helleborus viridis), digestives (e.g. Allium sativum,, Cytisus scoparius, Sambucus sp.), antibacterial/disinfectant (e.g. Nicotiana tabacum, Urginea maritima, Valeriana officinalis), anti-inflammatory (e.g. Arum italicum, Linum usitatissimum, Malva neglecta, M. sylvestris), antiparasitics/antihelminthics (e.g. Colchicum autumnale, Delphinium consolida, Veratrum album /Arthemisia absinthium, Calamintha nepeta, Ruta angustifolia), vulneraries (e.g. Helleborus lividus subsp. corsicus, Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora), ichthyotoxics (e.g. Anthirrinum majus, Euonymus europaeus, Teucrium chamaedrys), repellents (e.g. Cestrum parqui, Euphorbia helioscopia, Helichrysum italicum), and so forth. Herbal remedies used for hundreds of years by people in Italy, as well as in the rest of the world, can be put to commercial use, but traditional knowledge should be validated, to verify the safety and efficacy of the treatments. Key words: Databank, ethnoveterinary, medicine.

9.10 The Effect of Supplementation Different Levels of (Thymus vulgris L.) to the Diet on Layer Performance Luma.K.Bander , Sunbil .J.Humode, Firas .M.Al-Khilani and Raad.f.Hamed

College of Agric. Baghdad university, State Board of Agric Res. Ministry of Agriculture. Baghdad-Iraq.

Abstract: An experiment was conduct at poultry station for Agriculture. State Board of Agriculture research, Ministry of Agriculture. A total of 400 Lohman laying hens 30 weeks old were used . They were randomly distributed to 4 treatments. A Thymus vulgris L. were supplemented at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 % and compared with the control group for 100 days. The result showed. A significant ( P<0.05) increase in egg production

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percentage , accumulative egg number , egg weight , egg mass , feed conversion ratio and egg interior quality. There was a significant (P<0.05)decrease in mortality percentage and total bacterial E.coli , staphylococci in intestines and colon , in Thymus vulgris L group compared with the control group. Key words: Layer performance, Thymus vulgris.

9.11 Phyto-Veterinary Medicines Used by Local Communitied in District Abbottabad, Northern Pakistan Muhammad Zafar, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Mir Ajab Khan and Mushtaq Ahmad

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Abstract: The Mountains of District Abbottabad (Northern Pakistan) are endowed with a diverse plant wealth. The current communication gives the results of an ethnobotanical survey of the area for documentation of medicinal plants used to cure different ailments of animals. In this region Bakerwals and other migratory herders utilize herbal remedies for the treatment of their livestock. Periodic field trips were undertaken during 2001-2005 to various rural and distant areas of district Abbottabad.Information on the utilization of local plants used for curing common animal/livestock ailments was obtained through interviews of herders, shepherds, and others that work with farm animals. The treatment inventory of a healer typically includes 7-10 types of diseases. The most frequent diseases are diarrhoea, after birth rtetion, prolapse of uterus, constipation, fever, foot and mouth rot, colic, indigestion, blood in urine and fever etc. A total of 46 plants within 31 families were identified for treatment of a variety of animal diseases. Key words: Abbottabad-Pakistan, phyto-veterinary medicine.

9.12 The Effect of Essential Oils from Medicinal Plants (Sage and Oregano) on Piglets Health Poracova, J.1, Blascakova, M.1, Maity, S.2, Zahatnanska, M.3

Excellence Center of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Presov, Slovakia. 2 Centre for Environmental Studies, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, India. 3 Presov University in Presov, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Presov, Slovakia.

1

Abstract: Health and nutrition of the animals are important for the profitable production of pig with high quality of meat1 within a competitive market. It is well established that the application of medicinal plant could enhance the health status of the animals2. However, several investigators reported environmental effects as well as genetic approaches on animal production industry 3-5. In order to attain quick growth the essential oils from Sage and Oregano (medicinal plant) were applied to the food of crossbred piglets Slovak White x Pietrain in a dose of 0.05% (Treated group, TG, n = 7). At the time of weaning and post weaning piglets were nourished with a feed mixtures COS1 and COS2. Essential oils were analysed by Gas Chromatography in Sage [cineol (15 ± 1%), thujon (24 ± 1%), borneol (18 ± 1%)] and in Oregano [carvacrol (65 ± 3,0%), thymol (16 ± 1,5%)]. Parameters for productivity (weight, natality, morbidity and mortality) were monitored daily and evaluated on the 21 st, 28th, 32nd and 42nd day of treatment to the pigs. A

statistically significant increase in the body weight was recorded in treated group with respect to control for whole experiment. It is concluded that modern chemical and

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synthetic world demands plant based product for their therapeutical 6, antimicrobial 7, antioxidative 8, hypocholesterolemic 9, stimulatory effect 10 and high productivity 2 to lead better life.

Key words: Essential oils, sage, oregano, pork, production.

9.13 Biochemical Response in Piglets after Application of Essential Oils from Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Poracova, J.1, Maity, S.2, Blascakova, M.1

1

Excellence Center of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Presov, Slovakia, 2Centre for Environmental Studies, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, India.

Abstract: Plant extracts contain various molecules with intrinsic bio-activities on animal physiology and metabolism (Kamel, 2001). Health and productivity of livestock are important economic factors influencing pig production. However, application of herbal formula is also responsible for the well being of animals (Cheng et al., 2004; Wu et al., 2004; Markowska-Daniel, Pejsak, 2006) and subsequently leading to productivity. Several earlier investigators (liwa et al., 2006; Holovská et al.,2009; Kimáková, 2008) reported the impact of various natural and chemical compounds on total cholesterol, glucose and electrolytes in blood serum of animals. In order to find out the growth stimulators, essential oils from Sage (cineol 15%, thujone 24%, borneol 18%) and Oregano (carvacrol 65%, thymol 16%) were applied to feed (COS 1 and COS 2) of Slovak white noble breed x Pietrain at the age of 28 days) at a concentration of 0.05%/ kg. To determine the lipid metabolic pathway (cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL), blood samples were collected from both the control (CG = 6) and treated group (TG = 7) of piglets. Present study demonstrated a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in concentration of triacylglycerides (CG = 0.79 ­ 1.59 mmol.l-1, TG 0.79 ­ 1.25 mmol.l-1, P <0.05) and HDL (CG = 1.33-2.33 mmol.l-1, TG = 1.48-1.85 mmol.l-1, P < 0.01) and total cholesterol in treated animals with respect to the control during 28th days of experiment. It is concluded that essential oils from Sage and Oregano have the potential to decrease triacyglycerides levels in the blood of piglets important to enhance body weight and livestock productivity of animal. Key words: HDL, oregano, piglets, Sage, triacylglycerides.

9.14 Effect of Artemisia Herba Alba Extract on the Infection with Heterakis gallinae compared with Albendazole in Turkey Seddiek, Sh. A1, Ali, M. M. A.2, Khater H. F.3 and El-Shorbagy, M.4

Animal Health Research Institute (Benha-Branch -Avian Diseases Dept.,) 2 Animal Health Research Institute (Biochemical & Nutritional Deficiency Diseases Dept.,) 3 Benha University, Faculty of Vet. Med. (Parasitology Dept.) . 4 Benha University, Faculty of Vet. Med. (PoultryDiseases Dept.), Turkey.

1

Abstract: Sixty (60), one-day old large white turkey poults (males) were divided into four equal groups and randomly allotted in their cages. Group 1 was neither infested nor treated, considered as a negative control. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with 500 embryonated eggs of Heterakis gallinae (using stomach tube) at one-day old. Group 2 was not treated and regarded as a positive control (infested and none treated). On day 25 post

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infestation and for three successive days, group 3 was treated with Albendazole suspension 2.5 % (20 mg /kg B. wt.) and group 4 was treated with crude aqueous extract (CAE) of Artemisia herba alba (0.4 g /kg B.wt.) in drinking water. The turkey poults were fed balanced ration and weighed weekly for 6 weeks of age, and the weight-gain and FCR were calculated. The clinical signs and post mortem lesions were described. The heterakis eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and adult worm burden of H. gallinae were counted immediately before treatment and on the 7th day after treatment. Some biochemical and histopathological changes were recorded. The results revealed that the eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and worm burden in the caeca were nearly absent in the turkey poults of groups 3 and 4 when compared with the group 2 on the 7th day post-treatment. The weight, gain and FCR were improved in group 4 when compared with groups 2 and 3 at the end of experiment. The levels of ALT, AST enzymes, and creatinine and uric acid levels were significantly increased in group 3 when compared with group 4. While the total protein and albumin levels were significantly decreased in group 3 when compared with group 4.The histopathological examination revealed that the liver of turkey poults which infected with H. gallinae and treated with Albendazole suspension (2.5 %) showing mild vacuolar degeneration in the hepatocytes. Meanwhile the liver of turkey poults which infected with H. gallinae and treated with Artemisia herba alba extract showing no degenerative changes in the hepatocytes which seem apparently healthy. These results clearly indicate that there was no adverse (toxic) effect of Artemisia herba alba on the liver cells, resulting in an improvement of the growth performance of turkey poults besides its good anthelmintic effect on the heterakis worms. The Artemisia herba alba aqueous extract is then considered as a good anthelmintic alternative therapy and recommended in the control of heterakis infestation in poultry industry, since it is effective and cheap. Key words: Albendazole, extract, infection, rtemisia herba alba. 9.15 Compared Between Anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.) and Roselle Flowers (Hibiscus sabdariffa) by Their Affected on Production Performance of Broilers Sunbul J.Hamodi1 and Firas M.Al-Khalani2

1

College of Agriculture, Baghdad University. 2Poultry Research Station/Agricultural Research / Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq.

Abstract Four hundred twenty unsexed broiler chicks Cobb were used to study the effect of two source of medicinal plants (Anise seed , A and Roselle flower ,K) supplementation on productive performance ,dressing percentages ,internal organ weights,abdominal fat and bacteria count (E.coli and Staphylococci )in small intestine and colon . The broiler chicks Cobb were divided into three equal groups with four replicate (35 bird in each)fed three diets ,Diet 1 (control group) contain none of the feed additives.Diet 2 and 3 (group 2 and 3) contain 6kg/Ton from A and K , respectively.The results revealed significantly (p <0.05 )inceases in live body weight ,body weight gain,fedd consumption,feed conversion ratio, production index and significantly (p <0.05 ) reduction in mortality in A and K treatment groups as compared with control group .Dressing percentage ,liver and heart weights supplement groups (A and K) were significantly (p <0.05 ) increased ,while abdominal fat were significantly (p <0.05 ) reduced as compared with control group. However non significant differences(p>0.05) were shown across treatment groups in gizzard weight.The weights of primary carcass cuts (breast,thigh and drumstick) of supplemented groups (A and K) were significantly (p <0.05 ) increased and the secondary carcass cuts weights (neck,wings and back) were significantly (p <0.05 ) reduced as compared with control group.A count No. of harmful bacteria E.coli and Staphylococci in 154

the small intestine and colon were significantly (p <0.05 ) decreased in supplemented groups as compared with those in control group.In conclusion ,feed additives such as Anise and Roselle were improved the productive performance of broiler chicks through increasing dressing percentage and reduce abdominal fat and harmful bacteria count in small intestine and colon .Also Roselle were the best one than other medicinal plant Anise by improved the productive performance. Key words: Anise seeds, broiler, production performance, roselle flowers. 9.16 Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Thapsia minor Hoffmanns. & Link, an Endemic Iberian-Lusitanian Apiaceae Tavares, C.1, Gonçalves, M. J2, Cavaleiro, C.2, Canhoto, J.1, Salgueiro, L.2

Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Ap. 3046, 3001401 Coimbra, Portugal. 2Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Faculty of Pharmacy, Health Science Campus, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de S. Comba 3000-354, Coimbra, Portugal.

1

The genus Thapsia L. (family Apiaceae) is widespread in the Mediterranean basin and Iberian Peninsula, here represented by six species, being two of them endemics. Thapsia minor Hoffmanns. & Link is the only endemic Iberian species of this genus present in Portugal. Plants of the genus Thapsia produce interesting metabolites such as guaianolides, acylglycerol components, germacrane sesquiterpenes and essential oils, making this species very popular as a source of drugs and spices. As far as we know only a few studies about the EO of Thapsia minor Hoffmanns. & Link have been described. In the present work we report for the first time the antifungal activity of the essential oils of Thapsia minor from Portugal. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC and GC/MS using fused silica capillary columns with two different stationary phases. In order to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against several pathogenic fungi (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, dermatophytes and Aspergillus spp.) the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using a broth macrodilution method based on the CLSI reference protocols M27-A3 and M38-A2. The oil was characterized by high amounts of oxygen-containing monoterpenes, being geranyl acetate the main compound. The oil proved to be more active against dermatophyte strains, with MIC values ranging from 0.32 to 1.25L/mL. Considering that about 90% of onychomycosis infections are caused by dermatophytes and the high sensitivity of this group of fungi to these natural compounds, this oil could be a candidate to use in topical treatment of this kind of infection. Key words: Antifungal, chemical composition, essential oil, Thapsia minor.

9.17 Effect of Feeding Labaneh Whey and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Additives on Broiler Performance Z. H. M. Abu-Dieyeh1, M.S. Abu-Darwish2 and S. Y. A. Al-Dalain1

2

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Al-Shouback University College, Al-Balq`a Applied University Department of Applied Sciences, Al-Shouback University College, Al-Balq`a Applied University, Jordan.

1

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using thyme plant and liquid labaneh whey as natural feed additives on the performance of 4-8 week-old broiler. 155

Daily fresh labaneh whey and powdered thyme plant were mixed with the basal diet of broilers at rates of 10ml /kg and 10 gm/kg of feed, respectively. The experimental treatments were offered ad libitum during the age 4 ­ 8 weeks of broilers reared in an open-sided poultry house. Growth rate, cumulative body gain, and feed efficiency were significantly (p< 0.05) increased for broilers supplemented with Labaneh whey in their basal diet. However, Powdered thyme revealed significant (p< 0.05) effects on reducing broiler performance. These results indicated that, using labaneh whey as a by-product feed additive has significant (p< 0.05) improving effects on the performance of 4-8 week-old broilers reared in an opensided poultry house. Key wards: Broiler, feed additives, labaneh whey, thyme.

The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses

Topic 10: The use of extracts from medicinal plants as part of integrated pest management programs.

10.1 Nematicidal Potentials of some Selected Medicinal Plants Aminu-Taiwo B. R1, Idowu A. A.1, and Osunlola O. S2.

1

National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan. 2Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Abstract: In vitro studies of the toxicity of water extracts of dry bulb of garlic (Allium sativa), rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) pods of Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica) and leaves of local basil (Occimum gratissimum) on eggs and second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita was investigated. All concentrations of spices extracts tested inhibited hatching of eggs and killed second ­stage juveniles. Water extract of all the spices used at 40,000mg/kg was the most effective in inhibiting egg-hatch (100%) and killing second-stage Juveniles of M. incognita Key words: Eggs, Meliodogyne incognita, concentration, second-stage, water extract. 10.2 Larvicidal, Oviposition-Deterrent, Ovicidal, and Repellent Activities of Cassia occidentalis L. and Spinosad against Malarial Vector, Anopheles stephensi

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D. Abirami and K.Murugan

Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641 046, India.

Abstract: Mosquitoes are the most single group of insects in terms of public health significance. Mosquitoes are important vectors of several tropical diseases, including malaria, filariasis, and numerous viral diseases, such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever. Anopheles stephensi is the main urban vector of malaria in the IndoPakistan sub- continent and Middle - East. Malaria is transmitted by the female Anopheline mosquito. In India this species is mainly urban and rural populations. The present study was made to evaluate the larvicidal, ovipositional deterrence, ovicidal and repellent activities of methanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis and spinosad against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure to methanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis and spinosad. I instar larvae was more susceptible than the other instar larvae. The oviposition deterrence was concentration dependent, 2.0% and 0.003 ppm concentrations of C.occidentalis and spinosad exhibits strong deterrent effect when compared with 1% and 0.001 ppm. Hundred percent ovicidal activities were observed at 400, 450 and 500 ppm. Skin repellent activity was carried out from 5.00 -10.00 hours. The repellency was maximum at 100 ppm. From the present study it was revealed that methanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis and spinosad were effectively used in the control of Anopheles stephensi. Key words: Anopheles stephensi, Cassia occidentalis L., Larvicidal, Ovipositiondeterrent, ovicidal, repellent activity, spinosad. 10.3 Study on the Effects of Acetonic Extract of Otostegia persica (Labiatae) on Three Aphid Species and One Stored Product Pest Elham Salari, Kamal Ahmadi, Reza Zamani

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman.

Abstract: Much effort has been devoted to the discovery and development of plant extracts and phytochemicals as alternatives to synthetic insecticides for pest management. The experiments were directed to determine the effect of acetonic extract of Otostegia persica (Labiatae) on different pests. The insects were included 3-4 days-old individuals of Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) as well as 1-7 days-old adults of Tribolum castaneum (Herbst). The experiments were carried out at 25±1°C temperature, relative humidity of 60±10% and 16 hours of artificial light at an intensity of about 4000 lux. In control treatments only distilled water and DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) were applied. In concentration of 60 and 80 µl/ml after 24 h, the mortality of A. gossypii treatment was 63.0% and 87.4% respectively and it was significantly highest among different aphid species. While, it was less than 2% and 35% in the T. castaneum treatment, respectively. The mortality of A. fabae treatments were 42.1% and 64.9% in concentration 60 and 80 µl/ml, respectively. The mortality percentage was significant higher in A. fabae and M. persicae than in T. castaneum treatments (P0.01). Key words: Acetonic, aphid, Otostegia persica, pest.

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10.4 In Vtro Antifungal Activity of Two Medicinal Plants Essential Oils on Fusarium oxysporum and Bipolaris sorokiniana Fatemeh Samiei1, Zahra Rafiei Karahroodi2, Hamidreza Zamanizadeh3

2

Department of Plant Pathology, Islamic Azad University-Science and Research Branch, Tehran. Department of Plant Protection, Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch, Arak. 3Department of Plant Pathology, Islamic Azad University-Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.

1

Abstract: Using synthetic fungicides is restricted for controlling deterioration of food commodities. It is begun due to their possible carcinogenicity, chronic and acute toxicity, long degradation periods, environmental pollution and side effects on human. Essential oils are in many cases, biologically active, endowed with antimicrobial, antifungal and bio regulatory properties. Production of essential oils by plants is believed to be predominantly a defense mechanism against pathogens and pests. In this research has been studied antifungal effect of 2 essential oils against two fungi. Essential oils were Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Carum carvi. They are used as fungicide against Fusarium oxysporum and Bipolaris sorokiniana. They are experimented at 100 µl essential oil/l PDA in vitro by measuring the percentage radial growth of the fungi. The essential oils were mixed with sterile and cooled molten PDA to obtain final concentration. The PDA was poured in to Petri plates that were inoculated with 4mm plugs from 3 to 7 days-old cultures. The radial growth of mycelia measured daily for 9 days. All treatments have been compared by completely randomized design, at 7th day and 4 replicates. Growth Inhibitory effect of both essential oils was observed and there was significant difference between them at %5, but there was not any significant difference between effects of essential oils on 2 pathogens. Cinnamon had 100 and 95% and Carum carvi had 79 and 78% growth Inhibitory on Fusarium oxysporum and Bipolaris sorokiniana, respectively. After 9th day both fungi begun grow normally on PDA. It shows that they have fungistatatic effect on them. These results showed cinnamon and C. carvi have great potential as an alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling plant pathogens especially fungi. Control of these pathogens by natural compounds is interesting both for environmental and economic reasons. Key words: Bipolaris sorokiniana, essential oil, fungistatatic, Fusarium oxysporum.

10.5 Studying the Effect of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts, to Combat Disease Boufaroua (Oligonychus afrasiaticus) in Palm Tree Class Deglet Nour (Phoenix dactylifera L. 1718) HAMADA Samra1 and Belhamra Mohammed2

Faculty of Exact Sciences and Natural Sciences and Vie. Department of Natural Sciences and Vie. University Mohammed Khider, BP 145, Biskra, 2Faculty of Exact Sciences and Natural Sciences and Vie. Department of agriculture. University Mohammed Khider, Algeria.

1

Abstract: Algeria is accounting the most important producers of tree palm in the Maghreb, along with Tunisia and Morocco, due to the availability of environmental conditions and climatic conditions for the cultivation of tree palm, and class (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Deglet Nour especially of the items most famous and most exporters with an annual production estimated at 26.5 million quintal annually, but account to the spread 158

of disease " bayoud" and "boufaroua ( oligonychus afrasiaticus)" and some pests, parasitic and spider, as well as birds are harmful to tree palm, the number of tree palm production marvelous is lost annually between 20% to 30%, because thesis risk of maladies, as strong threat in the number of tree palm sound, and increased the seriousness of the situation with proven negative chemical treatment counter these diseases and lack of effectiveness, Here we have disposal the problematic of how to find a way to reduce these problems of maladies agriculture concerned with the back of a recent trend in the pest control field crop and vegetable insecticides use natural plant to protect agricultural production; also as dangerous pollution of the environment on the other hand, and had an effective influence in several field applications using Medicinal Plant Extracts to discourage the causes of insect pests and fungal some crops. With this connection, attention was our trying to examine the effectiveness of some extracts from plant medicinal sources, a different medical against disease boufaroua (oligonychus afrasiaticus) to the palm tree class Deglet Nour (Phoenix dactylifera L. 1718.). The first step in the course of this research is the identification of medicinal plants collected, selected, and knows the nature of the Principe active ingredients present in each plant selected. Key words: Deglet nour, maladies boufaroua, medicinal plant extracts, palm tree.

10.6 Tannins of Pistacia lentiscus as Biological Tool for the Control of GastroIntestinal Nematodes Hassan AZAIZEH1*, Nijmeh ABBAS1, Alexander MARKOVICS2, Hussein MUKLADA3 and Serge LANDAU3

1

Institute of Applied Research, Galilee Society (Affiliated with University of Haifa), P.O. Box 437, ShefaAmr 20200, 3ARO, Volcani Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Israel.

Abstract: Gastro-intestinal nematode parasitism in grazing ruminants is a serious problem worldwide and in the Middle East in particular. Failure to control gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) results in poor growth rates, ill-thrift and sometimes death of animals. The predominant GIN implicated in infective helminthiosis ("jiam" in Arabic) in Israel is Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp, with a minor role for H. contortus and Oesophagostomum spp. As nematodes have developed resistance to a wide range of chemical anthelmintic drugs, and consumer perception of chemical treatment is negative, natural bio-actives are sought after. In light of the increasing recognition of the anthelmintic activity of plant tannins, we examined the potencial anthelmintic value of extracts from Pistacia lentiscus L. and Phillyrea latifolia L., two ligneous species found on the Western slopes of the Carmel Heights. Leaf chemistry of P. lentiscus is characterized by an exceptionally high concentration (20% in dry matter) of poly(ethylene)-glycol-binding tannins, whereas P. latifolia contains flavanols in low concentrations (<4% in dry matter). We compared the efficacy of three extracts (water, ethanol 70% v/v, and ethanol 100%) at different concentrations in inhibiting exsheathment ­ a process which enables the development free-living larvae into egg-producing adults ­ in vitro with mixed L3 larvae hatched from eggs collected in an infected goat flock. Larvae were incubated in a PBS solution with/without plant extracts and exposed to an exsheathment solution, diluted to elicit 100% exsheathment within one hour. Ethanol 70% extract of P. lentiscus resulted in complete inhibition of exsheathment at low

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concentrations compared to 100% ethanol and water. Only extracts of P. latifolia with ethanol 70% inhibited ex-sheathment, but at concentrations more than ten-fold higher that P. lentiscus. A two-year survey showed that egg excretion levels are very low in goats ingesting P. lentiscus all year long. This is consistent with the findings that most polyphenols in P. lentiscus (70%) are galloyl derivatives of high molecular weight, and galloyl derivatives of catechin prevent exsheathment of the GIN larvae. Our results suggest that infestation of pastures with GIN eggs is probably limited because of the rupture of the GIN life cycle by tannins contained in P. lentiscus. Key words: Gastro-Intestinal, nematode, pastures, ruminant, tannins.

10.7 Towards Controlling of Mosquito Larvae Using Crude Extracts of Endod Plant Berries (phytolacca dodecandra) Along the Shore of Lake Victoria, Kenya

1

1

J.B.Okeyo-Owuor, 1Pamella J. A. Were, 2Phillip Raburu and 4J.M.Vulule1.

Department of Environmental Biology and Health Sciences. School of Environmental Studies, Moi University,3Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Moi University, Kenya. 4Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya.

Abstract: In the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) the disease the most devastating disease, Malaria which causes over 300 deaths in Africa is vectored by the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae complex. This species has increased its distribution range even to highland areas of Kenya where it was absent before making malaria to be a major killer for people of all age groups in these areas during the last two decades. This situation probably caused by increased environmental degradation including high numbers of stagnated water ponds suitable for mosquito breeding and increased vector-human interactions has lead to increased malaria related mortality, morbidity and declining productivity amongst the already poor population. Thus control approaches of the vector have been a real challenge to the government and local residents even as mortalities due to malaria keep rising especially among the poor and vulnerable members of the resident communities. The green berries of endod or Ethiopian soap berry (Phytolacca dodecandra L' Herit), an indigenous plant species which is abundant in the highlands region in the Lake Victoria Basin, contain biochemicals which is toxic to various aquatic life forms including bilharzia vector snails, zebra mussels, leeches and larvae of various aquatic insect species was tested against mosquito immature stages in this study in the LVB, Kenya. In this paper the findings of this study on mosquitoes is presented and discussed. Powder from green berries of endod green berries was tested against immature stages of An. gambiae in the laboratory and under semi-field conditions and the results shows that endod powder extracts had strong larvicidal activities against anopheles immature stages, which seem to vary with geographical sources of endod plant. For instance plants from Nandi Hills had a higher larvicidal effect compared to those from Eldoret and Nyando. It was further found that the endod crude powder was most effective within 12-24hr of larval exposure but effectiveness declined fast there after suggesting fast biodegradation of the extracts once in water. It is recommended that although further studies are still required on efficacy of using endod against mosquitoes, great potentials exist for its inclusion in the integrated management of the vector mosquitoes and for malaria control programmes and could be easily adapted at the community level in this region where the plant is abundant. Key words: Anopheles gambiae, endod, malaria control, lake victoria basin, larvicide.

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10.8 Effect of Medicinal Plants on the Mosquito Vectors from the Different Agro climatic Regions of Tamil Nadu, India K. Kovendan and K. Murugan

Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences , Bharathiar University, Coimbatore ­ 641 046, India.

Abstract: Vector control plays a key role in prevention and control of major vector-borne infectious diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. The three main climatic factors that affect malaria transmission and distribution are temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. Aedes aegypti, commonly known as the Yellow Fever Mosquito, is a mosquito that can host the dengue fever, Chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Medically most important species, Culex quinquefasciatus, breeds in waters polluted with organic debris such as rooting vegetation, household refuse and excreta. Chemical control use of pesticides is still the most important element in the integrated approach to vector control. But they are non-selective and harmful to other beneficial organisms. Hence, botanical have grown very important in controlling the mosquito vectors. Laboratory and field investigations have been made to evaluate the combined effect Clerodendron inerme, Acanthus ilicifolius on three species of mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Different concentrations of Clerodendron inerme and Acanthus ilicifolius have been tested on the various stages of three species of mosquito vectors. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) were also worked for the different larval stages of mosquitoes. Significant increased mortality was evident after the plant extracts. The lethal effect on mosquito larvae may be due to the active plant compounds on the gut lining of the mosquito larvae. The larval density was decreased after the treatment of plant extracts at the breeding sites (drinking water and ditches water), and hence, these plant extracts of the suitable alternatives of synthetic insecticides for the mosquito vector management. Key words: Clerodendron inerme, Acanthus ilicifolius, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, mosquitocidal activity.

10.9 Antivectorial and Antimalarial Activity Chenopodium Ambrosioides on Malarial Vector, Anopheles stephensiliston and Malarial Parasite, Plasmodium falciparam K. Murugan1 and Wei Hui2

2

Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, School of Life Sciences, Coimbatore - 641 046, India. Institute of Plant Protection, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350013, People's Republic of China.

1

Abstract: Mosquitoes the serious problem in the present day due to the change in climate and to control the vectors there are many chemical and synthetic pesticides but their hazards are also high and hence the researchers switched on their vision towards the plants. The objective of this work was to determine the Larvicidal and pupicidal activity of on malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi and also to test antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium faliciparum. There was significant larval and pupal toxicity was evident after the treatment of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil. Lethal dose concentrations (LC50 and LC90) were calculated for different larval instars and pupal stages. The mortality of mosquitoes was due to the presence of plant active compounds such as hexadecanoic,

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arachidonic, and octadecanoic acids. Field trials were conducted at the breeding sites of the Anopheles stephensi and the population reduction of larval and pupal were noted after 24, 48, 72 hours of treatment. Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium, continues to exact high global morbidity and mortality rate next only to tuberculosis. It causes 300-500 million clinical infections out of which more than a million people succumb to death annually. These parasites Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. It is transmitted by the female Anopheles Spp., The situation has worsened recently with the emergence of drug resistance in the parasite. Therefore, deciphering new pathways in the parasites as well as mosquito and this leads for developing antimalarial compounds and mosquitocidal is the need of the hour. In the present investigation we have also tested invitro antiplasmodial activity of the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil against Plasmodium falciparum. There was significant inhibitory effect was found after administration of plant oil against the parasites. Thus in the present study both activity such as antimalarial and antivectorial was studied as the vector is the major cause of malaria. Several plants are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria and fever in many parts of world. These require further detailed investigation with ethno-pharmacological approach and pure plant compounds will be separated in future research activity. It therefore seems worthwhile to study such plants, which have been used over the centuries for medicinal purposes. Key words: Antimalaria, Plasmodium falciparam, vector. 10.10 Effect of Botanicals Orthosiphon thymIflorus for the control Mosquito Vectors and for the Development of Eco-Friendly Biopesticides Kanagarajan Prasanna Kumar and K. Murugan

Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences,. Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046, Tamil Nadu - India.

Abstract: Mosquitoes are the single group of insects in terms of public health significance. It breeds in a varied aquatic eco-systems ranging from clean water, stored and sewage water system and marine water and it transmits malaria, dengue and yellow fever as well as filariasis. Vector control plays a key role in prevention and control of major vector-borne diseases and often constitutes the first line of activity in case of epidemics of vector-borne diseases, and particularly, Chikungunya. Chemical control (use of pesticides) is still the most important element in the integrated approach to vector control. But they are non-selective and harmful to other beneficial organisms. Some of the insecticides are carcinogenic agents and are positively dangerous and even carried through the food chain which in turn affects the non-target organism. In view of the above, the uses of biologically-active plant materials with anti-mosquitocidal properties and ecofriendly-biopesticides are attracted in recent years, because of their biodegradable nature and being relatively safer to human and other non-target organism in the Environment. Phytochemicals and microbial insecticides can be used as an alternate to synthetic insecticides for integrated vector control. Botanical pesticides will help to kill the spectrum of mosquito larvae in the breeding habitats. Allelochemicals (secondary compounds) present in the botanicals which affect the biochemical and physiological processes of insect system and also they increase the pathogenicity of microbial pesticides. The selection of plant materials Orthosiphon thymiflorus (Roth) is Wild high medicinal

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value also possess mosquitocidal properties and available in plenty in the Western Ghats, Coimbatore Region, Tamil Nadu. In the present study is to evaluate the effect of Orthosiphon thymiflorus extract,for the successful control to malarial, filarial and Dengue vectors at the region of Tamil Nadu, India. Field trial was also conducted at the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, India and to study the efficacy on the larval and pupal mortality during 24h, 48h and 72h treatment by using the Orthosiphon thymiflorus extract in different breeding habitats of malarial, filarial and dengue vectors. The results revealed that the treatment of Orthosiphon thymiflorus extract had higher efficacy, It reveals that active chemicals 3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2 is combined will help to kill the spectrum of mosquito larvae in the breeding habitats. The results of our study will throw more light on the right combination of herbal extracts in formulation of potential larvicides for different mosquito vectors in their respective breeding habitats at coastal regions of Tamil Nadu, India. Key wards: Allelochemicals, biopesticides, larvicides, Orthosiphon thymiflorus.

10.11 Insecticidal Activities of Mentha spicata and Origanum glandulosum against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Khalfi-Habes Ouassila1 Boutekedjiret Chahrazed2 and Sellami Samira1

1

Khalfi-Habes Ouassila I.N.A. El-Harrach 16200 Algerie. 2Boutekedjiret Chahrazed E.N.P El-Harrach 16200 Algerie.

Abstract: Essential oils of Mentha spicata and Origanum glandulosum were tested at the laboratory for their insecticidal activities against Callosobruchus maculatus, insect harmful with chick-pea in Algeria.The results obtained showed that two essential oils are toxic for insect amounts ranging between 0, 1 and 0, 4 µl/g. The two extracts disturb also the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus. With amount 0,1µl/g the fruitfulness of the female and the fertility is completely stopped with Origanum glandulosum.Mint causes it inhibition of the two parameters biologic starting from 0,2 µl/g. An effect feeding deterrence east also obtained with two essential oils. Indeed larvae of the beetle of chickpea fed with seeds feed less than the larvae having evolved in intreated seeds Two tested essential oils can constitute insecticidal natural to protect leguminous plants stored from the damage caused by the beetles and to decrease use of the organic pesticides of synthesis. Key words: Natural insecticide, essential oil, Callosobruchus maculatus ,Mentha spicata. 10.12 Biological Control of Tetranychus urticae by Using Medicinal Plants Extract and PGPR M. Müge Yazici, Gülin Bozta, Fikrettin ahin1

Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul-Turkey.

Abstract: Mites (Tetranychus urticae) are one of the most destructive pests causing economically important losses in fruit and vegetable production. They can cause graying 163

or yellowing of the leaves. Necrotic spots occur in the advanced stages of leaf damage. Chemical application is a common practice for management of mite population on many economically important crops. However, the use of chemical applications for pest management is limited due to economic cost, low efficiency, and phytotoxicity to plants, development of resistance and risks for human and animal health. Therefore, it is thought that the most sustainable and environmentally acceptable control of plant pests can be achieved through biological control agent combined with plant extracts. The objective of this study was to test potential biocontrol agent bacterial strains and extracts of seven different medicinal plants in laboratory and greenhouse conditions for effective management of the mites in greenhouses, and to determine their efficiency in greenhouse and field conditions. In this study, all experiments were performed on eggplant and cucumber plants growing in greenhouse conditions. PGPR (Bacillus spp. FS51) in combination with the mixture of acetone extract (100mg/1ml) of seven different medicinal plant species in the genera of Urtica, Lavandula, Satureja, Syzygium, Ocimum, Artemisia, and Nigella spp. were found to be the most effective treatment and causing more than 9096% mortality on mite population within 12 h after application. The results showed that PGPR strains with mixture of plant extract tested may have a great potential to be used as bioinsecticide in greenhouse condition, and may be used in open field production in organic agricultural system. Key words: Biological control, extract, medicinal plants, PGPR, Tetranychus urticae. 10.13 The Biological Fight by the Use of the Powders and of Essential Oils of some Plants (Thymus vulgarus, Santolina chamaecyparissus, and Anagyris foetida) against the Chickpea Beetle "Callosobruchus chinensis L." Mm Righi Assia. F1, Khelli A.M 2 and Righi. K1

1

Laboratory LRSBG. University of Mascara, 2Faculty of Science University of Tlemcen, Algeria.

Abstract: Interest of dry vegetables in particular the chick-pea as that food is very important. Each year, this product knows considerable quantitative and qualitative losses, especially on the level of stocks, which are due primarily to the attacks of the beetles. More devastator is the beetle Chinese (Callosobruchus chinensis). Within the biological framework of fight like alternative to the chemical fight and by the means of this research, three plants are tested for their possible bio role insecticidal (Thymus vulgarus, Santolina chamaecyparissus, and Anagyris foetida). The experiments are related to the effect of the powders of the sheets and the oils extracted by hydro distillation starting from these three plants on biology from Callosobruchus chinensis. After a study éco-biological detailed on the insect under the controlled conditions of the temperature and moisture (28°C and H: 75%). In order to determine the effect of effectiveness of the powders and oils (with various amounts), the tests are studied on the various biological parameters in fact the fertility, longevity, sex-ratio, and fruitfulness. The results obtained show that oils and the powders of the three plants tested present really an insecticidal bio effect. Concerning, essential oils, that of thyme proved liked effective like inhibiting substance or biocide by carrying out a death rate of 100%, assisted by the Santolina. Concerning the powders, that of Santolina has an inhibiting effect on the individuals and even if there is a laying, the fertility is very weak compared to the other powders of bean-trefoil and of thyme This thus suggests, that the plants tested being able to be used like bio insecticidal for the control of devastating Callosobruchus chinensis of the stored food products.

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Key words: Callosobruchus chinensis, Cicer arietinum L., Thymus vulgarus, Santolina chamaecyparissus, Anagyris foetida, bio-insecticide.

10.14 Efficacy of Certain Chemical and Safe Alternative Compounds on the Incidence of Thrips tabaci (Lind.) Inhabiting Onion Seed Plantations Mohamed A. Amro1 and Farouk A. Abdel-Galil2

1

Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. 2Plant. Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Abstract: Population fluctuations of Thrips tabaci (Lind.) inhabiting onion seed plantations was determined in Assiut Governorate (375 km) southern Cairo, Upper Egypt, during two successive growing seasons 2009 and 2010. The highest populations of the pest were recorded during April in both seasons. However, the lowest populations were recorded during Mid March and Mid May. The ability of four insecticide safe alternative compounds in addition to a chemical one, in reducing T.tabaci infestation on onion seed heads in the field, was determined. The initial kill, the residual effect and the general reduction percentages were calculated. The initial kill of all of the tested compounds recorded more than 90%. The residual effect of the tested compounds arranged in descending order as follows: Sunshal 20% EC (Carbosulfan), 91.48% > Radiant 12% SC (Spinotoram), 89.75% > Achook 0.15% (Azadirachtin), 87.22% > NAT 1 oil (Jojoba seed oil), 86.88% > Kemsol (Mineral oil), 75.50%. The plant extract "Achook 0.15%" and the natural product compound "Radiant 12% SC", recorded more than 95% general reduction in the pest numbers, as well as, the chemical compound "Sunshal 20% EC". NAT 1 and Kemsol oils recorded 93.11% and 84.40% general reduction, respectively. So, it is of importance to point out herein to the ability of using the tested safe alternative compounds, as a replacement of chemical compounds in controlling T. tabaci on onion seed plants in the field. Key words: Chemical, onion, Population, seed. 10.15 Nematicidal Activity of Extracts from Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae) Against Root Knot Nematode (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) S. Sellami, T. Dahmane and Habes-Khalfi O.

Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique, El Harrach, 16200 Alger, Algérie.

Abstract: Investigations were undertaken to assess the effect in vitro of different concentrations of extracts (ethanolic , hexanic and aqueous ) from leaves and fruits of Peganum harmala L(Zygophyllaceae) on the mortality of juvenile after 24, 48 and 72 hours of exposure, and hatching of eggs of Meloidogyne incognita maintained in the same test solutions for twelve days. These effects were compared with those of control solutions and phenamiphos. The results showed that the extracts tested killed second stage juveniles and inhibited hatching of M. incognita, with these effects varying with the nature of the extracts, time of exposure and concentration. Percentage mortalities of second stage juveniles of the nematode increaseswith exposure period and concentration. DL50 for larval mortality after 72 hours and egg hatchings after 12 days were determined. The study was completed by phytochemical analysis (screening) of leaves and fruits of this plant to determine the groups of secondary metabolites.

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Key words: Larval mortality, egg hatching inhibition, extract, root-knot nematode. 10.16 Assessment of Antifungal Effects of the Ajowan Oil Against Molds on Citrus Sadrollah Ramezani1 and Behnaz Solaimani1, 2

1

Dep. of Horticulture Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IRAN. 2Islamic Azad University, Garmsar branch, Garmsar, Semnan, Iran.

Abstract: The present study describes the volatile profile and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from cultivated plants in Shiraz (Iran). Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L.) is widely used as traditional folk medicine in Iran for treatment of different diseases. GC­MS analysis allowed for the identification of between 36 compounds as main volatile constituents of essential oil analyzed. Ammi essential oil effect on control of green mould growth was suitable in 200 l as spray application. Significant differences were observed between various concentration and time of Orange fruit floating in Ammi essential oil solution; as high effect was obtained in 400 l for 10 min. Different concentrations of Ammi essential oil have not inhibitory effect on blue mould growth in both methods (spray and floating). Result was shown that Ammi has inhibitory effect on green mould growth but it hasnt effect on blue mould of Orange fruit. Therefore, we could suggest use of Ammi essential oil as spray application before storage for improvement in shelf-life of Washington Navel orange fruit. Key words: Trachyspermum ammi L., blue mould, essential oil, green mould, orange. 10.17 Systemic Resistance Induced in Potato Plants Against Potato Virus Y Common Strain (PVYO) by Plant Extracts in IRAQ Sabir N.H. Diwan, Rakib A. Al-Ani, Mustafa A. Adhab

Plant Protection Dept., College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, IRAQ.

Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of frog fruit (Lippia nodiflora L.), Datura (Datura metel L.), and Thuja (Thuja orientalis L.) extracts for inducing systemic resistance against potato virus Y common strain (PVYO) in potato plants. Air dried of aerial parts powdered was extracted with 70% ethanol (1:3) weight: volume, then concentrated to a consistence syrup in water bath at 42°C. The alcoholic extract was used as tuber-dipping before cultivation or foliage spraying after germination. The PVYO multiplication in the plants was followed serologically by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that dipping the tubers in the extracts, at 1, 2, 3 g/L for 24 hrs., or spraying the foliage by the extracts at the same concentrations exhibited a protection period to the plants against PVYO infection up to one month in the presence of virus source with the vector Myzus persicae Sulz. ELISA readings at 405 nm for samples from treated plants were found to be 0.10, 0.11, 0.11, and 0.12, 0.13, 0.12 for L. nodiflora extract, 0.13, 0.13, 0.12, and 0.13, 0.12, 0.13, for D. metel extract, 0.13, 0.13, 0.12, and 0.12, 0.12, 0.11 for T. orientalis extract for the three concentrations and the two methods of application respectively, compared with 2.52 for untreated plants. No significant differences between the concentrations or between the methods of application on virus multiplication were observed. Key words: Plant extracts, potato virus, systemic resistance.

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10.18 Herbal Medicines Volatile Oil for Culex pipiens Larvae Control Safia Zoubiri 1, 2 and Aoumeur Baaliouamer1

1

Laboratory of Functional Organic Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sciences and Technology, Houari Boumediene, BP32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, 16111 Algiers, Algeria 2 Research and Development Center, EPE ALDAR, MOUBYDAL Group, Algeria.

Abstract: Biological effects on Culex pipiens larvae were evaluated for some medicinal aromatic herbs essential oils: Coriandum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Rosmarius officinalis and Verbena officinalis. Mosquito larvae were currently controlled by chemical pesticides. This control method leads to pollution of the environment and intoxication of consumers. Essential oils of aromatic plants are more considered as good control alternative tools. Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation were assessed under laboratory conditions for their biological activities against C. pipiens larvae. Emulsifier concentrate formulation contains 10% w/v essential oil were prepared and stable aqueous dispersions were determined. Bioassays were performed with the four instars larvae and nymphs of C. pipiens. The larvae were placed into 500mL plastic cups containing test solutions at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500µL/L of essential oil then incubated at 25°C. Cumulative mortalities were determined 30 minutes, 2 and 24 hours after treatment. All treatments were carried out in triplicate using 25 larvae and 10 nymphs for each replicate assay. Controls received the emulsifier solution without oil. The essential oil constituents were identified by GC and GC-MS. Results of the larvicidal activity of the tested essential oils against C. pipiens mosquito formulations showed significant larvicidal activity for all dosages against first, second and third-instars larvae. The present study has shown that aromatic herbs essential oils have larvicidal activity against C. pipiens mosquitoes. They could be used selectively in places where water is stagnant. Further studies are needed on formulations against mosquitoes larvae and their efficacy and cost effectiveness.

Key words: Bioactivity, chemical constituents, Culex

pipiens, essential oil, medicinal aromatic herbs.

10.19 Sieving of Insecticides and Medical Plant Oils to Controlling White flies on Citrus Trees Sahil K. AL-Jameel

Plant Protection Dept. College of Agriculture and Forestry , Mosul university, Iraq.

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted on citrus trees infested by white flies ( Bemisia tabaci ) in mosul during 2007 by using mixture of medical plants oil ( Myrtus communis L. ,Eucalyptus camaldulensis Behch . and Mentha virids ) with insecticides ( Serin , Nomolt and Diazinon). Results indicated reduction in the rate of Bemisia tabaci infestation. Treatments were in the following order ( serin and Myrtus communis ,nomolt and Myrtus communis , serin and Mentha virids ) these treatments significantly reduced No. of nymph on leaf to 0,80 , 1.12 ,2 .56 respectively and and about adult on leaf to 0.99 , 1 .72 , 2.44 respectively after 14 days. Results were encouraging to introduces oils of medical plants to control program of white flies on citrus trees. Key words: Citrus trees, insecticides, medical plant, oils, white flies.

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10.20 Allelopathic Effect of some Medicinal Plants on Germination of Two Dominant Weeds in Algeria

1

1

Salhi Nesrine and 2Salama M. El-Darier

Laboratory for Bioressources Saharan preservation and enhancement, University of kasdi merbah, Ouargla. 2 Departments of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

Abstract: The main objective of the present study was to investigate the phytotoxic effects of five medicinal plants; Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad, Retama retam L, Traganum nudatum Del, Pituranthos chloranthus Benth. & Hook.and Artemisia herba- alba Asso on germination efficiency, germination index and radicle length of the two dominant weeds; Avena fatua L and Polygonum convolvulus L. in Algeria. The results showed that the aqueous root extract of the five donor species has no allelopathic effect on the measured parameters of the two weed species. On the other hand, the shoots exhibited a significant effect only on Avena fatua, while Polygonum convolvulus was highly suppressed by shoots of Colocynthis vulgaris and Traganum nadatum. Key words: Algeria, Allelopathy, germination, medicinal plants, weeds

10.21 Studies on the Effect of Chenopodium Ambrosiioides Essential Oil on Toxicity and Control of Spodopetra litura (FAB.) Shobana K. and Murugan K.

Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore ­ 641 046, India.

Abstract: The plant world comprises a rich storehouse of phytochemicals which are widely used in the place of synthetic insecticides. Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides is registered as a biochemical pesticide, which is derived from the flowering plant Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides (American Worm seed). The use of this extract as pesticide possesses no significant risk to human health or the environment. It is classified as a biochemical pesticide because of its natural origin and its "non-toxic" mode of action. Among the insect pest damaging agricultural and horticultural crops, Spodoptera species are important. Spodoptera litura is one of the most economically important insect pests of cotton, tobacco, chilly, tomato, beetroot, cabbage, cauliflower, oil seeds. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides essential oil on biological parameters such as life history. The toxicity bioassays were conducted to test the larvicidal / pupicidal activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides essential oil. The physiological parameters such as digestive enzyme profiles, faecal pellet egestion have also been tested after the treatment. It is important to understand the modes of action of the pesticides we use, to prevent development of pesticide resistance in the target pest(s). Several compounds isolated from C. ambrosioides may be a potent agonists or antagonists of some pesticide target proteins. Hence the present study predicts the interaction and impact of active compounds of Chenopodium ambrosioides essential oil on nervous system (acetylcholinesterase). Thus assesses the potential of the molecule acetylcholinesterase as possible targets for pesticide development. For modeling 3-D structures of acetylcholinesterase the software MODELLER9v4 which uses the concepts of Homology or comparative modeling was used. So the present study envisages the possible mode of action of Chenopodium ambrosioides essential oil on these protein target using docking methods. This study also

168

shows the possibility of the compounds of C. ambrosioides being inhibitors of these proteins. Key words: Chenopodium, essential oil, toxicity, Spodopetra litura.

10.22 Effect of Nicotiana tobacum Leaf Extract on Fungal Leaf Spot Disease of Mangifera indica in Anyigba kogi State Nigeria Taiga, A., and Mephors, C.V.V.

Department of Biological Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria.

Abstract: Two fungi (Botryodiplodia theobromae and Macrophoma mangifera) pathogens were isolated from the infected leaf of Mangifera indica showing leaf spot disease. They were found to be the causative agent of leaf spot disease of M. indica, through pathogenicity test. M. mangifera grew faster in vitro than B. theobromae. The four different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) of cold aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum used for fungicidal property test were found to be efficacious. However none of the concentration levels of N. tabacum extract could completely inhibit the radial mycelia growth of either B. theobromae or M. mangifera isolates in vitro. All the four concentration levels of the plant extract recorded high inhibitory effect on B. theobromae mycelia growth, with 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations showing 91.30, 91.30, 91.30, and 95.65%; while only the 15 and 20% concentration of the extract showed high (50 and 73.33%) mycelia inhibition respectively, on M. mangifera pathogen. The inhibitory effect of 5 and 10% concentrations of N. tabacum were not significantly different when compared with the control (0.00% < 1.20%; P= 1.00) and (0.00% < 1.17%; P=1.00) respectively. B. theobromae was observed to be more susceptible to N. tabacum cold aqueous extract than M. mangifera. Key words: Efficacy on fungi, leaf spot disease , plant extracts.

10.23 Efficiency of Wood Vinegar and Extracts from Some Medicinal Plants On Mortality of Insect Udomporn Pangnakorn1 Suwimol Kanlaya2 and Chumpon Kuntha1

1

Department of Agricultural Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 65000, Thailand.

Abstract: The efficiency of wood vinegar and extracts from three of medicinal plants such as: neem seed (Azadirachta indica), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and yam bean seed Pachyrhizus erosus ) were tested on the 3 rd instar larvae of mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say). The raw wood vinegar was purified by standing method and filtering method. Seed of neem, citronella grass and yam bean were collected, cleaned and dried at 25 Cº for 3-4 days and powdered. Stream distillation was used for extraction the citronella grass while neem and yam bean were simple extracted by fermentation with ethyl alcohol. The toxicity test was evaluated under laboratory condition by using two methods namely Topical application (contact poison) and Dropping method (stomach poison). The mortality of the mosquito larvae were observed daily for 3 days. The results revealed that the wood vinegar at the low concentration 2% by dropping method could kill 73.75%, 82.50% and 96.25% of mosquito larvae after 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively with significance different at p< 0.05. The wood vinegar at the high concentration of 20%

169

by topical application method could kill only 15.0% of mosquito larvae after 72 hours with significance different at p< 0.05, while at the lower concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10% gave rather low mortality at 5%, 5% and 10% respectively. When the 2% of wood vinegar mixed with each individual extracted substances of neem seed or yam bean seed or citronella grass at ratio of 1:50 ml gave the larval mortality of 92.5%, 50.0% and 45.0% respectively at 72 hours after treated. While by dropping method all of the treatments gave 100% mortality of the mosquito larvae at 48 hours after treated. Key Words: Azadirachta indica, medicinal plants, mortality, mosquito larva, neem, wood vinegar, yam bean seed. 10.24 Insecticide Effect of Some Essential Oil of Medicinal Plants on Three Species of Stored Product Pests Zahra Rafiei-K.1, Alireza R.2, Pouya Z.2, and Mohammad S.2

1

Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch,Young Researchers Club. 2Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch,Young Researchers Club, Arak, Iran.

Abstract: Essential oils are suitable components as alternate for chemical pesticides. Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hubner (Lep., Pyralidae), Tribolium confusum Herbst (Col., Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus chinensis (Col., Bruchidae) are some of the most important stored product pests. In this research, insectisidal effects of essential oils of five medicinal plants have been studied on these pests. Plants are included Achillea wilhelmsii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Artemisia absinthium, Rosmarinus officinalis and Foeniculum vulgare that essential oils extracted by hydrodistilation method. Insecticide activity of essential oils studied on adults of T. confusum and C. chinensis and first instar larvae P. interpunctella. Essential oils have been studied in five concentrations. Results showed Cinnamon had the most insecticide activity on all insects especially Indian meal moth, but effect of essential oils on Tribolium was more than Callosobruchus, there are significant difference between insecticide effects of essential oil on three pests. Also by increasing doses mortality increased. These results showed essential oils, especially Cinnamon have a good potential for using in warehouses instead of fumigant pesticides. Key words: Cinnamon, essential oils, fumigants, warehouse.

10.25 Effect of Eighteen Plant Essential Oils on Inhibitory of Egg Releasing and Ovicide on Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lep.: Pyralidae) Zahra Rafiei-K.1, Saied M.2, Hussein F.3 and Javad Karimzadeh-E.4

2

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Arak branch Islamic Azad University, Arak, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 3Agricultural Entomological Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, 4 Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Centre of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

1

Abstract: Egg releasing deterrence and Ovicidal activity of the essential oils of 18 medicinal plants to Plodia interpunctella Hübner were investigated. For studying egg releasing deterrence number of released eggs has been counted from one pair moth those exposure essential oils for four days. Also one day old eggs were exposure at 3 concentrations included of 3, 12 and 24 µl essential oil/l air. Percent of eggs hatching have been recorded after 96 hours. The results showed that all essential oils had egg releasing deterrence property. the least egg releasing deterrence have been recorded by essential oils of Rosemary, Dill, Tarragon and Yarrow with about 28.33, 32.50, 36.18 and 55.00 percent

171

egg releasing deterrence, respectively. Other essential oils such as Cinnamon had more than 80% egg releasing deterrence that there was no significant difference between them. Essential oils of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. and Cinnamon had the most percent of egg mortality on Indian Meal Moth. Also mortality of eggs has increased by increasing concentration of essential oils. These results showed essential oils of Z. clinopodioides and Cinnamon had high potential in egg releasing deterrence and Ovicidal effect. They could be suitable components for controlling this pest in storages. Key words: essential oils, Indian meal moth, medicinal plants, ovicide.

Authors' Index

A. Esen CELEN, 131 A. Naresh kumar, 6 A.R. Srividya, 6 A.Touhami, 66 Abdeen M. Omer, 74 Abderrahmane BAGHIANI, 7 Abdul Majid, 131 Abdulrahman E. Koshak, 56 Abdulrazzak A.Jasim, 145 AbedAljasim M. Jasim, 94 Adel Nadjib Chaker, 132 Ahmad H. Al-Fraihat, 95 Ahmad Reza Gohari, 66 Ahmed Touil, 67 Ahmet Cakir, 19 Ahmet Gümüçü, 68 Ait kaki Sabrina, 7 Al Dulaimy Ahmed, 143 Alain MEYBECK, 8 Ali Irfan ILBAS, 95 Ali ÖZKAN, 141 Amera M. S. Al­Rubeii, 145 Amina Hasnaoui, 143 Aminu-Taiwo B. R, 157 Amoura M. Abou-El-Naga, 11 Amujoyegbe Bamidele Julius, 96 Anwer Noori Alkhero, 68 Arif H. Shah, 36 Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, 146 Arsham safipouriyan, 69 Ayse CAN, 42 Ayse Serguzel YUSUFOGLU, 69, 70 Ayegül Güvenç, 70 Aysegul Peksel, 12 Ayen Yarat, 12 Azra Khanum, 49 B. COSGE, 71 B. HARFI, 71 B. IMELOUANE, 96 B. Lyoussi, 57 BAHRI Fouad, 13, 14 Beemnet Mengesha, 97 Belhattab R., 72, 73 Benyammi R., 97 Berrak Ç. Yeen, 32 Blascakova, M., 147, 148 Boubakeur B., 14 Bouchra Imelouane, 15 Brajeshwar Chandelia, 98 Bülent Sayal, 98 C.K.Manna, 5 Chefrour Azzedine, 16, 17 Chekir-Ghedira Leila, 15 D.Abirami, 157 David Draper Munt, 132 Dhia Khalil Ibrahim, 52 Diakonova Ia.V., 28 DJAHOUDI Abdelghani, 17 Dusica ali-Dragosavac, 73. 91 Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré, 18 Elham Salari, 158 Elie K. Barbour, 150

171

Emel Akyüz, 18 Erman BEYZ, 99 Ezz AL-Dein M. Al-Ramamneh, 100 Farahani Ebrahim, 100 Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi, 101 Fardous N Al-Adwan, 35 Fatemeh Samiei, 158 Fatma U. Afifi, 19 Fikrettin ahin, 162 Firas .M.Al-Kilani, 151 Fletcher, E.J., 102 G. BACHIR RAHO, 8 G.M. Sulaiman, 21 Georgeta Rata, 58 Gholamreza Naderi Brojerdi, 99, 103, 104 Gholamreza Zarei, 103 Gladukh Ye.V., 144 Göksel ener, 38 Golamreza Naderi Brojerdi, 100 Gulsum Yaldiz, 75 H. Bouriche, 21 H. Tahmasebi Zadeh, 105 Habib Ahmad, 106 Hakan CETINKAYA, 58 HAMADA Samra, 159 Hamed Shafie, 107 Hamid-Reza Adhami, 176 Hassan AZAIZEH, 160 Hassan Sher, 136 Hatice ÇÖLGEÇEN, 107 Hocine LAOUE, 59 I. A. El-Ghandour, 22 I. Camarda, 134 I. E. Cock, 22 I. El-Ghandour, 94 I. Fellah, 130 I. Salamon, 133 I. Stancheva, 23 Ibraliu, A, 60 Ifeoma Irene Ijeh, 24 lknur KULCANAY AHN, 25 Isabel Maria Madaleno, 60 Isam, M. Jawad, 77 Ismail. A. El-Ghandour, 107 Ismet Burcu TURKYILMAZ, 26 Ivan Salamon, 77, 78 J. Mohammadi, 108 J.B.Okeyo-Owuor, 160 Jamal Ahmed Abbass, 108 K. Baczek, 79 K. Husnu Can Baser, 133 K. Kovendan, 161 K. Murugan, 162 K.S.Khetwal, 80 Kadhim M. Ibrahim, 109 Kamal Khairallah, 88 Kamel GHEDIRA, 61 Kanagarajan Prasanna Kumar, 163 Kazemi Saeed, F., 80 Khairul Kamilah AK, 27

Khalfi-Habes Ouassila, 164 Khalid A. Khalid, 109 Khalida A. Shaker, 81 Khater H. F., 154 Khelifi L., 110 Khosro Azizi, 110 Khulood Whayeb Alsamarrae, 27 Khuraman Mustafayeva, 82 Khvorost O.P., 80 Kyslychenko O.A., 28 L. Viegi, 151 Lahouel Mesbah, 83 LARIBI Bochra, 83 Lekhmici ARRAR, 25 Luma.K.Bander, 152 M. Amini Deheghi, 111 M. Brada, 29 M. Kamal E Youssef, 30 M. Mesud Hürkul, 39 M. Tuncturk, 112 M. Yarnia, 113 M.B.Khorshidi Benam, 112 Magda A. A. Seleim, 165 Majid Amini Dehaghi, 113, 114, 118 Manish Mishra, 115 Mansourh Sarrami, 116 Margarita Harutyunyan, 134 Masoud yousefi, 116 Meliha Temirkaynak, 61 Memet NAN, 118 Messaoud Ramdani, 88 Miguel MG, 32 Mikatadze-Pantsulaia T., 135 Miroslav Vosátka, 119 Mm Righi Assia. F, 165 Mohamed A. Amro, 165 Mohamed Abdel Wahab Abu Nahoul, 136 Mohamed Fathy Salem, 119 Mohamed R.A.Rashwan, 33 Mohammed Kamrul Huda, 137 Monier M. Abd El-Ghani, 138 Mounir Louhaichi, 138 Mufeed Batarseh, 86 Muhammad Altaf Hussain, 34 MUHAMMAD H. ALU'DATT, 85 Muhammad Iqbal, 85 Muhammad Qayyum Khan, 35 Muhammad Zafar, 152 Muhittin KULAK, 9 Mushtaq A. Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, 61 Mustafa A. Adhab, 167 N. Benslimani, 87 N. Boudhrioua-Mihoubi, 86 N.HAMLAT, 88 Nahida ALBAYATY, 62 Nasri Haddad, 120 Nawash, Oraib Saleh, 139 Nazim SEKEROGLU, 62 Nitin Verma, 37 Norhasnida, Z., 38

172

Nubila Yehya Mohamed Naguib, 121 Nurhayat SUTLUPINAR, 40 Nuriye AKEV, 40, 41 Nurten OZSOY, 40 O. Sacan, 43 Önder YUMRUTA, 44 OUAFI Saida, 87 Özgür TATAR, 122 P. Labun, 44 Poracova, J., 153 R. Tuncturk, 122 Rafal shakeeb Al-Ani, 45 Refiye YANARDAG, 31, 50 Renata Sõukand, 63 Reza Jabbar, 123 Reza Jabbari, 102 Rida A. Shibli, 121 Roohollah Hasanzadeh, 123 S. Akbar, 46 S. Bolkent, 20. 47 S. Dahamna, 48 S. Kirici, 89 S. Saifan, 124 S. Sellami, 166 Saad A. Ihsan, 130 Sadrollah Ramezani, 125, 128, 166 Safia Zoubir, 167 Safinaz Badie Bakshwan, 48 Sahil K. AL-Jameel, 168 Said Hassan pour, 125, 126 Salah Akkal, 34 Saleh Al-Rashidi, 127 Salgueiro, L., 55, 155 Salhi Nesrine, 168 Salima Bennadja, 49 Samita Manna, 64 Sati Y. AL-Dalain, 90 Seighali N, 140 Shadia Kotb Ahmed, 127 Shobana K., 169 Soodabeh Saeidnia, 67 Souici Leila, 90 Sumood H. AL-hadeedy, 120 Sunbul J.Hamodi, 155 T.M. Kriuchkova, 92 Taiga, A., 169 Takhi Djalila, 51 Takia Lograda, 84 Tamara Kacharava, 93 Tamara S. Al- Qudah, 127 Tir touil Aicha, 51 Tlili- Ait-kaki Yasmina, 52 Udomporn Pangnakorn, 170 Ursula von Mandach, 45 V.S. Kyslyc henko, 76 Vihtinskaya, O.O., 53 VL Williams, 140 Yarat A., 10 Youcef HADEF, 53 Z. H. M. Abu-Dieyeh, 156

Zahid, N.A. Abbasi, 128 Zahra Rafiei-K, 170, 171 ZERROUG, M.M, 54, 141 Zewdinesh Damtew, 129

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