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CHEMISTRY

Grade Student 1 Name School Name Title Abstract

8 Ackerman, Daniel

Twin Valley South Middle

Titration of Vinegar to Determine Acid Content

The problem investigated in this experiment was to determine which vinegar contained the most acid. The hypothesis was that white distilled vinegar would have the most acid because it is often used in cleaning applications. The hypothesis was tested using the process of titration in which a buret was filled with a known concentration of NaOH which in turn was slowly added to a known volume of vinegar to which 3 drops of phenolphthalein had been added as a pH indicator. When the solution became light pink, the volume of NaOH was recorded and the percent acid was calculated. All trials were performed three times per vinegar and the results were averaged for accuracy. The data from this experiment did not support my hypothesis that distilled white vinegar would contain the most acid. Instead, my results showed that the White Wine Vinegar had the highest acid content. The results could be different and the percentage of error within the trials for each vinegar could be reduced with more practice using the buret. We tested whether or not rubbing alcohol, vinegar, or water will remove a permanent marker line from cloth, fleece, and silk. In the hypothesis we stated that when trying to get permanent marker stains out of the three fabrics, water and rubbing alcohol will not affect it, and vinegar might lighten the stain but probably won't completely remove it from all three fabrics. In our results we found out that some parts of our hypothesis were correct. Water didn't affect the line at all and the vinegar did slightly lighten the stain which is what we had hypothesized, but rubbing alcohol did have an effect on the line. The rubbing alcohol caused the line to turn a shade of purple which isn't what we had thought would happen. In the analysis we stated permanent marker may come out with special cleaning supplies but in most cases it is exactly what it's called; permanent. In the conclusion we stated the different effects water, rubbing alcohol, and vinegar had on the different fabrics. While doing our experimenting we wondered if the density of the fabric might have an effect on how easy the stain is to remove, and that could be a possible science fair experiment next year.

8 Adams, Catherine

St Thomas More Elem

How Permanent are Permanent Markers?

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7 Bayer, Annie

St Gertrude Elem

Which Store Carries the Freshest 2% Milk?

People want to buy the freshest milk, but which store has it? This experiment was done to see which store's milk has the least amount of curds after the expiration date and which store carries the freshest milk. This experiment is important because milk is usually discarded on its expiration date, but the results showed that milk did not start to curdle until about ten days after the expiration date. Some containers did not have many curds when they were weighed. The results will also show which store carries the freshest 2% milk. From each store, three cartons of 2% milk with all the same expiration date, were measured and placed in different containers. The day after each store's expiration date, observations were taken for the next ten days and every other day for another ten days. After each stores' containers had a complete twenty days past the expiration date, the curds were strained with coffee filters and weighed upon a triple beam balance. The results were based on the average weight of the curds from all three containers from each store. Store B had the least weight of curds with a average of two and forty five hundredth grams. The store with the most amount of curds was Store D with an average of seventy four and six tenth gram. The hypothesis was proven incorrect because the hypothesis stated that store A would have the freshest milk. Store A ended up having the second least amount of curds. The purpose of my science fair project was to determine which liquid rusted a nail the most. My overall hypothesis for this project was if I place a nail in a container filled with Mountain Dew, and I place another nail in a container filled with Orange Juice, then they will be the two nails overall that rust the most and be the most successful. The control group in my experiment was a nail in a container not in any liquid. The independent variables in my experiment were Mountain Dew, Coke, Water, Milk and Orange Juice. The way that I measured the dependent variable was on a scale, ranking from 0-10 of how much rust was on a nail. The results of this experiment were that water rusted the nail the most. I believe this, because water had the most oxygen in it and it oxidized the nail, and also because it was the purest beverage. The results show that my hypothesis should be considered incorrect because I thought Mountain Dew and Orange Juice would be the most successful but water was the most successful. If I were going to do this experiment again in the future or expand on this experiment I would change how many days I conducted the experiment, I would let the nail soak in the liquid longer so that I would get a better result.

7 Blake, Leah

Fairfield Middle

Rusty Nails

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9 Block, Abby

McNicholas High

The Oven Race

The problem tested was `which oven bakes a cake faster, convection or radiant?' The hypothesis stated that the convection oven would bake faster than the radiant. This hypothesis was rejected because the radiant oven baked the cake faster than the convection oven. The hypothesis was made based on the fact that convection heat moves in multiple directions. The heat source from a radiant oven comes only from one side of the oven. In the experiment, two cakes were baked per trial, one in the radiant oven and one in the convection oven. At five-minute intervals, the temperature was checked in each cake, and data was recorded as the rate of temperature increase. The radiant oven's temperature stayed above the temperature of the convection oven almost always. This may have been because the heat coming from multiple sides of the oven in the convection may have been released more when the temperature was taken. In the radiant oven, heat would not escape as easily because it is traveling in one, vertical direction. In conclusion, a radiant oven would probably be a better tool to use in the kitchen if the oven will be opened often. The problem in this experiment involves determining whether introducing bovine urine, as a source of urea, into a diesel engine by means of a cool mist vaporizer will increase the fuel efficiency of that engine. The hypothesis states that diesel engines consuming bovine urine along with diesel fuel will show an increase in fuel efficiency over diesel engines running on the typical diesel fuel and air mixture. This experiment follows the scientific method, using diesel engines, diesel fuel and bovine urine to determine if the hypothesis is supported. The engines, while performing the control tests, will combust a normal diesel fuel and air mixture. The engines, while performing the experimental tests will combust diesel fuel and air in the presence of bovine urine. Both tests will power the same electrical load via a generator. The independent variable is the presence of urea during combustion in a diesel engine. The dependent variable is whether the engines performing the experimental test show an increase in diesel fuel efficiency over those same engines performing the control tests. Each engine ran a test for one hour and followed the same testing sequence: control, three urine tests, water test and two controls. Water tests determine if the urea causes the change in fuel efficiency. The percentage of fuel efficiency change is calculated from each engine's control test fuel usage. At the end of the experiment, two of the diesel engines show a scientifically significant increase in fuel efficiency with bovine urine and one does not.

11 Boehm, Jacob

McNicholas High

Effects of Urea from Bovine Urine on Diesel Fuel E

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7 Bouley, Thomas

Nagel Middle

What Factors Affect the Electrolysis of Water?

The purpose of my experiment was to see how I could get the electrolysis of water to occur most efficiently. I studied several factors involved in the electrolysis of water by measuring their affect on the rate of hydrogen and oxygen production. Using platinum electrodes at 36 V, I found the rate of gas production to increase for increasing concentrations of NaOH (0.04 % to 4%) and for when the distance between the electrodes was decreased (35 cm to 2.5 cm). While using Platinum electrodes and NaOH (0.4 %) I found that doubling and tripling the voltage (12, 24, 36 V) doubled and tripled the rate of gas production. While using carbon rod electrodes at 36 V in NaOH (0.4 %) I found the rate of hydrogen gas production increased as the length of the carbon rod in the electrolyte increased from 1 cm to 4 cm but further increases in electrode length did not increase the rate of hydrogen gas production. Based on these experiments the most effective way to produce hydrogen would be to use a highly concentrated sodium hydroxide solution at a high voltage with a pair of electrodes held close together and having enough surface area to just maximize the rate of reaction. To understand fabric softener and how it works, one must understand ingredients of fabric softener, what fabric softener does, fabric softeners purpose, and the effects of fabric softener. The problem that was investigated in this experiment involves the testing of different brands of fabric softener and which brand works the best. The hypothesis is, if any brand of fabric softener is added to the laundry, then the clothes will be made equally as soft. The materials needed to complete this experiment were 6 brands of fabric softener, a washing machine, a dryer, and around 20 participants. Fabric swatches were then washed in the fabric softener and the participants rated how soft the fabric became. This experiment showed that most fabric softeners work the same, but the softness felt is sometimes based on opinion. In conclusion this experiment shows that softeners should be bought by opinion of softness, scent, or company/ brand, and not by scientific studies. The information gained from this experiment would be beneficial for consumers that buy fabric softeners or people who have businesses that must use fabric softener. Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide. Rather than changing from a solid to a liquid then to a gas, dry ice changes directly from a solid to a gas. This process is known as sublimation. The problem investigated is how different substances and temperatures affect the rate of sublimation of dry ice. The hypothesis is dry ice will sublime more quickly at higher temperatures and in liquids of low viscosity. Uniform sized cubes of dry ice were placed in bowls containing hot water, cold water, vinegar, alcohol, air, oil, and liquid soap. Time for complete sublimation in each substance was observed and recorded. Four trials of each substance were performed.

7 Brinkman, Rachel

Mother Teresa Catholic Elem

A study on the qualities of fabric softeners

7 Brock, Max

St Bernard School Elem

Factors that Affect the Sublimation Rate of Dry Ic

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8 Clark, Sarah

Our Lady Of Lourdes Elem

Does the Color of a Paper Napkin Affect Its Absorb

My science fair project is to find out if the color of a paper napkin affects its absorbency. I read in magazine that "white napkins are more absorbent than dark colored paper napkins; those in vivid colors have been soaked in dye, which uses up some of the fiber's absorbency." In this case, you would prefer to purchase white napkins instead of colored napkins if you are concerned about absorbency. Having bought paper napkins from the same company with the same specifications, I tested each paper napkin by rolling the napkins and dipping it into a graduated cylinder. After ten seconds,I lifted the napkin up and let the water drip from the napkin for ten seconds. I measured the remaining water that was left in the cylinder. My results show that the white napkins absorbed the least amount of water. The paper napkin that absorbed the most amount of water was the yellow, followed by the red, then the blue. The darker the color, the less water it absorbed. My experiment proved that the dye in the paper napkins does affect the napkins absorbency. Although the napkins are supposed to have the same specifications, I believe the reason the white paper napkins did not absorb as much water has to do with the mass of the napkin which appeared to be less. If I didn't use the white paper napkin in my experiment, then it is true that the darker the color the napkin was, the less water it absorbed. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of kneading on yeasted breads. To test this I followed a basic Italian bread recipe, once kneading, and once eliminating the step of kneading to compare results. Going further, I tested three aspects of the no-knead method; additional water, a lengthened resting time, and additional heat while cooking. I tested each of these separately without kneading in the same Italian bread recipe, and then I tested all three elements together. Overall, I have summarized that kneading is a crucial step in the breadmaking process and that in order to eliminate this step, all elements of the no-knead method must be followed, including a reduction in yeast.

9 Clausen, Emily

Anderson High

Need to Knead

7 Conroy, John

St Columban Elem

How does acidity affect the corrosion of steel?

The purpose of this project was to determine how acidity affects the corrosion of steel. To test this, different amounts of water and sulfuric acid were mixed to create solutions of different acidities. Then, carbon steel razor blades were placed in those solutions. During the next 15 days, it was observed how the corrosion of the steel blades differed according to what acidity that blade was placed in. The steel blades were then removed from the solutions and allowed to dry. To measure the corrosion, the steel blades were weighed (by using a small scale that measured in grams) and their thickness was found (by using a micrometer). The results of the experiment were that the blades placed in the 0.0 and 0.5 pH acidities were the most corroded, and that the blades placed in the 5.0, 4.5, and 4.0 pH acidities were the least corroded. The results indicated that the hypothesis should be accepted. The carbon steel razor blades placed in the most acidic solutions corroded the most, and the carbon steel razor blades placed in the least acidic solutions corroded the least.

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8 Coors, William

Homeschool

Chemically Manipulating the Potential of an Electr

Chemically Manipulating the Potential of an Electrolytic Cell, William Coors, 5967 Bridgetown Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45248 . . . I researched the production of gas in an electrolytic cell. In my experiment I created 2 electrolytic cells out of Ball jars. I compared the ratio of positive to negative plates and I tested 2 electrolytes. I hypothesized that the Lithium carbonate in soda water would produce gas at a faster rate with the 1:2 set-up than the 1:1. This was not supported by my experimentation; gas was produced much faster with the 1:1. Then I hypothesized that the Sodium bicarbonate in tap water would be unaffected by the different plate set-ups. This was supported by my experimentation. Two interesting things happened. When I doubled the amount of the Sodium bicarbonate using the 1:1 configuration, the gas production rate doubled. I added equal parts Sodium bicarbonate and Lithium carbonate to tap water, hoping the Lithium carbonate would dissolve. It did! The rate of gas production was better than Sodium bicarbonate alone but not as good as Lithium carbonate in soda water. In order to run a small engine on the gas I make, I will need to experiment with the relationship between the electrolyte and the heat generated during the reaction. I am tying to find the best amount of the best electrolyte to allow my cell to operate as long as possible at the coolest temperature drawing the least amount of amps.

7 Dorger, Kelly

St Gertrude Elem

Do various solutions affect an eggshell?

This experiment measured the effects of varying pH solutions on the calcium carbonate found in an eggshell. The purpose was to see what would happen to eggshells that were soaked in high, low and neutral pH liquids. The hypothesis stated that the high pH solutions would have the greatest effect on the eggshells and the low pH solutions would have the lowest effect. Five liquids were chosen from the standard pH chart which measures the concentration of hydrogen ions compared to distilled water. Orange juice and vinegar which have low pH levels represented the acid category. Salt water and soapy water represented the alkaline or base category because of high pH level. Distilled water was used as a neutral. Hard-boiled eggs were placed in the different solutions and were observed for a period of 12 hours. During the first part of the experiment, the only eggs that responded were the eggs in vinegar. Later discoloration occurred in the eggs soaked in orange juice while the vinegar eggs showed up and down movement and bubbles formed. After several hours, parts of the eggshells soaked in vinegar could be seen peeling off of the egg and the fragments floated to the surface. The remaining solutions did not show noticeable effects. This experiment showed results that did not support the hypothesis. In fact, rather than high pH solutions having the greatest effect on the eggshells, it was the low pH solutions that showed significant changes.

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8 Egred, Brandon

St Louis Elem

Methane Producers

The problem in this experiment is to see if organic materials and manure can produce methane gas. The hypothesis is that by using organic material and manure, methane will be created. The materials consist of six two-liters; bananas, oranges, potatoes, grass clippings, rabbit manure, cow manure, six balloons, duct tape, and masking tape. The first step in the procedure is to get six two-liter bottles. The second step is to label bottles with masking tape and pen. The third step is to fill bottles up with organic materials and manure. The fourth step is to fill the bottles up to the top with distilled water. The fifth step is to put balloons over the bottles. The sixth step is to wrap tape at the bottom of the balloon so that no methane gas can escape. In order to see how much methane is produced is to measure the balloon with a tape measure in centimeters. Bottle one had zero centimeters on day fifteen. Bottle two had zero centimeters on day fifteen. Bottle three had thirteen centimeters on day fifteen. Bottle four had sixteen centimeters on day fifteen. Bottle five had seventeen centimeters on day fifteen. Bottle six had twenty-two centimeters on day fifteen. From the data, bottle six produced more methane gas than the other five bottles. Bottle six consists of rabbit manure, vegetables, and grass clippings. So it was determined that the hypothesis was supported.

7 Espelage, Madison

St Louis Elem

Saving Your Dough

The problem is whether or not it is better to store bread in a sandwich bag, an airtight sandwich bag, the original bag, or a bag with a silica packet in it. The hypothesis states that the traditional bag will keep the bread fresher longer. The materials used were sandwich bags, all natural whole grain bread, silica packet, and a traditional bread bag. Place the bread in each of the bags. Then suck the air out of one, put silica in another, close one in a sandwich bag, and leave one in the original bag. The results are that it is better to put bread in an airtight sandwich bag. If the bread is left in the original packaging it will still stay fresh. In an airtight bag it will only be a little fresher. From the data, the hypothesis was not supported.

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7 Ferree, Tori

Fairfield Middle

Rainbow Fire

ABSTRACT: Rainbow Fire Abstract CATEGORY: Chemistry STUDENT: Tori Ferree The purpose of this experiment was to see if the color of a chemical when it's burned related to the chemical's atomic structure. Overall, my hypothesis was if I added each of the chemicals tested to the fire, then the color of the flame would change and relate to the chemical's atomic structure. My control group included the color of the flame with no chemicals added. My independent variables were sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, copper sulfate, and boric acid. My dependent variables were the color of the flame when a chemical is burned, and the number of electrons in each atom for each chemical. During the experiment, I measured 20ml per chemical with 15ml of isopropyl alcohol into individual pans. Each pan containing a chemical was then ignited and observed. When the experiment was finished, I arranged each chemical's atomic structure onto a color spectrum according to the color of the flame when the chemical burned. This experiment concludes that the atomic structure does relate to the color of the flame when a chemical is burned except for copper sulfate. The data collected in this experiment supports my hypothesis. If a chemical is added to fire, the flame will change color and it will relate to the chemical's atomic structure with the exception of copper sulfate. If I did the experiment again, I would include more chemicals and increase the amount of each chemical added to the fire.

11 Frey, Lucy

McNicholas High

Can Frozen Golf Balls go the Distance?

How big of a difference does playing with a cold golf ball on the course make compared to playing with a golf ball held at room temperature? Golfers that play in cooler climates would love to know the answer to this problem. The ball that will have the best performance would be the ball that was kept at room temperature because the inside core doesn't compress as much when it is cold. The difference between the room temperature balls will be very minute. Golf balls have changed over the years. They'we gone from the "Featherie" then to the Guttie and now to the present ball today. This experiment was a tricky experiment filled with unexpected results. In this experiment, six total balls were dropped off the roof. Three were frozen and three were kept at room temperature. The height that each ball bounced was recorded. The second part of this experiment was taking the balls to Ivy Hills Country Club with the pendulum apparatus (to make sure each ball was struck with an even amount of force.) Each set of balls were putted and then the results were recorded in centimeters. The balls that were held at room temperature rolled the furthest and bounced the highest.

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8 Griffith, Azante'

Sycamore Jr High

The Power of CO2

With today's competing demands and high cost of energy, the Scientists are trying to prove that society can use dry ice, solid C02, as an alternative fuel for small applications. The Scientists hypothesize that if salt water, sugar water, vinegar, dish detergent, cold water and hot water are added to dry ice, hot water will produce the most power. The Scientists believe that this will occur because the hydrogen and oxygen in water produces the most gas when added to dry ice. Additionally, hot water causes the molecules to move faster, creating a larger, stronger, and faster reaction. The Scientists would like to determine which household chemical mixed with dry ice produces the most power? First, a film canister was attached to a stable piece of wood and 25 feet of car track place in front. Second, a 1-ounce piece of dry ice was placed into the film canister. Third, the Scientists quickly added 1 of the different measured chemicals to the film canister, closed the lid and placed a small toy bus in front of the film canister on the track. Gas emitting from the dry ice mixture built up in the film canister, popped the lid and pushed the toy bus. The Scientists then repeated the same procedure in 3 trials of 6 tests each for all the different chemicals and recorded the results. The results did not support the Scientists' hypothesis. Instead, the dry ice mixed with vinegar proved to move the toy bus the longest distance. My hypothesis is that if I burn nuts to find the chemical energy stored in them, larger nuts will have more stored energy. To test my hypothesis, I had to build a calorimeter. I placed each nut on a cork, lit it on fire and quickly placed the calorimeter over it. I performed this procedure five times for each type of nut. After the nut burned out, I then measured the final temperature of the water. This process allowed for the results to be used in the math equation, Qwater=Mc/\T. At the end of the procedure I discovered that the walnut had the most chemical energy with an average of 8.7542 calories per nut.

8 Haller, Jake

Guardian Angels Elem

Chemical Energy In Nuts

8 Hallinan, John

Walnut Hills High

Water and the Supercooling Effect

Supercooling is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid below its freezing point while keeping it in its liquid state.The extent to which a water sample can be cooled below 0 Celsius and remain in the liquid state is related to its purity. Consistent with expectations, it has been found that various bottled water samples have substantially lower snap freezing temperatures than river water samples. Somewhat surprisingly,it was found that based on this method, some domestic water samples appeared to be as pure as some bottled water samples.

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8 Hautman, Rachel

Our Lady Of Lourdes Elem

Ageless Apples

My question was- which apple preservative, man-made or natural, keeps an apple fresher longer. In my project I used ten different liquids to test which one kept an apple fresher longer. I thought the store-bought preservative would keep an apple fresher longer because the preservative was made exclusively for this purpose. In my tests, I would soak an apple slice in every liquid for one minute. I would then remove the apple slice and observe the changes in color every 5-10 minutes for two hours.After two hours I tasted the apple slice and tested the pH of the liquid. I kept the soak time and the overall time constant for all the tests. My independent variable was the different liquids and my dependent variable was the color and taste change. My hypothesis was wrong because overall, the lemon juice kept the apple slice fresher longer. The reason the lemon juice kept the apple slice fresh for so long was that it had much ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), which keeps the apple fresh, and it had a low pH level. Bacteria cannot live in a low pH environment and therefore, the bacteria is literally killed. My project could benefit our world because people could use lemon juice to preserve their fruits. The plus-side to this is that the lemon juice is more affordable than the store-bought preservative. People all over enjoy muffins, and many like them fluffy. It would help cooks if they knew which flour makes the least dense (fluffiest) muffins because then they could please their customers more and make a better profit. The problem investigated was which flour type would make the least dense muffins. It was hypothesized that all-purpose flour would make the muffins the fluffiest, because it is used in many recipes, so maybe that is why it is used so often. The flour types tested that you would need to perform the experiment are all-purpose flour, 50/50 whole -wheat and white flour, whole-wheat flour, and soy flour. To find the flour that makes the fluffiest muffins, the muffins are weighed in grams, and then wrapped in saran wrap before being measured in mL inside a measuring cup. Next their density is found using the formula D = g/mL. The muffin densities were: 0.40 g/mL for all-purpose flour, 0.41 g/mL for 50/50 whole-wheat and white flour, 0.44 g/mL for whole-wheat flour, and 0.52 g/mL for soy flour. This experiment accepts the hypothesis because the all-purpose flour was the least dense flour of all the tested flour types.

7 Hellmann, Emily

St Gertrude Elem

Fluffiest Muffins! Which Flour Makes the Fluffiest

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8 Hoskins, Olivia

Fairfield Middle

Light Up the Night

My experiments purpose was to test the amount of light produced from a glow stick and the duration of how long it lasts. Each dye has a different chemical makeup, so I thought that testing the reactions of the dye molecules would produce different results. My hypothesis was that the blue glow stick would produce the least amount of light for the longest amount of time and the red glow stick would produce the most amount of light for the least amount of time. My independent variables are red, blue, orange, green, and yellow glow sticks. My dependent variables are the amount of light produced and the amount of time. The common variables are temperature and the container. I measured the dependent variables by placing a lit up glow stick inside a mason jar covered in aluminum foil so no light could get in. I connected a photoresister in the jar to read the light produced by being connected to a digital multimeter. My data results were that the orange glow stick produced the most amount of light as well as for the longest duration. Red and yellow also had extremely close results and would have probably have been the most lit up glow stick if I tested this experiment again. Blue produced the poorest, and green also had a low voltage produced. In conclusion, the orange glow stick produced the most amount of light for the longest duration. My project was set up to see if hydrogen can be an inexpensive, reliable energy resource. I figured that if for every 200 milliliters of water added on after 2500 milliliters of water, then the amount of hydrogen produced will go up 100 milliliters. I took a bottle and poked two holes in it and put one wire through each of the holes and attached the ends of the wires to three spoons. I then took the ends of the wires and attached them to rubber coated wiring connected to my battery charger. Finally I covered up the two holes with sealant. I filled the bottle up with my desired amount of water and attached balloons to the top. I then turned on the battery charger and the stopwatch simultaneously. Once the stopwatch hit two minutes I turned off the battery charger. I then filled up a pitcher with 1000 milliliters of water and put the balloon in and marked where the water rose to. After that I filled the pitcher up to the line and measured the water amount and subtracted 1000 milliliters. That number was how many milliliters of hydrogen were produced. I found that the average production of hydrogen of 200 milliliters of water added on after 2500 milliliters of water was 74.25 milliliters. My experiment confirmed that hydrogen could be a potential energy source because the only thing that cost any money was getting materials and it went right almost every time.

7 Huston, Patrick

Fairfield Middle

Hydrogen As An Energy Source?

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7 Jaun, Eric

St Gertrude Elem

How do different acids affect the rate of corrosio

In this project, different acids were tested for corrosion on steel wool. Each acid was placed in 8 different cups. They were labeled 12H, 1D, 2D, 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D, and 7D (H for hours, D for days). At each interval the steel wool was removed, dried, and weighed again. Vinegar affected the steel wool the most. Lemon juice was second. When it came to lowest pH though, lemon juice came in first vinegar in second. Water had very dusty rust on its steel wool compared to others. All of the acids' colors changed at least a little bit, but mountain dew went from green, to black. Some acids had more trouble with the steel wool floating instead of staying at the bottom. Mountain Dew and vinegar had the most trouble with this. For vinegar, the steel wool that was floating seemed to expand to such an extreme amount that it was almost impossible to dry off to weigh, let alone get it out of the cup. The vinegar caused the steel wool to be exposed to the air more than any of the other liquids. The lemon juice and vinegar had to be kept in another room because they smelled so badly; they were also the most acidic. In the hypothesis it was said that the acids would accelerate corrosion. The hypothesis was proven because the acids corroded the steel wool faster and were more powerful than the water. We conducted a scientific investigation to study the effects of time on food in regards to energy content. The objective of this experiment is to explore whether or not fresh food is healthier than stale food or whether one is easier for the human body to burn. We decided to research this to find out an easier way to help along a diet or to aid the body in the burning process. To accomplish this, we decided to make a simple calorie meter and measure the amount of food energy in five different foods, each twice, once fresh and once after waiting 5 weeks. After conducting the experiment, we discovered that stale food actually has more calories than fresh food and/or burns easier. Thus, if someone's body was having a hard time processing food energy, then eating aged food may aid in the burning process. This may help some people who may have a medical problem that causes them to have a weak digestive system, henceforth eating stale food could aid their body in the burning process.

8 Kavinsky, Jillian

Walnut Hills High

Does Food Lose Calories Over Time?

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8 Kenkel, Mathew

Our Lady Of Lourdes Elem

Which Paper Mache Paste is the Strongest?

We found our idea for our science fair project on a website. Our purpose was to see which paper mache glue was the strongest. Our hypothesis was that the thicker the glue, the stronger it would be. Our experiment started by looking on the internet for different recipes of paper mache glue. We found four ways to make the glue that holds paper mache projects together. We used each of these glue recipes on four balloons that we blew up. We measured each balloon to be 29 inches and added 4 layers on newspaper strips dipped in the glue recipes. Once these dried we used 2 buckets, putting the balloon in the first bucket and the second bucket on top. We filled the second bucket with rocks until we saw a crack in the paper mache. As it turned out, the paper mache glue made with the most liquid held up the best. The best was the boiled flour and water which was five parts water, and one part flour. It crushed at 87 pounds, and it took 17 minutes to break. Therefore, our hypothesis had been totally wrong. The one we thought would be the strongest had broken with the least weight. The analysis was that we discovered that by boiling the flour with the water caused the starch molecules to expand and become more rubbery. The reason we did this project was to help artists, in case the design dropped, it would hold upon impact.

7 Koesterman, Abigail

St Gertrude Elem

How do different types of flour, oat flour, wheat

How do different types of flour, oat flour, wheat flour, soy flour, all purpose flour, and unbleached flour, affect the density of muffins? Submitted by Abby Koesterman The purpose of this experiment is for bakers to gain knowledge on which types of flour effects the density of muffins. This experiment tested five different types of flour, soy, wheat, all-purpose, unbleached and oat flour. Two dozen cinnamon muffins were baked using the same recipe for all five flours. Each muffin was weighed using an electronic scale. The muffin was then submerged in a controlled beaker of water to record volume. All data was recorded. The data was then used to determine the density of each muffin. The final data and results indicated that soy flour yielded the highest density muffin. The hypothesis believed that oat flour would create the densest muffin. This experiment rejected this hypothesis and clearly showed soy flour yielded the highest density muffin.

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8 Koesterman, Steven

St Gertrude Elem

Which stain remover works best on white cotton fab

This experiment,"Which stain remover works best on white cotton fabric", was conducted by Steven Koesterman The purpose of this experiment is to see which laundry stain remover would remove stains from white cotton fabric the best. When stains cannot be removed, clothing is expensive to replace so this experiment would save consumers a lot of money. This experiment tested five different stain removers on 8x8 cotton fabric pieces with ketchup stains. A millimeter of ketchup was placed on five pieces of fabric and sat for twenty four hours, and then five milliliters of stain remover was placed directly on one of the stains. Once applied, the stain removers were left to sit on the stain for thirty minutes. Then the fabric was washed in a washing machine and put into a dryer. The stained fabric was then checked for brightness against paint chips. All of the stain removers were able to remove the ketchup stain at different degrees. In this experiment, Brand A appeared to work the best in removing ketchup stains from white cotton fabric. Consumers would save money using Satin Remover Brand A because they wouldn't have to replace their clothes as often due to stains.

8 Kohls, Noah

Walnut Hills High

The Effects that Paint and Other Substances have A

The purpose of this study is to show the effects that substances have of the process of rusting. Rusting is the chemical reaction that occurs when air and water interact with iron and steel. Studies have shown that rust weakens structures made of iron and steel and have cause the United States financially millions of dollars for repair and replacement. There are various solutions such as zinc, Rustoleum, and wheel grease bearing. In my experiment I have tested these substances under a constant amount of salt-water and tap water over a period of 6 weeks. In the first week the iron nails, my control, rusted completely when in contact with salt-water and tap water. None of my nails rusted when in contact with only air. Over time all the nails showed some sign of rust, except for the nails cover with zinc. This suggests that many structures should be coated with zinc for the best protection against rust. This project was done to determine which base is best for fat based organic soap. We thought that lard, which consisted of the most percentage of fat, would produce the best soap because of its high fat content. To make the soap, we used the cold process method. We mixed a fat base with sodium hydroxide and ethyl alcohol then added the solution to a salt water solution. While we were making the soap, they mostly smelled a lot like acetone. Though the lard, Crisco, butter, and coconut oil based soaps hardened quickly and thoroughly, the others had a lot of liquid left over and left a "slimy" solid instead of a dried solid. We tested each soap on 3 variables: time to create suds, whether or not it left residue, and time to completely wash pencil lead off of hands. We were surprised at how fast some of the soaps were to lather and even more surprised at how slow others were. We also found that only 3 of the 7 handmade soaps didn't leave a residue. We then timed how long it would take to wash off lead, and the times varied by a lot. Through all 3 tests, we concluded that the best fat base for organic soap was the coconut oil. It produced the best results of all tests, and it didn't leave our hands with a repulsive odor.

12 Kosuru, Madhuri

William Mason High

Suds of Fun!

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8 Laake, Derek

Our Lady Of Visitation Elem

Water+Cornstarch+Force=Solid

Abstract Cornstarch + Water + Force = Solid was the title of my project.This project is about how a solution of cornstarch and water has the ability to turn into a solid when force is exerted. The length of time an object will stay on the surface of the solution of cornstarch and water is increased by the amount of weight and the diameter of the object being dropped upon it.I built a rig out of PVC and steel to drop weights into a vat of this solution and timed how long it took the objects to sink. Heavier weights took longer to sink and smaller diameter objects that weighed the same as a larger object took longer to sink. The results were consistent with the first part of the hypothesis that it took longer for heavier objects to sink. The second half of the hypothesis was opposite because smaller diameter weights stayed afloat longer than similar weight with a larger diameter. My interpretation of these results is that the more force applied to the solution will turn the solution into a solid longer. This is why the objects with a smaller diameter stayed on the surface longer than the objects with the same weight but larger diameter, because more force is concentrated on a smaller surface area.

7 Lange, Erich

Fairfield Middle

Veggie Power

The purpose of my experiment is to find out which fruits/vegetables create the most voltage to possibly make a new energy resource since the world is running out of fossil fuels. The hypothesis of my experiment was if the amount of acid in the fruit increased, then the voltage would increase.My independent variables were a potato, onion, tomato, & all four citrus fruits. My dependent variables was the open circuit voltage of the independent variables. My constants were the knife, jumper leads, wire cutters, and multi meter. My control group was regular battery voltage of a AAA battery. I measured & observed the variables by setting a multi meter to the appropriate setting (V DC 20). Then I cut selected fruit/vegetable in half and took two 4" galvanized nails and two 4" pieces of bare 10 guage copper wire and stuck one of each halfway into each half fruit. I connected the positive terminal on the multi meter to the galvanized nail (-), and the negative terminal on the multi meter to the wire (+) on the other half fruit. The circuit was completed by connecting the other two terminals together. The results collected from my experiment were the lemon produced the most voltage, then the lime, grapefruit & orange, potato, onion, and tomato. I concluded the amount of fruit needed to create sufficient energy to produce voltage would be too large.

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10 Lebowitz, Abby

William Mason High

A Vegetarian Substitiute for Gelatin

The purpose of my experiment was to find a vegetarian substitute for collagen so that vegetarians or people who keep kosher would eat gelatin desserts. The majority of collagen is produced from pig bones. I hypothesized that dessert gelatin would be more popular if it was made from plants. I could not find any published documents discussing or products advertising plant based collagen for use in gelatin products during my research. I had to think out of the box and come up with potential substitutes without much direction. Three protein based substances made from plants were chosen based on what I had learned about the chemistry of gelatin products. I used a commercially available gelatin as my control. I followed the recipe found on the gelatin box for all test substances adding fruit juice and canned pineapple. The first substance chosen was agar which is commonly used for growing bacteria in Petri dishes. I had observed that agar had gelatin like properties. The second was glycine which is a residue of collagen sold in health food stores. The third substance I chose was peanut oil because of its high protein content. I found that neither glycine nor peanut oil became gelatin like. The glycine did have a melted smoothie looking substance at the bottom and peanut oil had a jelly, foamy substance on top. Perhaps more could be done with process and proportions. Agar proved to be an acceptable replacement even though it is a bit stiffer than regular gelatin. The purpose of my experiment was to find out which product is the best insulator. Was it a natural product that we have available to us easily or a recycle product that we could re-use from our trash to help save the environment? Finding this out help us make the right decisions when insulating our home, saving our environment and our families lives. My hypothesis would be the dog hair as the best insulator. I thought since most animals live outside in the cold and hot, especially dogs, because their coat keeps them warm in the winter and cool in the summer. During my experiment I used natural and recycle products: dog hair, straw, dirt, wood, glass, jeans, plastic bags and paper to test against my control, air. In a controlled environment, I placed nine smaller jars inside the nine larger jars and filled the space between the eight jars with a natural or recycled product. Then I added boiling water to the inside of nine jars and covered them with a lid one minute apart. I observed and recorded the temperature every ten minutes for two hours. Repeated the same experiment used freezing water. Ran each test three times. I learned that my hypothesis was wrong. Overall, paper was the best insulator because air was being trapped between the shredded paper and it took longer for the particles to transfer from hot to cold. The longer it takes to transfer the better the insulation.

8 Leesman, Lauren

Our Lady Of Lourdes Elem

Live Green With Insulation

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7 Leonis, Steven

Nagel Middle

Does Baking Soda Affect The Size Of Cookies?

Baking soda is an ingredient in cookie recipes because it is the agent that allows them to rise. We tested the effect on varying amounts of baking soda in chocolate chip cookies to see if it changed their height or diameter. The four conditions tested were: 100%, 75%, 25%, or none of the baking soda called for in the recipe. We found that the groups with varying amounts of baking soda all had approximately the same height, but the more baking soda added, the lesser the diameter of the cookie. The group with no baking soda had the shortest height and the widest diameter. We concluded that even a little bit of added baking soda will cause a cookie to rise more than a cookie without any baking soda. However, varying the amount of baking soda can influence the cookie spreading while baking. The purpose of this experiment was to determine what detergent out of the four chosen would remove the selected stains the best. To conduct this experiment, swatches of white cotton cloth were stained with six different products and then laundered with each of the four detergents. The products were ketchup, chocolate sauce, mustard, blueberry jelly, salad dressing and red wine. The results were measured by how well a stain was removed compared to the control. A self-made scale was used with 1=completely removed and 5=no visible change. The results of this experiment were that the average removal of the stains for detergent number four was better than the other three. While most of the other detergents scored a two on salad dressing and a four on red wine, detergent number four scored a one and a three respectively. The results indicate that the hypothesis should be rejected. The stains were removed more thoroughly with detergent number four than with number one. The hypothesis stated that detergent number one would do the best. When a bottle of soda is accidently shaken, it will often explode upon opening. This occurs because the soda was bottled under pressure allowing carbon dioxide to dissolve into the liquid. When shaken, gas collects under the surface of the beverage. When opened, the pressure in the bottle decreases, and the bubbles expand forcing liquid from the bottle. This experiment was done to see if there is an effective method to decrease this explosion. Twelve ounce bottles of 7-Up at room temperature were shaken for thirty seconds each. One of four interventions and a control (no intervention) was applied to the bottles for fifteen seconds. These interventions included placing the bottle in an ice water bath, placing the bottle in a warm water bath, tapping the top, and tapping the side. The bottles were then opened allowing soda to explode. The soda remaining in the bottle was measured and the amount of soda that exploded from the bottle was calculated. This was done for five trials. Although there was a large variance between trials, tapping the side proved to be the most effective method to prevent shaken soda from exploding. On average 45.4ml of soda exploded after tapping the side of the bottle compared to 62.4ml for the control. The cold water bath (52.4ml) and tapping the top (54.8ml) also proved effective. The hot water bath increased the explosion (70ml.

7 Lorio, Mailey

St Columban Elem

To Clean or Not to Clean

7 Lynd, Trevor

St Thomas More Elem

Is there a way to prevent a coke explosion?

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8 Mackey, Madeline

Guardian Angels Elem

Candy Chromatography

My experiment was designed to determine if M&Ms and Skittles used the same dyes in their candy coatings and to see what color dye was the most soluble. My hypothesis was that the dyes would be the same for M&M's and Skittles and that the most soluble candy coating color would be red. I used paper chromatography to separate and identify the dyes used in the candy coatings and then calculated the rf values for each dye to determine what dye was the most soluble. Rf values are calculated by dividing the distance traveled by the dye into the distance traveled by a salt solution. I extracted the dyes from each color candy, prepared a 1% salt solution for solvent, and used coffee filters cut into squares to create chromatography paper. I labeled the paper with the different colors of candy, spotted the dye extract onto the corresponding label, and immersed the edge of the paper into the salt solution. The components of the dye color separated out on the paper into separate bands and the dye and salt solution moved up the paper, using capillary action. I carefully repeated the process five times, logged how far the dye and solvent traveled, calculated the rf values for each experiment, and averaged the rf values for accuracy. The experiment did not support my hypothesis. The dyes used in M&Ms and Skittles are not the same, M&Ms are more soluble than Skittles, and the most soluble candy color is yellow, not red. We grew sugar crystals for our experiment. The purpose of our experiment was to learn more about sugar crystals. Our hypothesis predicted that sugar crystals will grow faster in light. We concluded this because our background information stated that light acts as a stimulant. We combined boiling water and sugar to create a syrup like substance. Next we poured the syrup into the petri dishes. We put three petri dishes in three different light conditions. We put one in under a heat lamp, one in a window sill and one in a dark closet. Then we observed the petri dishes for a week. For our results we found that the light did act as a stimulant to the crystals. Therefore our hypothesis was correct. After all data was collected we concluded that light can stimulate substances. With this finding we can now change the growth of crystal like substances. In conclusion to our experiment our hypothesis was supported because the crystals under the heat lamp grew the most.

7 Matthews, Samantha

Hopewell Jr High

Crazy Crystals

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7 McCart, Will

Nativity Elem

The Battery Showdown

The purpose of the experiment is to answer the question of which battery will last the longest and to answer the question which battery is the better deal based on the price. My hypothesis predicts that the Energizer batteries will last the longest but also that the Aldi Brand batteries, will be the better value battery based on the price versus the life of the battery. Three identical Coleman aluminum LED flashlights were used each were installed with three batteries of different levels of quality and chemistries. The batteries types were the Aldi brand or Phaser, the Duracell Copperhead and the Energizer Max. I then numbered each battery 1, 2 and 3 in each brand. To record my data I made a chart for each brand of battery that included Battery #, the numbers on the batteries, the time (recorded in ½ hour time increments), the voltage for each battery at their time measurement. Initial voltages were checked with a RadioShack 22range pocket digital multimeter. So flashlight "A" had the Aldi brand, flashlight "E" had the Energizer and flashlight "D" had the Duracell batteries. Finally every half an hour the voltage of each battery was checked and data recorded. Continued readings were recorded until the battery was dead. A battery is dead when the voltage reading is around 0.9 volts. My results were that the Aldi Brand Batteries died first. The Energizer and Duracell batteries were about the same. In general, the batteries lasted a lot longer than predicted. Detergent is used many times for the average family. But which one is really the best at removing stains? In this project, the purpose is to help find out which detergent works the best in removing only ink stains because it is a very common stain problem. The hypothesis is that product # 2 will work the best in removing ink stains. To investigate this problem, there were three detergents used, with two run-throughs of the experiment, and measuring the amount of stain removed using a numerical scale from one(lowest) to ten(highest). The numbers were then recorded and averaged by the two numbers. The washer or water heat was not used. All of the detergents removed less ink stain than expected. The hypothesis was proven correct in the experiment. Product B removed the most ink stain by a decent amount.

8 Momper, Matthew

St Gertrude Elem

Which laundry detergent removes ink stains the bes

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8 Mueller, Jacob

Our Lady Of Visitation Elem

Old Batteries vs. New Batteries

Have you ever wondered which type of battery is the best? Is the newest battery really the best? Will a brand name battery last longer than a generic battery? What about a rechargeable battery? Which type of battery can last the longest and give the most power? By finding the answer we can cut back on the use of batteries and reduce the carbon foot print we currently use. My test propelled a balloon in the air by a battery powered fan. The balloon is filled with one half teaspoon salt to add weight. The fan propelled the balloon in a clear Lexan tube (4 inch internal diameter and 3 feet long). Every ten minutes the balloon's height was measured until the batteries could no longer power the fan enough to keep the balloon in the air. My hypothesis was if the height a battery propels a balloon is related to using alkaline (Duracell), lithium (Energizer), and zinc carbon (Tenergy) then the alkaline battery should perform the best. The alkaline battery is the newest technology. From this experiment many interesting things were learned. My hypothesis was on track. Alkaline batteries performed the best. In a side experiment I tested generic alkaline batteries and found their performance to be the same a s the national brand. Finally when looking for a battery it is important to choose the right battery for each application. This report shows that although you pay more for the national brand it may not pay off. will

8 Myers, Julian

Horizon Science Acad. Cincini

Yogurt

8 Narayan, Neeraj

Sycamore Jr High

Sublimation Rates of Fizzing Dry Ice

My science fair experiment is "Does Dry Ice Sublimate More Quickly in Air, Water, or Oil? Why?" In this experiment, I cut a block of dry ice into small cubes. I then dropped these pieces of dry ice into beakers into equal amounts of air, water, and oil. Then, I timed this to see which substance dry ice can sublimate quickly in. I then repeated this experiment for four more times. My hypothesis for my experiment is "If some quantity of dry ice is placed in air, water, and oil, then it would sublimate faster in air because air has molecules that are most widely spread out." In this experiment, the three substances of air, water, and oil was my independent variable and the time in minutes was my dependent variable. I then recorded my results on a table and then later graphed and analyzed the results. I then concluded that the fastest substance with an average sublimation time of 7:21 was water, and the slowest time with an average sublimation time of 30:35 was air. The second fastest substance with an average sublimation time of 10:56 was oil.

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7 Noschang, Alice

All Saints Elem

What Dishwashing Soap Works the Best?

This experiment was designed to see which of three dishwashing soaps cleaned the best. The three soap categories were: name brand, green brand, and store brand. The hypothesis stated that the name brand dishwashing soap would work the best. To test which dishwashing soap worked the best you will over bake the brownies in an ungreased pan leaving extra brownie residue to test the soaps cleaning ability. For this you will need brownies, pans, three different dishwashing liquids, and a camera. After baking and letting the brownies cool use the following steps three times on each of the three soaps: 1. Let the pan soak with soap 2. Pre-rinse with the sink hose 3.Wipe with a sponge, 4. Spray again. Evaluate how well the soap cleaned by if the bottom, sides, greasy film, and corners were clean. Measure the excess brownie left after cleaning in teaspoons. Take pictures and record results on charts and graphs. The hypothesis was disproved. The green soap had the least remaining brownie residue and was the most consistent. The name brand soap had a total 9/48 of a teaspoon. The green brand had 6/48 of a teaspoon. The store brand soap filled up 20/48 of teaspoon brownie residue. Looking at the cost most people would probably want to buy the name brand because it costs about forty dollars less than soap 2. Soap 1 and soap 2 almost had the same cleaning ability so paying forty more dollars for soap 2 isn't probably worth it. A hair consists of an outer layer which protects the inner layers. The outer layer is opened and damaged whenever chemicals penetrate through to lighten the inner pigments. So, is lightened hair weaker than untreated hair? It will happen because chemicals are damaging the outer layer to get inside. The purpose for the project is to prove or disprove the damage occurring to the hair by testing the strength with an apparatus. Materials used were the apparatus, quarters, a timer, and a scale to test the strength, and hair lightening mixture, a tint brush, and a timer to lighten two out of three hair swatches. Once I applied the mixture with the tint brush onto them, I let one swatch sit for 15 minutes and the other for 30 minutes before rinsing. For testing the strength for each trial I added one quarter at a time to the apparatus until the hair broke. There were 10 trials from each swatch. This showed how some hairs' resistance weren't as strong as others. The swatch untreated was the strongest. The hair treated for 15mins. was weaker, and the hair treated for 30mins. was the weakest due to more time the lightener was exposed to them. This concludes that lightening hair does cause it to be damaged and weakened. People who plan to have their hair lightened should be aware of the harm lightening causes because it could change their decision.

7 Pan, Chrissy

All Saints Elem

Hanging by a Hair: Testing the Strength of Hair Li

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8 Phifer, Hunter

Walnut Hills High

The Effect of Light and Sugar Purity on Crystal Gr

Our Experiment was to determine the affects of light and Sugar Purity on Crystal Growth. Our hypothesis was that if light and sugar purity have and effect on crystal growth than the more light and greater sugar purity will increase crystal growth. We first prepared boiling water in a pot over the stove. When it was boiling we poured the water into a jar or plastic container and crystal additives were added.Over a 5-8 week period we observed the affect of light and sugar purity noting any change in color, number of crystals, water level, and the crystals shape and size. At the end of the experiment we concluded based on our hypothesis that the it was somewhat rejected because although light has and effect on crystal growth sugar purity doesn't.

8 Pierson, Brianna

Horizon Science Acad. Cincini

How Liquid Climbs

For this pfoject, i filled one cup up with water, another cup up with oil, another cup up with vineger. Then i took a strip of paper towel and held it in the three liquids for 5 seconds. Then i recorded how high the liquids rosed.

7 Rogers, Kaylan

Horizon Science Acad. Cincini

The Lemon Battery

Kaylan Rogers The Lemon Battery My purpose of my project was to find out what types of fruits generate a battery to ignite a light bulb. My hypothesis was to use more than one citrus fruit to see if they were the best to ignite a light bulb. I used a lemon, an orange and a grapefruit. My conclusion was that all citrus fruit will generate electricity and ignite the light bulb. The citrus fruit are the best fruits to use because of the citric acid I also found out that copper wire worked better than aluminum wire to conduct to electricity.

8 Rudemiller, Erin

Our Lady Of Lourdes Elem

Which type of orange juice has the most Vitamin C? Which type of orange juice has the most vitamin C? I think fresh squeezed orange juice will have the most vitamin C because fresh squeezed has no additives and is all natural. The other orange juices I tested were a frozen concentrate; bottled, from concentrate; and bottled, not from concentrate. My control was a vitamin C solution. To make the solution I had to mix some ascorbic acid with some water. I also had to make an indophenol solution to test how much vitamin C each juice had. I had to mix some indophenol powder with some water. The solution was a very deep blue. I put thirty drops of indophenol solution in five test tubes. Then I kept putting in drops of each orange juice into the assigned test tube till the solution turned clear. The fewer the drops, the more vitamin C. The fresh squeezed orange juice had the most vitamin C. The frozen concentrate and the bottled, not from concentrate had the same amount. The bottled concentrate had the least vitamin C.

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8 Schloss, Benjamin

St Gertrude Elem

Which Stain Remover removes Stains the Best

Ben Schloss Which Stain Remover Removes Stains the best? The Importance of this project is to learn which treating stain remover helps removes stains the most out of white100% cotton shirts. Which Stain Remover removes stains the Best. The Hypothesis for this project was that brand A would be the best, because of prior use. The Materials that were used in this experiment were one hundred percent white cotton shirts for the object that was to be stained. The stains were grape jelly, Ketchup, Coffee, and dirt. Also, for brands of pre treating stain remover were used with a constant of detergent. To ensure that each product got many chances to show results, we tested each stain remover multiple times. Some of the results that were obtained were that some of the different brands of stain remover work better on a particular stain than others. This was dominant throughout the experiment, each product removed one stain almost completely, but others not much. My Hypothesis was proven incorrect when Brand C removed most of the stains more than the rest. The Importance of the data that was compiled is so that people learn which stain remover to use on different stains. It also shows on a small scale, which product should be used to remove several different satins in only one wash. The knowledge gained in this experiment helps people know what to buy, so that they buy the correct product the first time therefore also saving money.

8 Steinbrunner, Luke

St Mary Elem

Determining the Effectiveness of Eradication Agent

The purpose of my experiment was to determine the most effective agent in eradicating skunk odor. I researched a variety of agents and methods, ranging from scientific approaches to folk remedies. My hypothesis was that either hydrogen peroxide or a solution of baking soda and water would work the best in neutralizing the scent. To do the experiment I bought 13 chemical agents and real skunk scent. I found enough cotton fabric to accommodate 14 square swatches. I set up a control swatch and labeled all the materials. I placed a single drop of skunk scent on each cotton swatch. I then proceeded to place a small amount of eradicating agent on each swatch. Finally, I waited for twenty-four hours and had seven testers smell each swatch and rate them numerically, according to how effectively the agent neutralized the odor. I documented my research with photographs and recorded the results. After the testing I made charts and graphs to display my findings. I found that my hypothesis was not validated by the results. Dawn dish detergent and ammonia were most effective in neutralizing the skunk odor. In fact, many less effective agents are generally ones assumed to work well, like tomato juice or hydrogen peroxide. I have learned from this experiment that commonly accepted remedies are not the most effective. I also found the scientific method is the best way to acquire accurate information.

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8 Thomas, Meredith

St Gertrude Elem

Which Procedures in Stain Removal Are Most Effecti

Getting a stain on your new shirt can get you in a bad situation. Luckily, there are many different remedies for stain removal that you can make at home. This project shows just a few of those procedures and their effects. There are many different solutions for removing stains; some of them include using ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, lemon juice, and even dishwashing soap! The question is which procedures in stain removal are most effective in treating 100%cotton and 50%cotton/50%polyester grape juice stains? The hypothesis for this project is that the procedure consisting of ammonia, white vinegar, liquid laundry detergent, and water will be the most effective in treating the stains. This is said because all these factors can remove stains and all of them combined may be the most effective treatment. For the experiment, samples of each fabric were stained with grape juice then treated with 4 different stain removers. Then a purple value scale, ordered from the original stain color to white, was used to determine which stain remover works best. After all the data had been collected using the value scale, it was determined that just using hydrogen peroxide was most the effective. The hypothesis for this project has been disproven, the mixture with ammonia, vinegar and laundry detergent made the fabric samples turn to a lavender shade and lefts spots and an outline of the stain. Removing stains can be easy, but make sure to research the solvents you're using before making that big stain even worse. When we first decided to do this project, we were wishing that it would snow. This led to us wondering why they always put salt on the roads before it snowed. We researched and found out that the salt lowers the freezing point of water, keeping the water liquid at temperatures at which it would normally be frozen. We then started wondering if salt was only used because it was the cheapest substance, or the most effective substance that would lower the freezing point of water, and which other substances would work. We decided to test it. In our experiment, we added different concentrations of salt, brown sugar, and sugar to water, along with one control group which was just water. We then recorded how much of it had frozen every half hour until the water had completely frozen. We repeated this process two separate times. Our results showed that all three additives lowered the freezing point of the water. The only one that completely froze was the plain water. Brown sugar and sugar kept some of the water liquid, but the salt water barely froze at all. Our findings were that salt is the best substance for lowering the freezing point of water, and not just the most economically convenient.

8 Vaidya, Sanika

Sycamore Jr High

Effect of Additives on the Freezing Point of Water

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8 Volz, Maddie

St Gertrude Elem

What Type of Stain Remover Works the Best on White

The purpose of this project is to compare common cleaning solutions to determine which one will work the best at removing stains from tiles commonly used in kitchens and bathrooms. This project will help people to save money on cleaning solutions if it is determined that vinegar is as effective as the more expensive commercial cleaners. This test was conducted with 3 different cleaning solutions; vinegar, Oxi -clean, and Comet with bleach. Will the more expensive commercial cleaning solutions be the most effective in removing stains? The hypothesis is that the cleaning solution that contains bleach, Comet, will be the best stain remover. To test the hypothesis, tiles were soaked in each of the following common staining liquids; coffee, orange pop, wine, and cola for 2 days. Each tile was then scrubbed for 30 strokes with a toothbrush with each of the cleaning solutions (1 tsp. of each cleaning solution was used). The tiles were then compared to an original unstained tile to verify which solution removed the stains the best. The results were that brand A and brand B worked the same, and that brand C did not do as well overall. My hypothesis that brand would be the most effective was incorrect. This project will help to save people money when purchasing cleaning products since the brand A worked as effectively as the more expensive brand B and more effectively than Brand C. The title for this experiment is Paper Chromatography A Separation Technique. This experiment uses a liquid and filter paper to separate components in a solution. This project is about trying to find all the color dyes in candies, markers, and kool-aids to see if similar colors travel similar distances. The most interesting part of these experiments was looking at all of the colors like black and finding out that it isn't made up of a single color. They are really made up of three or four colors. To get these results, I needed to find a precise pattern to complete each trial. That pattern was: cuttting the filter paper, labeling it, and puttting a dot of the item that was to be tested on a line. I would then start the timer, wait, and observe. During the experiments, I learned that my hypothesis was true and that some colors are made up of different colors than what we think. This explains that similar colors, like orange and brown, do travel similar distances because they are made up of similar colors. This is because colors like orange and brown have an likness for the water meaning that these colors travel farther than most. My hypothesis was proven correct. This project is exciting because all the materials tested are everyday items that people could have in their home. It's cool to know that a black marker isn't really just black or M&M's aren't just plain like they appears.

8 Weckenbrock, Victoria

Our Lady Of Visitation Elem

Paper Chromatography As A Separation Technique

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7 Wilson, Isaiah

Horizon Science Acad. Cincini

Coffee vs Milk

My question is which beverage is more affective on human behavior?

Total Project Reports: 59 Filter: Project Reports with: All of (Any of (Any of (Status = "Registration Complete", Status = "Submitted to Teacher"), Status = "Submitted to Science Fair"), Category = "Chemistry")

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