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AUGUST 2012

CURRENT PROJECTS

This report is a summary of current projects for the quarter May, June & July 2012

ACARP CONTACTS

PROGRAM MANAGEMENT Australian Coal Research Limited Level 8, Suite 12 Christie Centre 320 Adelaide Street Brisbane Q 4000 Phone: 07 3221 0040

Mark Bennetts Executive Director [email protected] Terry Reilly Levy Administrator [email protected]

PROJECT ADMINISTRATION Australian Research Administration Pty Ltd 12th Floor, 167 Eagle Street Brisbane Qld 4000 PO Box 7148 Riverside Centre Qld 4001 Phone: 07 3229 7661

Roger Wischusen Manager [email protected] Anne Mabardi Administration Manager [email protected] Nicole Youngman Administration Assistant [email protected] Bevan Kathage Underground--Qld [email protected] Peter Newling Coal Preparation [email protected] Keith Smith Open Cut Environmental [email protected] Allen Lowe Technical Market Support [email protected] John Brett Open Cut Mining [email protected] Russell Howarth Underground--NSW [email protected] Neil Alston Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation [email protected]

www.acarp.com.au

DISCLAIMER No person, corporation or other organisation ("person") should rely on the contents of this report and each should obtain independent advice from a qualified person with respect to the information contained in this report. Australian Coal Research Limited, its directors, servants and agents (collectively "ACR") is not responsible for the consequences of any action taken by any person in reliance upon the information set out in this report, for the accuracy or veracity of any information contained in this report or for any error or omission in this report. ACR expressly disclaims any and all liability and responsibility to any person in respect of anything done or omitted to be done in respect of the information set out in this report, any inaccuracy in this report or the consequences of any action by any person in reliance, whether wholly or partly, upon the whole or any part of the contents of this report.

ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS

MAJOR PROJECT

C20003 RISKGATE...........................................................................................................................................................................5

UNDERGROUND

DETECTION AND PREVENTION OF FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS ........................................................................................................6 C14027 Active Explosion Barriers .....................................................................................................................................................6 C16006 Investigation of the Aging Effect of Electronic Components in Power Supplies ..................................................................6 C20002 Airo-Dust - Parameter Testing .............................................................................................................................................6 C21015 New Forms of Fire Suppression and Hydrocarbon Absorption Materials to Underground Coal Mines: Scoping Study ......7 C21016 Cheaper and More Effective Inertant Than Stone Dust .......................................................................................................8 ENVIRONMENT - SUBSIDENCE AND MINE WATER ..........................................................................................................................8 C18015 Effects of Geology on Upsidence and Closure Movements and Impacts in Valleys ...........................................................8 C18016 Reducing the Impact of Longwall Extraction on Groundwater Systems ..............................................................................8 C20038 Standardised Subsidence Information Management System ..............................................................................................9 C20046 Monitoring Surface Condition of Landscape Features Subject to Mining Subsidence with Very High Resolution Imagery ....................................................................................................................9 EXPLORATION .......................................................................................................................................................................................9 C16018 Advanced Logging Tool .......................................................................................................................................................9 C21014 CQDX Laboratory to Customer Data Transfer .....................................................................................................................9 C21019 In-seam Wireless Drill String Communications System .....................................................................................................10 MAINTENANCE ....................................................................................................................................................................................10 C17020 Reducing the Risk of Hydraulic Hose Assembly Failures on Longwall Systems ...............................................................10 C18020 Big Tyre: Non Pneumatic Non Solid Wheel .......................................................................................................................10 C19012 Intrinsically Safe Touch Screen for Computer Interfaces in Hazardous Areas ..................................................................11 C21017 Extending the Life of Disposable Exhaust Filters in Vehicles Operating in Underground Coal Mines ..............................11 MINING TECHNOLOGY AND PRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................................11 C19008 Roof Support Design Methodology for Wide Roadways....................................................................................................11 C19016 AFC Pan Stability Investigation .........................................................................................................................................12 C20033 Development of a Safer Underground Explosive ...............................................................................................................12 C20037 Polymetric FRAS Rated Conveyor Idlers for Underground Mines .....................................................................................12 C21012 Fibreoptic Conveyor Monitoring System ............................................................................................................................12 C21018 Water Jet Cable Bolt Drill Investigation .............................................................................................................................13 C21024 Continuous AFC Chain Tension Feedback System ..........................................................................................................13 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ..................................................................................................................................................................14 C18019 Improved Dust Control on Longwalls Using a New Water Mist Venturi System ................................................................14 C18021 Analysis of Industry Data to Enable Quantitative Control Effectiveness Assessment .......................................................14 C19010 Emergency Response: Mine Entry Data Management......................................................................................................14 C19011 Longwall Hydraulics, Staple Loc Staple, Fatigue Assessment ..........................................................................................15 C19015 Safety Case For Electrical Isolation ...................................................................................................................................15 C19056 High Pressure Injection Injuries: Detecting the Presence and Extent of Injury ..................................................................15 C20036 DPM Risk Factors ..............................................................................................................................................................15 C21009 IS and Non Invasive Detection of Pressure in Hydraulic Hoses Underground ..................................................................16 ROADWAY DEVELOPMENT ...............................................................................................................................................................16 C17018 Automated Bolt and Mesh Handling Project ......................................................................................................................16 C18023 CM2010 Project - Continuous Miner Automation Component ...........................................................................................16 C20034 Rapid Advance Conveyor ..................................................................................................................................................16 C20035 Automated Monorail Extension System for Roadway Development .................................................................................16 C20041 Polymer Based Alternative to Steel Mesh for Coal Mines: ToughSkin ..............................................................................17 STRATA CONTROL AND WINDBLASTS............................................................................................................................................17 C14014 Practitioners Handbook on Managing Geotechnical Risk in Underground Coal Mining ....................................................17 C20031 Update of Stress Concentration Effects about Longwall Panels for Improved Mine Planning ..........................................17 C20032 Dynamic Response of Longwall Systems and their Relationship to Caving Behaviour ....................................................18

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

C21011 New Testing Procedure for the Assessment of Resin Performance for Improved Encapsulated Roof Bolt Installation ....18 C21013 Improving Roof Control on Longwall Faces Through the Incorporation of Reliable Convergence Monitoring Data Into Load Cycle Analysis Software .........................................................................................................................................................18 C21020 Real Time Seismic Roof Condition Mapping Ahead of Longwall Mining ...........................................................................19 C21023 Optimisation of Roof Bolt Length Based on Improved Resin Performance .......................................................................19 VENTILATION, GAS DRAINAGE AND MONITORING........................................................................................................................19 C16016 Application of Numerical Outburst Model for Outburst Management ................................................................................19 C17015 Likelihood of High Overpressures......................................................................................................................................20 C17017 Tools to Simplify the Coiled Tube Drilling System .............................................................................................................20 C18013 Information Dissemination for the Management of Spontaneous Combustion..................................................................20 C20006 Development of an Alternative Electronic Spark Test Apparatus ......................................................................................21 C20012 Geophysical Estimation of Concentration and Composition of Gas In Place in Unmined Coal Seams ............................21 C20014 Fibre Optic Based Methane Sensor...................................................................................................................................22 C20039 Controlling Heatings and Gas Leakage Using Innovative Polymer Gel - Pilot Plant Scale Testing ..................................22 C21002 Development of Guidelines for the Measurement and Reporting of Fugitive Emissions from Underground Coal Mines ..22

OPEN CUT

DRILLING & BLASTING .......................................................................................................................................................................23 C21005 RAB Drill Rig Top of Coal Detection While Drilling ............................................................................................................23 C21036 Physical and Detonation Characteristics of Bulk Explosives to Minimise Post Blast Fume Generation in Deep Hole, Soft Ground and Wet Conditions..................................................................................................................................23 ENVIRONMENT ....................................................................................................................................................................................23 C18033 Assessing Impact of Sulphate in Saline Mine Site Discharge in Seasonally Flowing Streams in the Bowen Basin .........23 C18034 Emissions from Blasting in Open Cut Coal Mining ............................................................................................................24 C19024 Guidelines for Establishing Ecologically Sustainable Discharge Criteria in Seasonally Flowing Streams ........................24 C19028 Risk Assessment Tools to Support End Use Decisions for Mined Land of the Bowen Basin ...........................................24 C19029 Soil Organic Matter and Green Carbon in Rehabilitation: Their Role in the Carbon Balance ...........................................25 C19033 Environmental Offsets: Maximising Ecosystem Services from Biodiversity Conservation ................................................25 C20007 Measurement of Dust Sampling in Australian Coal Mines .................................................................................................26 C20015 Sustainable Management of Plantations for Rehabilitation, Carbon and Wood Products .................................................26 C20017 Criteria for Functioning River Landscape Units in Mining and Post Mining Landscapes ...................................................26 C20022 Hydraulic Connectivity Between Mines and Adjacent River and Groundwater Systems in the Hunter River Valley .........27 C20023 Improvement of Haul Road Dust Emission Estimation and Controls at Coal Mines ..........................................................27 C20027 Assessing Environmental Safety of In-pit Disposal of Tailings ..........................................................................................27 C21006 Coal Seam Gas, Coal and Agriculture: Water Implications ...............................................................................................28 C21026 Live Noise Prediction Method for Mining Activities in Australian Conditions .....................................................................28 C21031 Tool to Assess Mining Impacts on River Condition ...........................................................................................................29 C21033 Modelling the Water, Energy and Economic Nexus ..........................................................................................................29 C21034 Quantification of PM 2.5 Particulate Emission Rates From Mining Operations .................................................................29 C21035 Multiple Pollutant Analysis of Blast Plumes from Open Cut Mining Activities Using Differential Optical Absorption Spectoscopy (DOAS) ......................................................................................................................................................................30 C21038 Enhancing Ecological Values of Coal Pit Lakes with Simple Nutrient Additions and Bankside Vegetation ......................30 C21039 Demonstration Trials to Understand and Assess the Processes Required to Recover the Productivity of Cropping Soils After Mining .........................................................................................................................................................31 C21041 Designing a Mine for Both Drought and Flood: A Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity Study ..........................................31 C21043 Integrated Forward and Reverse Osmosis System for Mine Water Reuse .......................................................................32 GEOLOGY ............................................................................................................................................................................................32 C17023 Effective Slope Monitoring for Open Cut Coal Mines ........................................................................................................32 C19020 Characterisation of Overburden Rock Mass and Top Coal Delineation Using the Triaxial Drill Bit Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) Method ....................................................................................................................................................................32 C19022 Implications of SelfWeight, WettingUp and WeatheringInduced Settlements of High Coal Mine Spoil on Stored Volume and Stability........................................................................................................................................................................33 C20019 Reliable Geotechnical Stability Assessment for Very High Spoil Dumps ..........................................................................33 C20025 Investigations for Open Pit Geomechanics Using Geophysical Logs ................................................................................34 C21032 Energy Absorption Capacity of Muck Piles and Their Status as Engineered Hard Barriers ..............................................34 MAINTENANCE & EQUIPMENT ..........................................................................................................................................................35 C16030 DC Motor Duty Meter .........................................................................................................................................................35 C16031 Automated Swing Loading System for Electric Mining Shovels ........................................................................................35 C18031 Improved System for Dragline Rope Condition Monitoring ................................................................................................35 C20021 Minimal Perception Requirements to Support Effective Remote Control of Bulldozers.....................................................36 C20030 Powerlinkoz High Voltage Electrical Connection System (PLO) .......................................................................................36

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

C21027 Robotic Manipulator for Dragline Jewellery Repair............................................................................................................36 C21040 AC Motor Duty Meter for Excavating Machines: Feasibility Study .....................................................................................37 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & EQUIPMENT SAFETY .........................................................................................................................37 C18029 Using Acoustic Agglomeration to Reduce or Eliminate Dust Loading from Machine House on Draglines ........................37 C19019 Noise Reduction Using Smart Speakers ...........................................................................................................................38 C19027 Dragline Machine House Dust Control - Field Testing of Alternative Cartridge Technologies ..........................................38 C19032 COLLISIONgate: A Vehicle Interaction Causal Factors Database and Risk Management Decision Making Tool............38 C20016 Minimise Fume Generation from Blasting ..........................................................................................................................38 OVERBURDEN REMOVAL ..................................................................................................................................................................39 C20018 Advancing Dragline Analytics ............................................................................................................................................39 C20024 Real Time Continuous Measurement of Blasted Dragline Overburden Bulk Density ........................................................39 C20028 3D Scan Matching and Registration for Improved Mine Survey ........................................................................................39 C21028 Automated Design of Multi Pass Dragline Strips Using 3D-Dig.........................................................................................40 C21044 Predictive Application of Advanced Dragline Performance Indices ...................................................................................40

MINING & THE COMMUNITY

C19025 Governance Strategies to Manage and Monitor Cumulative Impacts at the Regional Scale ............................................41

COAL PREPARATION

DEWATERING ......................................................................................................................................................................................42 C21004 Dewatering of Ultrafine Coals and Tailings by Centribaric Technology .............................................................................42 C21054 Enhanced Dewatering of CHPP Taillings through Modification of the Structure of Presedimented Flocs.........................42 C21055 Advanced Dynamic Control of Paste Thickeners ..............................................................................................................43 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT....................................................................................................................................................43 C20047 Improved Dewatering, Management and Rehabilitation of Problematic, Clay-Rich Coal Mine Tailings ............................43 FINE COAL ...........................................................................................................................................................................................44 C19001 Full Scale Trial of the Reflux Classifier to at Least 4mm Top-Size ....................................................................................44 C20042 Improving the Treatment of Clay Minerals in Coal Flotation using Saline Water ...............................................................44 C20043 Enhanced Flotation and Desliming Using a Reflux Flotation Cell ......................................................................................45 C20052 Full Scale Gravity-Desliming Using Cascading Reflux Classifiers .....................................................................................45 C21045 Fine Coal Agglomeration using a Novel Economic Binding Agent ....................................................................................46 C21048 Improving the Performance of Froth in Coal Flotation Using Saline Water .......................................................................46 C21049 Maximising Flotation Kinetics ............................................................................................................................................46 C21051 Plant Based Investigations of Hydrodynamic Behaviours in Large Coal Flotation Cells ...................................................47 GRAVITY SEPARATION ......................................................................................................................................................................47 C18038 Commercial lab Scale Float-Sink Testing Using Stabilised Suspension of Zirconium Dioxide .........................................47 C18041 CPP Feed Washability Prediction from Small Topsize Samples .......................................................................................47 C19039 Gravity Separation of Ultrafine Coal Using Centrifugal Force ...........................................................................................48 C20045 Large Diameter DMC Performance in Low Density/High Near Gravity Environment ........................................................48 C20050 Linkage of Dynamic Changes in DMC Circuits to Plant Conditions ...................................................................................49 C20051 Effect of Dynamic Changes in Medium Quality on Coal Processing .................................................................................49 C21053 Monitoring and Prediction of Catastrophic Multi Sloped Screen Failures ..........................................................................49 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY ...............................................................................................................................................50 C20044 Application of Nano Particles to Fine Coal Float Sink Test ...............................................................................................50 C21046 Washability Analysis of Fine Coal using a Water Based Method ......................................................................................50 C21050 Application of X Ray Computed Tomography (CT) for Coal Washability Analysis ............................................................50 PROCESS CONTROL ..........................................................................................................................................................................51 C19046 Measuring the Plant Performance of Modern Spiral Banks ...............................................................................................51 C20048 Gravity Concentrator Expert Control System.....................................................................................................................51 C20049 On-line Estimation of Plant Feed Washability....................................................................................................................51 C21052 Centrifugal Dewatering Properties of Australian Coals......................................................................................................51 GENERAL .............................................................................................................................................................................................52 C15060 Database Management .....................................................................................................................................................52 C19044 Improved Automation Reclaim For Uneven Stockpiles .....................................................................................................52 C21047 Seal, Spray and Wash Water Filtration in CHPPs .............................................................................................................53

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

TECHNICAL MARKET SUPPORT

METALLURGICAL COAL.....................................................................................................................................................................54 C17050 Advanced Characterisation of Metallurgical Coals - Coke Properties and Reactivity........................................................54 C18043 Application of Optical and SEM Imaging to Characterise Cokes for Strength and Reactivity ...........................................54 C19049 PCI Combustion Test.........................................................................................................................................................54 C19051 Characterisation of Australian and Indian Coals and their Cokes from Stamp and Top Charged Coke Ovens ................54 C19052 Mineral Matter Effects on Coke Degredation in Blast Furnace Samples ...........................................................................55 C19053 Measurement of the Plastic Properties of Coal: Characterisation of Uncertainties in the Sapozhnikov Test ....................55 C20008 Understanding Coal Grain Effects on Coke Quality...........................................................................................................55 C20009 Theoretically Based Coke Strength Index or Indices Based on Drum Tests .....................................................................55 C20010 Classification of Coke Textures .........................................................................................................................................56 C20040 Understanding Exploration Samples by Coal Grain Analysis ............................................................................................56 C21056 Microstructure Variability in Coke and its Effect on Coke Properties.................................................................................56 C21057 Predicting Dilation of Coal Blends from Models of Softening, Bubble Growth and Gas Transport ....................................57 C21058 Relationship Between Internal Pressure and Coke Strength and Implications for Semi Soft Coking Coals in Blends ......57 C21059 Estimating the Fusible Content of Individual Coal Grains and its Application in Cokemaking ...........................................57 THERMAL COAL ..................................................................................................................................................................................58 C18044 Submicron Ash Emissions and Trace Elements from Boiler Simulation Furnace .............................................................58 C19009 The Mercury Treaty - Implications and Responses ...........................................................................................................58

MINE SITE GREENHOUSE MITIGATION

C16048 Removal of Methane from Mine Ventilation Air by Biofiltration ..........................................................................................59 C18047 Horizontal Post Drainage Design.......................................................................................................................................59 C19054 Ventilation Air Methane Capture Study - Carbon Fibre Composite ...................................................................................59 C19055 Ceramic Block Vent Air Methane Mitigator ........................................................................................................................59 C19057 Linear Gas Flow Measurement System for Gas Drainage Boreholes ...............................................................................60 C21064 Catalytic Combustion of VAM - Effect of Changing Composition and Concentration of Gases ........................................60

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Major Project

MAJOR PROJECT

C20003 RISKGATE

University of Queensland Philipp Kirsch Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $2,295,053 25/12/2013 Occupational Health and Safety Task Group Keith Smith

development face / sealed goaf / active goaf / mine roadway; methane explosion /coal dust explosion; Trips/Slips/Falls (3 IEs): Loss of balance through either slipping or tripping while ambulating on level surfaces, platforms, ramps or stairs; Loss of balance during access or egress to/from mobile plant; Fall from mobile, temporary or fixed plant, infrastructure or environment.

The main objective of this project is the design, development and operation of an on-line information system, RISKGATE, providing causal and control information for priority unwanted events (`topics') for the Australian coal mining industry. This system is being built to coal industry requirements identified in 2010; and populated with knowledge obtained from mining and associated industry experts. Industry knowledge about causes, pre-event controls, consequences and mitigating controls is assembled through a series of bow-tie analysis action research workshops for each topic. Broad participation from the mining industry is the key factor underlying RISKGATE success; 297 industry days of expert knowledge was contributed to complete the 2011 Series One topics (Strata Control ­ UG, Ground Control ­ OC, Collisions, Fires, Tyres, Isolation). RISKGATE 2012 Program Summary Using lessons learned from the 2011 series, the project team has re-structured the program into a series of four two day action research workshops per RISKGATE topic. This approach is working well for all topics; however one or more additional workshops will be required for Explosions and Explosives due to the complexity of those topics. Up to 30 July 2012, ACARP member companies had contributed 70 days towards partial completion of the four new topics (Explosions, Explosives, Manual tasks and Trips/slips/falls), with the following breakdown: Adani 3 Anglo American 18 BMA/BHP 4, Caledon 3, Centennial 13, Peabody 11, Rio Tinto 8, Xstrata 10. (See Figure 1). RISKGATE 2012 Knowledge Classification or Distribution The bow-tie analysis method starts with identification of a top event ­ the point at which control is lost; this is generally termed an initiating event (IE). RISKGATE Series 2 initiating events have been categorised as follows: Explosives (5 IEs): Loss of control of explosives during storage on site / transport / manufacture / handling and blast operations / and disposal; Manual tasks (3 IEs): Force within a tissue exceeds tissue tolerance during performance of hazardous manual task in underground environment / surface environment / exploration; Explosions (13 IEs): Fire in sealed goaf / longwall face / development face / active goaf / stowed or accumulated coal / mine roadway; ignition at a longwall face /

Figure 1: Company participation by topic. (Key: Explosives ­ yellow, Manual tasks ­ green, Explosives ­ orange, Trips/Slips/Falls ­ blue) RISKGATE Stakeholder Planning and Communications RISKGATE stakeholder planning is currently underway with industry participation and leadership from Tony Egan (Xstrata) and John Hempenstall (Centennial). The working group has met three times and engaged Sandy Worden to produce a Stakeholder Engagement and Communications plan. The group has developed several key messages for RISKGATE: The coal mining industry is making a step change in risk management by focusing on control effectiveness using bow-tie methods; Bow-tie methods overcome the limitations of risk re-ranking for establishing tolerable risk by focusing on control effectiveness; RISKGATE complements existing risk management processes by providing event-specific controls in a bow-tie format; RISKGATE is a body of knowledge using industry expertise; RISKGATE is for people who conduct and/or develop risk assessments, audits, incident investigations and management systems; This step change considering control effectiveness will take several years to be fully integrated across the industry; RISKGATE is a body of knowledge not a defined leading, best or good practice standard. RISKGATE welcomes full participation from all ACARP members, and is requesting additional subject matter experts to complete the 2012 topic series. Pending continuing ACARP funding, 2013 topics (and requirement for experts) may include the following areas: occupational health, outburst, inrush, rockburst and bumps, interface (controls/displays) and chemicals. INFO: http://info.riskgate.org

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Underground Projects

UNDERGROUND

Detection and Prevention of Fires and Explosions

C14027 Active Explosion Barriers

SkillPro Services David Humphreys Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $1,602,150 25/12/2012 Guy Mitchell Bevan Kathage

C16006 Investigation of the Aging Effect of Electronic Components in Power Supplies

Simtars Andre De Kock Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $175,000 25/10/2012 Greg Briggs Bevan Kathage

The objective of this project is to utilise the design parameters previously developed in the project to build and demonstrate the performance of a water based active explosion barrier. Previous CFD modelling has indicated for an explosion in which the coal dust density is about 250g/m3, a water mist density of about 250g/m3 is required to prevent propagation of the explosion. Explosion testing of the prototype active barrier was undertaken in a five week period over June-July at the Kloppersbos explosion Tunnel in South Africa. The prototype explosion barrier was installed 105m from the closed end of the tunnel with the trigger flame detector at 50m. After completing a pair of base case explosions without suppression, a series of suppression tests were carried out. It was intended to start testing with 240 litres of water dispersed over 250ms, but an error was made in charging the vessel resulting in only 75 litres being used. Despite this the explosion was suppressed. Further testing was undertaken with water volumes of 120 litres (two successive suppressions) and 60 litres (three successive suppressions). In all of the successful suppressions there was no indication of flame penetration beyond 5 metres outbye of the barrier from the optical flame detectors and only short term indications from the infra-red pyrometers. There was no indication of high temperature in the efflux from the tunnel as observed with the infra-red video camera. The prototype barrier was not designed to operate with less than about 60 litres of water and to investigate lower water concentrations the configuration of the nozzles and the vessel driving pressure were altered to increase the water dispersal period to firstly 500ms and then 1000ms. Suppression was achieved again at 500ms (effectively halving the water concentration) but not at 1000ms (quarter water concentration). The test program has provided excellent data for the validation of the computational fluid dynamics modelling of the barrier performance and it is expected that some improvements will be incorporated into the water barrier model to improve its accuracy. The prototype barrier has now been disassembled and is being returned to Australia.

The need for this project was identified in a previous project C11034 where discrepancies were observed while testing intrinsically safe active power supplies. Tests were conducted on intrinsically safe active power supplies using the Spark Test Apparatus. Tests on the same type of power supplies delivered different results when the same tests were performed. The objectives of this project are therefore to: Identify the effect of aging electronic components on the Intrinsic Safety of Power Supplies used in the coal mining industry; Investigate the repeatability of Spark Test Apparatus tests when testing Intrinsically Safe Power Supplies. Testing of the third series of tests of the power supplies is continuing. The testing will be completed by the middle of August 2012.

C20002 Airo-Dust - Parameter Testing

Mining Attachments Matt Ryan Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $626,000 25/10/2012 Bruce Robertson Peter Bergin Peter Brisbane Bevan Kathage

The objective of this project is to conduct comparative testing between Airo-dusting and dry stone dust. The tests are to prove that Airo-Dust can suppress a coal dust explosion as effectively as dry stone dust. The project is also testing the Airo-Dust design parameters to create the guidelines for mine operators to apply the product safely and effectively. State Inspectorates Engagement ACARP Industry Monitors along with Matt Ryan and Glenn Ascott met with the Qld & NSW Chief Inspectors on 16th July to provide an update and overview of work completed since the previous meeting in November 2011 and to discuss the proposed upcoming explosion testing at Kloppersbos. The purpose of this meeting was to receive feedback from the Inspectors on the proceeding work and to ensure that the proposed full scale explosion testing met with their requirements. A presentation was given on the foam matrix work and Full Scale Coal Dust Suppression; below for discussion and review.

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Underground Projects

Foam Matrix Work Monash University had previously provided a detailed report to measure the foam characteristics in order for us to be able to fully understand the Airo-Dust foam. In addition they also made certain suggestions in regards to milling the foam to produce a more controlled and consistent foam. A thorough review of this work was undertaken by Matt Ryan and Glenn Ascott to ensure that any improvements to the foam being produced can be actioned. Dispersal Test Design UQ was charged with conducting a thorough literature search to identify any stone dust dispersal testing world-wide. In particular focus on the work by Cybulski that influenced NSW and Qld Coal mining legislation and regulations. Matt Ryan and Glenn Ascott completed a thorough review of the report provided to ensure findings could be included in any proposed dispersal test for Airo-Dust. Density/Dispersal Review A thorough review has been completed in regards to work conducted by the universities to ensure findings could be included, applied and used in any dispersal testing at local facilities. Comment ­ It now seems that dispersal testing in a local facility may not be required with full scale testing being preferred and more relevant. Underground Placement It was proposed to measure the placement quantities of AiroDust within an underground roadway. This work was to have been performed at Grasstree Mine. There has been some difficulty getting access to site and the equipment required. Comment ­ It now seems that placement work may not be required. Full Scale Coal Dust Suppression SkillPro Services was engaged to design a full scale testing regime at the CSIR Explosion Research Centre at Kloppersbos South Africa. The test design was a double strong. Following the meeting with the State Inspectorates this test now needs to be reviewed and a number of changes implemented to ensure it meets with their requirements. The process for communication and engagement with the state inspectorates continues with a number of meetings and workshops planned to align with key milestone of the project. Current Work In Progress Moisture content in the Siwek Chamber at SIMTARS, coal volatility review and comparison, work with a mathematician and statistician to correctly identify the number of tests required, research work on the correlations between shapes and sizes of tunnels and proposed full scale testing.

C21015 New Forms of Fire Suppression and Hydrocarbon Absorption Materials to Underground Coal Mines: Scoping Study

SkillPro Services David Humphreys Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $50,000 25/12/2012 Bharath Belle Jim Sandford Bevan Kathage

The objectives of this project are to: Identify fire suppression and hydrocarbon absorption chemicals that are not currently employed in the coal industry but which might offer potential benefits; Identify potential benefits of these technologies that could provide an advantage in underground mine scenarios; Scope the potential application of these technologies to situations such as goaf sealing, control of spontaneous heating, methane fires; Identify the methods of using the identified technologies in the situation of an underground coal mine; Undertake a risk review of the technologies and methods for the purposes of identifying limiting hazards that need to be considered or which may restrict the use of the technology; and Recommend areas for further investigation or warranting development for application to underground coal mines. A number of potential new forms or improvements to traditional fire suppression methods have been identified and are being researched. Of particular interest is an additive to water which is claimed to greatly increase the efficacy of water in fire fighting but also has claimed to adsorb significant quantities of various combustible gases. It is claimed that 5 parts by mass of a 3% solution of the product is capable of absorbing one part by mass of hydrocarbons. A dialogue has been established with the manufacturer to obtain technical and supporting data and to investigate potential application scenarios for its use in underground coal mines. There are also potential applications for this product in open cut operations which will also be considered. In addition a number of other methods of fire fighting have been identifies in the literature that may have application in underground coal mines. These include aerosol generators, water mist generators, hydrocarbon adsorption techniques, solid gas generators and even a novel electrical current system. These will be considered for the application to mining situations and reported.

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Underground Projects

C21016 Cheaper and More Effective Inertant Than Stone Dust

SkillPro Services David Humphreys Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $470,000 25/08/2013 Guy Mitchell Peter Bergin Peter Brisbane Bevan Kathage

The project was initially due to be completed by 31st March 2011, however, additional work is being undertaken, with the assistance of Mathematics and Statistics Professors from the Australian Centre Commercial Mathematics (ACCM), to analyse the complicated multi-variant data and to provide probabilistic predictions for varying risks rather than only providing an upper bound prediction. This additional work will provide a much enhanced method. All field inspection trips have been undertaken. All of the new geological and topographical data has been entered into the new database. Reports of these field trips are being finalised. All available valley upsidence, closure and strain data from the extra collieries in the Southern Coalfields has been entered into an expanded survey database. The field reports indicate that site geological conditions influence the observed valley upsidence, closure and strain and the timing of pool impacts. A total of 29 possible factors have been identified as influencing the observed valley closure movements. Work on writing up the research report is continuing and ACCM is progressing successfully on their analyses. ACCM are reviewing their work on the multi-variant analysis with the 29 possible variables thought to influence the observed valley closure movements for the 2011 set of both the incremental and the total valley closure monitored data sets. It is now clearer that the difficulty in these complex analyses lies in the missing data within the data sets and clearer definitions of each factor and the expected results for each of 29 variables have now been provided to ACCM to determine how best to process the missing data sets. The ACCM is now progressing on their analyses and we now expect the project to be completed at the end of October.

The objective of this project is to complete the development of a suitable polymer which can potentially replace all current uses of stone dust and then to demonstrate its inerting abilities in large scale explosion tests. The final polymer will have no deleterious occupational health or environmental issues. The applicants have set a project goal of reducing the current inplace cost by 50%, at the same level of explosion suppression effectiveness as conventional stone dusting. This product would have international potential to replacement current stone dusting materials. Given the investigations to date the likelihood of success is high and it is estimated that the potential direct costs savings to the industry would be measured in 10's of millions of dollars, with possibly even greater savings by reducing production stoppages for remedial stone dusting. A number of variations of the polymer formulation have been made and tested for water adsorption and retention characteristics. The rate of water loss of the hydrated polymers is typically 8% per day which is regarded as too high for satisfactory life in a mine environment. To improve on this a number of variations are being considered the most promising of which seems to be to coat the dry polymer particles with an hydroscopic material to slow the evaporation from the hydrated polymer. Results of these tests are expected to be available in the next few weeks.

C18016 Reducing the Impact of Longwall Extraction on Groundwater Systems

CSIRO Deepak Adhikary Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $289,310 25/08/2012 Gary Brassington Greg Tarrant Russell Howarth

Environment - Subsidence and Mine Water

C18015 Effects of Geology on Upsidence and Closure Movements and Impacts in Valleys

Mine Subsidence Engineering Consultants Don Kay Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $300,000 25/11/2012 Gary Brassington Peter Brisbane Russell Howarth

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

The objectives of this project are to: Provide more appropriate upsidence and closure predictions and impact assessments near valleys, Provide probabilistic predictions and improve the accuracy and level of confidence in predictions, and to Reduce, where appropriate, the costs to protect surface infrastructure effected by valley movements.

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C20038 Standardised Subsidence Information Management System

NSW Department of Trade and Investment Gang Li Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $480,000 25/04/2014 Dan Payne Phil Enright Russell Howarth

manual interpretation has been conducted and provides detailed mapping of swamp vegetation types. Automatic classification has represented a more intractable problem due to sub-feature pixel colour variation and limited spectral bands. Consistent lighting throughout image collection is also crucial to the construction of effective orthomosaics. This project will be conducting a substantial amount of field work in the coming quarter.

Exploration

C16018 Advanced Logging Tool

CRCMining Dave Cusack Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $440,322 25/11/2013 Andy Willson Mike Armstrong Russell Howarth

The objectives of this project are to: Develop a subsidence information management system that transfers the existing subsidence data, which are currently in various forms and states, into an organised information resource to create new knowledge in subsidence engineering as well as effective risk management tools; and Create a standardised communication platform between all industry users to facilitate industry's shared use of the aforementioned subsidence information resource. The project has recently completed Stage 3 to the satisfaction of the Industry Steering Committee and ACARP monitors, this being the overall design and establishment of a subsidence database. Stage 4 has now commenced which is the input of as much historical and current day subsidence data as is possible within the time frame and budget of the project. Stage 4 (i.e. populating of the database with historical subsidence data) is progressing to the agreed schedule. with six current NSW longwall mines now being largely complete. Planning for the development of Module C (coalfield subsidence data summary) is now underway and a proposal will be presented to the Industry Steering Committee in late 2012.

The objective of this project is to produce a commercial prototype logging system for inseam boreholes. The tool has been deployed on two boreholes. On both occasions the tool was pumped down and retrieved without incident, and all data was successfully recorded and downloaded. Data from the tool shows good resolution. A draft of the final report has been submitted to both industry monitors. One industry monitor has responded, but we are yet to have any feedback from the other monitor. The final report will be submitted following feedback from the second Industry Monitor.

C20046 Monitoring Surface Condition of Landscape Features Subject to Mining Subsidence with Very High Resolution Imagery

University of Queensland Andrew Fletcher Peter Erskine Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $278,191 25/04/2013 Edwina White Gary Brassington Mary-Anne Crawford Bevan Kathage

C21014 CQDX Laboratory to Customer Data Transfer

acQuire Technology Solutions Federico Arboleda Jared Armstrong Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $230,650 25/10/2013 Andy Willson James Graham Jim Sandford John Terrill Roger Wischusen

ACARP Contact:

Vegetation provides a photogrammetrically difficult target for orthomosaic production, particularly at high resolutions as targeted in this project. Imagery collection has been improved by modifying cameras to trigger electrically achieving a threefold increase in image capture rate. This modification improves forward overlap of the imagery collected and is necessary to improve the quality of aerial triangulation of vegetation targets. Modifications have required upgrades to hardware and software that will be tested in September and October of this year. Image segmentation and classification by

The interchange of digital borehole coal quality data between laboratories and mining companies has been a complicated and inefficient process for some years. It still frequently involves manual transcription of data which is one of many source of errors. Additionally, instructions for analysis are often incomplete and separated from the samples. This project aims to increase clarity and auditability between mining companies and laboratories and reduce errors from the process by completely standardising the data interchange process.

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This project will leverage off previous work undertaken through an ADX project completed in the minerals industry. There are four stages to this project: Stage 1. Extend ADX4 standard to accommodate coal quality parameters and workflows. Stage 2. Adapt the lab integration services framework for a coal laboratory Stage 3. Prove the extended ADX4 format in a productions environment Stage 4. Governance and promotion. Current activities are limited to the first stage. To date several components of this first stage have been complete. These include: Compilation of a business process map that documents the entire coal sampling, dispatching, receiving workflow from the mining companies perspective; Project meetings and education of project parties in coal quality specific terminologies and ADX specific terminologies. Stakeholder meeting to encourage community discussions for establishing specific design requirements. Meetings with Laboratory personal to establish the project - Definition of test environment requirements. - Establish business requirements of the project. Develop clear project milestones for successful completion of stage 1 and stage 2.

trials underground was re-submitted to Tahmoor's new chief electrical engineer. We are still waiting for a response. A meeting was held with the chief electrical engineer at SIMTARS to discuss the design and the requirements for IEC Exi compliance. SIMTARS is prepared to provide consultation services and conduct a preliminary assessment of the design.

Maintenance

C17020 Reducing the Risk of Hydraulic Hose Assembly Failures on Longwall Systems

Monash University Henry Bartosiewicz Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $665,420 25/08/2012 Peter Crossland Trevor Hartley Bevan Kathage

A draft final report has been completed and is being sent to the Industry Monitors for their review.

C18020 Big Tyre: Non Pneumatic Non Solid Wheel

Big Tyre Bruce Louden Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $420,000 25/10/2012 Barry Moore John Corben Keith Cardew Bevan Kathage

C21019 In-seam Wireless Drill String Communications System

CRCMining Edward Prochon Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $212,400 25/04/2013 Brad Elvy Jim Sandford Peter Brisbane Russell Howarth

ACARP Contact:

The objective of this project is to build an EM telemetry system called In-Seam Wireless Drill String (ISWDS) which be designed to facilitate real-time bidirectional telemetry between the drill and the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA). The down-hole telemetry electronics will be manufactured to fit different sized subs so that it can be adaptable to any standard drill rod configuration. It will also have an open communications architecture, enabling integration with all existing survey and geo-sensing units. The technology will be intrinsically safe for underground in seam (UIS) drilling). A lab prototype unit has been designed which will be trialed at a CRCMining test site. This unit will be used to test different frequencies and define the specifications for a gap sub design; which is what makes up the aerial on the drill string. At the start meeting it was requested that approval is secured for conducting underground tests at Tahmoor prior to going ahead with the design. Delays have been encountered in obtaining approval to use the unit underground due to the resignation of the chief electrical engineer at Tahmoor earlier in the year. The preliminary application for approval to conduct

Since the last report we have been evaluating a computer finite element analysis program that we have strong reason to believe is capable of fully analysing our wheel prototype and related concepts that we are investigating in building our next prototype. After reading a review on software that can accurately analyse significantly distorted rubber, we engaged the software consultants who market a suite of high-level engineering analysis software packages to see if they could fully analyse our wheel. From their suite of programs they chose two programs that mesh together: Patran, for pre- and postprocessing, and Marc for the heavy number crunching. We are very pleased to report that this was very successful, which is a significant breakthrough for us. The consultants further demonstrated the power and flexibility of these programs in solving a range of very complex engineering analyses that they can perform with ease, including not only the static loading on our wheel under severe loading, but complex dynamic situations such as our wheel being driven over a canche.

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Subsequently we engaged the company to provide introductory training on the software for two engineers and also purchased the software (as leasing was too expensive). If the software lives up to our expectations, it will be a huge asset enabling us to fully design the next prototype prior to building; being able to analyse the various concepts we have to reach our load/suspension specification, without having to build and test each concept, saving a lot of time and expense. Consequently we are now in design phase again, this time with an as yet unfamiliar program, however we are very pleased and relieved to have a far more powerful tool to work with in progressing the design of the next prototype.

Strategies that can be employed to reduce the degradation processes; Safe methods of filter life extension without compromising filter efficiency and its primary function; and Improved strategies for overall exhaust treatment to maximise filter life. A complete literature review has been undertaken as the first step of the project. As per project plans, visits were made to Kestrel and Newlands mines in Qld and Mandalong mine in NSW to gather information on current practices in filter usage practice. A clear understanding has been established on the current issues related to the DPFs and the potential improvements that could make a difference. Limited amount of information on a new type of filter which uses a glass fibre medium was also found. Visits were also made to the manufacturing facilities of several OEMs including Sandvik, Industrea and Valley Longwall International to gather information on the current developments that are taking place in relation to DPF's and more broadly on exhaust conditioning. Discussions were also held with the NSW Industry & Investment Department regarding their responses to the recent WHO announcement. The field and laboratory experimental programs, to be undertaken during the next 2-3 months, are being organised.

C19012 Intrinsically Safe Touch Screen for Computer Interfaces in Hazardous Areas

CSIRO Ron McPhee Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $168,760 25/08/2012 Brad Lucke Dave Boyling Bevan Kathage

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

Mining Technology and Production

C19008 Roof Support Design Methodology for Wide Roadways

Colwell Geotechnical Services Mark Colwell

C21017 Extending the Life of Disposable Exhaust Filters in Vehicles Operating in Underground Coal Mines

Monash University Damon Honnery Daya Dayawansa Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $259,250 25/05/2013 Peter Crossland Trevor Hartley Russell Howarth

Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact:

$375,000 25/12/2012 Dan Payne John Grieves Roger Wischusen

Two main aspects that should be controlled when using diesel vehicles in underground environment are: Explosion potential due to heat generated by the engine; Harmful diesel particulate matter (DPM) in the mine environment. The diesel particular filters (DPFs) used in the vehicles play an important role in controlling the latter. The currently used DPFs has a very short life (approximately one shift in some cases) and hence has become a safety as well as a cost issue. On the other hand, controlling DPM has become even more important now with the recent declaration by World Health Organisation (WHO) that DPM is carcinogenic. The main objective of the project is to investigate the filter degradation process and understand its root causes so that strategies can be developed to improve filter life and reduce overall filter cost. This aim of the project is to achieve the above objective through research undertaken into following aspects: The causes and mechanisms responsible for the DPM filter degradation;

The project is nearing completion. It is anticipated technology transfer workshops will be conducted during Oct/Nov 2012. Longwall Installation Roadway (i.e. Faceroad) information was collected from 26 collieries with 162 faceroads being reviewed. After further review and based on the quality and completeness of the information provided, this resulted in 123 case studies suitable for inclusion in the project database. With the inclusion of shearer, maingate and tailgate stables, these 123 case studies translate into 359 widened roadway data points ranging in width from 7.5m up to 12m. By worldwide geotechnical database comparison this is a very large database. Where available, information associated with the Maingate and Tailgate intersections adjacent to the faceroads was also collected. This generated 64 cases which will also be analysed. The database has been finalised and the empirical analyses have been completed. These analyses reveal that there is a very strong relationship between the level of support required as a function of the horizontal stress acting perpendicular to roadway driveage and a measure of the structural integrity of the roof utilising both the Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR) and an average of the rock units' individual Unit Ratings (UR) over

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the first 5m of roofline, where the individual Unit Ratings are the "basic building blocks" of the CMRR. The design methodology will be known as ADFRS ­ Analysis and Design of Faceroad Roof Support. ADFRS will include design capabilities for essentially all aspects of a faceroad formation including the standard widening, shearer, maingate and tailgate stables, faceroad intersections and the adjacent maingate and tailgate intersections.

TestSafe have conducted some noise and vibration measurements for the type I cannon and the results of these tests will be available next week. If these results are unsatisfactory then a new site will need to be found for testing to recommence. The chief investigator visited Buxton Test Facility at Health and Safety Laboratories (HSL) in UK, and found that the explosives facility is in care and maintenance indefinitely. A literature search was conducted and copies of relevant documents are being made to complete the literature review.

C19016 AFC Pan Stability Investigation

BMT WBM Fidel Gonzalez John Vazey Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $100,000 25/10/2012 Bill Short Brian Owers Tony Logan Russell Howarth

C20037 Polymetric FRAS Rated Conveyor Idlers for Underground Mines

Ellton Longwall Mark Newton Phillip Erickson $321,110 25/04/2013 Bob Gordon Peter Bergin Peter Brisbane Russell Howarth ACARP Contact: The project's overall objective is to develop and manufacture FRAS-rated polymeric conveyor idlers with superior, or at least equivalent, service life to existing steel idlers, with such polymeric idlers being 30% or more lighter than existing steel idlers. Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : The project has been delayed so that the DII could develop tests and test procedures to provide certification of the polymeric conveyor idler for use in underground coal mining applications. Thus, giving us a clear understanding of the specifications required for the product to be developed. FRAS composite nylon materials have now been developed by industry and we are having this product tested to determine its ability to be certified for use. If this nylon based FRAS material cannot be certified, our project will be started to identify a suitable FRAS material for this application that will meet certification.

The project aims to understand the extent of Armoured Face Conveyor stability problems in the industry, and propose methods for evaluating pan stability in proposed designs. The first stage of this project is complete with a draft of the report presented to ACARP. Publication of this report along with the recommended method for pan evaluation is anticipated by late August.

C20033 Development of a Safer Underground Explosive

University of New South Wales Andres Castro Duncan Chalmers Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $323,500 25/05/2014 Brad Elvy John Hempenstall Russell Howarth

Type II testing commenced in June using both emulsion and nitro-glycerine explosives. Tests conducted on the Spanish explosive Seguridad No 20 SR, confirmed that the cannon was in working order. Tests conducted with Senatel 1000 confirmed previous work done by Freeman and Chalmers in the previous project, C14039. Testing of a new explosive was conducted as per testing regime outlined in Series iv in Testing Memorandum 2 (TM2). This series of tests also showed that both the donor and receptor detonated in the cannon leaving only a ball of compressed coal dust for examination. The Type II cannon was damaged by this additional charge weight of explosive detonating and the cannon is offsite for repairs. When the cannon is returned, further testing will be conducted: Increasing the dust length from 100mm by intervals of 20mm; Increasing the size of the orifice to lower the confinement pressure.

C21012 Fibreoptic Conveyor Monitoring System

CRCMining Saiied Aminossadati Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $147,000 25/05/2013 Brad Lucke Jim Sandford Peter Brisbane Russell Howarth

The aim of this project is to develop a fibre-optic based temperature monitoring system that identifies the malfunction and predicts costly failure of conveyor idlers. This project will investigate a low cost, easy install, high resistance, explosion proof, fire proof, sparking proof, immune to radio frequency interference and electromagnetic interference, secure data transmission, self inspection, self calibration and real time

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monitoring temperature system to improve the health and safety in underground mines. The objectives to reach the ultimate goal are listed below: Study the mechanical specifications of current conveyor belts used in the mining industry; Review the previous studies on heat generation in conveyor belts and temperature sensors; Examine and identify the research gaps and opportunities; Inspect an underground conveyor belt operation, identify the critical issues and the heat and maintenance management plans; Establish the required technical specification and criteria from theoretical and test studies, identify the underground mining environment impact on the system; Determine the characteristics of the fibre optic based DTS system; Design and build a proof of concept prototype. Prepare and design the experiments in both surface and underground conditions; Examine various configurations of optical fibre installations; Conduct initial tests and analysis of the results; and Develop a commercial plan. In the first quarter of the project, the previous studies on conveyor belt temperature sensors have been reviewed. The principles of optical fibre distributed temperature sensing system (DTS) have been studied. The advantage of this system compared to the previous and current technologies have been examined. The optical fibre DTS system application in the field of science and engineering has been studied to determine the potential issues that may be applicable in underground mine environments. In the next quarter of the project, we will continue reviewing the background research on temperature sensing of conveyor belts. We will also study the structure and mechanical specification of the conveyor belt introduced in the mining industry. More focus will be on the real case study based on the mine site inspection and discussions with industry. We will organise a trip to an underground coal mine operation to identify the critical issues; and heat and maintenance management.

drilling speeds whilst maintaining acceptable hole trajectory. Ultimately, this technology will lead to development of a novel continuous drilling system that can drill bolt holes of varying length more productively and safely than existing systems. Two tool options have been identified for the first experimental drilling program. The first tool is based on CRCMining's coal seam gas drainage drilling technology. This incorporates a water-powered motor to drive cutting head rotation. The second tool utilises a simple and robust self-rotating swivel system that utilises water jet reaction forces to drive head rotation. Laboratory equipment is currently being configured to allow drilling tests. Sample material has been identified for the first testing phase (1.5m long samples). Investigation of current equipment and practices through discussion with industry and suppliers has identified preliminary quality and productivity targets. Drilling tests are expected to commence in September. If these tests are successful, 6m long samples will be prepared for the second experimental program, scheduled to commence in December.

C21024 Continuous AFC Chain Tension Feedback System

CRCMining Dave Cusack Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $200,000 25/11/2013 Bill Short Peter Crossland Russell Howarth

C21018 Water Jet Cable Bolt Drill Investigation

CRCMining Dihon Tadic Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s: ACARP Contact: $89,527 25/04/2013 Brad Elvy Jim Sandford Peter Brisbane Russell Howarth

The objectives of this project are to: Develop a control model to determine the parameters required for an AFC Chain Tension Feedback System (CTFS); Develop a continuous CTFS suitable for input to an AFC control system or condition monitoring system; Conduct a field trial of the AFC CTFS; and Have the AFT CHTS certified as IS. We have made contact with the host site and have requested details of the AFC chain and joiner links. We need this information to design a custom link that will contain the tension sensors. The sensing technology that we will be using is currently being design at Aachen University in Germany. We recently had a meeting with their research team and their work is progressing. In the next few weeks we will establish a formal agreement with them.

CRCMining is investigating the potential to utilise highpressure water jet drilling technology to drill holes for cable bolts in underground coal mines. The objectives of this project are to identify hole quality and drilling productivity requirements, develop an experimental drilling tool, and conduct a laboratory drilling program to evaluate and optimise the performance of this tool. The intent is to demonstrate drilling of suitable quality holes at appropriate

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Occupational Health

C18019 Improved Dust Control on Longwalls Using a New Water Mist Venturi System

CSIRO Graeme Cooper Shiva Karekal Ting Ren Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $240,045 25/09/2012 Bharath Belle Darren Nicholls Russell Howarth

The project has applied Quantitative Control Effectiveness Method (QRCE) to three case studies. In addition, the project has utilised Bow Tie Analysis (BTA), Fault Tree Analysis and Quantitative Risk Analysis techniques in area where appropriate. The final case study, Underground Collisions, assessment has been completed. The analysis outcomes including FTA, QRA, QRCE, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, will be presented to the case study site representatives for feedback and verification. The second case study, electrical isolation, has had to be further developed and analysed to capture variations between different underground mining operations and hence electrical isolation methods (traditional methods vs recent methods of isolation). This work has involved holding six further workshops involving electrical experts representing three mining organisations. Assessment of selected safety critical electrical controls has been performed. The process followed and the results of the analyses including FTA, QRA, QRCE, Probabilistic Risk Analysis will be presented to the electrical experts for verification. A paper relating to the case study one, Road Subsidence, is being presented at the World Congress 2012. The conference was organised by the Society of Risk Analysis (SRA). The project report is currently being written.

The project's main objective is to develop a new venturi system based on ultra fine water mist spray to significantly reduce the airborne respirable dust generated on medium and thick seam longwalls, particularly those dust particles from the advancement of the main gate side chocks and the intake ventilation passing the beam stage loader (BSL) on to the longwall face. The important feature of the system is to develop the effective controlling means for minimising the dust which will improve the health status of the personnel working down under together with the safety performance and productivity of the Australian longwall mines. Work has progressed in the following areas. The mist based venture system which was certified by the NSW Government Mine Safety Technology Centre as non-metallic, anti-static and fire retardant material was successfully used at the Metropolitan underground mine. A first draft of the report has been finalised and corrections are being applied. Once all the corrections have been incorporated, the report will be sent to Industry monitors in a couple of weeks time for further review.

C19010 Emergency Response: Mine Entry Data Management

Queensland Mines Rescue Service Geoff Nugent Seamus Devlin Steve Tonegato Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $300,000 25/03/2013 John Grieves Peter Brisbane Bevan Kathage

C18021 Analysis of Industry Data to Enable Quantitative Control Effectiveness Assessment

University of Queensland Gul Kizil Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $145,000 25/09/2012 David Carey Gary Brassington Peter Brisbane Roger Wischusen

There is a growing demand within the mining industry for genuine quantitative risk analysis. The data to support these studies is often sparse or hidden, and industry skills have generally developed around semi-quantitative methodologies. The QRA project builds on project C17014 "Developing a Risk ­ Cost ­ Benefit (RCB) Decision Support Tool for the Mining Industry by Using the Bow Tie Analysis Technique" (Kizil, Bye & Joy 2011), and focuses on quantitative data gathering requirements and data quality and databank design.

The objective of this project is to assist the Australian underground coal mining industry assess and identify: The general status of Australian underground coal mines environmental monitoring and communications systems capabilities and capacities to provide adequate information after an incident; What structural design specifications and strategic positioning considerations (including contingences) for environmental monitoring and communications systems would be considered best practice for emergency response? The current status of existing systems available and suitable for Australian underground coal mines. relevant to the scope; The current status of any research and development being carried out or pending applicable to the scope; What further specific research is needed to assist industry in implementing the functional specification developed in the original stage of this project and recommendations of how such research could best be achieved?

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The projects researchers conducted the first researcher review and planning meeting on 6th June 2012. The research strategy, priorities and responsibilities were established with an action plan developed. A core element of the projects schedule and work program is to conduct an industry risk assessment to assess and analyse the potential incidents which could impact effective communications and mine monitoring systems. This risk assessment will be conducted on 6th and 7th August. The researchers will meet again on the 8th of August to review research progress and conduct further project planning. The researchers will meet with the project Monitors on Monday 27th August.

We have: Conducted six more workshops involving electrical experts; Held project team meetings between 18-22 June 2012; Provided the project progress updates to the project experts advisors and their feedback was sought; Carried out the secondary site visit; Held two teleconference call meetings with the primary site main contact; and Submitted a paper for the AUSIMM International Mine Management Conference (peer-reviewed article). The team has continued with the in-depth analysis of the two high-priority major unwanted events and incorporated the new findings progressively to the project risk analysis including the fault tree analysis and quantitative risk analysis. Preliminary analysis on suitability of the methodology to the secondary site has been conducted and application of the methodology would appear to be able to be adopted to the secondary site operation. The final project progress meeting was held on 2 August and the project has met required objectives and milestones. The project report will be provided in December 2012.

C19011 Longwall Hydraulics, Staple Loc Staple, Fatigue Assessment

BMT WBM Russell Smith Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $179,000 25/09/2012 Trevor Hartley Russell Howarth

This project aims to establish the fatigue performance of longwall hydraulic fitting staples in a scientifically valid manner. This requires testing of many more staples than is conventionally undertaken by suppliers. Additionally, testing must be undertaken at a number of pressures to produce an SN curve, and allow fatigue life prediction in applications with varying pressures (i.e., longwalls). Draft report submitted.

C19056 High Pressure Injection Injuries: Detecting the Presence and Extent of Injury

Xstrata Coal NSW Paul Gill Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: No report received. $76,135 25/08/2012 Dave Mellows Mark Levey Richard Porteous Russell Howarth

C19015 Safety Case For Electrical Isolation

University of Queensland Derek Griffiths Gul Kizil Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $175,000 25/01/2013 Dave Mellows John Hempenstall Keith Smith

C20036 DPM Risk Factors

SkillPro Services Dale Howard Terry O'Beirne Zoran Ristovski Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s: ACARP Contact: $458,607 25/12/2012 Peter Brisbane Trevor Hartley Bevan Kathage

The main objective of this project is to develop a form of safety case using Coal Mine Safety Regime (CMSR) approach applied to high-voltage electrical isolation. The CMSR considers risk at four layers. The practical application of the CMSR has been demonstrated using a longwall mining case study site, where a unique 11kV Armoured Face Conveyor (AFC) is in operation. The case study has involved progressive application of the requirements of each layer of the CMSR to high voltage electrical isolation related issues. The project has identified five major unwanted events and concentrated on understanding and analyses of two selected major unwanted events (Layer 1 analysis). The understanding of these two major unwanted events that have been analysed in detail has been an important part of the project as it has demonstrated the steps that may be taken to satisfy the risk management processes at Layer 1. This exercise has been a valuable contributor to resolving issues at Layer 2, 3 and 4.

This project will test the particulate emission from a wet scrubbed engine using the engine dyno facility at QUT. The testing will focus on the role of water cooling of the manifolds and wet scrubber on DPM size, number and toxicity. From the results, we will consider the most suitable ways to measure DPM levels relevant to underground mines and therefore assess likely worker exposure to toxic nano particles and associated organics. The Perkins 1104 engine used on several prior projects is progressively being re-commissioned at QUT. A brand new water cooled exhaust including wet scrubber and catalytic convertor has been purchased and installed. This

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necessitated numerous minor changes to the engine package. A new exhaust handing system has been custom made and installed, mated to this new scrubber. In the past months, the World Health Organization has deemed diesel particulate matter to be a class 1 carcinogen. This impacts on research of this genre and this project will deliver relevant information to help mine owners better manage such risks.

C21009 IS and Non Invasive Detection of Pressure in Hydraulic Hoses Underground

Custom Fluidpower Neil Martin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $243,320 25/05/2013 Barry Moore Keith Cardew Bevan Kathage

In the past quarter, the major detailed design was complete and fabrication on the modifications has begun. The first of the modified manipulators will be assembled in early August with the remainder equipment fabrication currently on track. A Joy Multi-bolter has been purchased by University of Wollongong for the purpose of carrying out the surface trials. Work has begun on the modification of the platform in preparation for the fitting of the automation equipment. A draft report is with the Task Group for review.

C18023 CM2010 Project - Continuous Miner Automation Component

CSIRO David Reid Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $2,629,162 25/08/2012 Roadway Development Task Group Roger Wischusen

The objective of this project is to develop a technically viable, IS approved, portable non-invasive pressure detection device for hydraulic hoses in an underground coal mining environment. The device is currently close to on-site testing stage having completed 80% of the release prototype unit design details. Field trials will commence with the assistance of the Industry Monitors in September 2012.

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

C20034 Rapid Advance Conveyor

Oregate John Bremhorst Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $384,959 25/08/2012 Roadway Development Task Group Roger Wischusen

Roadway Development

C17018 Automated Bolt and Mesh Handling Project

University of Wollongong Ian Porter Stephen Van Duin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $2,166,650 25/08/2012 Roadway Development Task Group Roger Wischusen

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

C20035 Automated Monorail Extension System for Roadway Development

University of Wollongong Scott Jensen Stephen Van Duin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $176,806 25/04/2013 Roadway Development Task Group Roger Wischusen

This project aims to automate the installation of roof and rib support materials from a continuous miner such as roof/rib bolts and mesh. This is expected to improve roadway development advance rates in line with ACARP's CM2010 initiative. At the completion of this project, operators can be removed from the continuous miner and the immediate face area to minimise roof support installation injuries. In March 2012, Stage 2 officially ended and a final report submitted in July 2012. A Stage 3 extension proposal has since been approved for an additional 14 months work to be completed by end July 2013. The extension outlines a plan to make a series of improvements to the existing automation equipment demonstrated in April 2011. Once modified and replicated for the offside of the machine, the automation equipment will be attached to a mobile bolting platform and a full cycle demonstrated in a series of surface trials. The results of which are expected to increase the technology readiness level for any prospective original equipment manufacturer.

This project aims to create a concept design for the automated installation of monorail beams during roadway development. The successful implementation of this concept would remove the need for manual handling of monorail beams and vent ducting during driveage. This technology will ultimately minimise workplace injuries and increase advance rates in line with the ACARP CM2010 initiative. Work has continued with particular focus on creating an animated installation process through several 1-metre cycles. The animation has been created with the dual purpose of demonstrating a complete installation cycle as well as aiding in

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identifying any potential process challenges from roadway and machinery interactions. This quarter has seen the animation progress to a stage where the continuous miner is moving around the curve of a breakaway and installing mesh and bolts to the rib and roof with the monorail following the CM self-installing rail sections. The animation seems to be approaching the processing limit of the Delmia software however, which has slowed progress. As such, work during the start of the coming quarter will look to wrap up the animation phase, including determining cycle/process challenges. The project can then move into final design phase in preparation for the prototype manufacture.

Preliminary spray trials completed on water based product to prove the experimental procedures; spraying of POC product trials starting week commencing 7 August.

Strata Control and Windblasts

C14014 Practitioners Handbook on Managing Geotechnical Risk in Underground Coal Mining

University of New South Wales Jim Galvin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $370,000 25/03/2012 Paul O'Grady Roger Wischusen

C20041 Polymer Based Alternative to Steel Mesh for Coal Mines: ToughSkin

University of Wollongong Ernest Baafi Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $1,160,066 25/12/2012 Roadway Development Task Group Roger Wischusen

This project is concerned with producing a Practitioners Guide to Managing Geotechnical Risk in Underground Coal Mining. The first draft of Volume 2, which is concerned with excavation behaviour, ground support and monitoring, is well advanced. Presentation of a series of 4 x 2 day technology transfer workshops for ACARP contributors has commenced, complemented with one day workshops for special interest groups.

The overall aim of this project is to develop and implement a polymeric replacement, ToughSkin, for steel mesh in underground coal mine roadway support. During the last quarter, the following on-going activities were advanced: Heads of Agreement between Minova and University of Wollongong (UoW) has progressed to be finalised by the end of August '12. Minova will handle final product formulation, commercialisation and approvals. Other industry partner Valspar has introduced a structured "Stage Gating" approach to resin development along with interim technical advice. Signing of Non-Disclosure Agreement between Valspar and UoW is in progress. ToughSkin "proof of concept (POC)" product 80% complete: preliminary fire resistance and fire propagation tests gave very positive results; shear thinning and "set up" behaviour onto walls without sag has been achieved; product thins when agitated for sprayability, but quickly sets up again without sagging (see photo below).

C20031 Update of Stress Concentration Effects about Longwall Panels for Improved Mine Planning

SCT Operations Winton Gale Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $165,000 25/11/2012 John Grieves Roger Byrnes Russell Howarth

The project is aimed to update the early work of monitoring the three dimensional stress concentration effects about longwall panels. This project will collate new information regarding stress monitoring ahead of longwall panels, together with computer modelling of stress concentration effects for a range of stress ratios likely to be encountered in underground coal mining. Progress to date has been: Computer modelling of stress concentration effects for a stone roof and coal roofs. A range of stress ratios have been modelled and the effects collated; Mine visits to assess the stress concentration effects for mines having stress measurement data or having observed stress concentration effects in the gateroads; Sites visited to date include North Goonyella, Grasstree, Austar and Carborough Downs Mine visits are planned for Tahmoor, Dendrobium and Appin West in August. The work program is aimed to be completed this year.

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C20032 Dynamic Response of Longwall Systems and their Relationship to Caving Behaviour

PDR Engineers David Hoyer Peter Hatherly Terry Medhurst Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $250,000 25/04/2013 Ismet Canbulat Roger Byrnes Bevan Kathage

Identification of the most suitable resin based on bolt installation procedures and varying ground conditions. During the first phase of study the following program of activities were undertaken: Installation of twelve bolts with full dual speed resins into 1.7m long internally threaded steel pipes (diameter 28mm) with various installation techniques including spin-to-stall. The installation of the bolts in the tubes was carried out in an underground mine and subsequently, the whole installation, were pulled out of the mine and transported to the University of Wollongong Mining Geomechanics Laboratory for sectionalisation and push testing for performance. Particular emphasis is given to the speed of bolt insertion spin (know as spin to back), bolt spin when fully inserted in the tube (spin at back) and the spin revolution. Study of the performance of different size cylindrical resin specimens for a comparative strength study. The cylindrical samples sizes tested included 20mm, 30mm, 54mm in diameter as well as 40mm cubes. This aspect of the study is progressing according to the established procedure. Similar tests are scheduled with fast setting resins, which is used for regular bolt installations in the field A 0.7m3 sandstone cube has been acquired to carrying out pull testing of bolts with 300mm encapsulation lengths in different resin installation conditions with regard to bolt spin to back and spin at back processes, thus mimicking the underground installation procedures with different spin times The next phase of the study program will include: Further experimentation of the resin performance tests; The laboratory pull testing of bolts installed in overhead sandstone blocks; and Carrying out the first set of bolt pull testing at Baal Bone Experimental Mine.

The interaction between longwall supports and the surrounding strata is a complex phenomenon. At present neither empirical nor numerical models can adequately capture the critical factors required to predict strata response. However, recent advances in the ability to analyse longwall monitoring data provide a potentially large and valuable data source to quantify time related factors. It also provides a means in which to assess how operational practice can influence shield behaviour. In this project we will analyse various data from existing longwall operations using the Geophysical Strata Rating (GSR) to characterise the strata, and then correlate this with the various outputs that can be provided by Longwall Visual Analysis (LVA) software. Outcomes are anticipated to include a measure of the likelihood of weighting events, potential for development of face cavities and criteria to assist in future longwall support design, strata characterisation and face management. Analysis of data from Dendrobium Mine has been obtained and a GSR model developed. Both distance based analysis (chainage) and time based analysis of longwall data has been undertaken. Work is continuing on the relationship of GSR to caving performance. In particular, a conceptual model relating support loading, ground conditions and support requirements has been developed. This is being tested against various longwall support performance scenarios.

C21011 New Testing Procedure for the Assessment of Resin Performance for Improved Encapsulated Roof Bolt Installation

University of Wollongong Najdat Aziz Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $130,000 25/04/2013 Brian Vorster Ismet Canbulat Rae O'Brien Roger Byrnes Russell Howarth

C21013 Improving Roof Control on Longwall Faces Through the Incorporation of Reliable Convergence Monitoring Data Into Load Cycle Analysis Software

Strata Engineering (Australia) Bob Trueman Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $347,400 25/09/2013 Adrian Moodie Dan Payne Peter Corbett Bevan Kathage

ACARP Contact:

The main objectives of this project are: To develop a standard test methodology for testing or assessment of different resins installation performance; The correlation of laboratory derived results with the actual performance of a roof bolt in the field (underground pullout tests); and

The objective of the research is the demonstration of a reliable convergence monitoring system for the longwall face, the capture of the data in a format that can be used for roof control and the demonstration that reliable Trigger Action Responses (TARPs) can be developed from the results of the monitoring that will lead to a significantly greater understanding of the causes of roof control problems on longwall faces and their control. Progress from the last quarterly report is summarised in the following:

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Ian Hutchinson (INH) and Robert Trueman (RT) completed a site visit to Austar Colliery 28th May 2012 for discussions with mine technical staff about the installation of the tilt monitors. Shields were inspected both underground and on the surface and measurements taken for brackets to hold the sensors. Austar was provided with IS certification documentation. INH manufactured new Wireless Bridge for RT to use for surface download of data from Wireless Tilt Monitors, designed brackets to mount them and organised their manufacture. INH prepared 3 Wireless Tilt Monitors for trial installation at Austar. Tilt angle measurements were calibrated and some data logging testing was carried out. Data logging software was developed by EM (Eddie Matejowski). RT and INH attended Austar contractors induction 11th July 2012 and installed 3 mounting brackets and 3 Wireless Tilt Monitors on support 60 on 12th July 2012 as a trial. Discussions were held between RT and Dave Hoyer (DH) with respect to convergence monitoring data to be incorporated into the LVA program when it becomes available and how this is to be visualised. EM and INH found a bug in the logging software which may have compromised the integrity of the data collected by the 3 trial units installed on Support 60. This will be checked when the units are brought to the surface and the data downloaded. The bug was fixed. INH and RT installed 5 extra sets of brackets at Austar on support 52, 56, 64, 68 and 72 on the 31st July 2012 and also installed 3 Wireless Tilt Monitors on support 64. The Units on support 60 were checked. INH is reprogramming 18 units with new logging software provided by EM. INH and RT are expected to install the additional reprogrammed 18 units on Shields 52, 56, 68 and 72 and replace the units on Shield 60 on 2nd August 2012. The aim is to download and process convergence monitoring data prior to the progress meeting in Brisbane on the 27th August, if at all possible. The contract between CSIRO and Strata Engineering is still pending. This is delaying the manufacturing of the additional tilt sensors by Ampcontrol allowed for in the ACARP budget.

C21023 Optimisation of Roof Bolt Length Based on Improved Resin Performance

Mine Advice Russell Frith Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $200,000 25/12/2013 Dan Payne Gavin Lowing Rae O'Brien Russell Howarth

The objective of the project is to evaluate and demonstrate the potential for general reductions in roof bolt length without any associated geotechnical risk, as a direct result of US type roof bolt resins that are designed to overcome bolt gloving and resin un-mixing and are now being introduced into the Australian coal industry via global suppliers such as DSI. As of the end of July 2012, the literature survey is largely complete (as per the project schedule) and planning for the surface based installation trials and resin evaluations is underway for each of the resin suppliers to industry. The surface trials are required to be undertaken between 1 August 2012 and the end of November 2012, these being a prerequisite before underground field trials can commence. The completion of the surface trials is currently on schedule.

Ventilation, Gas Drainage and Monitoring

C16016 Application of Numerical Outburst Model for Outburst Management

CSIRO Xavier Choi Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $210,000 25/10/2012 Mike Armstrong Roger Wischusen

C21020 Real Time Seismic Roof Condition Mapping Ahead of Longwall Mining

CSIRO Xun Luo Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: No report received. $331,620 25/04/2014 Ismet Canbulat Peter Corbett Roger Byrnes Bevan Kathage

The objectives of the project are: To validate a numerical outburst model by comparing model predictions with the observed response of the working seam and adjacent rock strata to mining and roadway development, taking into account heterogeneity and variability in rock properties; To assess the factor of safety with respect to outburst of the participating mines, taking into account reservoir, geomechanical and operating factors; To use the model as a guide to mine through some difficult areas; To review the current outburst management protocol and to develop rational guidelines for outburst management based on field experience acquired during the project and using the validated model. The project is an extension of work conducted in projects C6024, C9023, C11030 and C13012. One of the major aims of the project is to apply the understanding on outburst mechanisms gained and the numerical outburst model

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developed in previous projects to field problems, especially in mining through difficult areas. The model will be tested and validated through field applications. The current outburst management protocol will be reviewed based on careful analysis of the data collected by Dr Ripu Lama, data and experience on past outbursts reported in the literature, and the new data and field experience from this project, with the aid of the validated outburst model. Summary of Progress Contacted the New South Wales Department of Primary Industry regarding arrangement for a visit; Arranged visit to a mine in the Illawarra region of the Southern Coalfield to collect data of two recent outbursts that occurred during remote mining. Meeting had to be cancelled due to long flight delay caused by heavy fog in Sydney. Another visit has been arranged; Continued with drafting of the final report.

simpler in-seam coiled tube drilling system. These technologies have the potential for significant impact in coal bed methane drilling in general. The specific objectives and current progress for each these technologies are given below. In-seam gas drilling study Determine the current drilling practices for in-seam gas drainage within the Australian coal mining industry, and then; clearly define the functional specifications for a desirable inseam gas drainage drilling system. Novel Down-hole Drill Steering System Develop concepts for a low cost downhole steerable drilling system for use in in-seam and MRD drilling applications. Wireless BHA Communication System Develop a concept prototype for a more functional and cost effective IS wireless communication system for in-seam drilling. IMU based Borehole Survey System Develop a concept design for an IMU based system that will generate a more accurate survey of borehole than current systems. The draft final report will be completed early in the next quarter and submitted to monitors for review.

C17015 Likelihood of High Overpressures

Simtars Ray Davis Stewart Gillies Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $196,000 25/09/2012 Bruce Robertson Bevan Kathage

C18013 Information Dissemination for the Management of Spontaneous Combustion

University of Queensland Darren Brady David Cliff Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $109,000 25/12/2012 John Grieves Peter Bergin Bevan Kathage

The principal aim of the project is to study the theoretical basis for a detonation or significantly higher pressures occurring and the conditions under which they would occur. The likelihood of these higher overpressure occurring can be determined through examination of the chance of such conditions occurring in the existing geometry of Australian coal mines. The objectives of the project are to determine the configuration and circumstance of the seal environment in Australian mines and compare that to the circumstances that would lead to high overpressures. Through this comparison a prediction that is appropriate for Australian coal mines will be able to be made. All testing is complete. Karl Zipf of NIOSH is currently reviewing the findings and conclusions of the testing performed. The draft final report has been completed and is undergoing peer review

The main aim of this project is to review the documents that were developed following the Moura No. 2 mine disaster in 1994 with ACARP funding to provide educational resources to improve the understanding of the management of spontaneous combustion. In addition the project aims to provide other mechanisms such as web based information packages to encourage best practice spontaneous combustion management. The objectives are to: Update and revise the information contained within the "green book"; using this information and research project reports (including ACARP) to develop a web based information system similar to the Outburst Management site ­ linked to the MIRMGATE metadata system; Include case studies on this website; Update the "red" and "blue" books; Provide updated information to providers of education and training in spontaneous combustion; Identify the major changes and improvements in spontaneous combustion management in the past 10 years; and Identify areas for future spontaneous combustion research.

C17017 Tools to Simplify the Coiled Tube Drilling System

CRCMining Paul Lever Tim Meyer Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $296,500 25/09/2012 Mick Loney Peter Brisbane Russell Howarth

The major objective of the project is to develop conceptual designs for novel drilling technologies necessary for enabling a

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Due to the involvement of the project team in the Pike River investigation and Royal Commission this project has been placed on hold until their involvement has been completed. The prototype website has been developed based upon the NSW DII sponsored technical reference guide to MDG 1006. This will be used as the basis for the new green book with additional material collected as part of the ACARP project. The final phase of the Royal Commission concluded in April 2012 and it was expected that completion of this phase will release the key project staff to recommence work on the ACARP project, however there has been ongoing involvement in support of DOL investigations and the potential mine reentry. It is hoped these commitments will be complete by end of August. A draft plan for completion of the project will be drawn up and discussed at the next project review meeting, to be scheduled once the Pike River commitments are complete.

C20012 Geophysical Estimation of Concentration and Composition of Gas In Place in Unmined Coal Seams

Curtin University of Technology Mark Lwin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $244,753 25/04/2013 Andy Willson Cecilie Naess James Knowles Mike Armstrong Bevan Kathage

ACARP Contact:

C20006 Development of an Alternative Electronic Spark Test Apparatus

CRCMining Ian Gregg Paul Lever Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $543,152 25/12/2012 Greg Briggs Peter Henderson Bevan Kathage

This project aims to demonstrate an ability to predict concentration and composition of Gas-In-Place (GIP) from geophysical logs and laboratory measurements on core samples. We also intend assess of the readiness of seismic methodologies for areal prediction of GIP. In addition to samples of thermal coal from the Hunter Valley, we have now studied the ultrasonic response of two samples of coking coal from the Bowen Basin (these represent all the intact samples that, prior to 27 July; we had received from the second site). Again we have not observed an effect that is commensurate with the size of the swelling pressure (as was proposed). We must now reconsider our basic assumption. Thus we do not expect, within the scope of this project, be able to exploit the swelling pressure (as measured by bulk strain), for the purpose of determining the effect of adsorption on sonic/seismic response. It is possible that those changes that we have observed, may be explained by a combination of a reduced effect due to swelling, and the properties of a denser and less compressible adsorbed phase (relative to gas). To sort these issues out more work of a fundamental nature would be required. With regards to electrical response as a function of water content, we have been carrying out measurements as a function of water content on five slices taken from the same core sample (slices from the other core samples have been set aside so that all material can be measured in a batch). At frequencies in the band used by conventional electrical logging tools no trend in response as a function of water content has been observed. We believe that this is because variations in surface charge effects, due to the high internal surface to volume ratio in coal, are swamping out the volume effect produced by changes in water content. However at frequencies around 10MHz, where the aforementioned surface effects do not dominate, an upward trend associated with increasing water content is observed. If upheld by further work this result may be exploited by the development of higher frequency borehole tools.

The Electronic Spark Testing concept deploys an electronic device that emulates the function of the current Spark Testing Apparatus (STA) for intrinsic safety testing. This project has four major objectives: Develop a set of well defined functional specifications for an Electronic Spark Tester (EST); Develop, design, fabricate and demonstrate an operational prototype EST; Validate the operational performance of the EST relative to an existing STA and to meeting regulatory requirements; Develop a commercialisation and deployment strategy for the EST. Rajiv is about to return from an extended visit to PhysikalischTechnische Bundesanstalt in Germany (PTB) where he has obtained a great deal of data to be analysed and developed the hardware and software components of the EST.

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C20014 Fibre Optic Based Methane Sensor

CRCMining Saiied Aminossadati Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $148,500 25/01/2013 Colin Gilligan Jim Sandford Pat Booth Peter Brisbane Russell Howarth

C20039 Controlling Heatings and Gas Leakage Using Innovative Polymer Gel - Pilot Plant Scale Testing

CSIRO Sheng Xue Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $226,100 25/06/2013 Ken Lewthwaite Peter Brisbane Russell Howarth

ACARP Contact:

This quarter we have successfully demonstrated methane sensing using drilled hollow core fibre (HCF) sensor heads, and have removed sources of noise from the signal to significantly improve signal-to-noise ratio. Drilled HCFs, whose preparation was described in previous quarterly reports, offer a significantly larger interaction volume than tapered fibres (our previously studied sensor head). It was found that upon exposing a drilled HCF (with two 10 m diameter holes drilled directly into the fibre core) to 10 % methane in our gas chamber, that several characteristic methane absorption peaks were detected around 1,666 nm. The laser was locked to the wavelength of the most intense peak (1,666.4 nm) and we were able to observe methane injection and removal from the chamber. Initial data contained multiple sources of noise. However, a detailed and methodical investigation has enabled us to significantly reduce noise levels by improving the alignment of fibre connectors and by employing background subtraction and harmonic detection. An example result, showing the decrease in transmission upon injection of methane, and the signal returning to its original level upon flushing with nitrogen, is demonstrated in Fig. 1.

The objective of this project is to carry out pilot-plant scale testing of gel systems developed in project C14021 for controlling heatings and gas leakage. Specifically, the project objectives are to: Review China's practices in gel technologies and their delivery systems; Develop suitable batch and continuous approaches for preparing gel systems on pilot-plant scale; Develop delivery (pumping, injection or spraying of gels) approaches that would maximise air-blocking area; Assess the effectiveness of gel systems in controlling heatings and gas leakage on a simulated goaf at the CSIRO laboratories; Develop guidelines for selecting gel systems suitable for particular types of heatings (eg heating in a seam, pillar or goaf) or gas leakage and operational procedures for the gel technique. To assess the effectiveness of gel systems in controlling heatings and gas leakage, a test rig is currently being set up. The rig can be used to simulate goaf, roof and wall. Raw coal samples for the test are being collected. Main gelling materials have been sourced.

C21002 Development of Guidelines for the Measurement and Reporting of Fugitive Emissions from Underground Coal Mines

PacificMGM Dennis Black Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $52,500 25/08/2012 Jim Sandford Roger Wischusen

Transmission transient showing the change in light intensity (1,666.4 nm) transmitted through the drilled HCF sensor head upon exposure to 10 % methane and flushing with nitrogen. During the next quarter, we will attempt to improve the detector response time by changing the number and separation of drilled holes in the HCF sensor head. We will also characterise the sensitivity and limit of detection of the sensor head by measuring the methane signal at different concentrations and constructing a calibration curve. This quarter we also gave a presentation at the Imaging and Applied Optics Congress of the Optical Society of America in Monterey, California.

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

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Open Cut Projects

OPEN CUT

Drilling & Blasting

C21005 RAB Drill Rig Top of Coal Detection While Drilling

CRCMining Ian Gregg Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $300,000 25/07/2013 Andrew Denman John Hoelle Ken Preston Kirk Henderson John Brett

To develop laboratory and field procedures to assess fumes generation propensity of bulk explosives currently used in deep holes, soft ground and wet conditions; To understand the physical and detonation characteristics of bulk explosives used in deep holes, soft ground and wet conditions through lab scale simulations and field measurements. To develop solutions to minimise the risk of fumes incidences in deep holes, soft ground and wet conditions. Work done in this Quarter: Recruited key personnel to work in the project. However, one of our key person had some family health problems and is not able spend time and can't travel to the site for some time. Therefore we are looking at other persons to help us and it will take some time. This may delay the field work by a month or two; Visited Anglo ­ Dawson mine to get acquaintance with the mine staff and to plan for the field trials; A literature review was conducted to identify the instrumentation required to test products. Obtained quotes for instrumentation which are being evaluated for procurement; Made enquiries to hire/purchase a mobile container to conduct simulated lab tests at the mine site.

ACARP Contact:

Ideally, blast holes in open cut mines would stop at a depth just above the top of the formation to be mined. Currently, the depth of blast holes is determined by expensive survey drilling on a coarse grid, interpolation between those points and drilling periodically into the coal seam. This results in significant losses due to mixing of the overburden and the material to be mined. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated that when drilling with air rather than water/oil/mud it is possible to have a high frequency, high bandwidth wireless communication link between a down hole sensor package and the surface using the drill string as a waveguide. This enables measurement of a wide range of parameters with real time display and recording. The down hole system for this project will measure resistivity using induction as there is a large contrast between the resistivity of coal and the overburden so that top of coal will be able to be detected accurately and possibly to be accurately anticipated so that drilling can be stopped just before top of coal. A set of four drill rods has recently been installed at CRCMining in Brisbane and communications testing can now proceed. A site visit at Peak Downs Mine occurred in May where many details of the proposed installation were investigated and discussed.

Environment

C18033 Assessing Impact of Sulphate in Saline Mine Site Discharge in Seasonally Flowing Streams in the Bowen Basin

University of Queensland Rajesh Prasad Sue Vink Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $324,505 25/09/2012 Bernie Kirsch Claire Cote Stuart Ritchie Toni Ward Keith Smith

ACARP Contact:

C21036 Physical and Detonation Characteristics of Bulk Explosives to Minimise Post Blast Fume Generation in Deep Hole, Soft Ground and Wet Conditions

JKTech Sarma Kanchibotla Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $400,000 25/04/2014 Lindsay Ford Robbie Nitz Vishwa Bhushan Keith Smith

The objective of the work is firstly to develop a locally relevant salinity toxicity data set for aquatic organisms in the Bowen Basin. Secondly to provide an indication of toxicity using test solutions with similar ionic composition to mine waters of the basin. The final report has been revised based on the monitors review and is waiting on approval by DERM for final submission.

The main objectives of this project are:

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C18034 Emissions from Blasting in Open Cut Coal Mining

CSIRO Stuart Day $276,000 Value: 25/10/2012 Report Expected: Andrew Speechly Industry Monitor/s : Keith Smith ACARP Contact: Atmospheric emissions of pollutants from blasting are of concern to communities located close to mining operations, such as in the upper Hunter Valley. Although some of these emissions are estimated and publicly reported each year through the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI), recent research has shown that the estimates are subject to considerable uncertainty. The extent to which local populations are affected by the emissions is largely unknown. This project aims to use continuous spectroscopic monitoring for a period of about two years to determine the concentration of NO2 at the boundary of a large open-cut coal mine. The results of this project may be used to quantitatively determine the contribution of blasting to ambient NO2 concentrations in surrounding districts. In addition, hydrocarbon emissions from blasts will be sampled and analysed to determine the range of compounds released. Collection of NO2 data at two minute intervals from a Chemiluminescent NOx Analyser and also two DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer) instruments has continued to cover seasonal variations in weather, particularly wind, patterns. Collected data has been loaded into a large database together with meteorological data and blast records. Plume concentrations are being estimated and compared to concentrations from other sources such as vehicles and power stations. The plume sampling by canister component of the project is drawing to close with collection of samples from vehicles for comparison with blast and ambient sampling. Results are now being analysed and prepared for presentation in the report

Develop guidelines for flow and water quality conditions that will minimise environmental impacts of mine site discharge. The final field trip is to be conducted in September 2012. Sediment samples for genomic analysis are being processed. Streamflow and salinity data are being analysed to determine salt sources and transport in the Fitzroy catchment. The final report is being complied.

C19028 Risk Assessment Tools to Support End Use Decisions for Mined Land of the Bowen Basin

University of Queensland Bob Maczkowiack Carl Smith Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $250,000 25/03/2013 Bernie Kirsch Craig Lockhart Keith Smith

The objectives of the project are to develop an approach and modelling framework for assessing the end use risks for rehabilitated mined land of the Bowen Basin and to develop risk assessment models for selected post-mining land uses. Our activity since the last quarterly report focused on obtaining data to complete population of the surface erosion model. The data that were required complement previously obtained empirical datasets (rainfall and soils data) and scientific equations (eg the RUSLE) that already populate key portions of the model. We had planned to use data from monitoring sites for portions, but unfortunately the available data proved to be inadequate (incomplete and statistically erratic, focusing on parameters of only peripheral interest for our purposes). We therefore utilised expert opinion from people possessing relevant knowledge (soils, vegetation, fire and erosion in the Bowen Basin). We have sought input from three experts who were at ease with expressing their knowledge in the required probabilistic form. Data elicited from these experts has been incorporated into the model, which is now in a preliminary functional form. We intend to consult another one or two such experts to complete all data requirements. We will then extract sensitivity reports from the model, and present key output to experts (sensitivity and scenario analyses), illustrating the role their expert input has played. Their evaluation of the model's performance and predictive capability will be a significant validation step. Population of the other risk factor models (sub-surface erosion, bushfire, weed and feral animal risk) will follow a similar process, aided because portions of the data in the surface erosion model are repeated in the other models.

C19024 Guidelines for Establishing Ecologically Sustainable Discharge Criteria in Seasonally Flowing Streams

University of Queensland Sue Vink Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $238,000 25/02/2013 Bernie Kirsch Carl Grant Stuart Ritchie Keith Smith

The project has the following specific objectives: Develop new knowledge for determining the sustainable salt load for the river system. Quantify the impact of saline discharge on aquatic ecosystem processes by examining changes in hyporheic (below surface of river bed) microbial community structure and function and the dynamics of system flushing under highly-variable seasonal river-flow conditions.

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C19029 Soil Organic Matter and Green Carbon in Rehabilitation: Their Role in the Carbon Balance

University of Queensland Thomas Baumgartl Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $253,200 25/01/2013 Bernie Kirsch Keith Smith

The TG-DSC method has been identified as a promising way forward to distinguish black carbon from coal. Despite the outstanding results from the above mentioned degradation trial, samples have been sent to an external laboratory with the objective to further verify this method.

C19033 Environmental Offsets: Maximising Ecosystem Services from Biodiversity Conservation

University of Queensland Damian Barrett Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $261,750 25/09/2012 Bernie Kirsch Carl Grant Frank Ford Stuart Ritchie Keith Smith

Quantification of carbon in soil is commonly used to assess the potential productivity of an area. Accumulation of carbon fractions in replaced soils/spoils can therefore be assessed over time and depth to judge the success of mine site rehabilitation. The primary objective of this research is to distinguish between green (recently decomposed plant matter) and black carbon (eg charcoal) or coal derived carbon for the purpose of quantification of these fractions and evaluation of rehabilitation success. For the investigation a series of methods are used to gain confidence in the accuracy of the analytical approach and comparability of results and to eventually concentrate on a limited number of promising method(s) for green carbon analysis. Frequently used methods for the determination of green carbon and total carbon were expanded by methods like: Heanes dichromate oxidation (total TOC); Thermogravimetry with differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC); Rock-Eval. Collaboration with DERM, University of Pennsylvania, Geosciences Australia and QUT have been established for this purpose. First results of the TG-DSC analyses are very promising as they allow a differentiation between the fractions char and coal within black carbon and also distinguish green carbon of various qualities. Peak deconvolution promises to enable the quantification of the various fractions and gave a linear relationship for a vertisol to which known amounts of black char were added. A multi-variant regression analysis has been applied to the TG-DSC tests and a further improvement in the prediction of the added black carbon could be achieved. Results from Rock-Eval tests may further support the quantification of the base line of black carbon content. In parallel a degradation experiment of organic matter is ongoing, which focuses on sample handling, i.e. the potential effect of mineralisation of organic matter during storage and quantities mobilised and the effect of removal of litter for the measured total organic carbon. Both investigations are viewed as an important aspect when translating a field sampling procedure into practice as it influences the sampling and storage protocol until analysis. Neglecting the potential impact of immediate carbon loss after sampling, it appears that carbon is not lost as a result of storage. The removal of litter does not seem to significantly affect the amount of total organic carbon. The current tests on the degree of degradation after sampling run since March 2012. The tests are performed in an external laboratory; results have not been accessible to date. Future analysis is crucially dependent on this test series as it needs to be decided whether the previously sampled soils can be used or have to be discarded.

ACARP Contact:

Environmental Offsets are intentional actions that compensate for the residual and unavoidable harm caused by project development. They aim to ensure no net loss of biodiversity value within a region and maintain provision of ecosystem services. This project aims to improve the capability of assessing the value of environmental offsets in terms of biodiversity value, the functioning of landscapes and the trade-offs with economic benefits. The benefits to industry of this work are improved knowledge of where and when offsets are appropriate, development of the scientific basis for credible tools to assess offset performance, facilitating dialogue between stakeholders for the social, legislative and environmental 'license-tooperate'. Recent progress in the project includes the following. Feedback on Milestone Report April 2012 Feedback was received from the Industry Monitors. Suggested edits and comments have been attended to in an updated version of the report, which is due to be re-distributed to monitors shortly. Spatial Optimisation ­ Remote Operation A secure system has been set up enabling GALAPAGOS (Genetic ALgorithm And PArallel Geographic Optimisation Software) to be configured, parameterised and executed remotely (i.e. from anywhere with an internet connection) on the CWiMI desktop supercomputer. This set-up has been successfully tested. Case Study Development A literature review is being undertaken for the purpose of underpinning the development of an offsets initiative case study. The literature review is focusing on biodiversity and offsets policy and legislation, at both state and federal level. This will then be incorporated when implementing one or more offsets optimisation scenarios using GALAPAGOS.

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C20007 Measurement of Dust Sampling in Australian Coal Mines

University of Wollongong Ting Ren Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $119,500 25/01/2013 Bharath Belle Darren Nicholls Russell Howarth

C20015 Sustainable Management of Plantations for Rehabilitation, Carbon and Wood Products

Industry & Investment NSW Georgina Kelly Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $187,068 25/06/2016 Bill Baxter John Hindmarsh Keith Smith

The main objective of this project is to develop a new dust monitoring methodology to quantify and document both respirable and inhalable dust magnitudes generated from different sources, and assess the efficiency of installed controls for the mitigation of produced dust, using gravimetric sampling as per statutory requirements in conjunction with real-time dust monitors. This data will then be used to create a benchmark or signature for each longwall mine in relation to dust loads from different sources of generation. Once this signature is established, quantifiable testing can be undertaken on new or improved controls to ensure maximum efficiency in removing respirable and inhalable dust. Results from this project will shed some fundamental and scientific insights into an area of genuine concern to the coal industry. In the last quarter, more field studies have been conducted to improve the new sampling methodology, these include: Field dust monitoring studies conducted at Metropolitan Colliery with new benchmark results and dust mitigation efficiency for installed controls; A reasonably consistent benchmark has now been established for Metropolitan. The monitoring results helped to identify dust mitigation controls with good result along the face but poor performance on BSL and longwall outbye; Field dust monitoring studies conducted at longwall mine in the Bowen Basin with benchmark results showing high dust generations in comparison with other longwalls of NSW; Meetings at another three longwalls in NSW and a longwall in Qld, including a mine employing Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) mining method, for further field studies in the coming quarter. The monitoring method is increasingly gaining acceptance by the industry as it offers useful information on dust control performance compared with traditional monitoring method. The monitoring methodology will be used to benchmark dust loads in a development heading and evaluate associated controls for dust mitigation. Effort is also being made to conduct the first real-time dust monitoring using PDM at a longwall in NSW.

The objective of this research is to quantify the benefits of an early non-commercial thinning and pruning regime on dryland forest plantations in the Upper Hunter Valley. Potential benefits include increases in biomass production, tree and stand growth and carbon sequestration. The project includes the original ACARP supported trial together with other sites to provide a valley wide perspective. This will also make the results applicable and pertinent to a number of mines. This projects aims to: Gather a valley wide database on most of the oldest tree plantations; Apply thinning and pruning regimes to assess the benefit of early application in dryland plantations; Manage existing stands via thinning to reduce risk of death and to maximise high value wood products and carbon returns; Provide strongly-based full rotation projections (from yr 15 data) on performance of species, land type and the species/land type interaction; Assess the longer term impacts of establishment techniques and soil amendments. Milestone progress: Twelve month measurements of Rix's Creek, Bulga (Buffer) and Narama were undertaken in the 2nd quarter of 2012; The remaining sites are scheduled for re-measurement in October/November 2012; All milestones to date have been met.

C20017 Criteria for Functioning River Landscape Units in Mining and Post Mining Landscapes

Alluvium Consulting (Queensland) Rohan Lucas Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $255,280 25/05/2013 Bernie Kirsch Stuart Ritchie Toni Ward Keith Smith

The objective of this project is to establish the criteria for functioning river landscape units in mining and post mining landscapes. The primary objective of the research will be to define such criteria and describe the performance standards to be achieved for such criteria. It is proposed that the criteria and performance standards be developed in a form suitable for acceptance and adoption by both the mining industry and

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regulators and provide the mechanism to enable stream diversion licence relinquishment and contribute to orderly mine site closure. The Alluvium team has carried out a review of Australian and global best practice diversion design. The literature review has been compiled into report and was discussed at a workshop in Rockhampton on 19th July with industry representative (Bernie Kirsch) and regulators. The literature review and discussions focussed on: Waterway planning, objectives and criteria including the application of trajectory concepts to assist identification of acceptable criteria for relinquishment of diversion licenses; Constructed waterway design: The literature has identified best practice waterway design. This approach includes both alluvial channel design providing for sediment transport and for a threshold channel design, providing for protection of assets, infrastructure and the watercourse for agreed design flood events; Monitoring and evaluation: Approaches to waterway monitoring and evaluation. The project team has now commenced planning of the field work to review the success or otherwise of constructed waterway diversions in the Bowen Basin. The investigations will include a combination of field review and review of monitoring and evaluation data sets such as the results of Index of Diversion Condition assessments. This field work and evaluation will be undertaken over the next 3 months.

Work so far has covered the field investigation and numerical modelling component. Various methods and techniques for the field work have been established and tested. The first field campaign was undertaken from 22/8/2011 to 28/8/2011. Data collected from the field site have been analysed and presented at the11th Coal Operators' Conference (COAL2012). In the same time, the team has been pursuing the modelling work, currently developing the fracture network generation and flow simulation models. The second field campaign is being prepared and expected to take place in October 2012. Using ACARP funding as leverage, the team has secured an ARC Linkage project grant to expand the scope of the research work. The scheduling of the work within the ACARP project has been put back so that the two projects can be run in parallel to better utilise resources. This has been agreed with the industry monitors. The team has gone through a process of searching for a good candidate to fill a postdoctoral research fellow position associated with the ARC Linkage project and has made the appointment with the research fellow planning to join the team in early 2013. This appointment will boost the team's effort on achieving the objectives of the ACARP project. The PhD student involved in this project has made progresses with work and designed laboratory experiments to study the gas transport in fractures and soils.

C20023 Improvement of Haul Road Dust Emission Estimation and Controls at Coal Mines

PAEHolmes Judith Cox Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $244,720 25/06/2012 Craig Lockhart John Watson Keith Smith

C20022 Hydraulic Connectivity Between Mines and Adjacent River and Groundwater Systems in the Hunter River Valley

University of Queensland Betlef Bringemeier Ling Li Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $377,810 25/05/2013 Andrew Speechly John Watson Keith Smith

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

C20027 Assessing Environmental Safety of In-pit Disposal of Tailings

University of Queensland Thomas Baumgartl Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $268,600 25/09/2013 Bernie Kirsch Toni Ward Keith Smith

The work aims to improve understanding of the hydraulic connectivity between mines and adjacent river and groundwater systems in the Hunter River Valley region, and so to develop a set of criteria for assessing the mining impact on the rivers and aquifers, and associated risks. Specific objectives are to: Characterise the risks with respect to the uncertainty of the hydrogeological regimes; Evaluate the impacts of mine extension on groundwater and surface water; Estimate rates of saline groundwater seepage into the pit; and Assess the impact of fault structures and fracture zones on the strip and high-wall designs and the geotechnical performance of the pit excavation during operations and closure.

There is increasing pressure from stakeholders to minimise land use and the effects of mining on the environment. Tailings produced from washing coal need to be stored securely on site taking into account the scarcity of land to be impacted and to maintain the license to operate. There is potential risk of hydrological and geochemical impacts through the footprint of a tailings facility. Some of the existing voids/pits can be utilised for disposal of tailings. In-pit tailings disposal has the advantage compared to on-ground tailings storage facilities to reduce the risk of surface contamination in case of failure.

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The objective of this project is to develop a set of critical parameters relevant for the prediction of hydrological and geochemical behaviour of in-pit disposed tailings. In a further step the use of advanced modelling approaches will determine the potential impact of in-pit disposal, and its applicability and associated risks and benefits for the local environment. Appropriate boundary conditions will be defined, which will support the decision making process on site for planning and design of the use of voids for in-pit disposal. In an initial step information and experience about in-pit tailings deposition from a number of mine sites in Qld and NSW will be collated. To date the mines of Gregory-Crinum, Peak Downs and Saraji have been visited. Data on geology and hydrochemistry, properties of tailings and other information have been collated. Since May 2012, four additional mine sites (Burton in Qld and Wilpinjong, Wambo and Mt Arthur in NSW) have been visited and information and data were collected. In total information from seven mine sites are currently available and is currently characterised and classified. A literature review including experiences world-wide on in-pit tailings deposition has been finalised and will be completed with the addition of the local experience of the seven mine sites. The analysis of the data will also determine the selection of characteristic and valuable TSFs for sampling and hydrochemical analysis.

C21026 Live Noise Prediction Method for Mining Activities in Australian Conditions

AECOM Peter Sanderson Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $73,496 25/02/2013 John Watson Mahdi Mason Stephen Schaller John Brett

The objective of the research is to develop a `live' noise model that will provide constantly updated noise impact predictions, taking into account the current plant location and meteorological data. At the last update the development of the noise modelling software had progressed to a stage where noise levels were being accurately predicted at receivers, using data from a dummy static source library. In the last three months we have been busy writing the code to start incorporating mobile source GPS data and meteorological data. Development of the front end display is also underway to ensure that information is displayed in a clear and concise format and navigation of the reporting website is intuitive. In parallel with the continued programming and design, a requirements gathering program, involving various proponents within the mining sector has begun. This is to ensure that the software is aligned with expectations of end users and actually adds value to on-site noise management. The ultimate aim from a user point of view is to produce a very simple, clean reporting platform, using a lot of complex data streams. Discussion for future work has focussed on further software development to include an on demand predictive tool for on the spot decision making. This will incorporate all the elements of the existing software as well as referencing previous site measurements. It is currently proposed that a working demo of the software be ready for display by the end of September. Following this the software will be field tested and calibrated.

C21006 Coal Seam Gas, Coal and Agriculture: Water Implications

University of Queensland Damian Barrett Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $207,100 25/09/2012 Bernie Kirsch Keith Smith

The objective of this project is to improve understanding of the potential conflict for water resources between coal mining, agriculture and the rapidly expanding Coal Seam Gas (CSG) industry. The external drivers and differential rate of expansion acting on these three sectors are determining potential conflict for water resources and land access. Many community members and the media do not distinguish between coal mining and the emerging CSG sector. Coupled with the uncertainty regarding the cumulative impacts of multiple CSG projects, potential for conflict over water resources and negative environmental impacts these factors represent a risk to the coal industry's `social licence to operate', even if they emanate from another sector. The project aimed to identify and define water-related issues within the coal mining, coal seam gas and agriculture sectors; explore the regional character of these issues; identify cross-sector risks to the coal mining industry and generate a spatial data product that locates where competition and conflict are most intense between these sectors. The spatial distribution of CSG, coal mining and agriculture show that the risk of adverse community reaction to CSG and mining activities is dependent on the spatial (horizontal and vertical) adjacency of the different sectors, water availability and use, soil quality, hydrogeology and presence of environmental and agricultural assets. A final report on this work will be completed in August 2012.

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C21031 Tool to Assess Mining Impacts on River Condition

Central Queensland University Claire Sellens Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $325,945 25/11/2014 Bernie Kirsch Stuart Ritchie Toni Ward Keith Smith

models the interactions of water and energy on a site wide level. The project is in the initial stages. However, we have identified the major energy uses and emissions on mine sites and are in the process of adding them to a water systems model. This will allow sites to quantify their water and energy use and associated synergies and tradeoffs. The next stages of the project are to identify the offsite impacts of water and energy use and to incorporate them inside a risk framework, allowing sites to better understand the `true' value of water and energy.

This purpose of this project is to develop an AUSRIVAS style predictive model for the Bowen Basin. This model will assist in the assessment of the health of ephemeral streams, particularly those potentially affected by mining. The project will also evaluate the AUSRIVAS model in terms of ability to detect human impact in ephemeral streams, and evaluate the range of values for macroinvertebrate indices for the Bowen Basin against existing Queensland Water Quality Guidelines for macroinvertebrates. The project is in phase one, and we are compiling existing data sets for the Bowen Basin. We have received data from DEHP (Department of Environment Heritage Protection), and are in the process of analysing this set. This data set contains information from over 200 sites and more than 20 different sample collection dates. This will be combined with data we have collected in the past year from sites associated with BMA mines. It is expected that we will add in data from additional mines and other stakeholders associated with the Fitzroy Partnership. We are currently working with the Fitzroy Basin Association to co-ordinate this. We expect to be able to produce the first model by the end of November 2012, and anticipate that the collection of additional data will begin in November/December 2012.

C21034 Quantification of PM 2.5 Particulate Emission Rates From Mining Operations

Air Noise Environment Claire Richardson Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $199,740 25/12/2012 Bruce Foster Clinton Theil John Watson Keith Smith

The ability to assess, in a meaningful way, the contribution of open cut mines to overall ambient PM2.5 loadings in communities around open cut coal mines is problematic at present, due to the lack of suitable PM2.5 emission data for open cut coal mining activities. The objective of this project is to address this issue by determining particulate emission rates for the PM2.5 dust fraction for a range of open cut coal mining activities. This will be achieved by completing emission testing of a range of sources in two open cut mine sites. The first site visit to complete field sampling at Hunter Valley Operations was completed at the start of July however had to be cut short due to poor weather conditions. Despite this, some valid data was obtained and analysis of this data is currently being completed. The remainder of the sampling work at this site is proposed to be completed later in the year. The second site visit to Goonyella Riverside to complete further emission testing is due to commence on 30 July and current indications predict favourable weather for the duration of the visit. No major issues with the monitoring methodology were identified during the initial tests however site availability proved to be difficult to achieve at times. This was due to prevailing wind directions and limited availability of sampling locations where a safe distance to the mining activity could be maintained. Despite the delays to the initial round of field testing, a draft report is still anticipated to be prepared and submitted for review by the Industry Monitors by November.

C21033 Modelling the Water, Energy and Economic Nexus

University of Queensland Alan Woodley Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s: ACARP Contact: $194,750 25/10/2013 Bernie Kirsch Claire Cote Stuart Ritchie Keith Smith

The mining industry faces three long term strategic risks in relation to its water and energy use: Securing enough water and energy to meet increased demand; Reducing its water use, energy consumption and emissions due to social, environmental and economic pressures; and Fully understanding the link between water and energy, so that an improvement in one area does not simply create a greater adverse affect in the other. This project aims to help the industry analyse these risks by creating a tool that

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C21035 Multiple Pollutant Analysis of Blast Plumes from Open Cut Mining Activities Using Differential Optical Absorption Spectoscopy (DOAS)

Simtars Mark Curtis Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $361,283 25/09/2013 Andrew Speechly Vishwa Bhushan Keith Smith

C21038 Enhancing Ecological Values of Coal Pit Lakes with Simple Nutrient Additions and Bankside Vegetation

Edith Cowan University Mark Lund Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $185,180 25/01/2014 Bernie Kirsch Digby Short Keith Smith

The aim of the project is to expand existing knowledge of air pollutant concentrations arising during blasting operations. This is accomplished using a combination of existing gas monitoring technologies to measure ground-level concentrations (NOx, SO2, CO and CO2) and a remote-sensing technique, Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy to probe the actual plume (real-time NO2 and SO2). This technique has only found recent application in the assessment of blasting plumes. The project will investigate environmental factors (soil moisture/geological) and blast operational factors (ANFO composition and charge placement) that may influence gas concentrations. This project is conducted in association with Ecotech who will supply and operate the DOAS technology. Several mines sites and 35 blasts will be investigated. The DOAS instrument is currently being ordered. Delivery time is expected to be approximately October 2012. In the interim period, a literature survey has commenced. The findings to date are as follows: Although there is recognition of the health impacts of blast fumes, very little data have been discovered on the most common symptoms associated with exposure. This is partly explained by the rarity of these events, the low frequency of blasting and existing safety protocols in place; Current emission factors are based on limited data obtained from blast chamber experiments and most field investigations have been conducted in underground mines. The data obtained from these studies cannot be easily extrapolated to surface mine blasts due to the different environmental conditions; Fume ranking methods for assessing NO2 concentration are subject to a large uncertainty. Practical aspects for the project are currently being investigated including, means of estimating the optical path length through the plume in real-time (video/still cameras, and a specialised Cedip (FLIR) camera). Technology is being investigated to measure the plume temperature remotely (thermal imaging systems from Cedip and Fluke). Equipment is presently being procured, calibrated and tested to perform ground-level gas monitoring.

This project builds upon the previous project, C19018 undertaken by the research team in Collie. Specifically, that project identified nutrients were limiting algal productivity, water quality improvements and the development of ecosystem values in coal pit lakes. It also found that simple additions of basic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients resulted in significant increases in numbers of algae. As algae form the base of lake aquatic food chains and offer a number of `phytoremediation' processes that may improve coal pit lake water quality, we anticipated that algal growth will lead to increased animal abundance and biodiversity (through small aquatic insects and crustacea as macroinvertebrates and zooplankton, then to water birds and fish). In turn, these opportunities will reduce environmental and social risk of these closure landforms facilitating their closure and lease transfer back to the state. Demonstrating development of environmental values could be a valid alternative for pit lake closure criteria, rather than simply meeting (often difficult) water quality guideline closure criteria as the principle focus for relinquishment. They also provide opportunities to improve regional biodiversity. This project is focussing on the importance of the pit lake catchment at mine closure in supplying nutrients and organic matter to pit lakes and how this catchment material translates into improved biodiversity. Further experimental nutrients and bulk organic matter additions will examine the potential of these materials to improve biodiversity in pit lakes of various water qualities; from acidic to neutral. Specifically, the project seeks to: Determine which nutrient(s) is/are limiting in two pit lakes (acidic and neutral) and what, if any, thresholds exist for nutrient concentrations needing to be added to increase algal growth; Test whether simple nutrient (additions N and P) additions can significantly improve ecosystem values in pit lakes of differing acidities; Examine the role that bankside vegetation may play in providing nutrients inputs and habitat for increasing aquatic biodiversity environmental values. The research component of this project has only just commenced.

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to its pre-mine productivity levels. The mining industry has considerable experience in rehabilitation of mined land in general, but very little experience Australia-wide in the rebuilding of land to meet agricultural production targets as a measure of rehabilitation success. Research at an international level has shown that the rehabilitation of prime agricultural land is possible, but application of this knowledge will need to be adapted for the Australian environmental conditions and soil types. The work addresses this issue by establishing demonstration trials to provide an understanding of the processes required to recover the productivity of cropping soils after mining. Figure 1. Initial trials at Lake Kepwari (pit lake) using benthic chambers measuring natural algal growth on lake sediment. Discussions are currently ongoing with Dawson Mine (Anglo American), New Acland (New Hope Coal) and Wandoan (Xstrata Coal) for the installation of long-term trials. The implementation of the trials is not expected to happen in 2012. It is also envisaged to include a trial at Wilkie Creek (Peabody) into the investigations. This trial was established in 2010 as a test for re-construction of agricultural, but has used a different soil reconstruction procedure than the one proposed in the project. This trial may be useful as an example of productivity performance over time through monitoring of suitable parameters.

C21041 Designing a Mine for Both Drought and Flood: A Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity Study

CSIRO Jane Hodgkinson Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : Figure 2. Naturally colonizing riparian wetland vegetation; an important link in pit lake food webs for meeting pit lake closure objectives? $135,635 25/04/2013 Carl Grant Claire Cote Mahdi Mason Stuart Ritchie Keith Smith

ACARP Contact:

C21039 Demonstration Trials to Understand and Assess the Processes Required to Recover the Productivity of Cropping Soils After Mining

University of Queensland Thomas Baumgartl Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $300,500 25/03/2015 Bernie Kirsch Bruce Foster Carl Grant Mahdi Mason Peter Roe Ross Gooley Toni Ward Keith Smith

The main objective of this study is to develop a practical method that will assist coal mines to perform a climate- and weather-extreme vulnerability assessment, along with an evaluation of the mine's ability to adapt. Additionally the study will provide a tool that will help mine planners identify `bottle-necks', faults and/or weak points in the process of running the mine during/after an extreme event, and will assist decision makers in allocating resources for adaptation. The objective of providing this additional knowledge is to enable proactive, alternative practices and infrastructure to be implemented to reduce downtime and risks during or after an extreme event. The case study site is provided by ANGLO AMERICAN. The project data on the previously complied `wish list' is being collated and input as a GIS dataset in ARC GIS. The most essential and most useful data within the 3Tb provided by ANGLO AMERICAN has been used to develop a 3m digital terrain model of the mine site and its immediate surrounds. Additional data has also been provided by ANGLO AMERICAN following a recent `flyover' of the site that has allowed us to digitise both roads and infrastructure (buildings) plans as GIS layers.

ACARP Contact:

Future mine developments will be affected by the introduction of the Strategic Cropping Land (SCL) policy framework. The policy states that the use of SCL will only be permitted if the user can demonstrate that the mined land can be rehabilitated

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Soil types are now being extracted from DERM and CSIRO data sources in addition to vegetation types that will each become new GIS layers in the model. Some discussion has taken place regarding critical infrastructure that will assist the ranking process. A presentation will be made at the Water in Mining Conference, Brisbane on 31st July 2012, to present this project, its concept and work so far.

Geology

C17023 Effective Slope Monitoring for Open Cut Coal Mines

GroundProbe Duncan Stovell George Poropat Neal Harries Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $190,500 25/08/2012 Ashley Creighton Ben Nell Jody Todd John Hoelle Ken Preston John Brett

C21043 Integrated Forward and Reverse Osmosis System for Mine Water Reuse

CSIRO Ramesh Thiruvenkatachari Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $168,560 25/10/2013 Carl Grant Toni Ward Keith Smith

ACARP Contact:

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

This project aims to integrate the non-pressure driven forward osmosis (FO) process into a widely applied reverse osmosis (RO) technology, for the reuse of mine impacted water. It is expected that this combined system would help in eliminating extensive and expensive pre-treatment currently required for RO, improve the recovery of reusable quality water, reduce brine volume and hence lead to overall reduction in desalination cost, when compared to current RO operation. Individual laboratory scale FO and RO test units with flat sheet membranes, have been constructed. Initial set of mine water provided have been characterised, to identify its elemental composition. Three different samples of mine waters with conductivities ranging from about 1,000 - 17,000S are being used for this study. Optimisation studies through the FO and RO units are currently being carried out. So far, with the FO system, various operating conditions have been tested using sodium chloride as draw solution and mine water as feed solution. Draw solution concentrations from 0.02-0.3M were evaluated. Other operating conditions such as flow rate (1 - 4 L/min), membrane orientation (rejection side of membrane facing feed and rejection side to draw) were also studied. Two types of cellulose triacetate FO membranes were tested. Conductivities, permeate flux, pH and temp of feed and draw were monitored continuously during the test. For the RO system, operating pressures ranging from 5-20 bar with feed flow rate of 1 L/min have been studied using different mine waters. More mine water samples required for the tests have been requested. The project team is now working to identify the optimum operating parameters for individual FO and RO systems, which will be the first expected milestone. New and suitable draw solution for FO will be investigated and integration of FO and RO systems will then be carried out.

C19020 Characterisation of Overburden Rock Mass and Top Coal Delineation Using the Triaxial Drill Bit Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) Method

CSIRO Shiva Karekal Toshiyuki Tosha Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $283,290 25/02/2013 Andy Willson Dan Stolberg Kirk Henderson John Brett

The main objective of this project is to identify the top of coal seam while drilling is in progress using a highly sensitive and precise three-component, down hole seismic measurement system with a recently developed multi-component signal processing technique. The updated velocities, namely, P-wave, shear-vertical and shear-horizontal were used for subsurface mapping. The analysis of drill bit noise data indicated that some boreholes showed distinct reflectivity which in general coincided with the coal interfaces. Deeper reflections below first top coal layer were also recorded to interpret second and third coal seams. One of the results is shown in Figure1. It was interesting to see some strong reflectivity arising from deeper levels, possibly indicating second and third coal seams.

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Figure 1 Subsurface mapping using drill bit noise as a source. Depth of drilling was about 40m. The interpreted three coal seams are indicated. The issue of repairing the damaged shuttle which occurred during the transit from Japan is still being resolved. the Japanese co-project leader is exploring the avenues to hire a similar shuttle suitable for the next field trial.

C19022 Implications of SelfWeight, WettingUp and WeatheringInduced Settlements of High Coal Mine Spoil on Stored Volume and Stability

University of Queensland David Williams Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $427,000 25/04/2014 Chris Agosto Dan Stolberg John Hoelle Shaun Booth John Brett

and other coalfields, including photographs for the estimation of particle size distribution; Collection of available and useful field monitoring data on high spoil pile settlements and any geotechnical instabilities, and encouragement of participating mines to collect further data during the course of the extended project; Laboratory physical and chemical characterisation testing of the additional coal mine spoil materials sampled; Load-settlement testing of the additional coal mine spoil materials at a range of scales and stresses; Direct shear strength testing of the additional coal mine spoil materials at a range of scales and stresses, on samples both at their as-sampled moisture content and in a water bath; Weathering testing of the additional coal mine spoil materials sampled, both scalped to -19mm and -60mm, in an effort to separate out settlement induced by weathering alone; Further development, validation and calibration of mathematical models of the observed mechanical behaviour of the different spoil materials, and numerical simulation of the results of the laboratory load-settlement testing and field monitoring data provided by participating deep open cut coal mines, leading to the development of a block model for predicting spoil settlements and geotechnical instabilities; Presentation of the results of the project, and conveying the results to the participating parties and to the industry through publication and presentations.

ACARP Contact:

The objectives of the project are: To extend laboratory characterisation testing to a greater range of coal mine spoil materials, covering a range of spoil ages, representative of deep open pit mines in the NSW and Qld coalfields; To carry out load-settlement and strength testing of these spoil materials, in equipment covering a range of scales from 60 to 500mm, and stresses and matric suctions from 50kPa to 10MPa, with the spoil materials scalped appropriately; To further develop, validate and calibrate mathematical models of the observed mechanical behaviour, and to simulate numerically the results of the laboratory loadsettlement testing and field monitoring data provided by participating deep open cut coal mines; To demonstrate the application of the results of the research to the design and geotechnical stability assessment of high spoil piles, including back-analyses integrated with statistical techniques to account for variable spoil pile composition. The 24-month work program will involve the following tasks: Collection of additional coal mine spoil materials to more fully cover the range representative of deep open cut coal mines in the Hunter Valley and Bowen Basin Coalfields,

In the first quarter of the extension focus has been on analysing site monitoring data of spoil pile movements and geotechnical instability, which was recently received. This involves generating cross-sections through spoil over time based on digital terrain data collected by Slope Stability Radar and prism data, together with analyses carried out by the participating coal mines. These data will then be used to validate and calibrate the spoil settlement predictive model developed from lab data during the initial 2 years of the project.

C20019 Reliable Geotechnical Stability Assessment for Very High Spoil Dumps

University of Newcastle John Simmons Stephen Fityus Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s: $486,500 25/08/2014 Chris Agosto Dan Stolberg John Hoelle Ken Preston Sarah Bligh Shaun Booth John Brett

ACARP Contact:

The objectives of this research are to provide geotechnical specialists with shear strength, groundwater pressure, and recommended stability assessment procedures for designing very high spoil dumps with adequate safety. The project will evaluate reliable shear strength parameters for the widest possible range of spoil materials and likely situations. It also

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identify reliable groundwater pressure profiles, and determination of appropriate stability assessment procedures for coal mine spoil dumps of unlimited height. These three linked objectives are essential in order to minimise uncertainties associated with geotechnical stability calculations for high dumps. Realistic probabilistic assessment of instability risks is possible only if these uncertainties are minimised. Activity during the fourth quarter involved finalising the design of the large shear box and commencing its fabrication. The steel has been delivered and the drilling and welding is now advanced. Procurement of hydraulic equipment and bearing materials is also underway. 50 drums of spoil have been received in readiness for testing. Drilling/groundwater data from BMA and Mining One has been received and the Masters student is analysing it. Preliminary work to look at degradation mechanisms in exposed mudrocks is completed, and projects to look at particle size characterisation from digital images, compression induced softening of spoil and spoil characterisation through a simple shear test have been initiated.

Reports for each of the sites which have been studied are now to be prepared. The project team will also begin planning for a series of workshops aimed at explaining this approach to geotechnical evaluation to mine staff.

C21032 Energy Absorption Capacity of Muck Piles and Their Status as Engineered Hard Barriers

University of Newcastle Anna Giacomini Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $257,935 25/05/2014 Brett Domrow Don McNeil Shaun Booth John Brett

C20025 Investigations for Open Pit Geomechanics Using Geophysical Logs

Coalbed Geoscience Peter Hatherly Terry Medhurst Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $269,400 25/10/2012 Dan Stolberg Glen Guy Ken Preston John Brett

Muck piles are used as energy absorption barriers in many surface mining areas such as rock fall protection and road barriers. The final results from the rock fall project C19026 suggest that they will have a key role to play in the current highwall entry strategies as the velocities observed for blocks falling behind the netting are higher than anticipated. In addition, muck piles used as safety berms play an important role on haul roads and dump faces since they are used as barriers to avoid that trucks can fall over an edge or collide. However, currently no design guidelines are available for all these applications in mining. The aim of this project is to deliver guidelines for the design of safety berms and rock fall muck piles. Through laboratory tests, numerical analysis and some field trials, the outcomes of the project will enable the estimation of the energy absorption capacity of muck piles due to the dynamic impact of truck wheels and rocks. The main objectives of the project are to: Determine whether the traditional rules of thumb are applicable to the new generation haul trucks or to offer new guidelines; and Quantify the design requirements for muck piles to be located at the base of rock fall netting if highwall entries are present. The following tasks are involved: Identification of experimental test site, collection of data regarding incidents involving haul trucks and safety berms, and review of current guidelines for safety berm construction; Collection of typical material and subsequent laboratory testing in order to define the geotechnical properties; Development of site procedure for field testing involving haul trucks impacting on safety berms with various approach conditions; Back analysis and numerical modelling; Development of guidelines and recommendations for the construction, treatment and maintenance of the safety berms and muck piles; A literature review on the design of safety berms and on accidents involving haul trucks has been carried out. Bulga mine in the Hunter Valley has been selected for the field testing. It is expected for the field tests to be carried out in September/October this year.

Effective overburden characterisation presents a key input to the continued deeper development of many of Australia's open cut coal resources. In this project we aim to address this issue through the development and demonstration of characterisation tools based on the Geophysical Strata Rating (GSR). The GSR has been established through previous ACARP projects in the underground area and uses geophysical logging data to provide a continuous record of both lithology and rock mass quality. This current project involves development of GSR models in 2D and 3D from current operations and integrating the results with conventional defect and acoustic scanner logs. Through comparison with highwall monitoring and production data we will attempt to provide a basis for improved understanding of highwall stability issues as well as other geotechnical issues in open cut mining such as pit floor stability and blasting. Work continues on examining models from Poitrel and Hail Creek for geotechnical evaluation and subtle expressions of fault damage to the overall rock mass. For Hail Creek, I-Site laser scanning data is available and that has been carefully matched to the GSR model. As another part of that effort, an automated unit blocking option has been included in the modelling software. This allows easier representation of overall changes in GSR and other geophysical parameters as fault zones are approached.

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Maintenance & Equipment

C16030 DC Motor Duty Meter

CRCMining Galina Mirzaeva Terry Summers Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $551,066 25/02/2014 Mark Spinks Tony Egan John Brett

From the operator's perspective, SLAP technology provides two functionalities: TruckShield and AutoLoad. Progress this quarter includes deployment and testing of shovel-truck relative positioning technologies on the CRCMining/P&H Electric Mining Shovel at Bracalba Quarry. Algorithms to convert radio-based range measurements to a relative truck position have been tested and are undergoing a design iteration to ensure they meet strict accuracy and timing requirements of the SLAP system. An improved GNSS-based relative positioning technology has been tested that will remove dependence of the system on long-range communication of GNSS base station corrections. A LiDARbased truck position solution has been successfully tested. The project intends to evaluate the relative truck positioning technologies at a production coal mine in Q4 2012. Arrangements for this site work are progressing.

The concept of the on-line Duty Meter is based on monitoring parameters that influence the motor life and, based on a model of their influence, determine the reduction in the motor life time. Current being reported is C16030 ext.1 which scope is defined as "Analysis of the experimental data and development of the Duty Meter models". Project is progressing in the following directions: Lab scale experiments in Newcastle. Progress to date: DC motor is fully instrumented with sensors; Initial tests to validate sensor operation are completed; Short term motor tests (constant speed variable load, and constant load variable speed) are completed; Controls of the AC and the DC motors have been synchronised; An example digging cycle of a hoist motor has been implemented; ABB DCS 550 drive has been received; Full scale experiments in Milwaukee. Progress to date: Commissioning is proceeding (main transformer tested, SCR converter input tested). Data acquisition system interface with NI platform is completed. Effective communication and data transfer. Teleconferences between P&H Mining and Uni of Newcastle have been set up on fortnightly basis; Communication is also maintained by email.

C18031 Improved System for Dragline Rope Condition Monitoring

Bureau Veritas AIRS Adam Van Dyck Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $426,400 25/11/2012 Shaun Booth Tony Egan John Brett

On the 28th of March 2012, Bureau Veritas conducted the field trial of the MsSR 3030 guided wave long range ultrasonic system, on the mast ends of the boom to mast suspension ropes of the Rio Tinto Coal Australia operated Mount Thorley Warkworth 103 Dragline. This trial was conducted in parallel with the existing Radiographic Inspection regime and the results between these inspection methods has been compared and contrasted. A number of potential defect indications have been observed in the data, however, it is not known whether these indications correspond with actual cross sectional loss due to wire breakages. A follow up visit to the same dragline is needed to repeat the experiment at exactly the same locations to obtain another set of data for comparison. This will determine the repeatability of results - we will be looking to see if all the indications are observed at the same locations as before and whether they have increased in size. If time and scheduling permits, data will be taken at additional locations. The MsSR 3030 system is intended for usage as a monitoring system and therefore repeatability of measurements is essential under these circumstances. A second trial has been scheduled for the 7th August 2012. This will be the last site visit before a final report is compiled to conclude this project.

C16031 Automated Swing Loading System for Electric Mining Shovels

CRCMining Ross McAree Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $3,717,973 25/01/2013 Don McNeil Greg Sheppard Hans Hayes Murray McKirdy Simon Orton Tom Cobcroft Tony Egan Wayne Clement John Brett

ACARP Contact:

The shovel load assist project (SLAP) aims to provide operator assists to improve truck-shovel operations. The benefits of SLAP span safety, availability, productivity, and maintenance.

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Open Cut Projects

C20021 Minimal Perception Requirements to Support Effective Remote Control of Bulldozers

CRCMining Ross McAree Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $392,093 25/11/2012 Andrew Walker Peter Yates Simon Ponder John Brett

Technical development record specifications and reports continue. The polymeric material and its specifications have been delayed approximately two months, due to our consideration to fully understand the properties of the polymers required and the methods required for their use. Electrical strengths, mechanical properties and the behaviour of the polymers are those of greatest interest to end-use. These are the properties that dictate how the polymer actually behaves on a macroscopic scale. The characterization of this polymeric material requires several important parameters which need to be specified, for example the tensile strength of a material quantifies how much stress the material will endure before suffering permanent deformation. This is very important in applications that rely upon a polymer's physical strength and durability, melting point, glass transition temperature, polymer degradation. Through this more detailed and comprehensive evaluation it is considered that as we progress this project, it will more than likely provide time line gains at the back end of the project in particular as we move through the development of the second large body 11kv model.

This project aims to understand and define operator perception requirements for effective remote operation of dozers on coal stockpiles and determine how the feedback information to meet these needs can be optimized to fit within the capacity of contemporary wireless communication channels. Coal stockpiles are chosen because the benefits of remote operation are compelling: removing the operator from the machine eliminates the fatal risk of engulfment should the dozer fall into a void. This project is a joint collaboration between CRCMining, Caterpillar and BMA. The project has developed an enhanced perception cell which is integrated with and augments an existing bulldozer teleoperation system. This cell provides an experimental platform for varying which feedback cues are provided to the operator as well as their timeliness and fidelity. This cell permits independent testing of the influence of different feedback cues and their attributes on operator performance. The project has been awaiting availability of a test site to accommodate experiments covering the full array of feedback cues that can be tested with the enhanced perception cell. A test site capable of supporting this testing was recently identified and the schedule will see this final round of experiments completed in the coming quarter.

C21027 Robotic Manipulator for Dragline Jewellery Repair

University of Southern Queensland Peter Milani Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $366,800 25/04/2013 John Thomsen Keith Cardew Steve Amor Troy O'Reilly John Brett

ACARP Contact:

C20030 Powerlinkoz High Voltage Electrical Connection System (PLO)

Connec Mark Wells Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $450,000 25/11/2013 David Lincoln John Snape Steve Burgess Tony Egan Keith Smith

This project aims to prototype a large capacity, tele-operated manipulator by April 2013 in order to remove workers from the HSEC risks posed by heavy maintenance activities. The main focus has been on developing a tool to assist with dragline jewellery maintenance, though it is acknowledged that there are many potential applications for such a device. BMA were able to assist with the provision of an alternative site for access required as Norwich Park Mine closed in mid May 2012. The project is now supported by Peak Downs Mine, and a visit to the site was conducted in late June which confirmed most of the assumptions and requirements developed with Norwich Park. The simulated model of the manipulator was completed in May. This simulation shows the graphical model of the manipulator, incorporates the actuator dynamics and modelling of forces on the manipulator joints. Testing of the model indicated that the force modelling successfully shows the forces on the manipulator in line with normal static and dynamic analysis. The simulation capabilities of the model were expanded in late May to incorporate a control link to an external interface via wireless serial communications.

ACARP Contact:

This project sets out to complete the development of a power cable connection system for underground and surface coal mines which offers significant operational benefits. The project is currently meeting its schedule in all areas other than the polymeric materials and specification. Collaborative meetings stakeholders. continue between all existing

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The project then focused on developing three user interface options, two of which are up to the prototype stage. These interfaces have been designed to control the simulation via the wireless communications in the same fashion they will control the manipulator. They consist of an interface and a diagnostic tool to assist in testing the interface. These two prototypes will be tested in August. The third interface was considered not viable however its development contributed significantly to the design of the manipulator itself. Overall the project is on track to meet its commitments, and is well positioned to continue on to manipulator development.

Occupational Health & Equipment Safety

C18029 Using Acoustic Agglomeration to Reduce or Eliminate Dust Loading from Machine House on Draglines

CSIRO Darren Bates Patrick Glynn Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $417,966 25/05/2013 Tony Egan John Brett

C21040 AC Motor Duty Meter for Excavating Machines: Feasibility Study

CRCMining Galina Mirzaeva Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $55,193 25/03/2013 Mark Spinks Tony Egan John Brett

This project has been on hold for the last five months until a dragline becomes available. We have now commenced the extension of this project and are meeting the timelines of the program, the anticipated delays due initially to the Bowen Basin flooding and latterly to the BMA industrial action are effecting the progress of this project due to the unavailability of a suitable dragline. Acoustic agglomeration of airborne particles has been known for the last 75 years when it was first observed that small particles tend to "stick" together in the presence of an intense acoustic field, thereby forming larger particles. Without impeding the flow of particulate through an air supply duct, a strong sound field can be applied to stimulate rapid agglomeration of smaller particles into larger ones. The larger particles can then be more effectively removed by standard particle capture methods, such as cyclones powered, unpowered, and electrostatic precipitators. This project is to demonstrate the reduction of dust particulates in dragline machine room. The outcome of the project is to reduce particulates by 99%. Progress against Milestones: Large scale air volume testing with introduced dust particulates (ongoing); Measuring efficiency of the Dynavane to agglomerated particulates (ongoing); Further approaches to open cut mine sites are continuing to fit a prototype acoustic agglomerator to a working dragline. This project is behind by eight months but we are approaching other mine sites for access to a dragline (this is still ongoing).

The concept of the on-line Duty Meter is based on monitoring parameters that influence the motor life and, based on a model of their influence, determine the reduction in the motor life time. In this project the duty meter concept is applied to AC (induction type) motors. The project addresses the following objectives: Determine the relevant methods for prediction of the first occurrence of the AC motor main faults; Determine the most relevant and sensitive methods to diagnose occurrence of the AC motor main faults; Develop a thorough understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the fault propagation; Establish some mathematical models describing the dependence of fault propagation rate on the motor duty; Determine course of action for development of the AC Motor Duty Meter. Project methodology includes literature review, theoretical analysis and laboratory study of an instrumented AC motor running under simulated digging conditions. Progress to date: Literature review has been completed; Three identical AC motors have been purchased for the purpose of fault studies; Instrumentation of one stator with search coils has been completed and tested; Instrumentation of the second stator with Hall-effect sensors is underway; Custom built AC drive has been commissioned; Controls of the AC and the DC motors have been synchronised; An example digging cycle of a hoist motor has been implemented.

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C19019 Noise Reduction Using Smart Speakers

VIPAC Engineers & Scientists Darren Van Twest $172,000 25/09/2012 Gavin Irving Stephen Schaller John Brett ACARP Contact: Work has begun on the final report, with a fairly complete skeleton document. Field and ANC simulation data sets are being reprocessed for presentation. The report will be structured as follows: Introduction; Project Objectives; Surveys of On Site Vehicle Interior Noise; Simulated ANC ; ANC Development; ANC Experimental Results; Conclusions & Recommendations. Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : The report will fulfil the outcomes: A report describing measured cabin noise in mining vehicles, the major contributing tones (i.e. mechanical sources), the noise control problem for specific vehicles and, if possible, the general noise control problem for heavy mining vehicles. A report describing the development of `smart speakers' for noise reduction for operators of heavy mining vehicles, and hardware demonstration of these in laboratory experiments and vehicle cabins. A suitable conference for presentation of the results has yet to be selected. Work continues on the implementation of the ANC system within a vehicle as a preparatory stage to any site tests. However, progress is slower than hoped due to some difficulty with software design. To complete work by early October, it will soon become necessary to determine whether or not site trials of the system are feasible. The outcome from the current light vehicle trial will inform this decision. If the results from the light vehicle test are not encouraging we will review the rationale for an onsite test, given the significant effort required for the site personnel and industry sponsor to help coordinate such a test. Light vehicle tests are scheduled to be completed by mid August.

was reached to install equipment onto a P&H 4100 shovel fitted with AirScrubPro at Rolleston Coal. Deployment of the pressure monitoring equipment on the machine was successfully carried out and the system is currently logging air pressure data from the shovel with the first month's results due to be collected and analysed.

C19032 COLLISIONgate: A Vehicle Interaction Causal Factors Database and Risk Management Decision Making Tool

University of Queensland Gul Kizil Tilman Rasche Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $98,950 25/09/2012 Dave Mellows Paul Wood Tony Egan Keith Smith

The main objective of the project is to establish an online searchable portal, COLLISIONgate. This project has been aligned with the RISKGATE project and integrated into the RISKGATE framework for the development of the `RISKGATE Collisions' topic. As such, the project utilises Bow Tie Analysis method to identify initiating events (relating to people-equipment interaction), their respective causes and consequences, and preventative and mitigative controls. In addition, the project has conducted analysis of the collision incidents (~200) occurring at surface and underground mining operations. This analysis included Australian and international incident data. The project report providing the analysis results is being prepared and will be submitted.

C20016 Minimise Fume Generation from Blasting

CSIRO Alastair Torrance Gary Cavanough Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $240,000 25/03/2013 Andrew Speechly Robbie Nitz Trevor Byers Keith Smith

C19027 Dragline Machine House Dust Control - Field Testing of Alternative Cartridge Technologies

BMT WBM Bruce Manser Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $192,800 25/09/2012 Tony Egan John Brett

This project has two key objectives: to understand the main mechanisms of fume generation in coal overburden blasting and to develop a fume production risk assessment matrix. This matrix can be used by coal operations to help minimise the incidences of fume. Twelve blasts were conducted at the underwater test facility at the UTEC laboratories in Joplin USA. The products used in the blast were anfo with different amounts of water. In addition to the gas measurements the detonation pressure and

As flagged in our previous quarterly report, BMT WBM continued to identify alternative sites for deployment of the pressure monitoring equipment. In this last quarter agreement

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temperatures were measured. The data from these experiments is currently being analysed to determine the effect of the water content on detonation. Test work was conducted at the laboratory located in Blackwater. These tests included the use of microwaves attenuation to evaluate an on-line method to measure the water content of an explosive product at the point of delivery. A preliminary calibration of this system using AN prill showed a strong correlation between % moisture and db attenuation. The test involved placing two microwave sources on either external side of the charging hose that goes from the emulsion tank to the emulsion truck. The measuring time was of 15 minutes. The background reading was 23 db ranging from 40 to 50 db when the loading regime state was reached. It was possible to see that the values measured are linked to the pump activity which defines the pressure inside the charging hose. Further work is required to associate the "db" reading with actual water content values. Sensors, including 20 detonation temperature, 20 detonation pressure and 15 in hole density, have be manufactured and shipped to the UK. During the period from the 5th to the 14th August these sensors will be used in an experimental program of repeat blasts.

C20024 Real Time Continuous Measurement of Blasted Dragline Overburden Bulk Density

CRCMining Paul Lever Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $200,667 25/09/2012 Andrew Denman Hans Hayes John Brett

This project builds on the results of the real-time bucket bulk density system (C18035) by measuring in-place bulk density of blasted material. The main challenge in achieving this is to register sensor data recorded from different boom and dragline positions while fusing the information consistently. The objective of the project is to develop and test an online system for a dragline that will: Integrate blast material bulk density with the blast design to assess and improve blast performance; Provide an improved dragline diggability system by integrating the material bulk density into the algorithm; and Provide an improved operator KPI that utilises diggability to access dig context. Machine and sensor data has been logged continuously on Drayton's dragline since May 1st. Field calibration of the sensor equipment took place in early June where all of May data was collected from the system and reprocessed offline with the updated calibration parameters. Final algorithms to locate dig and measure volume extracted are completed. The May dataset has been used to generate an in-place bulk density map across the blast. Work on the final report has commenced however blast design and fragmentation data from site are still let to be included for comparison.

C20028 3D Scan Matching and Registration for Improved Mine Survey

On-line moisture measurement of emulsion CSIRO Elliot Duff Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $295,855 25/11/2012 Damian Vella John Brett

Overburden Removal

C20018 Advancing Dragline Analytics

CRCMining Andrew Jessett Mark Connolly Peter Knights Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $128,500 25/08/2012 Greg Sheppard Lindsay Ford John Brett

The objectives of this project are to: Develop a working prototype system for generating a continuously updated, accurate, digital terrain map (DTM) for a whole mine site, using inexpensive vehicle-based sensors; Conduct a short trial deployment of the system at a mine site; and Compare the system to existing mine survey techniques. Using the results of the trial, the analysis will focus on comparing accuracy, richness and operational cost. The scheduled trial deployment at Peak Downs Mine has been successfully completed, with the sensor platform operating flawlessly over seven weeks in rough conditions, and logging over 100 hours of data. Maps are currently being generated

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from the collected sensor data, and will be analysed in the next phase of the project. Initial results are very promising, even in areas such as pits, where GPS signals are often unreliable or unavailable.

over a representative period. Histograms will be prepared for the distribution of swing-limited and hoist-limited cycles as a function of dragline GPS location relative to plan. Comparison between different operators is expected to reveal information relating to best-practice excavation sequences and dig times. Quantifying the value of uncovered coal as a function of BCMequivalent angle will enable a predictive algorithm to be developed capable of providing advice to operators as to when they should consider repositioning the dragline. During this first quarter, the following work has been undertaken toward satisfying milestone 1 of the project: Months of data (Feb-May 2012) have been accessed from the Pegasys monitoring system installed on DL302 at Curragh mine; This data has been imported into MATLAB to statistically analyse trends by (a) excavation block, and (b) operator and (c) dig mode; Work is continuing on this data with respect to modelling swing trends as a function of the relative position of the dragline to the dig block.

Example of a map generated using the collected data.

C21028 Automated Design of Multi Pass Dragline Strips Using 3D-Dig

Earth Technology Murray Phillips Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $115,000 25/08/2013 Bridget Perkins Greg Sheppard Lindsay Ford Keith Smith

This project aims to produce a software system to perform automated multipass dragline design using 3d-Dig.The project is on schedule. A system has been developed for the design of intermediate design surfaces such as dragline and dozer benches. The 3d-Dig Blast wizard, which produces blast profiles, has been substantially upgraded to support the requirements of automated design. Design and specification for the methodology to be used for automation of the design process is now largely complete. This methodology has been tested using the existing automated excavation and dump sequencing functionality. These tests suggest that the methods proposed will work and run with acceptable compute times. The speed of automated simulation will allow a design to be run multiple times, with varying parameters, in a timeframe of the order of minutes per run.

Figure 1 Equivalent swing angle distributions (mean, min, max and +/- 50 percentile) for different operators in chop cut operations. A graphical approach has been developed using box-andwhisker plots (see Figure 1) to analyse the variation of equivalent swing angles (this includes a correction for hoist limited cycles). The next step in the project is to develop boxand-whisker plots as a function of dragline position relative-toblock. It is anticipated that such a plot will serve as a "swing signature" for a typical block operation. Individual operator performance will be able to be compared to this baseline in order to determine significant performance deviation. Considering adjustment for the late start date, the project is on schedule and on budget, with no major obstacles likely to affect completion by May 2013.

C21044 Predictive Application of Advanced Dragline Performance Indices

CRCMining Andrew Jessett Peter Knights Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $128,500 25/06/2013 Greg Sheppard Lindsay Ford John Brett

This project will explore predictive applications of advanced dragline performance indices developed as a result of project C20018. Cycle information from a dragline will be analysed

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Mining & The Community Projects

MINING & THE COMMUNITY

C19025 Governance Strategies to Manage and Monitor Cumulative Impacts at the Regional Scale

University of Queensland Daniel Franks Jo-Anne Everingham Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $114,000 25/08/2012 Carl Grant Hayden Leary Jeff Beatty Julie-Anne Braithwaite Roger Wischusen

ACARP Contact:

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

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Coal Preparation Projects

COAL PREPARATION

Dewatering

C21004 Dewatering of Ultrafine Coals and Tailings by Centribaric Technology

University of Queensland Liguang Wang Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $86,000 25/12/2012 Jeremy Byrnes Lynnley Orr Rachael Robinson Peter Newling

Sample D ­ thickener underflow (NSW thermal coal) Sample E ­ feed to a centrifuge (NSW thermal coal) Sample F ­ product from a centrifuge (NSW thermal coal) Sample G ­ flotation concentrate (NSW semi soft quality coal) Sample H ­ flotation concentrate (NSW coking coal) Table 2. Effect of air pressure on the product moisture obtained using a laboratory CentribaricTM test unit (rotation time = 2 min, rotating speed 2000G)

Table 3. Product moisture data of CentribaricTM test (spinning time = 2 minutes, air pressure = 2 bar) with and without splitting feed. The cut size of feed splitting was 45 micron.

The existing processes which are used to dewater ultrafine coals are inefficient in terms of moisture reduction and/or solids recovery. Some producers deslime their fine coal streams and discard the ultrafine fraction into refuse impoundments. This activity represents a loss of valuable fresh fine coal to ponds and brings considerable environmental concerns. A new hyperbaric centrifuge technology - CentribaricTM - has been developed in the US, which could help solve the ultrafine coal dewatering and tailing disposal problem in Australia. The objectives of this project are to: Examine the responses of Australian coals and tailings to the CentribaricTM technology at laboratory scale; and Provide detailed information on the impact of particle size, type and surface properties on CentribaricTM dewatering performance. A CentribaricTM test unit has been constructed at University of Queensland. This quarterly report deals with the CentribaricTM tests for some Australian coal samples. Table 1 shows the particle size distributions of these samples. The effect of air pressure on the moisture data of these samples was demonstrated in Table 2. In these tests, the rotation time was fixed at 2 min, and the rotating speed was fixed at 2000G. It was found that increasing air pressure from 0 to 3 bar could cut coal moisture almost by 1/3 to 1/2. More dewatering tests at different rotating speeds and times are underway. Table 3 compares the dewatering performance with and without splitting feed. Split dewatering concept is potentially useful for optimising the fine coal dewatering circuitry of samples with a significant proportion of ultrafines. Note that the values of product moisture reported in Tables 2 and 3 are TOTAL moisture. Table 1. Particle size distributions for coal samples used in the laboratory CentribaricTM tests

1 The rotating speed was 2700G for Sample A, while it was 2000G for other samples. 2 The combined moisture of the two split streams was calculated on the basis of mass balancing.

C21054 Enhanced Dewatering of CHPP Taillings through Modification of the Structure of Presedimented Flocs

CSIRO Philip Ofori Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $199,000 25/09/2013 Andrew Sutherland Dave Osborne Peter Newling

The objectives of the project are to: Examine the effectiveness of shear-induced alteration of the structure of pre-sedimented flocs in producing thickened tailings sediment of superior geotechnical properties on a continuous pilot scale system; and Develop approaches to implement these concepts on a full scale paste thickening system for CHPP tailings. The aim of the project is to establish optimal approaches to implement shear-induced alteration of pre-sedimented floc network structure on a continuous pilot scale system for enhanced sediment consolidation without compromising the settling rate. This would allow for improved sediment densification by additional removal of inter and intra-floc liquor to produce a dryer product while maintaining optimum flocculation and fast settling rates. The project has recently commenced. The initial tasks in the project implementation plan are the design and set-up of pilot scale continuous paste thickening system incorporating mechanisms for shear-induced alteration of floc structure other than the rake and procure tailings samples for testing. At the project start-up meeting, industry monitors suggested that the

Sample A ­ flotation concentrate (Qld coking coal) Sample B ­ flotation concentrate (Qld coking coal) Sample C ­ flotation tail from thickener underflow (Qld coking coal)

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project team contact Outotec, which already has a number of pilot scale paste thickeners, to check the possibility of getting one of these on loan for the project. The project team and Outotec are in advanced stage of discussions to get a pilot scale thickener on loan for the project. It is expected that agreement will be reached by the end of August for experiments to commence. The initial experiments will focus on optimising the chemical environment and hydrodynamic experiments for fast flocculation and settling rates on this continuous system based on previous results in batch mode.

Environmental Improvement

C20047 Improved Dewatering, Management and Rehabilitation of Problematic, Clay-Rich Coal Mine Tailings

University of Queensland David Williams Stuart Whitton Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $228,000 25/03/2013 Dave Osborne Ian Brake Trent Moorman Peter Newling

C21055 Advanced Dynamic Control of Paste Thickeners

University of New South Wales Gotz Bickert Jie Bao Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $131,285 25/05/2013 Jeff Graham Roy Brown Wayne Bower Peter Newling

The objective of this project is to understand the behaviour of clay-rich coal mine tailings in order to improve their dewatering, management and rehabilitation. The specific objectives of the project are to: Identify and sample for laboratory testing a representative range of clay-rich coal mine tailings from the Ipswich, Hunter Valley, Bowen Basin and emerging Surat Basin Coalfields; Carry out a systematic review and assessment of current and emerging technologies and options for the management of clay-rich coal mine tailings, and the associated water; Carry out a systematic review and assessment of current and emerging technologies and options for the dewatering, transportation, emplacement and rehabilitation of clay-rich tailings, with the aim of achieving lease surrender; Geotechnically, rheologically and mineralogically characterise a range of clay-rich coal mine tailings from the Ipswich, Hunter Valley, Bowen Basin and emerging Surat Basin Coalfields, leading to the development, calibration and validation of cheap and quick index tests for identifying the key clay minerals encountered, and the development of useful procedures utilising existing tools for predicting the performance of the clay-rich materials that will report to tailings, taking into account the different chemistries of the solids, the pore water and process water; Carry out testing and trials to assess current and emerging technologies and options, and to test identified potential enhancements, including testing the unaided and flocculated settling and dewatering characteristics of various combinations of clay minerals to cover the range found in practice, and geotechnical testing and trials directed towards rehabilitation; Carry out a comprehensive cost-effectiveness analysis of the management and rehabilitation alternatives and enhancements identified. The 24-month work program will investigate the dewatering, management and rehabilitation technologies and options identified above for addressing clay-rich coal mine tailings, involving the following tasks: Multi-disciplinary literature review, covering the geotechnical, rheological and mineralogical characterisation of clays, clay-rich coal mine tailings, and water quality effects;

The overall objective of this project is to develop an online dynamic feedback control based on process models to improve the operation of paste thickeners for water recovery from coal tailings. This includes the developments of: A set of dynamic models for paste thickeners that can be used in model based advanced dynamic control design; Control algorithms and an instrumentation scheme for better process monitoring and control (if necessary) to improve paste thickener operation. This project started in May 2012. One new set of plant operation data was obtained from Bulga. The preliminary dynamic models that relate the underflow solids concentration to the feed flow, feed concentration and the rake torque measurement have been developed based on the plant data. It can be used to predict underflow solids concentration variation. An initial model for thickener bed profile has also been developed based on first principle. Analysis on the existing plant data from Bulga has identified some issues including data inconsistency, errors in sensor calibrations, and unrecorded variations in operation. A site visit to Bulga was performed to gain a better understanding of the operation of the Bulga paste thickener, confirm plant data analysis and identify current operating difficulties. The outcomes of plant data analysis and the information acquired from the Bulga site visit warrant further site visits to Bulga (and possibly Claremont) by one member of the research team to observe the plant operation continuously over a number of days to gain a thorough understanding of the process operation, current control system and instruments. This is essential for the development of a useful grey box model as described in the project objectives.

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Coal Preparation Projects

Visits to a range of coal mines in the Ipswich, Hunter Valley, Bowen Basin and emerging Surat Basin Coalfields, to sample for laboratory testing representative clay materials, clay-rich tailings and water used for coal processing; Carry out systematic reviews and assessments of current and emerging technologies and options for: Management of clay-rich coal mine tailings, and the associated water, Rehabilitation of completed clay-rich coal mine tailings storage facilities; Identification of potential clay-rich coal mine tailings management and rehabilitation enhancements and combinations; Geotechnical, rheological and mineralogical characterisation testing of clay-rich coal mine tailings sampled from operating mines and future mining projects, and the development, calibration and validation of index tests to identify clay minerals encountered and predictive tools; Unaided and flocculated settling and dewatering testing and trials to assess current and emerging management technologies and options, and to test identified potential enhancements and combinations, for clay-rich coal mine tailings; Geotechnical testing and trials to assess current and emerging management and rehabilitation technologies and options, and to test identified potential enhancements and combinations, for clay-rich coal mine tailings; Comprehensive cost-effectiveness analyses of management and rehabilitation alternatives and enhancements identified, for clay-rich coal mine tailings; Progressive presentation, publication, and early trialling and implementation of the results of the project, engaging industry participants and the industry in general. During the last quarter the project team visited a number of coal mines in the Hunter Valley and has now obtained an extensive range of clay-rich coal tailings samples from the Hunter Valley, Surat and Ipswich coalfields, which are being subjected to: Physical and chemical characterisation testing; Sedimentation and limited rheology testing as screening tests; Clay mineralogy testing to better understand the observed behaviour; Flocculation (metal salts and polymers) and limited filtration testing; and Desiccation testing to assess rehabilitation. From these test results, a clearer picture is emerging of the macro-behaviour of clay-rich coal mine tailings, supported by improved understanding at the micro-scale.

Fine Coal

C19001 Full Scale Trial of the Reflux Classifier to at Least 4mm Top-Size

University of Newcastle Kevin Galvin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $185,200 25/10/2012 Dion Lucke Ian Brake Paul Revell Steve Lempereur Peter Newling

ACARP Contact:

This project is an extension of a previous project. A full scale Reflux Classifier will undergo a plant trial, processing feed with a top size to at least 4mm. The objective of the study is to investigate the extent to which the previous work conducted at a pilot scale can be scaled. The study will be used to quantify the separation efficiency achieved over the particle size range from 0.25 to 4mm, and to determine limits on the solids throughput. The manufacture of the full-scale Reflux Classifier has been completed and has been available for installation since the project commenced. A number of proposals for installing the full-scale Reflux Classifier have been considered and referred to in earlier progress reports. This is not a straightforward project because it is necessary to introduce a full-scale Reflux Classifier to a production plant and operate with a nonstandard feed and to operate with a range of solids rates. New options to progress this project are under discussion within the ACARP committee.

C20042 Improving the Treatment of Clay Minerals in Coal Flotation using Saline Water

University of Queensland Dee Bradshaw Yongjun Peng Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $196,000 25/03/2013 Ian Brake Joan Cowburn Peter Newling

The objectives of the project are to: Identify the mechanisms governing the interaction of clay minerals with coal and bubbles with different levels of saline water; Develop new methodologies to reduce the viscosity and mechanical entrainment of fine clay minerals in coal flotation; Demonstrate the improved coal flotation recovery and product quality in the presence of clay minerals in saline water;

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Coal Preparation Projects

Provide strategies to manage ores with different clay contents and manage the saline water resources with different salinity on sites; and Facilitate the transfer of research findings to industrial practice. The overall objective of tests during this period is to identify the factors that limit the coal flotation and use dispersants to improve coal flotation. Solution speciation analysis was carried out for both OC1 and OCN flotation circuits. Visual MINTEQ 3.0 was applied for the solution speciation modelling calculations. Results indicated precipitation of hydrophilic components which may adversely affect the flotation. Besides, Cryo-SEM is being prepared and employed to study the slime coating problems of flotation feeds, which has been a debate for a long time. The flotation behaviour of coal samples from Xstrata Oaky Creek were also examined at laboratory in fresh and recycled water with high ionic strength in the presence and absence of anionic and non-ionic dispersants, lignosulfonate and triblock copolymer, respectively. Lignosulfonate dispersants displayed a potential to improve the flotation in fresh water, but not in saline water. Significant flotation improvement was observed with the triblock copolymer examined in both fresh and saline water. The samples from Peak Downs have been received recently and prepared for future test work.

The laboratory scale Inverted Reflux Classifier was constructed and commissioned. The major purpose of this study was to establish a new approach for increasing wash water rates to deliver complete removal of hydrophilic gangue from flotation products. A fundamental approach has so far been taken in order to establish the ideal operating regime for this work. Hence the initial phase of the work involved a model system consisting of a fine, hydrophilic, silica feed, and SDS as the surfactant. The work demonstrated two things. The first was that wash water rates an order of magnitude greater than applied in conventional flotation could be used (for the bubble size used). Secondly, the silica could be washed almost completely from the froth, with an exceedingly small portion remaining, which we believe adheres due to strong lubrication forces. We have completed a phase of work based on a model flotation feed, and are waiting on ash results. This feed consisted of actual flotation product (0 to 0.260 mm) mixed with silica in the size range 0 to 45 microns. The feed was prepared with 50% by weight flotation product and 50% silica, so the ash was greater than 50%. This work covered lower gas fluxes, producing moderate but satisfactory recovery. The work was later extended to cover higher gas fluxes. In all of this work a very broad range of wash water rates, up to 10 times the level used in plants has been possible. It is too early to comment on actual numbers at this stage, but the recoveries achieved were clearly very high, and the product recovered looked very good. In particular, the samples looked very bright. We also saw evidence of particle-refluxing in the lower inclined channels, perhaps because the particles had micro-bubbles attached. We have also prepared an actual flotation feed for this project, with a very high slimes and ash content. This preparation involved insuring a consistent top size as our main focus is on fine coal less than 0.26 mm. The preliminary experiments have been conducted during the past couple of weeks. We have seen a similar behaviour to that observed for the model feed.

C20043 Enhanced Flotation and Desliming Using a Reflux Flotation Cell

University of Newcastle Kevin Galvin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $179,100 25/10/2012 Dion Lucke Paul Revell Phillip Enderby Steve Lempereur Peter Newling

C20052 Full Scale Gravity-Desliming Using Cascading Reflux Classifiers

University of Newcastle Kevin Galvin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $215,480 25/01/2014 Dion Lucke Paul Revell Peter Newling

ACARP Contact:

The objective of this project is to investigate the potential to achieve improved fine coal flotation performance and significant desliming using a Reflux Flotation Cell. The flotation is operated like an inverted Reflux Classifier gravity separation process. The feed slurry and gas are introduced, via a downcomer, into the vessel above a system of parallel inclined channels, with the vast majority of the flow passing down through the system of inclined channels to tailings. The inclined channels provide a powerful mechanism for segregating the gas bubbles from the flow, resulting in the gas bubbles and the attached hydrophobic coal accumulating in and rising up through the vertical section. The upper section of the device is fully enclosed by a distributor, apart from the discharge port. Fluidization water is introduced through the distributor, resulting in the fluidization of the froth and the rapid and strong flow of water down through the zone of bubbles. This approach will permit vastly higher wash water rates than is presently possible and will achieve vastly more uniform wash water flow.

The objective of this project is to investigate the performance of cascading Reflux Classifiers (RC2020) in the gravity separation and desliming of fine coal at full-scale. This project is an extension of project C18037, the aim being to assess the scale-up. While there is existing industrial knowledge concerning the gravity separation of fine coal in a Reflux Classifier there is no previous industrial investigation of the RC2020 desliming process at full-scale or of the synergy achieved using the cascading arrangement. There is always uncertainty associated with the question of scale-up given the potential for non-uniform separation to occur in large scale devices.

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Coal Preparation Projects

A cascading sequence of two full-scale Reflux Classifiers will be used to generate a clean coal product from a feed within the size range 2.0 to 0.0 mm. The objective is to use gravity separation to produce a clean coal product down to a particle size of about 0.038 mm or higher, and to deslime the product with minimal coal loss. A number of proposals for installing the full-scale GravityDesliming Reflux Classifiers have been investigated since the contract was signed. This is not a straightforward project because it is necessary to introduce two full-scale RCs to a production plant. This project is related to project C19001 "FullScale Trial of the Reflux Classifier to at least 4 mm Top-Size". New options to progress both of these projects are under discussion within the ACARP committee.

C21048 Improving the Performance of Froth in Coal Flotation Using Saline Water

University of Queensland Yongjun Peng Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $195,000 25/03/2014 Frank Mercuri Ian Brake Peter Newling

C21045 Fine Coal Agglomeration using a Novel Economic Binding Agent

University of Newcastle Kevin Galvin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $179,100 25/07/2013 Dion Lucke Jeremy Byrnes Paul Revell Peter Newling

The objectives of the project are to: Identify whether frothers still function as "frothers" in coal flotation using saline water and the possible interaction among frothers, collectors and saline water. Provide Strategies to manage saline water, frothers and collectors on coal sites and solve frothing problems in flotation and downstream operation. Understand the distribution of frothers and collectors in flotation concentrates and residues and its subsequent effect on the moisture of the final product and over-frothing in downstream processes. Develop methodologies to select appropriate flotation reagents or other alternatives based on the quality of saline water to increase the mass pull of flotation concentrates while reducing the moisture content of flotation products. The objective of tests during this period is to investigate the effect of saline water and the particle size on froth stability and viscosity. The flotation experiment was carried out using baseline conditions determined previously with use of camera, VisioFroth software and viscosity meter. The effect of saline water and de-ionised water on froth stability and viscosity were investigated by maintaining the same experimental conditions. The effect of particle size on froth stability and viscosity were investigated by maintaining experimental conditions but using different sizes of coal, -106 m, +250-355 m and +710 m. Results showed that coal flotation using saline water gave higher froth stabilities and viscosities compared to that using de-ionised water. The results also indicated that size has an effect on the froth stabilities and viscosities as well especially in fresh water. The finer the size, the more stable the froth.

A fine coal agglomeration process will be developed at a laboratory scale using a novel, but economic, binding agent. The aim will be to achieve beneficiation by aggregating the ultrafine coal to a size sufficient for direct separation and dewatering over a sieve bend. The approach could be retrofitted to treat existing flotation tailings, or to process tailings streams in general. An approach recently tested in our laboratory will involve the use of a novel oil-based binding agent that permits a 10-20 fold reduction in the quantity of oil needed to agglomerate fine coal. We will also examine the potential to improve performance using Nano-scale gas bubbles to promote the hydrophobicity of the coal surface. Our objective is to achieve a low cost basis for oil agglomeration. Experiments have commenced on this project. The first step has been to develop a protocol for assessing the benefits of the novel binding agent. There are numerous potential variables here. For example, the binding agent can be prepared in different ways, and can be refined to different degrees. The composition of the binding agent can also be varied. The nature of the feed being used is a key variable, in terms of composition and particle size. If the feed is ultrafine, below 38 microns, then it is possible to measure the yield of agglomerates easily by passing the product over a relatively coarse screen. Hence we have focused initially on this particle size range. There are further variables associated with the mixing intensity applied, and the time period of the mixing. Thus a lot of the scoping tests to date have focused on establishing the best initial approach. However, at this stage there is clear evidence that the novel binder can produce agglomerates by using less diesel than is required by traditional methods. We aim to secure a microniser in order to refine the binder much further. We are also currently waiting on ash results.

C21049 Maximising Flotation Kinetics

University of Newcastle Kevin Galvin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $179,100 25/07/2013 Dion Lucke Paul Revell Peter Newling

The objective of this project is to investigate the potential to maximize flotation kinetics by a factor of between 10 and 100 fold. With the increased kinetics it should be possible to use a relatively small device to process dilute feeds (such as cyclone overflows) and concentrate the product by a factor of 5 to 10

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fold. This concentrated feed would then be sent at a greatly reduced flow rate to conventional flotation cells to achieve the required level of product upgrade, reducing the very significant capital investment by more than 5 fold. This work will be undertaken using an inverted Reflux Classifier that incorporates a novel feed downcomer consisting of parallel, closely spaced channels, and a lower system of parallel inclined plates to prevent bubble loss to tailings. The study will be conducted at a laboratory scale in order to validate the proposition. Work at a larger pilot scale would follow a successful outcome. The approach to be adopted here involves the use of fine gas bubbles to increase the kinetic constant, and secondly a high shear rate to increase the kinetic constant, at maximum gas hold-up. Each could increase the kinetic constant by up to an order of magnitude, allowing a 10 to 100 fold increase in the kinetics. Bubbles rising in a column have a shear rate that is governed by the ratio of the bubble velocity to bubble diameter, Ub/d~100s-1. This ratio is almost a constant, and hence the effective shear rate does not vary significantly with bubble size. The objective here is to use a system of parallel, closely spaced plates, to increase the shear rate throughout a feed downcomer to order 100 s-1 to 1000 s-1. We have been conducting a number of experiments in a Denver flotation cell to obtain data on the basic kinetics achieved by a conventional system on a given feed slurry. We have used different frother doses to insure a broad range of bubble sizes, and also varied the collection addition. That work is continuing. We are also waiting on the ash results for this work. The goal of this project is to achieve high flotation kinetics hence we need to establish a system for generating very fine gas bubbles, and insuring a high shear rate in the contacting. Our kinetics will not be limited by froth drainage rates, and in fact we plan to operate without froth. We have commenced the establishment of the upper system for contacting the feed slurry with fine gas bubbles, sourcing a range of sparger materials covering different pore sizes. We plan to examine different sparger geometries, giving consideration to the potential for scale-up.

The RTD of liquid phase will be determined by introducing an impulse of an aqueous solution of a tracer salt into the feed stream, and monitoring the system response by recording the changes of the conductivity or tracer concentration in the tailings exit and different locations of the concentrate launder as well as places in the pulp phase near the interface between pulp and froth phase. Suitable solids tracers for determining RTD of solids phase are being investigated. Plant site visit to collect information for planning plant-based trials is being carried out.

Gravity Separation

C18038 Commercial lab Scale Float-Sink Testing Using Stabilised Suspension of Zirconium Dioxide

CSIRO Shenggen Hu Wes Membrey Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $216,050 25/08/2012 Colin Surawski Phil Howes Peter Newling

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

C18041 CPP Feed Washability Prediction from Small Topsize Samples

CPG Resources - QCC Andrew Swanson Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $349,200 25/12/2012 Dion Lucke Ian Brake Phil Howes Peter Newling

C21051 Plant Based Investigations of Hydrodynamic Behaviours in Large Coal Flotation Cells

CSIRO Energy Technology Shenggen Hu Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $197,170 25/05/2013 Ian Brake Frank Mercuri Peter Newling

This project is concerned with deriving CPP feed washability distributions (at topsize) based on small topsize representative samples, eg those derived from slimcore samples. The primary objective is to improve the validity of data obtained from slimcore pretreatment and analysis data, however the project will also deliver valuable information in respect of information generated from any small representative sample. The project hypothesis is that coal grain associations (agglomerates of 1mm grains to form particles of any size distribution interval predicted for a nominated CPP feed topsize) will be able to be predicted based on typical coal grain/maceral associations that are measured for a coal of a particular rank. Coals will be characterised by their coal grain analysis (CGA, at -1mm level), and these data used as 'building blocks' for predicting the washability distribution of larger composite particles. The ultimate `big picture' objective is to be able to predict washability based on a single CGA determination for a seam in a given area.

The objective of this project is to characterise hydrodynamic behaviours of Microcel columns and Jameson cells, via: carrying out plant based experiments to determine the residence time distributions (RTDs) of liquid and solids phases at multiple points in each of the cells using the impulse and response method, and describing these with suitable models. measuring gas holdup at different depths and redial positions in the pulp phase.

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Coal Preparation Projects

Two coal types are being evaluated (one from Qld and one from NSW), using comparisons between samples collected from slimcores (63mm dia or similar) and from one LD core (150mm dia or larger), covering the same seam/working section and each drilled as close as possible to each other. The laboratory analysis program for the first coal type slimcore and LD sample set is completed, and CGA analyses are complete. A technique has been developed, using partition tables for each grain type, to predict washability by size. The first set of validation data is very encouraging. The laboratory analysis program for the second coal type slimcore sample set is complete, and CGA analyses are in progress. Receipt of the LD core sample is still awaited. A paper will be published in the proceedings of the 14th Australian Coal Preparation Conference.

The final draft report has been submitted. The report outlines the design of the separator, and the experimental work conducted. A significant number of experiments were conducted using silica flour in order to quantify the separation size achieved from semi-batch elutriation experiments. This work helped to insure the system performed in a manner consistent with our theoretical model. In fact, a design modification was introduced as a direct result of this work. The work also helped to prove the finding that the G forces combine with the inclined channel segregation, delivering a powerful synergy. A series of fine coal elutriation experiments showed that a strong inertial lift force delivers enhanced separation from fine dense silica. Fine coal separations conducted on specific Float-Sink fractions showed excellent separation performance, with Ep values typically 0.07 to 0.09 for particles much finer than 0.20mm, even at low solids concentrations. There was also remarkably little variation in the separation density with particle size down to 0.038mm. In another experiment, a flotation feed with a +38 micron feed ash of 8.5% was separated into a product of 4.1% ash and reject ash of 13.5%. This worked demonstrated the powerful selectivity available at high G forces.

C19039 Gravity Separation of Ultrafine Coal Using Centrifugal Force

University of Newcastle Kevin Galvin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $132,400 25/08/2012 Dion Lucke Paul Revell Phillip Enderby Peter Newling

C20045 Large Diameter DMC Performance in Low Density/High Near Gravity Environment

A & B Mylec Andrew Meyers Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $478,868 25/01/2013 Frank Mercuri Ian Brake Rod Fox Peter Newling

The objective of this study is to produce a new separator suitable for recovering ultrafine feed, less than 0.2mm by gravity separation. Centrifugal forces will be used to produce a shift in the particle settling regimes, allowing a new separation mechanism to be exploited down to particle sizes less than 10 microns. This high capacity device will compete directly with flotation, and will offer new solutions to processing coal tailings, where conventional flotation has failed. Success in this project will lead to a clear path for developing a full-scale commercial device. The separator consists of a fluidized bed mounted within a high speed centrifuge, utilizing fluidization water to suspend the particles against the high G forces. Further, the fluidized bed housing incorporates closely spaced planar channels, inclined at 20o to the direction of the G Forces, similar to a Reflux Classifier which operates at 1G. The work from this study shows the capacity advantage achieved from the high G forces and that achieved from the parallel inclined channels actually multiply, delivering remarkably high capacity. For example, in one case the superficial flow velocity through the channels was more than 3000 times the settling velocity of a particle at the separation size, even though the number of Gs was only 73. The plates comprising the system occupy 50% of the flow area, so the actual capacity advantage is half of this result. Nevertheless, this new system has the potential to change the way ultrafine particles are processed in the coal industry. In principle the high capacity device could ultimately compete directly with flotation, and offer new solutions to processing coal tailings, where conventional flotation has failed. This project succeeded in establishing a clear path for developing a full-scale commercial device.

Following on from the successful project C17036, "Delineation of Large Diameter DMC Performance", an additional work program is being undertaken to target more extreme operating conditions for this size of cyclone to deliver information which can be aligned with existing smaller cyclone performance data, as well as the range of currently available efficiency data and associated modelling tools. This work program will investigate the performance of a very large DMC (>1450mm cyclone diameter), treating a full size range of ­50+1.4wwmm, under a more extreme range of feed pressure and M:C ratio conditions, measuring performance of both coarse and fine particles, identifying critical values for performance deterioration. The important aspect of this test program is that it will target low correct medium densities (~1.35RD) hence operating in very high levels of near gravity when trying to effect a separation. The following lists some of the key project milestones and status to date: Newlands is the test site for these works using the large inlet, 1450mm diameter DMC [Cyclone inlet ~0.25 x diameter => Effective DSM diameter ~1800mm]; The sampling component of this project has been completed on the target Wollombi GM seam coal at low correct medium densities. The targeted 9 audits were completed on a range of operating parameter variables including low feed pressures and M:C ratios;

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Coal Preparation Projects

The expanded analysis program incorporating all 9 test runs and +31.5mm washability is in progress at Bureau Veritas Singleton; The first audit of the laboratory analysis procedures has been completed and the outcomes and actions from this audit have been fed back to Bureau Veritas Singleton; The expected completion date for final reporting of all laboratory analysis results is late November.

Examine the effect that this variation can have on the efficiency of operation of the DMC circuit, and Provide a best practice guide to estimate the time required for a loop/module to stabilise after a shutdown or feed rate change. This has particular implications when auditing a DMC circuit. The correct medium from the start up of the primary dense medium circuit at Bulga has been sampled and is currently with the laboratory for processing. Preliminary results from the Stratford samples are showing similar trends to the data from other plants sampled in that the amount of non-magnetics increases from start up before reaching a maximum which will depend on the amount of non magnetic in the feed coal. Figure 1 shows the different types of non-magnetics in the New Acland correct medium as determined by deconvolusion techniques.

C20050 Linkage of Dynamic Changes in DMC Circuits to Plant Conditions

CSIRO Bruce Firth Peter Holtham Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $231,008 25/01/2013 Frank Mercuri Jeff Graham Roy Brown Peter Newling

This project has the aim of linking the dynamic behaviour of important process variables around a dense medium cyclone with important plant operating conditions. The on-line output of the new monitoring instruments at the New Acland coal preparation plant provide a unique information base which can be linked to important plant operating conditions. With the aid of decision tables, models and smart sensor algorithms, this data can provide the necessary understanding of 'the health of the circuit' (symptoms), and a diagnosis of the potential underlying causes. New instruments are being installed at the New Acland plant to help quantify the relationships between the measured variables of underflow/overflow density and mass rates to the DMC. A cross correlation flowmeter is monitoring the feed to the DMC and the framework for the new correct medium density measurement instrument has been installed in the wing tank. A new mass rate analyser has been built and is ready to be installed once the cabling has been completed during the week starting 9th August.

Figure 1. Types of non-magnetics present in New Acland correct medium and the variation with time.

C21053 Monitoring and Prediction of Catastrophic Multi Sloped Screen Failures

CSIRO Mike O'Brien Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $260,024 25/06/2014 Colin Surawski Phillip Enderby Peter Newling

C20051 Effect of Dynamic Changes in Medium Quality on Coal Processing

CSIRO Mike O'Brien Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $128,075 25/11/2012 Frank Mercuri Roy Brown Peter Newling

The project objectives are to provide the coal industry with: An understanding of the main mechanism of catastrophic multi-sloped screens mechanical failure; The effectiveness of different non-destructive techniques such as vibration, pressure, acoustic, strain and dislocation identification on monitoring multi-sloped screens; and A report detailing the results of the failure analysis, and the success rate of the different trials. A literature search is currently underway to see what knowledge currently exists in the public domain on the monitoring of these screens. A cross correlation of the FFT in the frequency domain from accelerometers on the four corners of a screen may provide the best opportunity to predict failures. The literature also indicates that orbit analysis of the screens

The objectives of this project are to: Determine the non-magnetics in both multi-looped and single circuit plants over time from start up and from feed mass rate changes so as to determine how widespread the effect, and

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motion can also show cracked beams, weak springs and damaged side plates. This and other techniques will be tested on the pilot banana screen at QCAT in the next quarter. A questionnaire is currently being prepared for screen manufacturers and the coal producers and plans are under way to visit and talk with maintenance personnel at preparation plants.

Occupational Health & Safety

C20044 Application of Nano Particles to Fine Coal Float Sink Test

University of Queensland Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $168,500 25/07/2013 Alistair Harriman Jeff Graham Peter Newling

We have been careful to consider the potential for pore absorption by the glycerol. This appears to be negligible and can be further prevented by soaking the coal in water ahead of the test. Experiments have also focused on the effects of the inclined channel gap. It seems this viscosity increase can help enhance the so-called laminar shear mechanism that is responsible for the success of the Reflux Classifier. Thus we see merit in continuing with the elevated viscosity. We have also recently sourced samples of a spirals feed, product and reject stream and have been preparing these samples for direct fractionation over the size range 0.1 to 1.0mm. We plan to conduct this work using water, but will compare the results with the higher viscosity liquid (glycerol), and also with the sink float method. Our initial focus will be on quantifying the level of misplaced particles.

C21050 Application of X Ray Computed Tomography (CT) for Coal Washability Analysis

University of Queensland Anh Nguyen Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $174,803 25/07/2013 Jeremy Byrnes Joan Cowburn Peter Newling

This project is on hold as a new Project Leader is to be approved.

C21046 Washability Analysis of Fine Coal using a Water Based Method

University of Newcastle Kevin Galvin Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $170,000 25/07/2013 Dion Lucke Paul Revell Peter Newling

The aim of this project is to develop a laboratory protocol, suitable for generating washability data via a water based approach. The work will focus on particles less than 2mm in size, however, larger particle fractionation will also be examined in order to expand the application of the work. There will be a special focus on quantifying the separation performance of beneficiation equipment by applying the test to the feed, product, and reject streams. Hence the outcomes from this study could be implemented directly into coal preparation plants. Accurate assessment of the level of misplaced material should be possible. The repeatability of the methodology will be assessed, and a clear protocol prepared, together with an assessment of time, equipment, and labour requirements. An algorithm will also be developed to examine the potential for generating the fractional yield and ash data as a function of standard density ranges, and for generating the partition curve for a given separation. Consideration will be given to identifying a new measure of separation performance that recognises the actual misplaced particles. We have been studying the benefits of increasing the viscosity of the fluidization liquid used by the Reflux Classifier. It is important that we establish the best basis for fractionation before proceeding with the main part of this study. One thing is clear, that the fractionation can be extended effectively to include much coarser particle sizes by increasing the viscosity.

The objectives of the project are to: Develop a methodology for the determination of washability data for Australian coals using XCT; Use XCT instrumentation to obtain washability data and evaluate the technical feasibility of XCT for washability analysis of Australian coals; Compare and benchmark the XCT washability results with the conventional float-sink data which will be obtained for the same coal samples following the Australian Standard AS 4156.1-1994; and Develop approaches to evaluate a XCT-based coal washability analysis system under simulated on-line conditions in Stage 2 of project. The initial tasks of the first quarter are the acquisition and characterisation of coal samples. The coal samples were requested from a mine in the Hunter Valley (Xstrata Coal) and a mine in the Bowen Basin (Rio Tinto Coal). The delivery of the coal samples to the University of Queensland was delayed. Therefore, the project was started on 1st May, i.e. two months later than the proposed time. To date, the samples have been received and characterisation of these samples has commenced. The received samples were dried by natural convection in a fume hood and stored appropriately. The Xstrata coal samples were sized to seven size fractions (1632mm, 16-8mm, 8-4mm, 4-2mm, 2-1.4mm, 1.4-0.85mm, and 0.85-0.5mm) as specified by the Australian Standard AS 4156.1-1994. The density of each size fraction was measured by gas pycnometry. The float-sink tests and analysis were conducted to obtain the washability data for the Xstrata coal samples. Eight density intervals specified in AS 4156.1-1994: 1.3, 1.3-1.35, 1.35-1.4, 1.4-1.5, 1.5-1.6, 1.6-1.8, 1.8-2.1, and +2.1 were used. The ash analysis of the float-sink products (56), the sized samples (7) and the original un-sized sample was conducted triply to obtain the averaged data for the ash contents. The float-sink products have been sent to the

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University of Utah for conducting XCT analysis. In the next quarter, the sample characterisation by sizing, float-sink testing and ash analysis will be completed. The XCT analysis of the samples will be continued.

Carrying out plant sampling and float/sink testing of the sampled coal, and comparing the float/sink washability data with those from on-line estimation. The development of algorithm and software for the on-line estimation of the plant feed washability has been completed and successfully tested with recorded data. To improve the accuracy of estimating the mass flowrate on vibration screens, an innovative algorithm based on the first principle model of vibration dynamics has been developed and tested with measured vibration data. The model parameters in the algorithm can be estimated using the decaying response after shutting down the vibration driver. The use of this algorithm can avoid the timed sampling of coal from screens. Sensors for monitoring medium densities in DMC product and reject flow streams have been installed and tested. The installation of the sensor for the DMC feed stream in the wing-tank was also installed after 8 week delay due to the requirement of scaffold. The data communication cable is yet to be completed by the plant. Once the cabling is completed, the plant feed washability will be determined by float-sink testing on feed samples and compared with those from on-line estimation.

Process Control

C19046 Measuring the Plant Performance of Modern Spiral Banks

University of Queensland Peter Holtham Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $117,500 25/08/2012 Alistair Harriman Frank Mercuri Ian Brake Rod Fox Peter Newling

ACARP Contact:

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

C20048 Gravity Concentrator Expert Control System

CPG Resources - QCC Bob Drummond Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $162,900 25/09/2012 Alistair Harriman Ian Brake Joan Cowburn Peter Newling

C21052 Centrifugal Dewatering Properties of Australian Coals

CSIRO Mike O'Brien Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $131,180 25/06/2013 Jeff Graham Rod Fox Peter Newling

The draft final report is currently being written and the preliminary copy will be issued on 22 August 2012.

C20049 On-line Estimation of Plant Feed Washability

CSIRO Shenggen Hu Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $178,975 25/09/2012 Jeff Graham Steve Lempereur Peter Newling

The objective of this project is to provide the industry with a database showing centrifugal dewatering properties versus rank and proximate analysis from a broad range of Australian coals. This will be achieved by obtaining bulk samples of coarse coals over a broad range of ranks from NSW and Qld and will include some exploration samples. These samples will be rotary subdivided to provide samples for the determination of the centrifugal dewatering properties and for the laboratory analysis. The determination of these properties from exploration samples that have been subjected to float sink analysis will also be investigated with particular emphasis on low rank coals. The work will also look at the affect of air drying and float sink analysis on the centrifugal dewatering properties. Initial discussions have taken place with two companies to provide additional samples for this test work to add to the samples already at QCAT. Test work is expected to begin this quarter once a program has been finalized for the treatment of the samples for float sink analysis. The washability of exploration samples will be determined with Boney Jig to keep the process totally water based to compare with parallel samples float sunk with organic liquids.

The objective of this project is to develop a system for on-line estimation of the plant feed washability based on the method described above, via: Improving the determination of mass flowrates on screens and DMC yield by combining the measurements from an on-spring strain-gauge-rosette based weight sensing device and the screen motion analyser; Developing algorithm and software for the on-line estimation of the plant feed washability; Implementing the on-line washability estimation system in a coal preparation plant;

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Coal Preparation Projects

General

C15060 Database Management

CPG Resources - QCC Andrew Swanson Bruce Atkinson Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $235,616 25/02/2013 Phillip Enderby Peter Newling

C19044 Improved Automation Reclaim For Uneven Stockpiles

BMT WBM Russ Morrison Stuart McCarthy Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $284,690 25/09/2012 Brad Elvy Brett Ross Ian Brake Rod Fox Shaun Booth Peter Newling

This project involves the active procurement and ongoing assessment, interpretation and updating of a user-friendly database for coal preparation unit operation process performance. The project encompasses data from all unit operations including sizing and dewatering. The project also provides a service to industry personnel to assist planning of sampling and analysis programs, in order to maximise information outcomes within available constraints, and to ensure uniformity of interpretation of raw data. The database incorporates associated data where available, including process configuration, equipment configuration, carrier medium quality (magnetite slurry, process water, where applicable), raw coal type and size distribution, process loading, sampling period, sampling location and technique. The objectives of this ongoing project are to: Maintain a single user-friendly CPP equipment performance database encompassing configurations, capacities, operating parameters, size and density float/sink and partition data (as applicable). Users are able to export datasets for use in programs like MS Excel®; Make the database available for on-line download; Provide data that have undergone uniform and consistent assessment and calculation procedures Provide uniform and consistent sampling and analysis "umbrella" procedures; Actively promote participation in plant sampling opportunities as and when they arise (eg during proof-ofperformance testing or other scheduled process audits), with a view to maximising and optimising information that may be obtained within the constraints of any given sampling campaign; Procure and include performance data from new and upgraded CPP projects. A dedicated website has been established to allow access to the most recent database at any time. Contact Bruce Atkinson on 02 4937 9911 or 0425 358 897 and refer www.acarp-unitoperationsdatabase.com

ACARP Contact:

The aim of this project is to develop a pre-emptive control technique for improving the output from automatically controlled slewing reclaimers, by enabling them to achieve significantly higher average reclaim rates in stockpiles of rapidly varying height and complex geometry. Work commenced on the project on 15th March 2010. An extension to the program to include a stockpile laser scanner was approved in December 2010. Installation of all of the system hardware was completed by July 20th 2011 and the system was commissioned and operational by November 2011. Software has been written to generate the reclaim crosssection area and reclaim rate and to plot this as the machine is slewed. Comparisons with the belt weigher output, using a coal density of 1.2, indicates very good agreement with reclaim volume rate obtained from the Lidar system. Extended testing has indicated that this technology has the potential to improve average throughput for this reclaimer by about 20 to 25%. Various algorithms to achieve best triggering of slew return and step advance have been developed as have algorithms for slew control adjustment to maintain constant throughput. As a prelude to a test of the proposed system, a CHAZOP was conducted at Hay Point during early June 2012. General agreement was reached that conducting a trial of the proposed system would involve minimal risk. It was also agreed that this trial would proceed later in 2012 when terminal resources could be made available. Because of uncertainties related to when this final testing might occur, it is proposed to submit the final project report based on the system testing completed during 2011 and early part of 2012. This testing has already clearly demonstrated the viability and substantial benefits to be achieved by application of the concept. It is understood that this proposal is likely to be acceptable to the ACARP committee.

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Coal Preparation Projects

C21047 Seal, Spray and Wash Water Filtration in CHPPs

GBL Process Gotz Bickert Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $33,800 25/03/2013 Ian Brake Peter Newling

The objective of this 12 month study is to review seal and spray water filtration technologies to provide details on current practices in Australia and overseas. The study will cover strainers, back-wash and other self-cleaning filters, media filters, centrifugal separators and other devices used or potential to be used for large flow rates of process water with very variable solids loading from snails to slimes. This should provide the state of the art and potential new applications of filtration equipment for simple, efficient, user-friendly and economical seal and spray water filtration within CHPPs. The study started in March 2012 with a multi-disciplined literature review covering literature on process water filtration in coal, minerals and similar industries as well as equipment used for this purpose. Communications with CHPP personal is on-going to gather data. A questionnaire is being developed to establish the status quo for water filtration within Australia's CHPPs. The project leader will attend ACHEMA in Frankfurt in June with the objective to get an up-date on equipment used for water filtration. The only recently started study is on track to complete in time and budget.

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Technical Market Support Projects

TECHNICAL MARKET SUPPORT

Metallurgical Coal

C17050 Advanced Characterisation of Metallurgical Coals Coke Properties and Reactivity

University of New South Wales Sushil Gupta Veena Sahajwalla Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $650,000 25/11/2012 Dave Osborne Sauli Kallio Stephen Brant Allen Lowe

wide range of cokes to ascertain if the parameters determined can be related to coke strength, in particular coke drum indices; To apply the Mineral Liberation Analyser (MLA) method to determine the structural differences around minerals (as opposed to the ash chemical analysis) in coking coals and in the reaction of cokes. A list of preferred coals has been prepared and sent to the project monitors for their review and agreement as well as to other coal suppliers whose coals have been targeted as candidate coals and coke for this project. The coals required for the project are being collected as coking samples become available at ALS Coal Technology Queensland. The first six cokes for phase one have been selected from the cokes produced in project C16047. These six cokes are currently undergoing imaging analysis. Currently the methodology for mounting of the coke samples for phase two is being refined.

A range of coke quality tests are used to assess suitability of coals to make a high quality coke. There is growing interest to understand the role of coal minerals on high temperature coke properties particularly in the lower zones of a blast furnace operating under different fuel injection rates. This project aims to characterise and distinguish the effect of two injection rates on the modification of lower zone coke properties with emphasis on mineralogy. The project will deliver unique comparative mineralogical data and insight about lower zone coke properties and how they relate to those occur in cokes under simulated laboratory conditions. This will strengthen international collaboration and PhD training. Most of the analytic measurements including carbon structure and mineralogy of tuyere coke samples during 100% coke operation are completed. Reaction rate measurements of tuyere cokes were completed while SEM analysis is underway. Experiments are also being conducted to clarify the effect of ferro-silicon and SiC phases on the modification of coke reactivity. Interpretation of micro-structure and mineralogy data with emphasis on comparison of pilot coke and industrial coke is continuing.

C19049 PCI Combustion Test

University of Newcastle Terry Wall Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $304,200 25/04/2013 Morgan Blake Sean Flanagan Tim Manton Allen Lowe

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

C19051 Characterisation of Australian and Indian Coals and their Cokes from Stamp and Top Charged Coke Ovens

University of New South Wales Graham O'Brien Sushil Gupta Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $221,500 25/12/2012 Sean Flanagan Tim Manton Allen Lowe

C18043 Application of Optical and SEM Imaging to Characterise Cokes for Strength and Reactivity

ALS Coal Lauren Johnson Nic Andriopoulos Phil Bennett Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $322,800 25/04/2013 Chris Dempsey Dave Osborne Tim Manton Allen Lowe

This project has the following objectives: To conduct image analysis, using techniques developed in the earlier stage of this project with enhancements, on a

Due to declining availability of high quality coking coal reserves, there has been growing interest in finding ways to prepare high quality coke using low premium coking coals. With the advances of stamp-charging practice in heat recovery as well as by-product coke ovens, it has been possible to utilise a greater percentage of weak coking coals. There is limited understanding of association of parent coal properties with cokes made under stamp charged coking conditions. This research has the potential for new opportunities for low premium metallurgical coal use in India. The project aims to identify the critical coal attributes that influence coke quality under two process conditions as well as understanding

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Technical Market Support Projects

potential implications of the variation of coal composition with grain size on coke properties. Grain size and mineral data of Australian coal samples is completed. Ten set of coke samples (5 Australian, 3 Tata and 2 old Australian) and related coal samples are sent from Indian coking facility. Stamp charged coke analysis data including CSR and Micum strength is also received. Comparative interpretation of coke properties is now underway.

C20008 Understanding Coal Grain Effects on Coke Quality

University of Newcastle Graham O'Brien Merrick Mahoney Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $187,093 25/11/2012 Dave Osborne Stephen Brant Allen Lowe

C19052 Mineral Matter Effects on Coke Degredation in Blast Furnace Samples

CSIRO David French Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $176,800 25/09/2012 Ashley Conroy Ken Sullivan Allen Lowe

The project extends on project C16047 by examining the influence that the composition of individual coal grains in coke oven feed has on coke quality for two additional coals. The coals were selected in order to explore the reasons for the different behaviour seen for different coals in C16047. Coke microstructural and microtextural analysis will be applied to attempt to understand why the different behaviours occurred. Washing and initial coal analyses have been completed. Recommendations for the blend compositions to be used for Coal D and Coal E for coking have been made to the project monitors. It is now expected that coking of the coals will be delayed until Aug ­ Sep 2012.

The factors affecting coke degradation in the lower part of the blast furnace are poorly understood. The aims of this project are to provide a quantitative understanding of the mineralogy and mineral matter reactions that occur in the lower part of the blast furnace and determine if the different forms of mineral matter formed as a consequence of these reactions cause major variation in coke reactivity and strength. The final high temperature experiment in argon has been completed. Data compilation is in progress and a draft report is being prepared.

C20009 Theoretically Based Coke Strength Index or Indices Based on Drum Tests

ALS Coal Frank Shi Phil Bennett Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $158,000 25/09/2012 Chris Dempsey Oliver Scholes Sean Flanagan Allen Lowe

C19053 Measurement of the Plastic Properties of Coal: Characterisation of Uncertainties in the Sapozhnikov Test

ALS Coal Lauren Johnson Phil Bennett Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $169,450 25/08/2012 Chris Dempsey Allen Lowe

This project aims to investigate if the coke size data, normally collected when a set of drum tests are performed, can be used to determine a theoretically based strength index or indices. This strength index should be based on sound breakage theory and, since it is determined from all the data generated, it is a better representation of the coke strength for the whole sample than individual drum indices. All test work has been completed by both ALS Coal and JKMRC. The implementation of the JKMRC coke breakage algorithm in a form suitable for ALS Coal to conduct tests on past data is currently underway. The draft report is currently being written and will be finished when the coke breakage algorithm is tested against additional past drum test data.

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Technical Market Support Projects

C20010 Classification of Coke Textures

ALS Coal Lauren Johnson Phil Bennett Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $45,200 25/08/2012 Chris Dempsey Morgan Blake Susan Woodhouse Allen Lowe

Testwork has been completed for the first five coals, but for coal F, we are still waiting for the laboratory testing of the density fractions and for the samples of the material in each of the density fractions to be returned so that Coal Grain Analysis testing can be performed. We anticipate that this should be completed by early September. As testwork has been completed for five coals these analyses have enabled maceral chemistry and reflectance relationships to be developed for Australian coals that cover a significant rank range. In parallel, the final report is being prepared. During the next quarter the remaining test work will be completed and the final report will be finalised.

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

C20040 Understanding Exploration Samples by Coal Grain Analysis

CSIRO Bruce Firth Graham O'Brien Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $115,720 25/09/2012 Dave Osborne Tim Manton Allen Lowe

C21056 Microstructure Variability in Coke and its Effect on Coke Properties

CSIRO David Jenkins Merrick Mahoney Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $129,090 25/04/2013 Graeme Harris Luke Solomon Allen Lowe

The project's objective is to develop and validate a method for estimating chemical information on individual coal grains for Australian coals of different ranks and demonstrate that for exploration samples grain data can provide chemical and petrographic information and yield estimates of product coal at different ash values. A suite of Australian coals of different ranks from different coal basins (Table 1) has been used to develop and validate correlations between maceral chemistries and coal rank. To investigate if coals of similar rank from different basins have similar or different macerals chemistries, the suite included two pairs of coals of similar ranks from different basins.

The aim of this project is to: Obtain micro-CT images of the microstructure of various cokes; Use the microstructure information to estimate strength and reactivity properties of the cokes using a finite element approach; Compare the estimated properties with measured indices of coke strength and reactivity, and seek correlation with the coal properties of the various cokes. Progress on the project so far includes: All 4 coke samples have now been received from industry; 3 samples from each of two cokes have been imaged using the micro-CT system; Image analysis work has been performed in order to segment the images into void/non-void, and produce some statistics about the coke (void fraction, number and size distribution of individual voids, structure of solid phase). This step is a precursor to using the data from the microCT to perform finite element analysis; Preliminary work on setting up the finite element analysis has begun; The remaining images for the project will be produced within the next few weeks; The project is on track and progressing well.

Table 1: samples used For each coal, float sink testing was used to produce density fractions with different chemical and petrographic compositions. Proximate and ultimate analyses and CSN were conducted on each density fraction. Coal Grain Analysis was also conducted on each density fraction to determine maceral composition and maceral reflectance information.

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Technical Market Support Projects

C21057 Predicting Dilation of Coal Blends from Models of Softening, Bubble Growth and Gas Transport

CSIRO David Jenkins Merrick Mahoney Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $124,435 25/04/2013 James Graham John Poole Allen Lowe

Once built and tested we do not see a problem in processing the samples for the project.

C21059 Estimating the Fusible Content of Individual Coal Grains and its Application in Cokemaking

CSIRO George Poropat Graham O'Brien Merrick Mahoney Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $128,382 25/04/2013 Chris Dempsey James Graham Allen Lowe

The aims of this project are to: Develop a model of softening, bubble growth and gas transport in the dilatometer process; Use the model to predict the dilatation of coal blends and compare with measured data. Progress so far includes: Model development; consideration of the various effects required in the model (softening/resolidification, gas evolution/transport, bubble formation, bubble growth/shrinkage/coalescence, inerts, blending, etc); Initial coding of software to implement the model has commenced; Progress so far is satisfactory.

The project objectives are to: Develop the coal grain analysis capability to provide reflectance distribution measurements on a statistically significant number of coke feed size particles; Determine the reflectance cutoff for fusible inertinite in Australian coals from different coal measures by comparing whole coal reflectograms and coke microtexture on matched halves of a single particle; Measure the size distribution of infusible inerts and the amount of large infusible inerts (>1.5 mm) in coke oven feed for selected samples of Australian coals. The project will test 3 pairs of coal of similar ranks from different coal measures (Table 1). Three of the samples have been sourced from previous or current ACARP projects and additional samples have been provided by coal producers. We still require a sample of a non Rangal coal with a mean random vitrinite reflectance between 0.9% and 1.1%. This sample would consist of approximately 5 kg s of "coke oven feed" size coal, plus 20 lumps approximately 30-50mm in size. If you have a suitable sample which you would like to contribute to the project, please contact Graham O'Brien.

C21058 Relationship Between Internal Pressure and Coke Strength and Implications for Semi Soft Coking Coals in Blends

ALS Coal Nic Andriopoulos Phil Bennett Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $147,400 25/04/2013 Luke Solomon Morgan Blake Stephen Brant Allen Lowe

The objectives of this project are to: Develop a simple small scale test to measure the contraction of a coal charge due to the formation of the plastic layer during coking with a tightly controlled bulk density and under different loadings; Demonstrate the application of this test in determining how coal properties influence the contraction of coke under fixed load or fixed volume conditions and relate this understanding to the development of coke strength in blends. Comment on possible relationships between laboratory measured contraction, by Sapozhnikov Test, and coke strength of blends. The construction of the sole heated oven is progress with all major items have been made with the exception of the ram assembly that will put pressure on the coal and measure expansion/contraction. The design of the ram assembly is completed and construction has started. Currently we expect to be testing the oven systems in late September with the experimental program commencing in October/November.

Table 1: samples used Work in the past quarter has focused on imaging developments that will enable quantitative reflectance information to be obtained on particles up to 8mm in size and on refining the experimental procedure for undertaking the "coking tests" on the single particles. During the next quarter we will commence coke testing and coke texture analysis of halves of particles and whole coal reflectogram analysis on the other half of the particles and determine the reflectance cut-off between fusible and infusible material for project coals.

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Technical Market Support Projects

Thermal Coal

C18044 Submicron Ash Emissions and Trace Elements from Boiler Simulation Furnace

ALS Coal Don Holcombe Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $100,930 25/11/2012 Ashley Conroy Allen Lowe

The major outcomes and benefits of this project will be: Early indications of the likely consequences and impacts on the Australian coal industry of an international mercury treaty; The ability of the industry to formulate informed contributions to policy and regulatory developments nationally and internationally; Confidence in assessing the market impact of possible legislative, voluntary or economic responses to the mercury treaty; Support for expert Australian input into the development of voluntary actions during the treaty development. This is the second stage of this project. Work continues on assessing international developments in the formulation of a legally binding instrument to manage mercury in the environment. Peter Nelson attended the IEA Coal Mercury Workshop in May 2012 and a meeting of the United Nations Environment Program Working Group preparing the next Global Mercury assessment in 2012-13. In addition the 4th Meeting of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC4) was held in Uruguay in June 2012. The INCs are the main mechanism for the development of the legally binding instrument. These activities and associated documents are currently being analysed and a briefing note on the outcomes is in the process of preparation to summarise current progress on the UNEP process.

The quantity of each fine size fraction of particulates passing through the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to the stack will be determined, together with the associated concentration of selected trace elements. Not only is fine ash more likely to escape through a power station stack than coarse ash, but it penetrates deeper into the lungs when breathed, and it carries greater concentrations of some trace elements of environmental concern than coarse ash. The aim will be to provide health and environmental data for one or two coals, and to prove the measurement procedures so that different coals can be evaluated in future. The first sample has been collected from the outlet duct of the ESP fitted to the pilot-scale furnace using a Cascade Impactor, which has separated the collected dust into size fractions including sub-micron. The quantities of the size fractions and the concentrations of trace elements are to be determined by CSIRO. A sample will be collected from the ESP inlet duct within about a week. The analytical results will be appraised so that a decision can be made on whether the last set of tests should be a repeat on the same coal or on a second coal.

C19009 The Mercury Treaty - Implications and Responses

Macquarie University Peter Nelson Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $118,814 25/03/2014 Ashley Conroy Barry Isherwood Allen Lowe

In early 2009 the UN Environment Programme's (UNEP) Governing Council agreed in a landmark decision, taken by over 140 countries, to develop an international mercury treaty (or other legally binding instrument). This decision potentially has major implications for the coal and mineral processing industries. Coal combustion is the major man-made source of mercury emission. A mercury treaty will intensify pressures to eliminate emissions from coal-fired power stations, and other industrial sources. The objectives of the project are twofold: To produce regular briefing documents to ACARP on the development of the global treaty; To facilitate Australian expert involvement in the Global Mercury Partnership for mercury from coal combustion.

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation Projects

MINE SITE GREENHOUSE MITIGATION

C16048 Removal of Methane from Mine Ventilation Air by Biofiltration

University of New South Wales Jason Scott Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $140,754 25/08/2012 John Rich Roger Wischusen

C19054 Ventilation Air Methane Capture Study - Carbon Fibre Composite

CSIRO Paul Webley Shi Su Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $262,666 25/06/2013 Colin Gilligan Jim Sandford John Rich Trevor Stay Neil Alston

ACARP Contact:

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

This project is to capture ventilation air methane with our carbon fibre composites, including commercial uptake through large scale unit tests and demonstration, and preliminary economic analysis. Since the last quarterly report, the large scale test unit was commissioned in June 2012. Initial test results showed that the captured methane concentration can reach up to 8 % with simulated VAM of 0.6 %. A project review meeting was carried out at QCAT on 29th of June. The methane capture performance of carbon fibre composites will be tested by varying methane concentration and VAM flow rates with thermal and vacuum swings. With a series of detailed and systematic tests, optimum operational parameters such as temperatures for methane recovery and adsorbent regeneration, vacuum pressure and VAM flow rates, will be determined.

C18047 Horizontal Post Drainage Design

CSIRO Hua Guo Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $360,331 25/10/2013 Jim Sandford Paul O'Grady Neil Alston

This project aims to develop a methodology and practical procedures for industry to design optimal horizontal post mine gas drainage. This new drainage method has the potential to capture substantially large and consistent volumes of gas and significantly reduce the concentration of gas in the mine ventilation air which serves to improve mine safety and productivity, increase mine methane utilisation, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This new method will provide an alternative approach to longwall goaf gas extraction which requires substantially less surface disturbance than the conventional surface goaf drainage method using vertical boreholes. Field work has been put on hold until September 2012 in line with the new mining schedule at Blakefield South. C19003 Nitrogen in Coal and Its Implications on Gas Content Testing CSIRO Abouna Saghafi Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : $153,317 25/08/2012 Andy Willson Cecilie Naess Doug Dunn Jim Sandford Paul O'Grady Roger Wischusen

C19055 Ceramic Block Vent Air Methane Mitigator

CSIRO Shi Su Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $342,696 25/01/2013 John Rich Pat Booth Neil Alston

The overall aim of this project is to develop a novel selfsustaining mine ventilation air methane mitigator in a scalable format, and demonstrate it at an Australian mine as a step towards its commercial uptake. For current project phase we will design, construct and commission the newly-structured prototype VAM mitigator intended to handle ~0.5m3/s mine ventilation air (MVA). The prototype mitigator now has been fully assembled with fuel supply lines. The fuel supply lines need to be certified before the commissioning of the unit. The control and monitoring system is being wired up by an electrician. Commissioning the unit will be started in next four weeks or so with the preparation of CNG and LPG supply.

ACARP Contact:

A draft report is with the Industry Monitor/s for review.

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ACARP Current Projects Report August 2012

Mine Site Greenhouse Mitigation Projects

C19057 Linear Gas Flow Measurement System for Gas Drainage Boreholes

CRCMining Bart Pienaar Paul Lever Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $181,026 25/10/2012 Jim Sandford John Rich Peter Brisbane Roger Wischusen

C21064 Catalytic Combustion of VAM - Effect of Changing Composition and Concentration of Gases

University of Newcastle Bogdan Diugogorski Eric Kennedy Michael Stockenhuber Value: Report Expected: Industry Monitor/s : ACARP Contact: $225,128 25/05/2013 Jim Sandford Pat Booth Trevor Stay Neil Alston

The objective of this project is to build on and extend the application and experience of the production of a prototype linear gas flow measurement and management system for gas drainage/production boreholes. This system will be suitable for application in all in-seam drilling applications in Australia (underground and surface to underground deployment). The enhanced system shall incorporate flow models for improved visualization and determination of flow at any point within a borehole. Six fibre optic cables have been installed at Carborough Downs Coal Mine. A future method for installing the cable inside the slotted poly during the manufacturing process is being trialed by the manufacturer of the poly pipe. A rack has been assembled with the equipment for monitoring the borehole, with 3G telemetry and power supervision. An airconditioner container has been manufactured for housing the equipment. The equipment will be installed in the coming weeks. Dewatering will commence on the boreholes, and gas flow is expected to commence after 2-3 months of dewatering. Computational Fluid Dynamics models are being developed of gas flow inside a borehole to assist with the data interpretation & analysis. A fibre optic cable was installed in a vertical goaf drainage well at Appin mine. The temperature inside the well was monitored as the long-wall miner advanced past the well. Data analysis is currently being conducted on the results.

The project seeks to identify and assess catalytic combustion systems that are able to combust methane and other greenhouse gases at low concentration with minimal use of added fuels over a wide range of operational parameters. It is the intention to benchmark and verify the feasibility of mitigation systems, mainly using commercial catalysts operational parameters for combustion in terms of exhaust gas composition and its influence on optimal operation of the unit and any associated explosion risk will be defined. The main objectives of the project are: Assess the risk involved in the addition of a catalytic oxidation unit to an underground mine. Examine the chemical stability of a commercially-available VAM catalyst where the concentration of methane is varied from 0.5 to 10%. Especially, the long-term stability of the catalytic process will be studied. Examine the chemical stability and durability of commercially-available VAM catalysts where additives such as H2S, SO2 and CO and particulates have been added to the VAM. In the initial stages of the project we have modified and setup the experimental testing rig to make it suitable for the long term stability measurement and the conditions that mimic the exhaust gas of a typical mine. The experimental setup can be seen in figure 1.

Figure 1: VAM Long term stability study experimental apparatus We identified the composition of the gas stream for the long term tests and have started to carry out long term stability tests under conditions closely mimicking the gas composition of a typical underground coal mine exhaust. Short term deactivation and low temperature behaviour of the catalytic system using commercial catalysts has been successfully conducted.

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