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Why Was the Literacy Pilot Project So Successful: What Worked

Joe Witt, PhD iSTEEP Learning

LA Has Another Hit Record

Vision

Education System for all Students in Louisiana

From: LA DOE

Create a World-Class

Literacy Pilots

· Astounding progress ...toward

goal of world class system

Percent Increase of Students Scoring Basic or Above LEAP or iLEAP in Pilot and Non-Pilot Schools

Gain Non-pilot

Grade 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th

2009

K-12 Pilot

16 23 32 20 25 9

3 6 6 3 5 7

In Other Words

· You have something that works.

­ Independently evaluated ­ Works In Louisiana with Louisiana Students ­ Improves Reading ­ Improves State Test Scores ­ Put together by a partnership

The Story Behind the Literacy Pilots--How Things Were in 2005

2005: A Period of Ferment and Change

· 2000-2005: A time of great change in literacy

­ Whole language was still used in many places ­ Reading First was going strong but national evaluations were not supportive of effectiveness. ­ Schools were using a variety of literacy strategies.

· · LOTS of strong opinions Some unsubstantiated beliefs

Belief #1: Universal Screening

· Belief: More Assessment is Better than Less.

­ People were (are) doing LOTS of assessment ­ Why. They know how. The like it. Feels good.

· The reality: Since assessment does not directly improve student learning then doing more assessment can lead to poor outcomes.

Why Keep Number of Assessments Small?

· Most literacy assessments identify the same group of students as "low" so the results of additional assessments are redundant. · Each additional assessment adds very little to classification accuracy · The bigger reason is that assessment does not improve student outcomes.

­ Time spent on Assessment could be Time spent in Intervention

Intervention

Student Outcomes

Assessment and Data Management

What contributes most to outcomes?

Intervention

Assessment and Data Management

Student Outcomes

What some emphasize in RTI

Intervention

+

Assessment and Data Management

Student Outcomes

In reality, this is the best picture.

Belief #2: Intervention Selection

· A group of people in a room can figure out anything

­ May be true--but it takes a lot of time ­ Folks like to Meet and feel good that each student got a good discussion.

The belief is

· Choosing the right intervention for a student is a highly individualized practice involving deep study of the students family, educational history, and personality factors, learning style matching with teaching style with a little magic and hope thrown in.

The Reality is

· Only skills have been shown to link effectively to intervention. · That is, all you need to know is the skills which the student knows and does not know. This tells you where to start teaching. · We use a testing back process to find student skill level. Start teaching from there.

Research Indicates

· Good proven practices exist for most common reading problems. · Will you have a 5th grader reading and 3rd grade?

­ If so a fluency intervention is appropriate and effective. ­ No need to have a lengthy discussion about what to do. ­ If intervention does not work, PM will tell you and you can make a change.

Many Things Thought to Matter, Don't

· "In the beginner's mind there are many possibilities, in the experts mind there are few". Shunryu Suzuki

Belief #3: More Interventions are Better than Fewer

· Schools want an intervention for everything. · Hard to pull off with fidelity. · Hard to match student with correct intervention.

In Reality

· Better to get behind a small number of interventions · LP used three: accuracy to establish literacy skills, fluency, comprehension · Training staff is easier · Monitoring fidelity is easier · Adding new staff is easier

How do you need only 3 interventions or less?

Accuracy Reading Skills Instruction Needed ·Slow and inaccurate ·Modeling, Explicit instruction, and Feedback in early literacy skills (PA, Phonics) Funnix Voyager Fluency ·Accurate but slow ·Practice opportunities ·Timings ·Immediate feedback Basic Comp ·Fluent but does not read for meaning Strategies to improve: identifying main, cause and effect, summarizing, sequencing Making Connections

Example Interventions

6 Min. Solut. Read Natur.

Intervention Picker

Phonemic Awareness Fluency Comprehension Funnix Read Naturally ReadAbout

Perfect Match

Belief #4: Monitoring Fidelity

· Belief: Monitoring Fidelity is not needed-- everyone is a professional and does their job · The reality is that when fidelity is checked most people have difficulty getting RTI jobs done. · Initially we collected some data on the Pilot schools to show this.

Fidelity Matters -- Students Lose Ground in Low-Fidelity Districts

Other Issues with Same Intervention

· Used the same intervention with all kids

­ Intervention should not be used with students who are non-readers or barely reading

· Left the intervention in place when it was not working for months. · In other words, there was a lack of fidelity in applying the RTI PROCESS · Bottom Line: Doing it right does matter

The Plan

· The Plan

­ Minimal screening

· ONE skill--we just want to know WHICH students

­ Small number of interventions ­ Simple Intervention Picker Process

· Skills are best

­ Progress Monitoring ­ Fidelity Monitoring Because Doing it Right Matters

For More Specifics on the Plan

· At-a-Glance Cards

This is a Standard Protocol Process Using set Procedures

· To select students for intervention · To choose the best intervention for each student · This standard process:

­ Allowed state, district and school leaders to all be on the same page.

· Training was the same · Supporting schools was the same · Each students plan was put together the same way

­ True Expertise was developed ­ Based on the STEEP standard protocol

Q: What is the Purpose of SP?

· Yes it helps to indentify the right intervention · Yes it helps with fidelity · Get here in the shortest amount of time:

Student engaged in the right intervention

How Does the SP Help?

· Helps schools focus on things that matter and ignore some things that matter less.

Matters: Find reading skills a student needs to know and provide explicit instruction in those skills. o Don't Matter: From research on team meetings:

o

Most historical tidbits: Student's mother was in special education Auditory or visual learner

o

Faster Service for Students: Screen one day and start intervention the next.

Data Driven Decision-Making with the Literacy Pilots

· How do you use data to drive decisions? · If you want to use data now there are 3 problems: getting the right data, too much data and dumb data. · Simply Decide: What are the Important Decisions Schools Must Make? · Then Ask: What Data are needed to make the decisions?

In this Part

· First state the question we wanted to answer

­ The questions were about whether we are getting things done right and what were the effects

· Talk about the data we used to answer the question.

Getting Started: Training

· Question: Do people know what to do? How do you know ? · Type of Data Needed: Need data on knowledge of RTI process, using data management, etc.

­ Participants Provided with E-learning and Manuals describing the process ­ Assessed with Quiz for Knowledge

· Research indicates that training is needed but is far far from sufficient to get staff performance where you want it. · Women know this.

­ Man training video

Screening

· Did screening occur as planned?

­ Refer to at a glance cards. The required assessments are listed here. ­ What type of data is needed: Data on whether they did it or not. ­ How to measure. Checklist.

Yes

No

N/A

1. Benchmark screening was completed 3 times per year. 2. Benchmark screening was completed during the designated benchmarking period. 3. Three probes were used for each screening

Fidelity Checklist

4. Median scores were entered into data system. 5. Tier 1 problems were correctly identified 6. List of students to be considered for Tier 2 intervention were generated correctly.

Total Integrity Score: # of the "yes" divided by the total possible "yes" multiply by 100 Integrity Score:

Helps you get things done and helps you monitor whether it was done.

Checklists are Useful for Busy People

· We think of checklists as reminders for people who maybe are not so smart. · They are absolutely essential for smart people who are too busy which makes it easy to miss something important. · Doctors, pilots, and all kinds of busy people use them · Highly recommend: Checklist Manifesto

Are Students in Need Getting Their Intervention?

· Question: Is every student who needs intervention according to the data getting intervention? · How to measure

­ Run a check to match

· Students screening data indicating intervention needed · Students receiving intervention · A simple data management task

Is Intervention Effective

· Question: Is every intervention working?

­ Data to Answer this question: Review progress monitoring. Code Red on Status.

If intervention is not working, why not

· Was intervention picker used? · Is intervention being used as planned? · Is the intervention being modified if not? Effective · Data taken from integrity checklist. Spot check folders.

Is There Fidelity to the RTI Process?

· Fidelity:

­ Question: is the whole RTI process being done and done well.

· How do you know? · Research on what type of data is best for assessing fidelity.

What is Fidelity

· Faithfulness to obligations, duties, or observances. (Dictionary) · Using intervention as planned

­ Using it as frequently as planned ­ Using it correctly each time

· Fidelity of RTI Process

­ Planned: Progress monitor every two weeks ­ Planned: 8 weeks of intervention before considering a student for special education

Methods for Assessment of Fidelity

· Self-report

­ Ask via rating scales, checklists, interviews: Did you do the intervention?

· Direct Observation

­ A third party observes implementation

· Permanent Products

­ Direct evidence that the intervention was done

Which Method is Best?

· Self Report

­ People may do a little bit of the intervention and give themselves credit for actually doing it ­ It is Difficult for people to report accurately when they lack fidelity

· But we know that....

Preferred Option

· Permanent Products · This was pretty easy to do:

­ Get on computer and spot check:

· Are needy students setup for intervention · Is intervention and PM happening?

­ Spot check student folders if you notice issues

If Data Indicates a Fidelity Issue then what do you do?

· Research Indicates:

­ That what gets monitored, gets done.

· So a little monitoring and giving feedback to schools goes a long way toward improving fidelity.

What Causes Fidelity Problems

· In some studies we asked why people don't do the interventions... · Bottom Line--Because they don't have to.

­ No one seems to check

· Reasons

­ Had a meeting Tuesday ­ Assembly on Friday

· These are normal issues

­ Schools must have a Plan B if interventionist can't do intervention. ­ Are we asking too much of teachers and others?

Fidelity is a Normal Human Problem

· Why do we have fidelity problems--it is a human problem. We all have competing demands. · Monitoring and feedback improve fidelity.

­ Given that I have too much to do, what am I am going to get done today: That which someone cares about and gets monitored.

· To be able to monitor, a specific plan is needed. If there are not some specific things that must be done, then you can't have a fidelity problem.

­ We used a standard process or protocol

Why is the Story of the Literacy Pilots Important

· These tools and strategies work in LA · It highlights the strong leadership and stickwithitness of the Louisiana DOE · This is within your reach. You can do something like this!!!!

­ Will it work for you--not unless you are fully committed.

· These results help people to be committed · Your initial success will help your team stay committed

This is the Year for You

· Maybe

­ You don't have the funds you need! ­ You have personnel issues! ­ Your district has just launched the new xyz process so this is not a good year! ­ You are afraid doing something like this is not good enough or not perfect. Fear creeps in and you wonder if you really can defend and support this.

· You can do it! You can support it. It will work!

Thank you

Joe Witt [email protected] www.isteep.com

LA Literacy Grade 4 ­ 12 Screening/Instructional Planning Process At a Glance

Grades 4-5 Benchmark Assessment Step 1: Identify Students in Need of Instructional Support Assess all students with STEEP Oral Reading Fluency probe. One probe is administered for one minute. Identify students in RED Conduct CDWD assessment and identify students that are Can't Do's Step 2: Verify that Instructional Support is Needed At a minimum, proceed with Step 3 for the Bottom 16% Step 3: Finding the Reading Level Step 4: Select Type of Intervention Step 5: Plan for Start-up Step 6: Set-up PM · · Progress Monitoring Level # of probes Consult Table 1 (in Elementary Reading Intervention Manual) to determine if the student is low for the time of the year

Yes Consult Table 2 (in Elementary Reading Intervention Manual) to determine if student needs accuracy or fluency intervention Yes Yes Instructional level Fluency Intervention 3 STEEP ORF progress monitoring probes and plot the median score Every 2 weeks (minimum requirement) Accuracy Intervention One STEEP Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) probe Every 2 weeks (minimum requirement)

·

Frequency

*It is optional to intervene with students in the yellow zone. If students in the yellow zone receive interventions, it is not necessary to complete the Instructional Planning sheet for those students.

Grade 6 Benchmark Assessment Step 1: Identify Students in Need of Instructional Support

Assess all students with STEEP Middle School Maze Benchmark probe. One probe is administered for three minutes. Identify students in RED with STEEP Middle School Maze benchmark probe RED

Step 2: Verify that Basic Skill Support is Needed

Administer STEEP Middle School ORF probe (Located in Middle and High School RTI Manual) Students scoring at or above 110 Students scoring below 110 Yes Comprehension Yes Yes STEEP Middle School Maze progress monitoring probes Consult Table 3 (in Middle and High School RTI Manual) Yes Yes Fluency Accuracy Intervention Intervention STEEP ORF STEEP Letter progress monitoring Sound Fluency probes and plot the (LSF) probe median 3 Every 2 weeks 1 Every 2 weeks

Step 3: Finding the Reading Level Step 4: Select Type of Intervention Step 5: Plan for Start-up Step 6: Set-up PM · Progress Monitoring Level

· ·

# of probes Frequency

1 Every 4 weeks

*It is optional to intervene with students in the yellow zone. If students in the yellow zone receive interventions, it is not necessary to complete the Instructional Planning sheet for those students. All students will be benchmark assessed in the Fall, Winter, and Spring with STEEP Middle School Maze Benchmark Probe.

Grades 7 ­ 8 Benchmark Assessment Assess Students Who Scored Below Basic in ELA on LEAP, iLEAP or LAA2 with STEEP Middle School Maze Benchmark probe. One probe is administered for three minutes. Identify students in RED with STEEP Middle School Maze benchmark probe YELLOW and GREEN Step 2: Verify that Basic Skill Support is Needed RED Administer STEEP Middle School ORF probe Students scoring at or above 110 Step 3: Finding the Reading Level Step 4: Select Type of Intervention Step 5: Plan for Start-up Step 6: Set-up PM · Progress Monitoring Level Comprehension Yes Yes Use progress monitoring materials from the intervention program itself (e.g., READ 180, Voyager Journeys) to progress monitor Program specific Program specific Comprehension Yes Yes Yes Consult Table 3 (in Middle and High School RTI Manual) Yes Yes Accuracy Intervention STEEP Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) probe Students scoring below 110

Step 1: Identify Students in Need of Instructional Support

Fluency STEEP Middle School Intervention Maze progress monitoring Probe STEEP ORF progress monitoring probes and plot the median 1 Every 4 weeks 3 Every 2 weeks

· ·

# of probes Frequency

1 Every 2 weeks

Grades 9 ­ 12 Benchmark Assessment

Step 1: Identify Students in Need of Instructional Support

Assess Students Who Scored Below Basic in ELA on LEAP, iLEAP or LAA2 with STEEP High School Maze Benchmark probe. One probe is administered for three minutes. Identify students in RED with STEEP High School Maze benchmark probe YELLOW and GREEN RED Administer STEEP High School ORF probe Students scoring at or above 110 Students scoring below 110 Yes Comprehension Use standard plan for intervention Yes Use progress monitoring materials from the intervention program itself (e.g., READ 180, Voyager Journeys) to progress monitor Program specific Program specific Comprehension Yes Yes STEEP High School Maze progress monitoring probe Consult Table 3 (in Middle and High School RTI Manual) Yes Yes Fluency Intervention STEEP ORF progress monitoring probes and plot the median 3 Every 2 weeks Accuracy Intervention STEEP Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) probe

Step 2: Verify that Basic Skill Support is Needed

Step 3: Finding the Reading Level Step 4: Select Type of Intervention Step 5: Plan for Start-up Step 6: Set-up PM · Progress Monitoring Level

· ·

# of probes Frequency

1 Every 4 weeks

1 Every 2 weeks

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