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International Exchange Programme between Japan and Other UNESCO Member States for the Promotion of International Cooperation and Mutual Understanding

-2008 University Students Exchange Programme-

"Student Collaboration for Sustainable Development of Nomadic Life"

16-30 August 2008 Mongolia

Programme Organisers Akita Prefectural University Asia/Pacific Cultural Center for UNESCO (ACCU) In Corporation with Ulaanbaatar Erdem Oyu University Mongolian State University of Agriculture Mongolian State University of Science and Technology

Published by Akita Prefectural University 84-4 Ebinokuchi, Tsuchiya, Yuri-honjyo, Akita 015-0055, Japan Tel 81-184-27-2000 Fax 81-184-27-2188 October 2008 Printed in Japan

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I

Programme Information 1. Introduction 2. Objectives

4 4 5 6 24 28 30 31 32 35 38 50 98 105 105 106 107 109

II III

Proceedings Outcomes and Future Plans

IV Comments and Suggestions V Technical Inputs 1. Opening Address 2. Orientation 3. Lecture Notes 4. Student Presentations 5. Instruction Manuals 6. Experimental Results VI Annex 1. 2. 3. 4. General Information List of Participants Programme Schedule Acknowledgement

I 1. Introduction

Programme Information

The students of Akita Prefectiral University (APU) organised "Student Collaboration for Sustainable Development in Nomadic Life" from 16th of August to 30th of August 2008 in Mongolia as one of the 2008 University Students Exchange Programme within the framework of the International Exchange Programme between Japan and Other UNESCO Member States for the Promotion of International Cooperation and Mutual Understanding. The students of APU have been engaged in the `Sustainable Development' work as a part of their `Independent Research' initiatives under the guidance of professors. The `Independent Research' programme of APU has been approved by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology as a "Support Programme for Distinctive University Education". Under the main theme of `sustainable development', the students of APU are exploring the practical application of ecological energy system in the Himalayan region of Nepal, special for the benefit of small and backward communities where there is no existing electricity supply. Actual use of solar energy systems assembled by the students to illuminate primary school building and Buddhist temple are some of the outcomes of this initiative. Last year, the students of APU expanded their activity to a Mongolian Nomadic village. There had been ongoing academic research collaboration between APU and three Mongolian Universities (Ulaanbaatar Erdem Oyu University, Mongolian State University of Agriculture and Mongolian State University of Science and Technology). The academic research collaboration was enhanced under the UNESCO/Japan Funds-in-Trust for the Promotion of International Cooperation and Mutual Understanding.

2.

Objectives

The main aim of this proposed programme is to conduct collaboration of the field study between Japanese and Mongolian students under the supports of specialists in both countries, which brings both university students to discuss, comprehend and develop insight concerning the challenges of `sustainable development'. APU students agreed with Mongolian students to cooperate in carrying out the following activities; (1) Learning of current issues on the global development through lectures given Japanese and Mongolian specialists. (2) Mutual understanding through the discussion of the experimental activities on the sustainable development. (3) Experience of nomadic life by staying in a traditional Mongolian tent (so called a `Ger' house). (4) Collaboration work together with Mongolian students to assemble a solar power system in a nomadic village. (5) Operation of the solar power system, discussion on the test results and modification of the system to improve the performance. (6) Collaboration work in assembling a light trap system to capture insects. The light trap shall be operated, using electricity produced by solar energy. (7) Study on the effect of the light trap to prevent the grasses and vegetables from insect damages. (8) Soil analysis to check its degradation due to the overgrazing and overcultivation. (9) Visit to Karakorum, old town inscribed to world cultural heritage by UNESCO, to learn the Mongolian history and culture.

II

Proceedings

Day 1 (16 August 2008, Saturday) Departure from NRT and Arrival at ULN At 13:30 we left Narita Narita Airport on flight OM 502 of Mongolian Airlines( MIAT ) for Ulaanbaatar. At 17:45 we arrived at Ulaanbaatar Airport. Prof. Alimaa and Mr. Katachulun welcomed us there. After short rest at the hotel "Gest House" near the center of Ulaanbaatar, we were invited to dinner by Prof. Dorj, the general director of Erdem Oyu University. Day 2 (17 August 2008, Sunday) Short city tour and visit to Nature History Museum Because it was Sunday, opening ceremony was postponed to next Monday. In the morning we had rest in the hotel, and after lunch, Mr. Katachulun, a teacher of Erdem Oyu University, took us to the short tour in the heat of the city (Fig.1). We visited the Natural History Museum, which consists of 40 halls including geography, flora, fauna and fossils wings. The main attraction was a large collection of dinosauls fossils and skeletons, some of which are famous around the world (see Fig.2).

Fig.1 Sukhbaatr Square

Fig.2 Natural History Museum

Day 3 (18 August 2008, Monday) am Opening Ceremony Opening ceremony was held at a conference room in Erdem Oyu University. Serving as a chairman, Dr. M.Futamura of APU assistant professor announced the opening of the ACCU Programme. Dr. T. Dorj, the general director of Erdem Oyu University addressed the welcome speech. He talked about the history of the collaboration work among Mongolian three universities and Akita Prefectural University. Prof. K.Takeda of APU, representative of the Japanesemembers, expressed his thanks to Mongolian members for their kind arrangement. He made the brief introduction of Asia/Pacific Culture Center for UNESCO then mentioned about the background of the collaboration work (see Technical Inputs V-1). Prof. J.Nagvaanjamtz, the vice director of Erdem Oyu University, Prof. S.Natsagdorj of State University of Science and Technology and Prof. B.Buuveibaatar of State University of Agriculture extended their warm welcome and expectation for the success of the programme. Mr. K.Iguchi of APU students presented the brief introduction of APU and activities of "Himalaya Project" then explained the objectives of the collaboration work and agenda of the programme (see Technical Inputs V-2 ).

Fig.3 Opening address by Dr.T.Dorj

Fig.4 Orientaion by K.Iguchi

The self-introductions of participants were followed, having lunch all together at a restaurant near the Erdem Oyu University. pm Lectures on Special Topics After lunch four lectures were given by one Japanese and three Mongolian specialists at Erdem Oyu University. 1. "Economical Management of Nomadic people" presented by Prof. N.Sodnomdorj of Erdem Oyu University. His presentation was given in Mongolian language and Prof. Almaz translated his speech into Japanese. He talked about Population of Mongolia and its distribution in the nomadic industry Economic situation of nomadic industry Jobless people and social insurance system Production rate and water supply in nomadic industry Questions and answers Q.1 In a typical village, how many people are there? A.1 One or two families compose one society. Q.2 It might be possible to get water reserved underground. How do you think to use electricity obtained from solar power for pumping up the water? A.2 It might be a good solution. Q.3 Is desertification a critical issue in nomadic industry? A.3 It is not sever issue in Mongolia now.

Fig.5 Prof. N.Sodnomdorj

Fig.6 Assistant Prof. Y.Ishikawa

2. "Saline/Sodic Soil and its Remediation ­case study in China" presented by Assistant Prof. Y.Ishikawa, APU. (see Technical inputs V-3) The outlines of his lecture are; Land degradation and salinization Process of sodic soil generation Sodic soil distribution in P.R.China Surfur/Humin application to ameliorate sodic soil in P.R.China Questions and answers Q.1 Have you ever investigated the other degradation process? A.1 I have investigated the land disappearance by water erosion and soil disturbance caused by mining. 3. "Studies on Renewable Energy in State University of Agriculture" presented by Prof. B.Buuveibaatar, Mongolian State University of Agriculture. He talked about Electric power generation by solar-cells Utilization of a light trap to capture insects Electric power generation by wind turbines Solar Heater Questions and Answers Q.1 As for the operation of solar cells, are there any trouble in winter because of extraordinary low temperature environment? A.1 In winter, lowest temperature is -35 No trouble happened

Fig.7

Prof. B.Buuveibaatar

Fig.8

Prof. D.Dolgorsuren

4. "Development of small-to-medium sized enterprise in Mongolia" presented by Prof. D.Dolgorsuren, Erdem Oyu University She talked about Present situation of industry in Mongolia Small and medium sized enterprise in Mongolia Keen issues for development of infrastructure Development of tourism Transformation of the structure in industry After her presentation, Japanese participant expressed his comments that tourism is promising in Mongolia. Coffee Break (17:00-17:30)

Fig.9 Coffee break-1

Fig.10

Coffee break-2

Presentations on the detailed collaboration work and discussions After the four lectures for two hours, students of APU gave presentations on the works to be done in Mongolia with Mongolian students. (1) "Collaboration work on Solar Power System" presented by N. Nishio He talked about the development of the control system. (see Technical Inputs V-4,V-5).The system was available not only 100V but also 200V. The former was used for a light trap system. Fig.11 Student talk -1

(2) "Design of the Frame for PV Cell" presented by R.Akiho. He emphasized the new design to change the panel angle. Adjusting the angle of the PV-cells resulted in the decrease of the energy loss. (see Technical Inputs V-4,V-5). Fig.12 Student talk-2 (3) "Trial to Prevent Grasses and Vegetables from Insect Damages using Light Trap" presented by M. Mizukoshi (see Technical Inputs V-4,V-5 ). He talked about the specification of the light trap and the collaboration work to be done in this programme. Fig.13 Student talk-3 (4) "Soil Investigation" presented by I.Sugimoto, M.Hatakeyama and T.Kikuchi (see Technical Inputs V-4,V-5). They talked about the method of soil survey and schedule of their work to be done in the experimental field. Fig.14 Student talk-4

Fig.15 Presentation and discussion in Erdem Oyu University

Day 4 ( 19 August 2008, Tuesday) am Visit to Mongolian State University of Agriculture We met Prof. B.Byambaa, the president of the university, member of Academy of Sciences of Mongolia together with Prof. B.Baasansukh, vice president and other board members. Prof. Byambaa gave us a brief introduction of the university. 8 faculties, 45 departments 7000 undergraduate students, 1400 graduate students, 450 teachers 16 collaboration projects with Japanese universities. He expressed warm hearted welcome to us and expectation of the success in our student collaboration programme. We expressed our appreciation of the great supports including the arrangement of the research site at Bornuur.

Fig.16 Meeting at the State University of Agriculture with Board members. After the tour in "The Mongolian Nomad's Culture and Civilization Museum", we visited to the laboratory of Prof. B.Buuveibaatar where studies on the solar power generation as well as the wind power generation were carried out. Solar heater was also under development. Then we visited the laboratory of Dr. Solongo. Her professional research field was "Soil Science". She explained us on cultivation of vegetables in Bornuur. There, the land has been cultivated for ten years without artificial

fertilizer. She was studying soil recovery.

Fig.17

Prof. Buuveibaatar's lab.

Fig.18

Prof. Solongo's lab.

pm Preparation of tools and materials for field work at Bornuur Half a day was spent to prepare experimental devises for the field work. We intended to buy batteries, electric cables and lumps to build up solar power system. It was difficult to find high quality batteries suitable for solar power system. We had to give up to obtain high quality batteries. Foods and bottles of mineral water were also needed for 5days stay in nomadic land.

Day 5 ( 20 August 2008, Wednesday) Transfer to Bornuur by bus with Mongolian Students State University of Agriculture has the experimental field at Bornuur where is about 150km far from Ulaanbaatar to the north. It was our experimental field. We left Ulaanbaatar to Bornuur to conduct the field work with 6 Mongolian students for 5 days. Fig.19 The site for our experiment

From Day 6 ( 21 August 2008, Thursday ) to Day 9 (24 August 2008, Sunday ) During 4 days from 21 to 24, APU students conducted the following three collaboration works with Mongolian students. (1) Construction on a solar power system and its performance tests. (2) Construction on a light trap and high voltage system to capture insects. (3) Soil investigation There, together with Mongolian students, we experienced the different way of living from modernized one in Japan. The activities and experiences for these 4 days are summarized below. (1) Construction of a Solar Power System and its Performance Test In the morning on 21 August, construction of solar power station was started. The maximum out-put power of the solar cells were 240 W. The frames to support the solar panels were assembled by Japanese and Mongolian students.

Fig.20 Construction of solar power cell system In the afternoon on 21 August, the control system was connected to the solar cells. From 22 to 24 August, by charging and discharging the solar energy to (or from) batteries, the performances of the system were examined.

Fig.21 Assembling the control box to operate the solar power system

(2) Construction of a light trap system with high voltage nets In the afternoon of 21 August, a light trap system was constructed under the cooperative work with Mongolian students. It consisted of 4 fluorecent lumps and metallic nets working at a voltage of 7000V. Insects were attracted to the lumps by the violet light and were killed by the shock, touching the high voltage nets.

Fig.22 Construction of a light trap system After the construction of the system, it was connected to the solar power system. Operation tests were carried out at night. In the morning of 23 and 24 August, the total weight of the insects captured by the trap was measured. Survey of the insects living in the pasture was also conducted.

Fig.23

The light trap at night

Fig.24 Insects in the field

(3) Investigation of soil In order to understand geographical composition of the research field, mapping of the experimental site was conducted using GPS on 21 August, we selected three spots for the soil survey, each of which was different from others. These three spots were represented respectively by natural pasture land, wheat field and fallow field.

Fig.25 Soil survey

From 22th to 25th of August, soil investigation was conducted. We dug each spot about one cubic meter hold. To clarify the differences among them, we observed the soil profile in each spot and stuck monoliths on the soil profiles. Soil samples were collected from various layers to examine PH, electric conductivity, soluble cations and anions. Chemical analysis will be done in Japan. (4) Experiences of nomadic life and mutual understanding Some of us stayed in a ger which was a traditional house for nomadic people. We cooked every dish by ourselves and were forced to eat mutton every day. Water was not enough for washing hands and dishes. To the old style toilet we had to walk far a way from the house. At night we could see a clear milky way in the sky. We slept in each sleeping bag. The nomadic life was quite different from a modernized one we had in Japan.

Fig.26 Ger (traditional house)

Fig.27

Milky way in the sky

Fig.28

How to get meat

Fig.29

Horse riding

Fig.30 Hiking to the top of the hill

Fig.31 Basket ball game

Day 10 ( 25 August 2008, Monday) Return from Bornuur to Ulaanbaatar After taking photographs of all members who worked together in Bornuur, we left the experimental field to Ulaanbaatar by bus.

Fig.32 All members in Bornuur

Day 11 ( 26 August 2008, Tuesday) Trip to Karakorum Karakorum is an old capital 350km west from Ulaanbaatar. It is in Orkhon Valley, which is inscribed as cultural world heritage site by UNESCO. August 26 was a terrible day for us. More than two hours delayed from the appointed time, a bus came to the hotel at 13:00. To our surprise, the bus was too small for us. The bus had only 17 seats. Including Mongolian students, 24 persons would go to Karakorum. Some of the Mongolian students had to give up to go. One hour after the start, the engine of the bus did not work well. Two hours after, we exchanged the old bus by new one. It was indeed a good car. Taking the time of 10 hours to Karakorum into account, the arriving time would be 1:00 very early in the morning next day. Actually we arrived at a tourist camp at 0:30 mid-night. Day 12 ( 27 August 2008, Wednesday) Visit to Karakorum Karahorum was the capital of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. In the 16th century the Tibetan Buddhist Erdene Zuu monastery was built near the site. Various construction materials were taken from the ruin. The actual location of Karakorum was long unclear. As the results of excavations, the site was conclusively identified as the former Mongol capital. We visited Erdene Zuu monastery. Mr. Katachulun, a teacher of Erdem Oyu University gave a lecture on the history of the Mongol Empire, during the tour around the monastery.

Photo.33

Karakorum ­ ruined capital of Mongol empire

Farewell Party Because of the trouble of a chartered bus, few of the Mongolian students joined to the Karakorum tour. A farewell party was held in the evening.

Fig. 34 Farewell Party at Karakorum

Day 13 ( 28 August 2008, Thursday) am Visit to Bayan Gobi desert Bayan Gobi is unique area combined with mountainous nature and desert-type landscape. We visited the small desert called as "Sand Island" located few km far from the tourist camp. We saw nothing but sands. There expanded beautiful dunes (sand hills). We could see the boundary between grassland to desert. "Sand Island" was a good example of the desertification.

Fig.35 Bayan Gobi desert

pm Return to Ulaanbaatar We left Bayan Gobi at 11:00 by bus and arrived at the hotel in Ulannbaatar at 18:00.

Day 14 ( 29 August 2008, Friday) am Summary Meeting In order to summarize our collaboration work and to discuss about future plan, the summary meeting was held in Erdem Oyu University. Mr. K.Iguchi served as a chairman. Four students summarized their works. N.Nishio talked about the experimental results on the solar power system. Our expectation was partly met but partly not. He proposed that the measurement should be continued by Mongolian students. Further exchange of technical information would be necessary. M.Mizukoshi talked about the construction of a light trap and the investigation of insects. The light trap system operated successfully. However because of the cold and rainy weather it was not confirmed whether or not the light trap was useful to prevent plants from the insect damages. He expressed his request to continue the work in next summer by Mongolian students. R.Akiho talked about the frame to support the solar panels. He found the necessity of its modification not to fall down against the strong wind. Putting the heavy weights could be effective tentatively to prevent the panels from falling down, he proposed. M.Hatakeyama summarized results of soil analysis. Three different places were selected for the analysis; (1)pasture land, (2)arable land cultivated for wheat and (3) fallow field. After digging the ground more than one meter in depth we observed the soil profiles and stuck monoliths. One of the monoliths would be left in the State University of Agriculture. Chemical analysis would be done in Japan and the results would be informed to Mongolian students.

S.Sato talked about the visit to Karakorum. He expressed his deep impression that Karakorum was the ruined town but still alive as the center of the Mongolian spirit in the heart of Mongolian people. There he found the mixing among Tibetian, Christian and Islam, which meant Karakorum was a great cross road of eastern culture and western one. D.Khishiingdelger, a student of State University of Agriculture, talked about the overall impression of the programme that the collaboration was fruitful. It was his pleasure to get many good experimental results through the collaboration work. He would continue the study of solar power. Prof. B.Buuveibaatar of State University of Agriculture summarized briefly that we made good success in the student collaboration between Japan and Mongolia. He also expressed his expectation that the good relation should be kept in future. Prof. K.Takeda of APU gave the students advice on "how to promote such kind of collaboration work". He emphasized the importance of the planning, keeping in mind about following 4 "W" and 1 "H", namely (1) Who and with whom will do it? (2) What will be done? (3) When will it be done? (4) Why will it be done? and (5) How will it be done? Before starting work, team members should have a consensus on 4 W and 1 H. K.Iguchi ended the meeting by the following summary. He said; "through the collaboration with students and teachers, we had valuable experiences. By the experimental work we obtained new knowledge and new skill. By living with Mongolian students in grassland, we could understand different way of thinking and way of living. We would like to keep our good friendship". Finally he expressed his thanks for warm hearted support done by Mongolian people. Closing Party We were invited to closing party by Prof. T. Dorj, the general director of Erdem Oyu University. It was held in a Chinese restaurant from 15:00 to 17:00.

Fig.36

Closing party

Day 15 ( 30 August 2008 Saturday ) Return to Narita Airport We left the hotel at 4:00 early in the morning by bus to the airport. At 6:30 we left Ulaanbaatar Airport on MIAT Mongolian Airline flight OM 501 for Tokyo. At 13:00 all members arrived safely at Narita Airport.

III

Outcomes and Future Plans

Our programme consists of several activities as mentioned in I-2. Main outcomes obtained from each activity and proposals are summarized in this section. (1) Lectures and Student presentations After the opening ceremony, four lectures were given. Three of them concerned on the present situations of Mongolia; First one was on the nomadic society, second one was on the energy, and the third one was on the economy. Japanese professor's lecture was on the soil degradation. The lectures were helpful for students to understand the importance of the present collaboration work deeply. Presentations and discussions lead to the mutual understanding among members participating in the programme. The lectures were followed by the student-presentations and discussions. Based on the friendship among members, we would like to found another collaboration work contributing to the sustainable development of the global society. (2) Collaboration work of Solar Power Generation: After the discussion of fundamental aspects of solar power generation, we constructed the small power station in Bornuur. The maximum amperage from the solar cells was measured to be 7.0A, which was 93% of the nominal output current. In Ulaanbaatar, we could not obtain "deep cycle" batteries suitable for solar power system. Charging and discharging tests were conducted by using various types of batteries. Figure.1 illustrates the result of the experiment, where two batteries were connected in series. Both were rechargeable 12V batteries with same nominal capacity of 100AH, but one was new (almost virgin) and the other was old. The measurement was carried out in the condition of almost fine and partly cloudy. At 11:00 am, the voltage of one battery (old battery) increased to 14.8V but the other one kept 13.3V. The charging current decreased with increase in the voltage of the old battery. These results revealed that the capacity of the old battery was smaller than that of new one. Charging current was restricted by the capacity of the old battery.

old battery

new battery

Fig.1 Result of charging test for the solar power system Discharging tests were also conducted. In our system, discharge process was controlled by a charge controller. To prevent the batteries from the over discharge, the charge controller was adjusted to stop the flow-out energy at a certain critical voltage of the batteries. The voltage of batteries decreased with the increase of the energy consumption. It was confirmed that the critical voltage was 22.8V in our system and at the critical voltage the charge controller shut off the current from the batteries. We could not operate the solar power system connected to proper deep cycle batteries. Performance tests should be carried out after replacing present batteries by new deep cycle batteries. In near future, we would like to discuss on the data of performance tests using modified solar power system. The solar cell panels were supported by the frame which was designed to adjust the panel angle depending on the solar position. We have not yet the effect of the angle change. We would like to ask Mongolian students to measure the variation of efficiency with the angle. (3) Collaboration work on Light Trap System The light trap system with two lumps was modified to that with four lumps. The modification of the light trap was successfully fulfilled, using electricity produced by solar energy. Its stable operation was confirmed. The measurement of the power of the light trap with high voltage metal nets revealed that its power consumption was 194W.

The ability of the light trap to capture insects was examined for one hour at night. The temperature was 10oC. Even though it was too cold for insects to fly in the field, many small insects, few butterflies and mosses were captured and the total weight of the insects was 1.7g. No grass hopper was captured. In day time, we also captured insects by hand, and we are trying to identify them now.

Photo.37 insects captured by the light trap

The light trap should be operated in hot season (from June to early August) when the activity of the insects is high. Hopefully huge amount of insects including grass hoppers would be captured for one night. The killed insects were collected in a plastic box attached under the lumps. As the box was partly transparent, most of the insects were attracted to the box, but not to the light trap. In future experiments, the box should be covered by obscure film. (4) Investigation of soil The soil investigation was made for three different spots (natural pasture, wheat field, and fallow field ). In order to select the spots, we measured the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Bornuur to make a map using GPS. The map is shown in V-6. The accumulation layers of the carbonate were found in all three spots but the depth of accumulated layer was different each other. In three different places, we made three different monoliths. The monolith of the fallow field was given to the State University of Agriculture. We intended to analyze chemical properties of each soil in Japan, however the soil samples were rejected to export out of Mongolia by a custom officer at Ulaanbaatar airport. Mongolian professor is doing his best to send these samples with the export permission of Mongolian government. Hopefully after the chemical analysis of the soil samples in Japan, we could start scientific discussion with Mongolian members in near future.

(5) Experience of living in Bornuur and visit to Karakorum The experiences of nomadic life in Bornuur for five days were very valuable for Japanese members to understand the way of Mongolian living. It was not comfortable for us to live. We had insufficient water and insufficient electricity. A toilet was far from our house. We did not have any chance to shower. Our power to maintain activity was mainly supplied by mutton every day. However it was a good occasion for young students to recognize that Japanese way of living was sustained by huge consumption of energy, water, and materials. We understood that Japanese should modify our life style friendlier to the environment of the earth. The visit to Karakorum was impressive for us. Actually in Karakorum there was almost nothing which reminded us glory of the old Mongol Empire. On the ruined capital, a new temple was founded in 16th - 18th century. The history tells us that the prosperity does not last forever. We should learn why and how the Mongol Empire disappeared.

IV

Comments and Suggestions

(1) Overall impression of the programme All members expressed their thanks to ACCU giving a great opportunity to collaborate with Mongolian students in the field study. We were satisfied to contribute toward the sustainable development. (2) Benefits we obtained from the programme We obtained many benefits through the various activities of the Programme. - To understand the importance of the sustainable development. We experienced the nomadic life with Mongolian students under the conditions of insufficient water, insufficient electricity and insufficient materials, which were quite different from those in Japan. We deeply understood that our modernized way of living was not friendly to the earth. - To understand the benefit by mixing of different thinking. Through discussion with Mongolian people, we understood that their ways of thinking were different from ours. Mongolian people have their own wisdom different from Japanese one. Mixing of different wisdom often creates new ideas. - To improve our skill for the promotion of a project. For most of the students, it was the first experience to collaborate with other members for one objective. This programme provided us with a good occasion to have skills to promote a project. - To improve our skill for communication with foreign people. We recognized that the communication was the most important to achieve the good results in the collaboration work. We tried to brush up communication ability and we are sure to progress. - To enhance challenging spirit against difficulty. In practical collaboration work, unexpected difficulties came one after another. We had to fight against them with a positive mind. This

programme provided us with many challenges to overcome ourselves.

(3) Suggestions to improve the Programme We were very happy to participate in the Programme. We believe that such programme provides young students with a good opportunity to understand the importance of global collaboration. We hope that ACCU enhances such activities so that more students may improve their mind and skill to collaborate for the development of the world. For mutual understanding, not only one way programme (in-bound or out-bound ) but also two ways programme ( mixing of in-bound and out-bound ) shall be implemented. For students far from an international airport, domestic travel fee shall be included into the budget of the programme.

V Technical Inputs

1 2 3 4 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4

Opening address Orientation Lecture note Student presentation Power System Frame for PV-Cells Light Trap System Soil Investigation

by K.Takeda by K.Iguchi by Y.Ishikawa

by N.Nishio by R.Akiho by M.Mizukoshi by I.Sugimoto, M.Hatakeyama and T.Kikuchi

5 5.1 5.2 5.3 6 6.1 6.2

Instruction manuals Solar power system Frame for PV-Panels Light Trap system Experimental results Solar power system Soil investigation

About ACCU (Asia/Pacific Culture Center for UNESCO)

2008 ACCU International Exchange Programme

ACCU is a non-profit organization for activities in line with the UNESCO's principles. Mission 1 Cultural cooperation 2 Educational cooperation 3 Personal exchange

Personal Exchange Programme

Our Programme supported by ACCU

Theme: Student Collaboration for Sustainable Development of Nomadic Life from 16th August to 30 August, 2008

Objectives of our Programme

(1) To give young students an opportunity to understand the importance of interaction among different cultures and different ways of thinking. (2) To cultivate challenging spirits to global problems and give young students practical knowledge and skill for the development.

Brief History of This Project

2007 March; Joint Symposium of Mongolia-Japanese Scholars in Ulaanbaatar 2007 September: Students Collaboration between APU and Mongolian Universities in Mongolia 2008 February; Joint work to apply our students collaboration to ACCU programme in Japan 2008 July; ACCU accepted our proposal

Introduction of Akita Prefectural University

Location of Akita

Contents

1.Introduction of our university 2.Details of ACCU Programme

Introduction of Akita Prefectural University Organization

APU

Introduction of Akita Prefectural University

Machine Intelligence and System Engineering Electronic and Information Systems

System Science and Technology

Architecture and Environment Systems Management Science and Engineering

System Science and Technology

(Honjo campus)

Bioresource Sciences

(Akita campus)

Introduction of Akita Prefectural University

Biotechnology Biological Production

Introduction of Himalaya Project Himalaya Project is one the student activities in APU

Objective

Installation of solar power system in Himalaya village

Faculty of bioresource sciences

Biological Environment Agribusiness

Students presentation & discussion

Topics

Solar power system Frame design by N. Nishio by R. Akiho by M. Mizukoshi by I. Sugimoto

Activity in Mongolia 2007

Light trap Soil analysis

Lecture

Soil degradation by Ishikawa

Orientation of UNESCO Programme

Programme theme

Student Collaboration for Sustainable Development of Nomadic Life

Objective of the programe

Collaboration between Mongolian and Japanese students to comprehend and develop insight concerning challenge to the sustainable development

Details (Procedure and Activity)

1.Presentation and discussions by students 2.Lectares by Mongolian and Japanese teacher 3.Power generation by solar energy 4.Trial to prevent glasses from insect damage using light trap 5.Analysis of soil and check its degradation 6.Visit to Kharahorin

Expected results

1. Mutual understanding about the global diversity in culture thinking and living styles. 2. Obtaining the practical skill and knowledge for developing the solar power generation . 3. Understanding a new way to develop nomadic life without medicines and chemicals unfriendly to environment. 4. Understanding a way to prevent the soil from degradation.

Schedule

Schedule

Schedule

Schedule

Schedule

Work of the participants

All participants are requested to write the daily report every day and complete the "evaluation form" at the summary meeting in English.

(

0. Introduction: Land degradation ) and salinization( )

­ Land disappearance Water erosion( ) Wind erosion( ) Soil disturbance( ) ­ Physical degradation Sealing, cluster, compaction( ) Degradation of soil structure( ) ­ Chemical degradation (10% of total land degradation) Nutrient loss( ) Salinization and alkalinization( )

Saline/sodic soil and its remediation ­ case study in China.

By Yuichi Ishikawa ( in Akita Prefectural University ( ) )

· Pattern of land degradation (from GLobal ASsessment Of Desertification; GLASOD, 1990)

Humid Area

Rainfall, irrigation

Small evaporation Downward flux of water movement

Leached =nutrient loss

Before cropping

Large irrigation

Leaching of salt during crop season

Arid/semiarid area

Rainfall, irrigation

Large evaporation

Salinized

Water table rising

Large evaporation

Upward flux of water movement

Continuous rising of salt

Salinization Marsh land

Comparison of salt movement between humid area and arid/semiarid area

From seasonal salinization to year-round salinization

Process of sodic soil generation

Table. Classification of saline / sodic soil

In addition, if the accumulated salt contains plenty of sodium, 2Na+ + CO32Increase of pH generation Na2CO3 (Alkaline) Sodic soil pH and Exchangeabl e Sodium Percentage; ESP pH <8.5 ESP <15% pH > 8.5 ESP >15%

Soil electric conductivity (EC) Less than More than 4dS m-1 4dS m-1 Normal Sodic soil Saline soil Saline sodic soil

Salinized soil

Harm of saline/sodic soil

High ESP * soil compaction * low permeability * crust creation Hard to germinate High Electric Conductivity * Increase osmotic potential Hard to absorb water High pH * unavailable micronutrient and phosphate Hard to grow plants

Effect to agricultural production

Saline-sodic soil in P.R. China

salinization

Accumulated soil layer

World distribution of chemically degraded soil

Saline/sodic soil distribution in Shangxi Province, P.R.China

Total area is

App. 0.3 milion ha

Shangxi province in P.R.China (Alkaline) Strong that is equal to 21 of total land area

(1.42 milion ha

Weak

After World Atlas of Desertification, 1997

1. Sodic soil distribution in P.R.China 2. Sulfur/Humin application to ameliorate sodic soil in P.R.China 1. Sodic soil distribution in P.R.China

Heterogenous distribution saline/sodic soil

Sorghum field in July, 2007

Field survey

Date: April, 2007 Place:

100m

Heavy saline/sodic soil Characteristics and intensity of saline/sodic soil are different in part of the field

Yanggao xian, Datong city, Shangxi Prov., China

Ann. ave. air temp. 6.4 Ann. ave. rainfall 400mm Semiarid area

65m

How are the soil distributed?

The technique of the study to clarify the distribution,

Field size

symbol means points to be sampled

Subplot of 100m 65m

A part of 400m 300m field

Survey items

Surface soil of 120 points

(0 10cm deep)

Cropping history

2004 2005 2006 2007 Corn Fallow Fodder Alfalfa Sunflower No irrigation in 2007

Geostatistics(Semivariogram Kriging)

Measure Lat. and Alt. by GPS Electric conductivity (ECa)

Improvement of sodic soil

Additives for sodic soil DS after Hidaka(1997)

2. Sulfur/Humin application to ameliorate sodic soil in P.R.China

Field test in Shangxi province, China show increase of growth & yield

Large scale field test is going by

JICA 2000 2002 Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) 2007 2008

Content of DS

DS Element S(40%) Humic acid(27%) Rice bran(30%) Micronutrient(3%) To clarify the working mechanism of DS to increase growth and yield of crop

Objectives

To clarify the followings: sulfur oxidization bacteria concerned in DS working (1) estimation of the number (2) Identification of the bacteria Changes of soil chemical characteristics before/after DS application

Important to improve sodic soil effectively

pH decline in the process that sulfur becomes sulfate (S+4H2O SO42-+8H+)

No change

Experiment I. sulfur oxidization bacteria concerned in DS working (1) estimation of the number (2) Identification of the bacteria

Media change yellow Existence of Sulfur oxidization bacteria Most Precious Number (MPN) method

*Some levels of diluted soil suspension were cultured *Existence of bacteria was determined by media color *The number was estimated statistically

BTB solution indicator pH6.0 7.6 pH6.0

pH Green Yellow

Experiment I (2) method

Colonies obtained in experiment I (1) 2 strains were isolated (named as kainin-1, and kainin-2)

Experiment I. sulfur oxidization bacteria concerned in DS working (1) estimation of the number (2) Identification of the bacteria

Cultured with liquid media Almost full length of 16SrDNA were amplified with PCR (apx. 1500bp)

Obtained 16SrDNA Analyzing of sequence (Direct sequence method) Dendrogram Identification of belonging genus

Sequence determination was conducted in Biotechnology Center in Akita Prefectural University

Conclusion

Experiment II

Changes of soil chemical characteristics before/after DS application · Land degradation occurs not only in China but also in other countries. The remediation to combat such land degradation should be continuous and suitable to each region, area. · If land degradation is recovered or prevented through activity of the joint research between Mongolia and Japan, it will be great fruitful.

Characteristics of Power Generation by Solar Cell

Advantage

CO2 free Local power supply

Solar Power Controlling System

Disadvantage

Irregular output depending on the weather High cost

By Nishio Nawoki

Whole System for Solar Power Generation

Solar Cell Charge Controller BATTERY

New system developed by APU

Solar Cell Charge Controller BATTERY

Transformer

Inverter

Inverter : Made in Japan Output : 100VAC

Transformer

Inverter

1 RLY

200V Load

100V Load

Light trap

200V Load

2 ASD

Light Trap

(1) Protection of Charge Controller by Relay-by-Pass (2) Automatic on / off control by photo-sensor-diode

Specifications of Solar Cell

Specifications of Solar Cell

Nominal maximum output Nominal maximum output operative voltage Nominal maximum output current Total Voltage

60W 8.0V 7.5A 4=32V Solar 12V Solar 8V

Don t connect !!

8

Total power of maximum generation 240W

Specifications of Battery

Battery of capacity

Battery voltage Battery type

12 2=24V Deep cycle

Regular Operation

Charge Discharge

Capacity of Battery 65 100Ah 2=130Ah Definition of the capacity

Ah = I dt

I : current t : time

Specifications of Charge Controller

Example of Charge Current

System voltage Type of charge control Maximum input voltage

24V PWM 60V

7.1A Fine

One day record Max solar current 7.1A

Charge capacity of battery

Load interception voltage 22.8V Load current 30A

Ah = I dt = 48 Ah

Example of Charge Current

Example Discharge of Controller

fine

Next day record Max solar current Battery current 5.3A 2.84A

BATTERY

2 100Ah

Load interception voltage 22.8V

Ah = I dt = 60 Ah

100Ah 60Ah

Specifications of Inverter

Specification of transformer and circuit protector

(1) Function

24VDC 100VAC

transformer (1) Function

100VAC 1500W Sinusoidal wave 92%

Circuit protector

200VAC Maximum current 30A System voltage 24V MAX power 720W

(2) Spec

Maximum output Output waveform Conversion efficiency

(2) Spec

Maximum load 150VA More than 150VA

Performance test in Mongolia

Test of discharge control

Performance test in Mongolia

Test of charge control

Test of Measurement Battery [V] Battery [A]

Test of Measurement Solar [V] Time Battery [V] Battery [A] Solar [A] Time Battery [V] Battery [A] Weather Solar [V] Solar [A]

Performance test in Mongolia

Experiment in Mongolia

Test of discharge control (1) Total amount of discharge

Test of charge control Clear sky

(1)Influence of Solar Position (2) Influence of Cloud (3) Charge Current Control against overcharge

Ah = I dt

(2) Finish time Cloudy

22.8V

(4) Total amount of charge

Ah = I dt

Design and dimension

Design of frame for PV-cell

1970 mm

30 20

134

mm

Akita prefectural University Ryota Akiho

20 30

m 0 m

1460

m m

mm

Design and dimension

45 30

Materials

D bracket

1000 mm

Plate bracket (L,T) Angle bracket

1414 mm 1200 mm

396 mm 1414 mm 220 mm

Aluminum frame 1732 mm 1879 mm M6 bolt and nut

70

700 mm

Materials

Materials

Main concepts for design

· Light weight · Easy assembling · Corrosion resistance · High toughness Triangle structure

The summer solstice The [spring,antumnal] equinox The winter solstice

PV-cell angle

Table.1 Changing of angle in various seasons

Solar angle at noon PV-cell angle

Aluminum frame

70 47 24

30 45 70

· Reclining structure of PV-cell

PV-cell angle

PV-cell angle

The summer solstice

8%

43

70 20

30

PV-cell angle

The winter solstice

Work

8%

· Checking the influence of the angle on the power generation.

66 24 43

70

Collaboration work in the field

Trial to prevent glasses and vegetables from insect damage using light trap

1.1. Assembling a light trap system.

· ·

2. Operation test of this system. 3. Study on the variety of insects trapped by the light trap.

MAKOTO MIZUKOSHI

4. Investigation on the possibility to prevent pasture and vegetables from insects damage.

Assembling of the light trap

What is a Light trap?

High Voltage Line( V) Fluorescent Lamp

Ultraviolet rays

A Light trap

Power Source

Light Trap (Image)

Specifications of the Light Trap

Input power Output Voltage Output short circuit current Fluorescent lamps Working area

Operation test of this system

Measurement 1. Power consumption at day time energy for fluorescent lamps 2. Power consumption during night additional energy for killing insects. 3. weight of insects captured by the trap. energy for killing the unit weight of insect.

How to collect the captured insects.

Measurement

Variety of insects living in pasture. Amount of insects captured by the light trap.

Digital Weight Meter

An Illustrated Insects Book

Investigation on the possibility to prevent pasture and vegetables from insects damage.

Schedule of the Experiments

Soil investigation

Soil investigation and identification of insects harmful to vegetables

Presented by

Iwao Sugimoto Takemi Kikuchi Mizuho Hatakeyama

Purpose

1. To investigate soil profiles to clarify the difference between pasture land and agricultural farm 2. Further to clarify soil degradation is caused by present land use, i.e. pasture / agricultural pressure

Soil investigation

Soil investigation

Hypothesis 1 In farm Nutrient in soil will be absorbed and gone with agricultural products because fertilizer is not spread well. It will become rich field because crop residue keeps in soil and makes soil fertile. Amount of crop residue (input) and carrying out (output) keep their balance.

Hypothesis 2 In field There is deposition of organic matter in the top layer of desert soil. There is not organic matter and grasses grow on the sandy soil directly. Deposition of organic matter become thin because domestic animals radically eats grasses.

Soil investigation

Method Soil profiles are investigated after digging a hole as below. Decide borders between each soil layer and their characteristics. according to the soil section survey handbook. At last, we make soil monolith with some kit.

Soil investigation Tool Soil section survey handbook, scoops, plastic sheets, plastic bags, some instruments (hardness meter, pH meter, EC meter, Global Positioning System, digital camera, etc.)

Section

Measure Steps

Soil investigation

Soil investigation

Where? Farmland Pasture Area

Needed information before soil investigation Land use (For agriculture? For pasture?) The length of the above land use Fertilizer / Manure application (What? How long?)

identification of insect

identification of insect

Purpose 1. To identify insects which are caught on vegetables and by the light trap system 2. To compare between the two insects from their genus structure and diversity

Hypothesis

It is easy to catch the flying insect with a light trap. It cannot catch the insect which is not so. It is caught a harmful insect by a light trap, but catches the insect which does not have influence on a beneficial insect and the crops. the light trap is caught a nocturnal insect. However, it is not caught by the insect active in the daytime.

identification of insect

identification of insect

Where? In the agricultural field Below the light trap system

Method

On the first day, we perform collection / identification / the measurement of the insect in a farm. On the second day, we turn on a light trap and perform collection / identification / the measurement of the insect which a light trap attracted. Before, we interview the farmers about the use insecticides.

identification of insect

A total schedule

Tools loupe, portable microscope, catching net Needed information Who identify insects? (Are there specialists for insects in Mongolian side?) How much is size of the farm and what vegetable are there?

Soil investigation farm Soil investigation field Identification of insect (farm Identification of insect light trap

Aug

20

Day4

21

Day5

22

Day6

23

Day7

24

Day8

25

Day9

Select place monolit Select place h monolith

Light trap lighting

Solar Power System Instruction Manual

Himalaya Project

General diagram for solar power generation

Solar Panel Solar Panel

Light trap

Control Box

Battery

Precautions

Do not convert and break the Control Box. Do not put around high temperature and moisture area. Do not swing or throwing it. Do not loose and remove the screw on Control Box. Put at well-ventilated place. Do not keep magnetic objects at Control Box. Do not touch electronic parts by wet hand. Do not bend, pull and twist wires. Do not let something on the electronic parts inside Control Box. Do not insert plug for AC200V into outlet of AC100V. Do not make an impact for Control Box.

2. Appellative

SOLAR PANEL

Inside of Control Box

Charge Controller

ADS

RLY Breake

Transforme

Side of Control Box

Outlet for Solar To Inverter From Inverter

Outlet for Photoelectric Switch of ASD Outlet for Battery

Outlet for Light Trap

Side of Control Box

Breaker Switch

Outlet for load of AC 200V

Structure of electronic base [ASD]

RLY Variable resistance Resistance Transistor

Circuit diagram for Solar Panel

SOLAR PANEL

8V 4=32V

Circuit diagram for Control Box

Alarm clock Control Box Charge Controller RLY 1.5VDC Inverter

IN 24VDC OUT 100VAC

L B

Breaker

Trans

IN 100VAC OUT 200VAC

ASD

S

10m

-

+

From Solar Cell

+ To 24VDC Battery

-

+ To 200VAC Load

-

To 100VAC Load

Circuit diagram for ASD

ASD Switch V +

0 400k 1k 1k

100VA

Load

RLY

-

C

Condenser 100 F

Inverter

3. How to use

Control Box Way of charging

Insert Battery plug to its outlet. Insert Solar panel plug to its outlet. Turn on Battery switch. Check step No.

Way of discharging

Check step No. Turn on Breaker switch. Turn on Inverter switch. Confirm all steps. Connect Light trap (100V Load) and 200V Load.

Light Trap

Check to fulfill condition for Photoelectric Element. Insert Light Trap plug to its outlet. Turn on Light Trap and ASD

4. Specification

Solar Panel

Manufacturer Type Serial number Nominal maximum output Nominal opening voltage Nominal short-circuit current Nominal maximum output operative voltage Nominal maximum output current Maximum system voltage Nominal mass Bypass diode KYOCERA SU60T-02 07ZU4CH144 60W 9.8V 8.28A 8.0V 7.50A 450V 4.8Kg

Inverter

Manufacturer Type Continuation Output head value System voltage Output voltage Output waveform Low voltage alarm Low voltage interception Low voltage recovery Input over voltage interception Input over voltage recovery Conversion efficiency Standby Current Operative temperature Preservation temperature Weight Size -10 -30 Power tite Co. FI-S1503 24V 1500W 3000W 24VDC 100VAC Sign wave 22.0V 21.0V 25.0V 30.6V 28.4V 92% 0.75A - +50 +50 4.6Kg 189×89×370mm

Transformer

Manufacturer Type Number of phase Capacity Frequency Primary voltage Secondary voltage Secondary current Insulation type Insulation resistance Insulation pressure AIHARA Electric Co. YS-150 1 150VA 50Hz/60Hz 220-200V 110-100V 1.36A A 100M AC2.0KV/1min

Charge Controller

Manufacturer Type System voltage Maximum input voltage Solar battery input current Load current Charge type Charge voltage Load interception voltage Load reconnection voltage Minimum battery voltage Consumption current Operative temperature Temperature correction Size Wight Morning Star Co. PS-30M 24V 60V 30A 30A PWM 28.3V 22.8V 25.2V 15.5V 25mA 40 60 60mV/ 153×105×55mm 340

Breaker switch

Manufacturer Type Rating insulation voltage Rating use voltage Rating current Rating interception capacity ambient temperature Operative temperature Electric strength quality Closing motion life Wight -10 Fuji Electric CP32F AC250V/DC125V AC240V/DC120V 30A 2500A(at AC240V DC60V) 40 +60

AC2000V 1min Over 10,000 times 160g

RLY Box

Manufacturer Type Rating current(mA) Operative voltage Capacity current Electric consumption ambient temperature ambient humidity -55 5 OMRON Co. MY2DC24V 36.3mA over 80% 10A 0.9VA +70 85%RH

ASD

Condenser

Manufacturer Type Rating voltage Rating capacitance Rating capacitance tolerance Leak current ambient temperature ±20 nichicon UEPLC101MPD 16V 100µF 120Hz 20 -55 +105 I=0.03CV or 3 µA)

Transistor

Manufacturer Type Polar nature Package Maximum current Ic Maximum voltage VCEO Max pd W Frequency Semelab NPN signal NPN T039 0.7A 40V 5W 100MHz

Variable resistance

Manufacturer Revolutions per minute Package Resistance Rating power Resistance error Maximum voltage Rotational life Operative temperature Size H*W*D Bourns Single 9mm Square 100K 0.25W ±20 900Vac 50000cycles -50 to +125 9.53mm*9.53mm*4.83mm

RLY (ASD)

Manufacturer Type System voltage Rating current Polarity Rating current Coil resistance Operative voltage recovery voltage Consumption power OMRON G2R-2-SD 24V 5A 2 21.8mA 1100 Less than 70 More than 15 0.53W

Photoelectric Element

Manufacturer type number Maximum sensitivity wave length Illumination resistance Darkness resistance Maximum peak voltage Allowance loss operating temperature limit NORPS-12 550mm 10 lux 9k 100 lux 400 1M 250V 250 W -60 to 75

5. Care and cleaning

In the case of adhering ducts to outlet or electronic parts inside Control Box, please remove these. It causes a short circulation. If you find loosing screw, you fasten it steadily. Please wipe the surface of solar panel using soft cloth routinely.

6. Tie up for troubles

Table of number inside of controller box

Polar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 R S + + + + + from Solar panel Solar panel Battery harmonica terminal harmonica terminal Battery charge controller charge controller harmonica terminal harmonica terminal to charge controller charge controller charge controller charge controller charge controller charge controller RLY RLY transformer transformer

Contact information

Team : Himalaya Project Address : Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, 84-4 Tsuchiya-Ebinokuchi,Yurihonjo,Akita015-0055,Japan TEL : +81-184-27-2112 FAX : +81-184-27-2128 MAIL : [email protected]

The PV-cell frame assembling manual

Contents 1. parts list 2. Assembling procedure 3. Attention in the use

Akita Prefectural University PROJECT JAPAN

1. parts list(1)

Part sigh *a(L,R) b(L,R) c *d(t,u,b) *1-A,2-B,3-C,4-D,5-E f(L,R) g(t,u) h(L,R) Length of aluminum 2000 mm 1940 mm 1520 mm 1460 mm 1280 mm 2000 mm 1400 mm 1200 mm QTY. 2 2 1 3 5 2 2 2

*Part a :( The bottom aluminum frame) 220 mm

2000 mm

Figure.1 *Part d (t, u) and Part 1-A~5-E

1460 mm

d.t 1280 mm 1340 mm

4-D

5-E

1-A

2-B

3-C

d.u

Figure.3, 4: PV-cell frame

1. Parts list(2)

Part sigh i j k l m n o p q Description M6-60 bolt and nut M8-40 bolt D bracket Angle bracket Plate bracket L type Plate bracket T type Plastic to fasten lead M6 bolt and nut end cap QTY. 6 14 20 22 2 4 3 114 (set) 16

Part i: M6-60 bolt and nut

Part j: M8-40 bolt

Part k: D bracket

Part l: angle bracket

Part n: Plate bracket L type

Part n: Plate bracket T type

Part o: Plastic to fasten lead Part p: M6 bolt and nut

Part q: end cap

2. An assembling procedure

First, parts [a] parts [b] are attached with parts [k]. Purpose the two nuts of parts [p] are put on in the groove of the top surface of parts [a], and the three nuts of parts [p] are put on in the groove of the side inside parts [a]. (The nut of part [p] is expressed the nut thereafter.) The parts [b] stood perpendicularly is put on the upper surface of parts [a], and the part [a] part [b] is attached with parts [k]. (Figure.5, 6) Same ones one more made

.

Figure.5 Figure.6

Next, parts part [c] is attached with parts [j] and parts [k]. Purpose the two nuts are put on in the groove of the side inside part [c]. Rear side of parts and part [c] bolt are tightened with parts [j].Then parts [k] are attached inside this. (Figure. 7, 8)

Figure .8 Figure .7

Next, the PV-cell is assembled. Purpose the two nuts are put on in the groove of the reverse side of part [d, t] and [d, u]. Moreover, the four nuts put on in the groove of the reverse side of part [3-C]. Next, a screw leaves part [3-C] and part [d, t] and [d, u] in a sign to support. (Figure .9,10)

Figure .9

Figure .10

Then put the panels in the ditch of this frame. The turn to install is as follows. Panel [2] (Figure .11)

1 2

Part [2-B]

Panel [1]

Part[1-A] Panel [3] Part [4-D]

Panel [4]

Part [5-E]

3

4

Under

Upper

Next, in PV-cell parts [f] are installed with part [i]. First, parts [i] are inserted from the surface. Then it is turned over. Purpose the nuts are inserted in part [f]. A quantity which you insert is as follows. Inside 7 . Outside 3 . Surface 1 . Reverse side 3 .

3

3

7

1 3

Part [i]

Figure .12

Left and right together you attach part [f] to PV-cell, tighten with the nuts.

Figure .13

Figure .14

Next, Part [d .b] is installed with parts [m]. Purpose two nuts are put in the ditch and four nuts are put in the ditch on the backs of parts [d .b]. Then the backs of parts [f] and part [d .b] are installed with parts [n].And parts[k] are attached inside.

Figure .15

Figure .16

Next, Parts [g (t, u)] are installed on the back side of the PV-cell. Purpose three nuts are put in both side of parts [g (t, u)], and four nuts are put in the surface of part [g, t], and two nuts are put in the surface of part [g, u]. Then it installs between parts [f], and parts [f] and parts [g] are fixed with parts [k]. And part [3-C] and parts [g] are fixed with parts [l].

Figure .17

Figure .18

Next, the plugs are fixed to part [g, t] with parts [o].

Figure .19

Next, part and part are installed. Part is put between part , and the screw stops part [a] and part [d , b] with parts [j].

Figure .20

Next, the screw part [b] and part with parts [i]. The position of the screw stop is as follows. 30 The bottom hole. 45 The middle hole. 70 The top hole. Afterwards, parts [b] and parts [a] are fixed from the inside with parts [n].

Figure .21

Next, part [h] is installed in the side section. Purpose four nuts are put in inside and two nuts are put in each that is upper and lower part [h]. Then parts [h] and parts [b] are stopped with parts [n] and parts [k]. At the same time, parts [h] and part [f] are fixed parts [l]. (Figure .22)

Figure .22

Final, it does again to tighten entire bolt strongly, and parts [q] are set.

Figure .23

3. Attention in the use

1. Please assemble it by three people or more. 2. Please do not give big impact to the PV-cell. 3. Please do not hang in the PV-cell.

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

1. Parts list Table Part # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 A B C Description AL Right angle board 1.5M (right) AL Right angle board 1.5M (left) AL Right angle board 2.0M (right) AL Right angle boar2.0M (left) AL Right angle board (center) Stainless Steel connection parts AL pole 2M AL pole 1.5M Pole-Pole connector (No.1 type) Pole-Pole connector (No.2 type) Fastener Light trap Bolt M8 70mm Nut 8mm Washer 8mm Spring washer 8mm Bolt M6 65mm Nut 6mm Washer 6mm Spring washer 6mm Steal rope Turn Backle Right angle support Bolt Box Holdback of U character Perforated board M8 30mm Parts list Quantity 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 8 1 36 108 128 128 22 70 96 96 6 6 4 4 1 4 12 A B C Figure Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 Fig.8 Fig.9 Fig.10

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

2. How to Assemble Whole system is shown in Fig 12. below. Assembling procedure is described

(1) Prepare parts #1- #6 as shown in Fig. 13. In assembling, each right angle board should be connected to the center connector ( #6). Mark of the aluminum board (for example "A" ) should be matched to the same mark position ( for example "A") of the center connector. (2) Connect parts # 13 - # 16 to each others (see Fig.14). Bolts should be inserted in different direction as shown in fig.14. (3) Connect pole #7 to pole #8 by using parts#9 and #10. Attach #11 to the poles. Both edges of poles should be faced at the center position of #9 and #10. (see Fig.15). (4) Open the cover of a light trap #12 and connect the electric power lines. (5) Connect the poles assembled in procedure (3) to the base assembled in procedure (2) Fixed them by using bolt #13. (5) Locate the main body of a light trap #12 between the poles and fasten it using #11 as shown in Figs. 16 and 17. (6) Set the poles and a light trap body with base in right up position. And connect the aluminum board (parts #3 and #4) to the base.

(7) Connect #5 to the base using parts # 18, #19, #20 and #23 as shown in Figs. 18 and 19. (8) Adjust the spacing between the aluminum boards by using parts #17, #18, #19 and #20. (9) Connect steel rope #21 as shown in Fig. 12 and Fig.19 using #22.

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

How to assemble the capuche box

(10) Box A is put between Part 8, and it passes it in Part A, and four are put, Part B is put to place Part 8, and the M8 nut is passed through the hole of Box A while putting Part B. see Fig.D

(11)

Part B is put from the inside of Box A, the wall of Box A is fixed it fixes with the see Fig.E

M8 nut.

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

3. Safety requirement !! A light trap is operated at extremely high voltage. During its operation, do not touch the body.

4. Figures

Fig.1

Aluminum Right angle

1.5M

(right hand side)

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.2

AL Right angle 1.5M

(left hand side)

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.

AL Right angle

2.0M (right hand side)

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.

AL Right angle

2.0M (left hand side)

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.

AL Right angle part )

(Center

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.

Center parts

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.

Pole

M

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.

Pole 1.5M

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.

Pole-Pole connector

10

Pole connector

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig 11

Base-Pole connector

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.12 Whole view of the light trap system

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig. 13 How to assemble -

Fig.14

How to assemble-

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.15

How to assemble.

(Pole-Pole connection)

Fig.16

How to assemble. (Pole to the light trap -1)

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.17

How to assemble. (Pole to the light trap -2)

Fig.18

How to assemble.

(Al Right angle board in the center part of the base)

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

19

How to assemble ( connection of steel rope )

Fig.A

BoxA

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Part.B

Holdback of U character

Part.C

Perforated board

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.D How to assemble

Fig.E How to assemble

A Light Trap System

Assembling manual

Fig.F Completed figure

Performance test

Charge up test

Table.1

for Solar power system

Charge measurement

Fine Fine Fine Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Fine Fine Fine Cloudy Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine Fine

Fine Fine Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Fine Fine Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Cloudy Fine Fine Battery B( labeled black tape): new battery Battery R(labeled red tape): old battery

Performance test

Discharge test

for Solar power system

Table.2 Discharge measurement

Soil Analysis-1

Natural pasture land

Soil Analysis-2

(wheat field)

Soil Analysis-3

(Fallow field)

Mapping of the Experimental Field

Fallow field

Pasture land

Wheat field

VI 1 General Informatin

Annex

International Exchange Programme between Japan and Other UNESCO Member States for the Promotion of International Cooperation and Mutual Understanding

APPLICATION FORM

Date of Application: 29 June 2008

Name of executive organisation (EO):

Theme of programme: Programme type:

Akita Prefectural University Student Collaboration for Sustainable Development of Nomadic Life Inbound

Outbound

Programme area:

Special Focus (Sustainable Development) Based on the background and experience on the development of ecological power supply system promoted by students of Akita Prefectural University during past seven years in Himalayan villages and Mongolian village, Japanese students plan to collaborate together with Mongolian students on field works such as installation of a solar power station and investigation of the degradation of the soil in Mongolian nomadic society.

2008/08/16 ­ 2008/08/30 Ulaanbaatar, Bornuur, (15 days) Kharahorin / Mongolia

Summary of the proposed programme:

(Briefly state the programme) Programme duration: Programme venue: (City/Province, Number of Participants: Name of representative:

university students: 10 , university teachers: 2 Dr/Prof. Shun-ichi Kobayashi

Title/Organisation:

Person in charge of contract:

President / Akita Prefectural University Shun-ichi Kobayashi President of Akita Prefectural University Koichi Takeda Professor / Akita Prefectural University 84-4 Ebinokuchi, Tsuchiya, Yuri-honjyo

Title/Organisation: Name of contact person Title/Organisation Postal address:

Country:

Japan

Postcode:

015-0055

2.

Participants List (Akita Prefectural University) Koichi Takeda teacher Muneo Futamura teacher Yuichi Ishikawa teacher Ayaka Goto student Iwao Sugimoto student Ko Iguchi student Makoto Mizukoshi student Mizuho Hatakeyama student Naoki Nishio student Naomi Matsnito student Ryota Akiho student Satoshi Ito student Satoshi Shirai student Shiko Ito student Takemi Kikuchi student Tomoyo Watanabe student Yoshihiro Watanabe student Yuki Goto student * members supported by ACCU (Mongolian) T. Dorj B.Buuveibaartar L.Davaa S.Natsagdorj B.Hatuuchulun D.Khishigdelger Kh. Munkhjargal T.Enkhsaikhan Ekhembayar B.Narandavao

M M M F M M M F M F M M M M F F M M

* *

* * * * * * * * * *

Director Professor Professor Professor teacher student student student student student

Erden Oyu Univ. Agriculture Univ. Agriculture Univ. Sci.&Tech. Univ. Erdem Oyu Univ. Agriculture Univ. Agriculture Univ. Sci.&Tech. Univ. Sci.&Tech. Univ. Erden Oyu Univ

3.

Schedule of the Programme

Programme Schedule-1

ACTIVITY Day 1 16, August (Saturday) Departure from Narita Arrival at Ulaanbaatar Day 2 17, August Sunday) A.M. Opening ceremony at Erdem Oyu University Addressed by ;Dr. T. Dorj, Director of Erdem Oyu University ; Prof: K.Takeda, Akita Prefectural University Self introduction by participants Orientation of the Programme by Mr. Iguchi P.M. Presentation of students activities on sustainable development by Japanese student participants and by Mongolian students participants Discussion Lecture Evening Day 3 title ; Soil Degradation and Desertification By Assistant Prof. Y.Ishikawa Welcome Reception Party 18, August (Monday ) Visit of State University of Agriculture Day 4 19, August (Tuesday) Shopping experimental items (batteries, lumps, and other goods necessary for field research ) P.M. Day 5 Shopping foods and others necessary for daily living in experimental field 20, August (Wednesday) Transportation from Ulanbaar to Bornuur (experimental field) by bus together with Mongolian students and P.M Evening. teachers Building up tents for accommodation (Ger) Presentation on the specification of the solar power system and explanation of the assembling procedure A.M. Bornnur Ulaanbaatar VENUE

Ulaanbaatar

Ulaanbaatar

A.M.

Bornuur

Programme Schedule-2

ACTIVITY Day A.M. 6 21, August (Thursday) Meeting on agenda of today Presentation on the specification of the light trap system and explanation of the assembling procedure Operation test of the solar system, performance check of charge and discharge of the electric power P.M. Evening Day 7 Assembling of a Light Trap system Performance check of the light-trap system 22, August (Friday) Meeting on agenda of today Presentation on the procedure of soil survey whole day Operation test of the solar system, performance check of charge and discharge of the electric power Sampling of soil and analyzing their properties Operation test of the light trap system Evening Day . whole day Evening Day A.M. whole day 9 8 Review of collaborative work today 23, August (Saturday) Meeting on agenda of today Investigation of insects caught by the light trap Operation test of the solar system, performance check of charge and discharge of the electric power Review of collaboration work today 24, August (Tuesday) Meeting on agenda today Investigation of insects caught by the light trap Investigation of insects caught by the light trap Operation test of the solar system, performance check of charge and discharge of the electric power Evening Day 10 A.M. P.M. Review of collaboration work today 25, August (Monday) Summary discussion on the field work Transportation from the experimental field to Ulaanbaatar Ulaanbaatar Bornuur VENUE

Bornuur

Bornuur

Programme Schedule-3

ACTIVITY Day 11 26 August (Tuesday) Trip to Khrahorin (old capital city) 400km far from Ulaanbaatar by bus Evening Lecture title: History of Mongolia teacher of Erdem Oyu University By: Katachuluun, Day 12 Kharahorin hole day VENUE

27, August (Wednesday) Historical tour in Kharahorin Review discussion on Mongolian History 28, August (Thursday) Return back to Ulaanbaaar 29, August (Friday) Summary of collaboration work and discussion on the future collaboration Closing ceremony and farewell party Address: By Prof.T.Dorj, General Director of Erdem Oyu University Ulaanbaatar Ulaanbaatar Kharahorin

whole day Evening Day Day 13 14 whole day A.M. P.M.

Day

15

30, August (Saturday) Departure from Ulaanbaatar to Narita

4.

Acknowledgement

We express our thanks to Dr.T.Dorj, general director of Erdem Oyu University, for his wonderful arrangement. We also greatly thank Prof. P.Buuveibaater and Prof. B.Baasansukh of State University of Agriculture for offering the experimental place to us. We always remind Mr. Katachulun of his king assistant from early morning to late evening everyday. Without good cooperation with Mongolian teachers and students, the gain from the programme would be small. We appreciate receiving kind support from Kuraray Co., Aiwa-shoji Co., and Soroptimist International of Honjyo.

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