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Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food

Stability of Washed Frozen Mince from Channel Catfish Frames

M.E. HOKE, M.L. JAHNCKE, J.L. SILVA, J.O. HEARNSBERGER, R.S. CHAMUL, AND O. SURIYAPHAN ABSTRACT: Sodium citrate, sodium erythorbate, sodium citrate plus sodium erythorbate, sodium citrate plus sodium erythorbate, and polyphosphate were used in washed and unwashed channel catfish mince. Washing reduced (P 0.05) lipids and increased (P 0.05) Hunter `L' value (lightness) of mince. Thiobarbituric reactive substances and free fatty-acid changes during frozen storage were reduced in the washed mince. Addition of antioxidants did not significantly improve the overall quality and shelf-life of the frozen mince. Washing did not have an effect on the fatty-acid composition of neutral and phospholipids in the mince. Key words: catfish mince, lipids, frozen storage, rancidity, antioxidants






Materials and Methods

Sample preparation ice-packed catfish frames from 0.6 to 1.0 kg

© 2000 Institute of Food Technologists

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Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food

punctatus) has grown tremendously in recent years due to year-round availability and its consistent quality. In 1998, over 256 thousand metric t of catfish were processed in the United States (Anonymous 1999). As this industry has grown, so has the quantity of offal, trimmings, and other solid waste. This has generated the need to provide alternative means of waste removal and disposal. According to the USDA (1999), 62% of catfish is sold as fillets, 9.6% as whole-dressed fish, and the remaining as steaks, nuggets, and value-added products. Sixty eight percent of the live fish weight is sold for human food and the remainder (32%) is waste which includes skeletons (frames), accounting for 16.5% of the whole production (Dean 1996). Currently, most catfish producers do not have the necessary equipment to use fish frames except by converting them into fishmeal. Revenues for catfish offal are approximately $0.11/kg, which just covers the cost of transporting the waste materials to rendering plants. Approximately 25 to 50% of the weight of frames can be recovered as meat (Ammerman 1985). Less waste and more useable product means lower cost for discharging waste into waste treatment systems yielding a product with a potential profit (McAlpin and others 1994). Washing reduces lipid content, pigments, water-soluble proteins, and prooxidants (Hultin and others 1992). Washing of catfish mince resulted in a surimi gel with enhanced gelling properties and color (Kim and others 1996). However, no studies have been done to measure benefits to the stability of catfish mince by adding antioxidants. Several foodgrade antioxidants and metal chelators such as sodium citrate, polyphosphates, and sodium erythorbate alone or in combination may be used to maintain quality and increase shelf-life of fish mince by inactivating enzymes and chelating metals (Shenouda and others 1979; Anonymous 1985, 1990). Polyphosphates and sodium erythorbate have been shown to prevent rancidity in fish (Bilinski and others 1979; Gordon 1971; Hwang and Regenstein 1988; Licciardello and others 1977, 1980, 1982; Moledina and others 1977; Santos and Regenstein 1990). The present research was conducted to examine the effect of washing and antioxidant addition on the overall quality of catfish frame mince during frozen storage.

fish, produced in the fall of 1995, were transported in a refrigerated truck from a commercial processor in Mississippi to the Mississippi State University/National Marine Fisheries Experimental Seafood Processing Laboratory in Pascagoula, Miss., U.S.A. They were kept at 2 °C on ice for 3 d prior to processing (Suvanich and Marshall 1998). Once unloaded, all frames were rinsed with potable water at 5 ± 1 °C using a rotary fish washer (Model GL300, Ryan Engineering Inc., Seattle, Wash., U.S.A.), allowed to drain at 3 ± 1 °C and then tumbled. Frames were then passed through a deboner with 5-mm borings in the cylinder (Model NDX13 Bibum Machine Construction Co. Ltd., Japan). Unwashed mince (~78% moisture) was covered and stored at 3 ± 1 °C until used later that day (~8 h). Washed mince was prepared by placing recovered mince meat in wash tanks containing 1 part mince to 4 parts water at 5 °C. This slurry was stirred for 10 min and allowed to settle for 5 min before water was decanted. This procedure was repeated 3 times. Mince slurry was strained of residual black skin and bones by pumping it to a rotary screen rinser (Model F32LW, Bibum). The strained mince was dewatered using a screw press (Model YS200, Bibum) to reduce the moisture content to about 82%.


There were 5 treatments each for washed and unwashed mince: (1) 0.15% sodium citrate ­ (CI) (Haarmann and Reimer Staley Corp., Elkhart, Ind., U.S.A.); (2) 0.15% sodium erythorbate ­ (ER) (Pfizer, New York, N.Y., U.S.A.); (3) 0.15% sodium citrate and 0.15% sodium erythorbate (CR); (4) 0.15% sodium citrate, 0.15% sodium erythorbate, and 0.4% polyphosphate (BrifisolÔ 414) (CB) - a mixture of sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, and sodium polyphosphate, glassy (BK Ladenburg, Cresskill, N.J., U.S.A.); and (5) mince alone (CT). All product concentrations were based on weight of mince (w/w) and sodium citrate and sodium erythorbate were calculated based on acid equivalents. Antioxidants, in powdered form, were dissolved in 5 mL water and mixed with the mince in a Model A200 Hobart mixer with a dough hook at slow speed (Hobart Corp., Troy, Ohio, U.S.A.) for 3 min for even dispersion. Two kilograms product per experimental observation was made. Mince was filled in 5.0 mil HDPE bags (Cryovac, Duncan, S.C., U.S.A.), placed in 20, 500-g wax-coated cardboard boxes (Packaging Production Corp., New Bedford, Mass., U.S.A.) and frozen at 40 °C in a double plate freezer (Dole Freeze-Cell Model 2735-6A, Dole Refrigerating Co., Lewisburg, Tenn., U.S.A.). Frozen mince was stored at 20 °C over-

Frozen Catfish Mince Oxidation. . .

night, packed in dry ice, and transported to Mississippi State University (MSU) for chemical analysis. Samples were stored at ­14° ± 2 °C for the duration of the study to simulate slight abuse frozen temperatures to enhance the rate of chemical and physical changes in the mince.

Table 1--Proximate composition and selected nutrients (wet and dry basis) in washed and unwashed catfish mince Nutrient Washed Unwashed (wet basis) 74.25 a 14.09 a 11.22 b 0.66 a 0.30 a 0.58 a 5.21 a 0.58 a Washed Unwashed (dry basis) -- 18.20 b 79.77 a 2.86 a 1.23 a 3.65 a 29.71 a 3.21 a -- 54.72 a 43.57 b 2.56 a 1.18 a 2.25 b 20.23 b 2.25 a



Oxidative rancidity was determined by the 2-thiobarbituric acid test (Tarladgis and others 1960) and reported as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). Absorbance was multiplied by a factor of 7.8 to express the results as mg malonaldehyde/kg mince (Sinnhuber and Yu 1958). Moisture (method #930.15, fat (method #920.39), protein (method #988.05), ash, copper, iron, phosphorous, and erythorbate content were determined at time 0 (day after transport to MSU) for each experimental observation. All analyses, with the exception of erythorbate and polyphosphates, were conducted using AOAC (1990) methods. Erythorbate content was measured by Strohecker and Henning (1966) procedure. Polyphosphate (phosphorus) analysis was conducted by APHA (1989). Total lipids were extracted (Bligh and Dyer 1959) and phospholipids separated from the neutral lipids using silica Sep-Pak cartridges (Waters Chromatography Div., Millipore Corp., Milford, Mass., U.S.A.). Neutral lipids were eluted with hexane and ethyl ether (1:1 ratio) and phospholipids were eluted with methanol followed by chloroform, methanol, and water (3:5:2 ratio) (Bitman and others 1984). Methyl esters of the fatty acids of both neutral and phospholipid fractions were prepared using 12% boron trifluoride-methanol (Morrison and Smith 1964). Fatty acid methyl esters were quantified using a Hewlett Packard gas chromatograph (Model 5890, Series 1, Hewlett Packard Corp., Palo Alto, Calif., U.S.A.), equipped with a flame ionization detector and autoinjector (Kim and others 1996). Separations were conducted with an Omegawax© capillary column (0.32-mm i.d. 30-m length i.d. 0.25-mm film thickness, Supelco Inc., Bellefonte, Pa., U.S.A.). Fatty acid methyl esters were identified by comparison of their retention times with those of primary and secondary standards. PUFA mix 1, PUFA mix 2, and partially hydrogenated menhaden oil were the standards used (Supelco Inc.). Relative quantities were expressed as percent area of the total amount of fatty acids in each lipid sample. Hydrolytic rancidity (free fatty acids, FFA) was determined by the method of Woyewoda and others (1986). Hunter color was determined with a Labscan 6000 0/45° Spectrocolorimeter (Hunter Associates Laboratory, Inc., Reston, Va., U.S.A.), standardized with a white plate standard #LS-13601. Hunter `L' (brightness), `a' (redness), and `b' (yellowness) values were measured. Hue angle, tan-1 (b/a) and saturation index or chroma (a2 b2)½ were calculated. Whiteness (100 [(100 L)2 a2 b2]1/2 was calculated (Jiang and others 1998). All these tests were performed in duplicate after 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mo of storage. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance for a split-plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design (3 replications). Washing treatment was the whole plot, and antioxidant treatment and storage time (0 to 4 mo) were the subplots. Data were analyzed using PROC GLM (SAS 1985). If significant differences were found (P 0.05), means were separated using Fisher's protected least significant difference (LSD) (Steel and Torrie 1980).

Moisture (%) 82.20 a1 Fat (%) 3.24 b Protein (%) 14.20 a Ash (%) 0.51 b Phosphorus (%) 0.22 b Copper (mg/kg) 0.65 a Iron (mg/kg) 5.29 a Erythorbate (mg/g) 0.57 a

ab­Means (dry or wet basis) within row not followed by same letter differ (P 1 - Mean of 3 observations.

Table 2­Proximate composition and selected nutrients (wet basis) in washed catfish mince (with added antioxidants) Treatment Nutrient Moisture (%)NS Fat (%)NS Protein (%)NS Ash (%) Phosphorus (%) Copper (mg/kg)NS Iron (mg/kg) Erythorbate (mg/g) Control (CT) 78.321 8.68 12.70 0.48 a 0.20 a 0.47 3.67 a 0.03 a Citrate Erythorbate (CI) (ER) 78.53 8.39 12.46 0.53 a 0.20 a 0.62 7.05 b 0.03 a 78.22 8.49 12.80 0.51 a 0.22 a 0.54 3.12 a 0.94 b CI + CI + ER + ER Phosphate (CB) 78.16 9.03 12.96 0.49 a 0.18 a 0.49 5.23 ab 0.95 b


77.89 8.73 12.65 0.93 b 0.50 b 0.97 7.18 b 0.94 b

ab­Mean values within a row not followed by the same letter differ (P NS­No significant differences within row. 1Mean of 3 observations.

Results and Discussion

and antioxidant treatment on proximate composition and other chemical and physical parameters studied. Washed mince (dry basis) had lower (P 0.05) fat and higher (P 0.05) copper, iron, and protein (Table 1) than unwashed mince. Washing re-



moves lipids and blood, increasing protein (Miyauchi and Steinberg 1970). Proximate composition of the unwashed mince was similar to that reported by Silva and Ammerman (1993) for catfish muscle. There were differences (P 0.05) in phosphorus, iron, erythorbate, and ash due to antioxidant addition in washed mince (Table 2). Mince containing polyphosphate (CB) was higher (P 0.05) in phosphorus and ash. Iron levels were higher (P 0.05) in samples treated with citrate (CI, CE, CB), since the citrate mix contained iron in its formulation. Analytical grade of sodium citrate contains iron less than 5 ppm (Sigma Catalog 2000-2001, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A., p. 900). Neutral lipids (Table 3) were 23.5 to 24.2% saturated, 57.5 to 56.6% monounsaturated, and 18.7 to 18.0% polyunsaturated. Phospholipids (Table 3) were 29.3 to 24.2% saturated, 33.1 to 29.3% monounsaturated, and 35.8 to 40.1% polyunsaturated. The major fatty acids found in washed mince, including both neutral and phospholipids, were C16:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C20:4 (only in phospholipids). The ratio of w6:w3 in washed mince was 6.5 for neutral lipids and 2.7 for phospholipids. These profiles were similar to those found in fresh fish flesh (Silva and Ammerman 1993). Even though the fat content of washed mince was lower than of unwashed, the overall percent fatty acid composition did not seem to be affected. Washed mince had higher Hunter `L' and hue values and lower Hunter `a', `b', and SI values than the unwashed mince (Table 4) independent of treatment given. The higher `L' value and hue angle indicated a lighter product. Miyauchi and Steinberg (1970) noted that washing improves color and flavor stability of mince from dark flesh fish by removing blood and heme pigments. Jahncke and others (1992) reported minimum differences in quality between washed mince and fillet mince from cod (white flesh fish). Mince containing polyphosphates (CB) had a higher Hunter `b' value and whiteness than the other treated minces (data not shown), due to its chelating and "water holding" ability. Similar results were found in surimi containing sodium tri-

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1084 JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE--Vol. 65, No. 6, 2000

Table 3--Fatty acid composition of neutral lipids and phospholipids in unwashed and washed catfish mince Neutral Lipids Fatty acid Unwashed Washed % Fatty acid Phospholipids Unwashed Washed

Table 4--2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and Hunter color of washed and unwashed catfish mince Variable TBARs (mg malonaldehyde/kg fish) Hunter `L' value Hunter `a' value Hunter `b' value Whiteness2 Hue angle3 Saturation index, SI4 Washed 0.20 a 1 66.42 a - 0.25 a 8.36 a 65.39 a 91.70 a 8.36 a


Unwashed 0.30 b 61.35 b 1.87 b 9.48 b 60.16 b 78.80 b 9.67 b

Saturated 14:0 15:0 16:0 18:0 Monounsaturated 16:1 9 16:1 7 18:1 20:1 9 Polyunsaturated 18:2 6 18:3 6 18:3 3 20:2 6 20:3 6 20:4 6 20:4 3 20:5 3 22:4 6 22:5 6 22:5 3 22:6 3 Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Total 6 Total 3 Total 6: 3

1.141 0.10 17.32 4.99 0.55 3.32 52.15 1.50 13.24 0.43 1.07 0.94 0.86 0.63 0.11 0.29 0.07 0.29 0.20 0.54 23.55 57.52 18.67 16.46 2.21 7.44

1.11 0.10 17.51 5.47 0.56 3.19 51.31 1.51 11.85 0.43 1.06 1.01 0.98 0.97 0.10 0.28 0.07 0.33 0.21 0.75 24.19 56.57 18.04 15.63 2.41 6.50

0.80 0.11 21.10 7.27 0.78 1.97 29.40 0.96 7.98 0.25 0.37 2.74 3.72 7.38 0.09 0.88 0.46 3.38 1.13 7.46 29.28 33.11 35.83 25.90 9.92 2.61

1.11 0.10 17.51 5.47 0.56 3.19 24.01 1.51 8.70 0.27 0.32 2.98 4.23 8.65 0.09 0.93 0.49 3.91 1.32 8.24 24.19 29.27 40.14 29.23 10.91 2.68

ab­Means within row not followed by the same letter differ (P 1Mean of 3 observations. 2Whiteness = 100 - [(100-L)2 + a2 + b2]1/2 3Hue angle = tan-1 (b/a) 4Saturation Index = (a2+b2) 1/2

Table 5--Hunter `a' and `b' values, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and free fatty acids (FFA) of washed and unwashed catfish mince stored at ­14°C Storage time Treatment (mo) TBARs (mg FFA malonaldehyde/ ( mol/kg kg mince) mince) 0.14 a 0.20 b 0.34 c 0.40 d 0.42 d 0.10 a 0.16 ab 0.22 b 0.29 c 0.24 b


Hunter color `L' `a' `b' 66.5NS1 3.5 a 67.4 3.9 a 67.0 1.7 b 65.3 0.6 c 66.0 ­0.4 d 9.6 ab 10.4 a 10.0 a 9.0 b 8.5 c


0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

1.75 a 3.09 b 3.67 c 4.64 d 5.45 e 1.71 2.77 2.45 3.61 4.26 a b b c d


62.2 1.3 b 9.0 b 62.4 0.7 c 9.1 b 62.2 ­0.1 d 8.5 c 59.9 ­1.3 e 7.8 cd 60.1 ­1.9 e 7.4 d

1 - Mean of 3 observations.

abc­Means in a column not followed by the same letter differ (P NSNo significant (P>0.05) differences. 1Mean of 3 observations.

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Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food

polyphosphate. Reppond and Babbitt (1997) reported that whiteness of surimi increased with higher moisture content. There were no changes in Hunter `L' values over time. There was a gradual, significant decrease in Hunter `a' and `b' values during frozen storage, regardless of wash or antioxidant treatment (Table 5). Nakayama and Yamamoto (1977) noted a shift toward yellowness in unwashed minces made from unskinned short-spine thornyhead, turbot, and dogfish. Oxidation of dark muscle lipids can result in yellow-to-brownish discoloration in fish known as rusting (Licciardello and others 1982). Gordon (1971) reported that phosphate treatments in fish retarded rancidity and aided in preventing development of yellow appearance. Washed mince had lower TBARs than unwashed mince, regardless of antioxidant treatment or storage, although TBARs for unwashed mince were still low (Table 4). TBARs for both washed and unwashed mince were not indicative of rancidity problems, regardless of whether or not antioxidants were added to the mince. This was probably caused by lower lipid and heme pigment content of the mince. Fisher and Deng (1977) indicated that heme iron was the major catalyst of lipid oxidation in mullet dark muscle. Silberstein and Lillard (1978) found hemoprotein content influenced prooxidant activity in extracts of minced mullet. Freeman and Hearnsberger (1993) found that the flesh located along the lateral line of catfish fillets had higher TBARs than flesh from other parts of the fillets. Absence of the lateral line in catfish frames would produce mince with less heme pigments and could partially explain the relatively low TBARs reported for the unwashed mince. In addition, the careful handling and processing, and storage of the mince in sealed wax coated cardboard boxes may be part of the reason for the low TBARs values in this study. There was an increase in TBARs for the first 3 months of fro-

zen storage (Table 5). Woodruff (1987) reported slightly higher TBARs in catfish fillets during frozen storage as did Silva and Ammerman (1993) for whole-dressed catfish. Ciarlo and others (1985) found initial TBARs to be lower in minced hake than hake fillets. TBARs remained constant or lower at the 4th month. This is probably due to the condensation of malonaldehyde with amino acids in the fish (Kanner and Karel 1976), resulting in lower detection of TBARs (Silva and Ammerman 1993). There were no differences in TBARs or FFA due to antioxidant treatment (data not shown). There was an interaction between wash treatment and storage time for FFA (Table 5). In both washed and unwashed mince, FFA values increased over storage time. After the first month, FFA of unwashed mince was higher than washed mince. This is probably the result of the higher fat and blood/iron content in unwashed mince. These increases in mince FFA were similar to those found in catfish fillets over the same storage time (Nguessan 1992, Tidwell 1992). Hiltz and others (1976) found the rate and extent of FFA increase to be the same for fillets and mince from silver hake.




composition to whole and filleted catfish. Unwashed and washed mince with and without added antioxidants produced from catfish frames retained their color throughout frozen storage. Addition of phosphates may help in maintaining a whiter mince color during storage, but adding antioxidants may not be of additional benefit. Washed and unwashed catfish frame mince has the potential for additional marketplace uses. Washed catfish frame mince may be suited for use in traditional fish products such as fish sticks and portions, while unwashed mince

Frozen Catfish Mince Oxidation. . .

can be used as a partial red meat substitute in more nontraditional products.

Miyauchi D, Steinberg M. 1970. Machine separation of edible flesh from fish. Fish Ind Res 6(4):165-168. Moledina KH, Regenstein JM, Baker RC, Steinkraus KH. 1977. Effects of antioxidants and chelators on the stability of frozen storage mechanically deboned flounder meat from racks after filleting. J Food Sci 42:759-764. Morrison WR, Smith LM. 1964. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethyl acetals from lipids with boron trifluoride-methanol. J Lipid Res 5:600-608. Nakayama T, Yamamoto M. 1977. Physical, chemical and sensory evaluation of frozenstored deboned (minced) fish flesh. J Food Sci 42:900-905. Nguessan F. 1992. Effect of antioxidants on frozen storage on channel catfish fillets. M.S. Thesis, Mississippi State U., Miss. Reppond KD, Babbitt JK. 1997. Gel properties of surimi from various fish species as affected by moisture content. J Food Sci 62:33-36. Santos EEM, Regenstein JM. 1990. Effects of vacuum packaging, glazing, and erythorbic acid on the shelf-life of frozen white hake and mackerel. J Food Sci 55:64-70. SAS. 1985. SAS® user's guide: Statistics. Cary, N.C.: SAS Institute, Inc. Shenouda SYK, Montecalvo Jr. J, Jhaveri S, Constantinides SM. 1979. Technological studies on ocean pou and unexploited fish species for direct human consumption. J Food Sci 44:164-168. Silberstein DA, Lillard DA. 1978. Factors affecting the autoxidation of lipids in mechanically deboned fish. J Food Sci 43:764-766. Silva JL, Ammerman GR. 1993. Composition, lipid changes, and sensory evaluation of two sizes of channel catfish during frozen storage. J Appl Aquacul 2(2):39-49. Sinnhuber RO, Yu TC. 1958. 2-Thiobarbituric acid method for the measurement of rancidity in fishery products: 2. Quantitative determination of malonaldehyde. Food Technol 12(1):9-12. Steel RGD, Torrie JH. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics, 2nd ed. New York: McGrawHill Book Co. Strohecker R, Henning HM. 1966. Vitamin assay - tested methods. Cleveland, Ohio: The Chemical Rubber Co. Suvanich V, Marshall DL. 1998. Influence of storage time and temperature on quality of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) frames. J Aquat Food Prod Technol 7:61-76. Tarladgis BG, Watts BM, Younathan MT, Dugan Jr. L. 1960. A distillation method for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods. J Am Oil Chem Soc 37:4448. Tidwell DK. 1992. Personal communication. Anal. Sup. and Food Safety Lab, Mississippi State U., Miss. USDA. 1999. Catfish processing and production. Industry Statistics. Washington, D.C.: USDANASS. Woodruff VC. 1987. Effect of storage time, storage temperature and season of harvest on farm-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets in the development of frozen storage off-flavor. Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State U., Miss. Woyewoda AD, Shaw SJ, Ke PJ, Burns BG. 1986. Recommended laboratory methods of assessment of fish quality. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans: Canadian technical report of fisheries and aquatic sciences, No.1448. Approved for publication as Journal Article No. J-9013 of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State University. Funded in part by Southern Aquaculture Research Center, USDA Grant No. 91-34231-5940 and by the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Project No. MIS-0891.


Ammerman GR. 1985. In Processing. Tucker C., editor. Channel catfish culture. New York. Elsevier. p 608-609. Anonymous. 1985. Chemistry of erythorbates - erythorbic acid and sodium erythorbate. Data Sheet 684. New York: Pfizer Chemical Division. Anonymous. 1990. Quality ingredients for poultry. A compendium of writings on B. K. Ladenburg products. Cresskill, N.J.: B. K. Ladenburg Corp. Anonymous. 1999. Farm-raised catfish, quantity processed and prices paid to producers reported by major processors and imports. Catfish J 13:20. AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis, 15 th ed. Arlington, Va.: Association of Official Analytical Chemists. APHA. 1989. Standard methods for the examination of waste water, 17th ed. Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Trassell RR, editors. Baltimore, Md.. Port City Press. Bilinski E, Jinas REE, Lau YC. 1979. Control of rancidity in frozen Pacific herring (Clupea harenzus pallasi): Use of sodium erythorbate. J Fish Res Bd Can 36:219-222. Bitman J, Wood LD, Mehta NR, Hamosh P, Hamosh M. 1984. Comparison of the phospholipid composition of breastmilk from mothers of term and preterm infants during lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 40:1103-1119. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. 1959. A rapid method for total lipid extraction purification. Can J Biochem and Phys 37:911-917. Ciarlo AS, Boeri RL, Giannini DH. 1985. Storage life of frozen blocks of Patagonian hake (Merluccius hubssi) filleted and mince. J Food Sci 50:723-726. Dean S. 1996. Farm-raised catfish with a focus on Mississippi's processing industry. Food and Fiber Center, Coop. Ext. Serv., Mississippi State U., Miss. Fisher J, Deng JC. 1977. Catalysis of lipid oxidation: A study of mullet (Mugil cephalus) dark flesh and emulsion model system. J Food Sci 42:610-614. Freeman DW, Hearnsberger JO. 1993. An instrumental method for determining rancidity in frozen catfish fillets. J Aquat Food Prod Technol 2:35-50. Gordon A. 1971. Polyphosphate treatment of fish. Food Manuf 46(7):57-58. Hiltz DF, Lall BS, Lemon DW, Dyer WJ. 1976. Deteriorative changes during frozen storage in fillets and minced flesh of silver hake (Merluccius bilinearis) processed from round fish held in ice and refrigerated sea water. J Fish Res Bd Can 33:2560-2567. Hultin HO, Decker EA, Kelleher SD, Osinchack JE. 1992. Control of lipid oxidation processes in minced fatty fish. . In Seafood science and technology. Bligh EG, editor Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell. p 93. Hwang KT, Regenstein JM. 1988. Protection of menhaden mince lipids from rancidity during frozen storage. J Food Sci 54:1120-1124. Jahncke M, Baker RC, Regenstein JM. 1992. Frozen storage of unwashed cod (Gadus morhua) frame mince with and without kidney tissue. J Food Sci 57:575-580. Jiang S-T, Ho M-L, Jiang S-H, Lo L, Chen H-C. 1998. Color and quality of mackerel surimi as affected by alkaline washing and ozonation. J. Food Sci 63:652-655. Kanner J, Karel M. 1976. Changes in lysozyme due to reactions with peroxidizing methyl linoleate in a dehydrated model system. J Agric Food Chem 24:468-472. Kim JM, Liu CH, Eun JB, Park JW, Oshimi R, Hayashi K, Oh B, Aramaki T, Sekine M, Horikita Y, Fujimoto K, Aikawa T, Welch L, Long R. 1996. Surimi from fillet frames of channel catfish. J Food Sci 61:428-431, 438. Licciardello JJ, Ravesi EM, Allsup MG. 1977. Effect of antioxidant concentration on stabilizing flavor of frozen minced whiting. Presented: Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: 22nd Annual Atlantic Fisheries Technological Conference. Licciardello JJ, Ravesi EM, Allsup MG. 1980. Extending the shelf-life of frozen Argentine hake. J Food Sci 45:1312-1317. Licciardello JJ, Ravesi EM, Allsup MG. 1982. Stabilization of the flavor of frozen minced whiting: I. Effect of various antioxidants. Marine Fish Rev 44:15-21. McAlpin II CR, Dillard JG, Kim JM, Montanez JL. 1994. An economic analysis of producing surimi from catfish byproducts. Miss Agric For Exp Sta Bul. 1013, Mississippi State U., Miss.

Authors Hoke, Silva, Hearnsberger (deceased), Chamul, and Suriyaphan are affiliated with the Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State Univ., and author Jahncke is affiliated with the National Seafood Inspection Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, Pascagoula, Miss. (Currently with the Virginia Seafood Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Polytechnic and State University) Please direct inquiries to author Silva (Email: [email protected]).

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