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ActiveSpokeTM momentum bicycle wheel addon

INSTRUCTION MANUAL

Congratulations! You are the owner of an ActiveSpoke bicycle wheel addon kit. ActiveSpokeTM technology relates to momentum management within a high performance bicycle wheel. By dynamically shifting weight between the hub and rim of a wheel at the appropriate time, a rider's performance can be enhanced during periods of deceleration (i.e. out of and into a hill) and essentially sustained during periods of acceleration. With its many setup combinations, ActiveSpoke sets can be tuned to meet your individual needs and level of performance. Furthermore, the experience of enhanced performance will motivate you to new levels of fitness. Please read through this Instructional manual thoroughly in order to take full advantage of all the capabilities your ActiveSpoke product provides. Updates to our documentation may occur over time and to access these updates you should go to our Web site at www.activespoke.com. With proper use and care, your Active Spoke product will give you many years of performance pleasure. Thank you for purchasing the Tarryan Technologies ActiveSpoke bicycle wheel addon. Please keep this instruction manual in a safe place as it contains valuable information on how to properly install, operate and care for your ActiveSpoke product. Certain items in the manual are enclosed in a rectangle to highlight their importance and gain your attention.

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CONTENTS

ORDERING INFORMATION

Go to www.activespoke.com to order ActiveSpoke product kits contain: (Six set kit shown)

CONTACT DETAILS

Tarryan Technologies, LLC 2166 Singing Woods Drive Skaneateles, NY, 13152

Email: [email protected] Site: www.activespoke.com

Copyright Copyright 2008 Tarryan Technologies, LLC . All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, photographed, reproduced, translated, transmitted electronically or placed on digital media without the prior written consent of Tarryan Technologies, LLC. Trademarks ActiveSpoke is a trademark of Tarryan Technologies LLC. All other product, brand, or trade names used in this manual may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Modifications ­ Tarryan Technologies LLC reserves the right to make improvements and/or updates to the products described herein at any time without notice.

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IMPORTANT PRECAUTIONS

!! WARNING: To reduce the risk of incorrect operation, premature failure, wheel damage, personal harm and possible serious injury, install the ActiveSpoke product exactly as described in this manual. 1. !! ActiveSpoke weight sets MUST ONLY be installed on the REAR WHEEL. Any deviation from this installation requirement will VOID any warranties and release Tarryan Technologies LLC from any liabilities. 2. !! ActiveSpoke sets must be installed on equidistant spokes. Any deviation from this instruction will cause wheel imbalances, potential damage to the wheel and possible harm and injury to the rider. 3. !! As you select combinations of LONG and SHORT sets to match your average speed, maintain weight balance around the wheel. Do not have a LONG or SHORT set on one spoke without a corresponding, identical set on the opposite side. 4. !! Only use ActiveSpoke certified springs. They are specifically calibrated for the ActiveSpoke application. Use of outside engineered parts may void your warranty and compromise your safety and performance. 5. !! In any configuration, DO NOT attach more than 9oz (255g) to the rear wheel. i.e. max of 6 x 1.5oz LONG sets 6. !! As part of your preride checklist, always check that ActiveSpoke weights are screwed together tightly and move freely along the spoke.

KEY NOTES

1. ActiveSpoke weights have a hard, nickel chrome coating to ensure good wear and tear. However, when used on a black anodized spoke, the repeated sliding may wear through and remove the spoke's black coating. 2. Clean and lightly lubricate the ActiveSpoke components as part of your bike cleaning protocol. 3. A minimum of 9" (~23cm) of free spoke travel is required for correct operation. ActiveSpoke will operate effectively with 700c/650c wheels having a RADIAL spoke pattern. Cross spoke and Crow Foot patterns need to be reviewed as they may not have the required travel to be effective. 4. It is likely your wheel's specific installation will have its own, unique ActiveSpoke speed characteristics. The tables offered herein are guides for a typical 700c radial installation. Ensure you follow the instructions under Customizing `Your Configuration' to document your wheel's profile.

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ACTIVESPOKE CONCEPT

High performance bicycle wheels typically have a low wheel rim mass (or weight). This provides responsive acceleration, especially while climbing. However, a heavy mass rim has an advantage during any deceleration phase because it has more momentum, causing the rider to maintain higher speeds for longer and carry a rider further up the hill before submitting to the increased gradient. So, it could be said that a: A wheel using ActiveSpoke technology combines the best of all situations by actively repositioning the weight of the wheel through the use of a spring attached to an ActiveSpoke weight. As the speed of the wheel increases, centrifugal force will cause the ActiveSpoke weights to move outward ­ to the rim ­ creating high inertia and added momentum. As the rider slows (climbing a hill) the weights return to the hub allowing for low rim weight/inertia and responsive acceleration. The effect is significant: angular momentum increases 16 fold as the weight radius increases from 3" to 12" (~7cm to 30cm).

More Inertia Less Inertia

Light weight rim: Is ideal for climbing...

Heavy weight rim: Is ideal for descending...

"An ActiveSpoke wheel provides the dual characteristics required for optimum performance, without compromising the existing benefits of low aerodynamic drag, low rim weight and rigidity."

Joe Friel -­ Author, Coach, Consultant `07

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PRODUCT FEATURES

( 2 )

( 1 )

1. ActiveSpoke Weight Sets: Made up of three sections (HEAD, MID AND TAIL), each individual section has a longitudinal slot to allow it to slide onto the spoke. As each of the sections slide over the spoke, they are screwed together to make a complete set. · The three sections can be connected in two combinations, each having a different weight: a LONG set that uses all three sections a SHORT set that consists of only two sections (i.e. HEAD and TAIL sections only). · There are SIX sets provided in the ActiveSpoke 6 Set kit. Various combinations of LONG and SHORT sets can be used depending on the rider's performance level and/or the route being ridden see Operation.

LONG set x 6 weights a total of 9oz (~255g) SHORT set x 6 weights a total of 6oz (~170g)

NOTE: Product trials found that a total of 9 oz (255 g) ­ LONG set x 6 ­ was ideal weight for a typical high performance road/Time Trial bike under typical road conditions. If weight is increased, uphill climbing gradually becomes more sluggish. Below 6 oz (170g) ­ SHORT set x 6 ­ the ActiveSpoke effects begin to diminish. Combinations of ActiveSpoke sets between 6 and 9 oz (170 to 255 g) offer the most effective solution to the majority of rider skills and road topographies. 2. Split Bolt and Load Spring: Anchors the ActiveSpoke weight set to the wheel hub: 1. The split bolt is inserted over the spoke as close to the hub as possible and secured using the nut. This provides an anchor for the load spring, which connects the set to the bolt. The tension on this spring controls the rate at which the set moves to and from the rim.

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OPERATION

As mentioned in the CONCEPT introduction, as the rider's speed increases, the centrifugal force exerted on the set causes it to move outward eventually reaching the rim at higher speeds. Similarly, as speed declines the reduced centrifugal force will allow the set to return to its original position close to the hub. The LONG set, being heavier than the SHORT set, will move outward at lower speeds. Similarly, higher wheel speeds will be required to move a SHORT set to the rim. The following tables are based on the use of the ELITE SPRING TENSION spring which is the default supplied spring. PLEASE NOTE: There is an optional Sport and Pro spring set with different tensions and guideline tables (see Appendix). Specify your spring option when ordering.

To ensure weights are not out at the rim when climbing, the set configurations must be matched to the rider's ability. Product trials have shown that the most appropriate combination to use is determined by the overall average speed for the course being ridden ­ not the speed for a specific climb.

6 LONG : 0 SHORT

4 LONG : 2 SHORT

2 LONG : 4 SHORT

Example: A rider typically averages 20mph (32km/h) on a rolling course. Select the 4 LONG : 2 SHORT set combination.

While these tables can only be considered a `rule of thumb', experience has shown it to be practical, effective and our recommendation.

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Sample setup combinations

If your average speed is 17 mph or less ­ install LONG sets on all selected spokes

If your average speed is 18 to 21 mph ­ install 4 x LONG sets and 2 x SHORT sets

If your average speed is 22 to 24 mph ­ install 2 x LONG sets and 4 x SHORT sets

If your average speed exceeds 24 mph ­ install only SHORT sets

As you select combinations of LONG and SHORT set to match your average speed, maintain weight balance around the wheel. In the Suggested Configuration table and matching spoke layouts, note there are matching sets on opposite sides of the hub. DO NOT have a LONG or SHORT set on one spoke without a corresponding, identical set on the spoke on the opposite side.

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WHEEL INSTALLATION BEFORE INSTALLATION

STEP 1 ­ DETERMINE YOUR AVERAGE SPEED

Most athletes have a rough idea of their average speed in general. For a given course, this average may vary slightly but the ActiveSpoke team has assumed that this will not vary by more than ~6mph. Obviously, for different types of races e.g. hilly versus rolling course ­ speeds can vary significantly. Choose the appropriate spring tension based on the tables on page 6 ­ ELITE and in the Appendix on page 20 ­ PRO and SPORT.

STEP 2 ­ REVIEW YOUR WHEEL SET

The ActiveSpoke sets should only be installed on the nondrive side (i.e. the side without the cassette) of the rear wheel. ActiveSpoke must have 9 inches available on the spoke to work properly. A radial spoke pattern offers the clearest hub to rim travel. Crossspoke pattern wheels must be measured to ensure that 9 inches is available. NOTE 1: 650c Wheel sets with a RADIAL spoke pattern and a 25mm maximum rim section will offer a 9" (23cm) spoke travel. The standard kit can be used. Any other spoke patterns which do not provide the minimum required 9" (23cm), are not recommended for use.

STEP 3 ­ DETERMINE THE SPOKES TO USE

Count the number of spokes on the nondrive side of the rear wheel. Use the chart below as a guide for determining which spokes to use. Ensure that the spokes selected are balanced and symmetrical. (See Appendix A for alternate set up combinations)

IMPORTANT: ActiveSpoke sets must be installed in a balanced, symmetrical manner as shown. Any deviation from this instruction will cause wheel imbalances, potential damage to the wheel and possible harm and injury to the rider.

SPEND THE NECESSARY TIME TO PLAN YOUR SPOKE INSTALLATION STRATEGY. IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND YOUR APPROXIMATE AVERAGE SPEED AND WHEEL SPOKE PATTERN.

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INSTALLATION Additional Materials:

· · Long nosed pliers Coins (2)

STEP 1 ­ Remove a set of ActiveSpoke sections (HEAD, MID, TAIL) from the box.

STEP 2 ­ Slide the appropriate sections (as determined by the suggested configurations chart) over the spoke and

screw together. Use your hands to tighten the sections.

STEP 3 ­ Place a coin in the slot of the TAIL section and another coin in the slot of the head section. Using the coins as a lever, tighten the sections together. Make sure that slots are NOT aligned.

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NOTE: The screw threads of sections may be tight when first used. If so, use coins as levers to screw sections together.

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STEP 4 ­ Place a split bolt over the spoke as close to the hub as possible. If the wheel is a RADIAL spoke pattern, this

position will be right at the hub (as shown).

If the wheel has a cross spoke pattern, the bolt's position will be on the rim side of the cross as close to the hub as possible (as shown).

STEP 5 ­ Place the bolt over the spoke such that the spring hole faces the hub (i.e. away from the spring). STEP 6 ­ Slightly tighten the bolt and associated nut using a coin in the slot at the bottom of the nut. Do not tighten it

completely. This will be completed in a later step.

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STEP 7 ­ Wrap the spring over the spoke: stretch spring slightly and push the middle portion over the spoke so that it

is over the spoke. By holding one side of the spring steady, and rotating the other side around the spoke, the spring will gradually be wound over the spoke. Once the one side is complete, wind the other side around the spoke until the complete spring is wound onto the spoke.

NOTE 1: Make sure the spring is completely wound around the spoke. If a portion remains above or pinches the spoke, the spring will not operate freely and compromise the set's movement. Once completely wound on the spoke, the spring should be able to move freely between the rim and the installed bolt.

NOTE 2: The spoke hole in each section will accommodate a standard round or oval spoke. The current version of Active Spoke has not been designed for use with spokes with a width of more than 3/32" (i.e. bladed spokes).

STEP 8 ­ Using the long nose pliers, stretch the spring hook around the head of the split bolt and insert the spring hook

into the spring hole in the bolt.

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STEP 9 ­ Using the pair of long nose pliers, thread the spring hook through the hole provided on the TAIL section. By

doing this, the bolt and ActiveSpoke set are connected.

STEP 10 ­ Now rotate the split bolt such that the nut is facing upwards (or outwards).

STEP 11 Using a coin, tighten the split bolt until it is firm.

STEP 12 ­ Test the operation by holding and moving the set along the spoke. It should move freely to and from the rim

note the tension of the spring.

STEP 13 ­ Repeat process on all spokes as determined by setup combination.

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RIDING STRATEGY

Riding a bike using ActiveSpoke technology requires no additional skills or strategies. As with any effective riding style, it is advantageous to keep your pedaling cadence above 85rpm. This is particularly true with Active Spoke as it promotes a smooth pedal stroke and takes advantage of the additional momentum that Active Spoke provides. Things to consider while riding: 2. Note the maximum speed calibration (i.e. speed to move to rim) that you have configured using the ActiveSpoke sets. While riding, it is advantageous to have the sets out at the rim for as much time as possible. The benefits are twofold: · · A heavier rim promotes a smoother pedal stroke which in turn optimizes energy consumption In the outward position, you have stored energy into the ActiveSpoke sets. This can be used when needed. "I find myself pumping up the wheel at every opportunity so I know I have additional momentum to carry me over a short hill or into the next hill" Russ Kalil ­ Inventor & 3 time Ironman finisher

ActiveSpoke technology performs best when ridden `hard'. Tests have been conducted using constant wattage with limited success. However, when racing against a personal record, our tests have shown that ActiveSpoke wheels consistently outperform their standard counterparts on a typical route. (See Appendix for route profiles and results)

CARE AND MAINTENANCE

o As part of your preride inspection, test the ActiveSpoke sets for freedom of movement. Also confirm that each section of the set is tightly screwed into the other. During this inspection, also confirm that spokes are free from dust and dirt. On a regular basis, unscrew the ActiveSpoke sections to remove dust and dirt from the slot and holes. Once clean, lightly lubricate the spoke itself using any bicycle cassette lubricant. Also inspect the tension springs for wear and tear. If a spring is deformed in any way, order a new set of springs (see Ordering Information).

o o o

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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Q1: Where can I buy an ActiveSpoke product? ActiveSpoke can be purchased directly online at www.activespoke.com or at selected local cycling stores. For further information, review the `Bike Store Locator' on the Web site. Q2: Will ActiveSpoke work on my bike? ActiveSpoke is designed for a 700c rear wheel with rounded or oval spokes using a radial spoke pattern on the non drive side of the wheel (i.e. a spoke pattern where the spokes do not cross over each other on the side opposite of the cassette). ActiveSpoke will operate with a 650c size wheel. However, the calibration tables provided in the user manual will be inaccurate. Using the `Customize Your Configuration' section in the user manual, you will be able to easily establish these values ­ see FAQs on our website for latest information. Q3: The spokes on my rear wheel's nondrive side cross over. What do I do? Measure the distance between the rim and the spoke crossover near the hub. If this distance is 9" or greater, the ActiveSpoke will operate effectively. If this distance is less than 9" (e.g. a Crow Foot spoke pattern), the installation of the ActiveSpoke weights will be too close to the rim to be effective; this is not recommended. Q4: Will it work on a recumbent or BMX bike? Provided, their respective wheels have at least 9" (24cm) of free travel on their spokes, ActiveSpoke is beneficial to any rotating wheel. The less travel available, the lower the effect and benefit. Q5: What about bladed spokes? ActiveSpoke is designed to operate with a bladed spoke. Select the option when ordering. Q6: How much weight does ActiveSpoke add to the bike? In the Six Set configuration, the total weight including springs, bolts, nuts and set weights, the mass is below 300g (10.5oz) roughly the weight of half of a water bottle. While a user could purchase and add additional sets to a wheel, studies have shown that 9oz (255g) of dynamic weight provides optimum performance. Q7: Does ActiveSpoke make noise? At slow speeds (<10mph/16kph), the springs may rattle a little but as tension on the springs increases, this mild noise disappears. Q8: How does ActiveSpoke actually work? If you think of the heavy flywheel on a spinning bike ­ when you stop pedaling, it continues to spin. i.e. maintain the previous speed. If this flywheel was very light it would slow down more quickly. However, adding a heavy flywheel to your bike would result in added weight ­ a significant disadvantage while climbing uphill. ActiveSpoke patented technology uses minimal added weight (300g / 10.5oz) to create the optimum solution... a flywheel with weights on the outside of the rim at high speeds; essentially negligible static weight around the hub at low speeds. Q9: Comparatively speaking, how fast is an ActiveSpoke wheel? The benefits of ActiveSpoke technology are dependent on the profile of the course being ridden. On a typical, out and back, rolling course, studies indicate that an ActiveSpoke wheel will provide between 3 and 6 seconds per mile. As a comparison, a typical 50mm deep section wheel reduces drag by 0.4lbs and saves 2.4sec/mile compared to a standard 32 spoke wheel.

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Q10: What is the best/worst course to ride an ActiveSpoke wheel? As part of the ActiveSpoke performance studies, experiments considered slopes of 200 to 600 meters, varying in slope from 2% to 6% both up and down hill. As an outcome, here are the basic rules of thumb Beneficial routes: deceleration situations (i.e. coming out of a downhill or entering an uphill); short uphills (i.e. less than 100 meters) where momentum can be maintained. Detrimental routes: sustained uphills where the added weight of ActiveSpoke begins to become significant. For this reason, we recommend no more than 300g of added weight. All tests and experiments stated in the documentation used 300g or less ActiveSpoke weight. So, in practice, · a relatively fast, rolling hill course with gradients of less than 4% would be ideal for an ActiveSpoke wheel. · a sustained uphill, steep gradient course would not offer any benefits. In this case we would recommend that ActiveSpoke simply be removed from the wheel. Q11: Is the use of ActiveSpoke technology racing legal? The International Triathlon Union (ITU), which is the governing body for triathlon worldwide, is aware of ActiveSpoke technology. While they are in favor of innovation, their fundamental requirements are that the product be safe for use and available to all participants (i.e. equal and fair competition). At the moment, we are working with ITU to approve our current ActiveSpoke product. We are also in the process of bringing ActiveSpoke to the attention of the International Cycling Union (UCI), the worldwide governing body of cycling. Q12: Is ActiveSpoke technology patented? A US convention patent has been filed. A PCT patent application provides broad international coverage. At this point, ActiveSpoke technology has `Patent Pending' status.

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SPECIFICATION

CONTACT DETAILS

Tarryan Technologies, LLC 2166 Singing Woods Drive Skaneateles, NY, 13152 Email: [email protected] Site: www.activespoke.com

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APPENDIX

a. Customizing Your Configuration

The tables above show the typical setup based on a 25mm rim section wheel with a radial hub. Note that the LONG set (i.e. 3 sections) speeds match the Configuration categories (note arrows above). So, by determining the LONG set speeds, you are able to optimize your LONG : SHORT combination for a particular route. Here's how you can determine your configuration of ActiveSpoke set based on your specific wheel set's installation. Preparation: Mount your bicycle on a secure stand (e.g. trainer) and select a high gear. Try tilt/adjust the bicycle's speedometer so you are able to view the speed while looking at the rear wheel. For the initial test, configure all sets as LONG sets (i.e. all 3 sections)

!WARNING ­ REMOVE LOOSE CLOTHING AND MAINTAIN CAUTION AND DISTANCE WHEN TURNING CRANK

Operation: Spin the crank with your hand while noting the ActiveSpoke set's movement and viewing the bicycle speedometer. As speed increases, sets will move outward. Some sets may move out at slightly different rates. This is normal. Document the speed when, on average, the sets are in the midway position and when they reach the rim. Now change ALL sets to the SHORT configuration (i.e. only two sections) by removing the mid section and repeat the operation. In this way, you are able to complete the SPEED GUIDE table found on page 20. Now, take the LONG set speed results and fill in the headings on the Configuration table (as shown in the example below). Application: Consider your typical average speed (or your projected average speed for a specific route); View the CONFIGURATION table and adjust the sets to the recommended combinations based on your average speed. Example:

14 19 18 22 21 24

14

18

21

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ACTIVESPOKE CONFIGURATION WORK SHEET TITLE: __________________________ Date: ________________ Wheel: _____________________ NOTES: _____________________________________________________________________________ TITLE: __________________________ Date: ________________ Wheel: _____________________ NOTES: _____________________________________________________________________________

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CourseSpecific Set Combinations

As you become more familiar with the ActiveSpoke performance benefits, you can tune the set combinations based on a specific course layout. Example 1: If the course is a fast, slightly downhill course (with a few sub 17mph climbs); it is advantageous to have the sets at the rim for as much of the time as possible. This will maximize the benefits of the ActiveSpoke technology. In this case, even though the average speed is 25mph (40km/h), select the 6 LONG : 0 SHORT set combination. Example 2: If the course is predominately an uphill climb, ActiveSpoke offers no significant advantage and sets can be minimized to just SHORT sets or even removed (can just leave the bolt and springs). Example 3: On any course that has a Zero net elevation (i.e. a circuit that returns to the same starting point), it is highly recommended to adopt the recommendations shown in the Suggested Configuration table above i.e. average speed.

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b.Optional Spring Sets

While the standard supplied spring set should meet the majority of needs, there are optional spring sets available for SPORT and PRO riders. The Novice spring set offers reduced spring tension to allow the sets to more outward at lower speeds. Conversely, the PRO spring has increase tension for higher speed release. Below, the speed calibration charts for both SPORT and PRO spring sets. The spring sets are available as an upgrade option:

For many athletes, the SPORT spring set would move the weight sets to the rim too quickly causing the wheel to seem sluggish, especially on uphills where a rider may stand while pedaling. The standard spring set is a more conservative choice. Using the standard spring set, in lower average speed situations, sets would predominately remain at the hub and the wheel would maintain responsive wheel accelerations. However, when sufficient centrifugal force causes the weights to move toward the rim, the full benefits of ActiveSpoke technology will be derived.

BOTTOM LINE Do not select a spring set that is not suited to your riding capabilities. For optimal benefits, choose the springs appropriate to your average speed and level of performance.

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Alternate Setup Options

By purchasing optional additional sets, it is possible to configure different set combinations to match your current wheel set. However, consideration must be given to the speed calibration guidelines provided in the Set/Speed Guide table.

Example shown: For an EIGHT spoke wheel 8oz (226g) balanced sets with a high speed (21 to~26mph) calibration. Also, these SHORT sets could be converted to LONG sets ­ changing the speed calibration to suit the rider's needs. Note the earlier recommendation to keep the overall weight of the sets to 9oz (255g) and below. Note that the Optimal ActiveSpoke weight is 9 oz. So, as SHORT sets only weigh 1 oz, it is reasonable to use more spokes (in this case eight spokes) to increase weight. In this way, you are able to optimize the ActiveSpoke effects while matching your abilities to the course.

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c. Test Results & Patents Test Results

Testimonial from a Professional cyclist: "I have been testing the [ActiveSpoke] wheels for about seven months now and have set my best time using the [ActiveSpoke] wheel on the local Wednesday night 10mile Time Trial series. My best time (22:00) was only 42 seconds slower than Phil Zajicek's record he set the same night. Only four riders have gone faster than my time (Scott Mononger, Nick Frey 2007 U23national Time Trial champ, professional Tom Zirbel and Phil Z.). I know I would have gone slower if I did not have the AS wheel, and I also know I can go faster considering I don't have a TT bike and only have 53 x 11 gearing." Dirk Friel ­ `07 Colorado State Category 1 Criterium Champion

NOTE: Dirk beat his previous personal best by over 60secs and was 8 seconds behind Nick Frey.

Informal Trials: Boulder TT Series ­ ~60sec 6sec/mile One run in series compared to previous season PR Informal Time Trial Study 1:20sec 5.6sec/mile

Full Effort; 8 runs; 14 miles; 8deg max; 3 day spacing

Informal

8deg for 1Km

Formal Trials: Downhill Freewheel Study ­ 1.6sec 3.6sec/mile

0.44 miles; freewheel; 16 runs; Ave speed 22mph

Boulder Trials (In Progress) ­ Dirk Friel ­ 26sec 5.6sec/mile

Constant 330watts ­ 4.6 miles; 4 deg max; Paired runs; WIP

Formal - Boulder

Patent Status

ActiveSpoke technology is covered by a single, comprehensive, conventional US patent application (patent pending) to accomplish these impressive results. The conventional patent application titled: "Momentum management in a wheel, such as a traction wheel, under changing load", contains 29 diagrams and 40 claims within its 50 pages. It is supported by three associated provisional patent applications. Two formal searches and numerous interviews with US and international industry leaders have determined that the ActiveSpoke concept is unique. An international PCT patent application has also been filed.

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d. Warranty

Tarryan Technologies, LLC ("TTLLC") warrants, but only to an original purchaser who purchased the product from TTLLC or a licensed Tarryan Technologies dealer or distributor, that for a period of 3 months from original purchase the new Tarryan Technologies product (the "Product") shall be free from material defects in workmanship and material. If the purchaser discovers within this period a material defect in Product workmanship or materials, the purchaser must promptly notify TTLLC in writing, through an authorized dealer or distributor, accompanied by proof of purchase of the Product. In no event shall such notification be received or effective later than 4 months after the original purchase. In the event that a Product does contain a material defect in workmanship or materials and proper notification is provided as required by this limited warranty, then within a reasonable time after such notification, TTLLC will correct any material defect in workmanship or materials, or provide replacement parts or products. If TTLLC is unable to repair the Product to conform to this limited warranty, TTLLC, within its sole discretion, will provide a replacement product, or a full refund of the purchase price. TTLLC does not warrant (a) any product, components or parts not manufactured exclusively for TTLLC, (b) defects caused by failure to provide proper and suitable Product installation and maintenance, (c) damage caused by use of the Product for purposes other than those for which it was designed, including use on unsuitable surfaces or at unsafe speeds, and including use of the Product without a helmet and other appropriate protective clothing or gear, (d) damage caused by misuse, abuse, neglect or natural elements, or normal wear and tear, and (e) damage resulting from or relating to use with unauthorized components, modifications or attachments. No employee, distributor, dealer or agent of TTLLC is authorized to make any warranty in addition to or different from the foregoing limited warranty. THE FOREGOING LIMITED WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE WHICH WARRANTIES ARE HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMED.

Limitation of Liability

The sole remedy for breach of the limited warranty set forth herein is TTLLC's repair, replacement or refund, as described herein. In no event shall TTLLC be liable for any other damages or liability, including special, incidental or consequential damages based upon breach of warranty, breach of contract, negligence, strict tort, or any other legal theory, and including damages arising from or related to any physical injury to person or property. Some states do not allow the exclusion of incidental or consequential damages, so the above exception may not apply to you. This warranty, and statutory law, gives the consumer specific legal rights, and those rights may vary from place to place.

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e. Abstract by Dr. Joseph Voelkel

EFFECT OF DYNAMICALLYWEIGHTED WHEEL IN ROLLDOWN STUDY Russell J. Kalil1, Joseph G. Voelkel2, John F. Parker3 , 1 Tarryan Technologies, Skaneateles, NY, USA 2 Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA 3 Test rider, Jamesville, NY, USA

INTRODUCTION A dynamicallyweighted wheel (DWW) is one in which the wheel's moment of inertia is changed in a controlled manner as the rotational speed of the wheel changes. Although firstorder principles of physics may suggest such a wheel would provide no benefit, it is theorized that many benefits may accrue in fact, such as differential effects due to bicyclist drag. If so, such a wheel may be especially advantageous in time trials /triathlons over rolling terrain. Here, the following three hypotheses were conjectured and formed the basis of a rolldown study: H1 Potential energy effect. From a standstill, DWW accelerates down a hill at a similar rate to an equivalent standard wheel (SW) even though the moment of inertia increases as speed increases. H2 Added momentum effect. For a period, a DWW maintains a higher average speed coming out of a high speed downhill slope as compared to an equivalent SW. H3 Figure skater effect. As a DWW slows down and the moment of inertia decreases, the wheel maintains a higher speed as compared to an equivalent SW. METHODS Two hills in the Skaneateles, NY, region were used for the study. In this abstract, we confine our attention to course 2 (but we note that the results for course 1, used to test H1, was consistent with H1). One rider, using a Trek Hilo 1000 (Tri) bike, performed all the runs. In each run, the rider started on a minor downhill incline (about 3 %) near the top of the hill and coasted down the hill on precisely the same line. The wheels used were either Rolf Vector Pro's (bladed spokes, 30mm deep section), which served as the SW's; or Rolf Vector's in a standard configuration (20mm deep section with round spokes) that were converted to DWW's as follows. For the rear wheel, six 1 oz weights that slide along spokes were calibrated (using elastic bands) to be "out" (out to the rim) at 24 mph and "in" at approximately 22 mph. Another six ¾ oz weights were calibrated to be out at 18 mph and in at approximately 17mph) mph. The 1oz and ¾ oz weights were alternated around the wheel in a balanced way. (A duplicate Pro wheel was not available for the study and so the standard configuration was chosen as a conservative option.) Eight runs were made with each wheel set. For convenience, each wheel set was run twice (denoted as a run pair) before switching to the other set. All other controllable variables (tires (Michelin Race Pro 2), tubes, tire pressure, rider position) were held constant. An SRM Power meter (PRO version) system was used to record speed (0.5 sec intervals) and a Ciclosport HAC5 was used to record altitude (2 sec intervals). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The average speed for each wheel set is displayed versus time in Figure 2. (A plot of speed versus distance, while technically better, would produce similar results.) Altitude information is also included.

Figure 1: Schematic of one form of a DWW.

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35

790

H2

30

Speed (mph)

DWW­SW Speed (mph)

770

H3

-0.5

Mean Diff 95% C.I. Altitude

15

-1.0

Figure 2: DWW and SW Speeds (Means of 8 Runs) versus Time, with Information on Altitude and Regions to test Hypotheses 1 to 3. This figure suggests that each of H1 (potential energy effect--no difference between DWW and SW), H2 (added momentum effect--DWW outperforms SW), and H3 (figure skater effect-- DWW outperforms SW) are consistent with the results of the study. To examine this more carefully, the 8 instantaneous speeds for each wheel set were examined at each 0.5 sec interval of readings. At each such point in time, the difference D in sample means between DWW and SW was calculated, the sample variances of run pairs were pooled (8 d.f.) to form a standard deviation s p , and this was used to create a nominal 95% confidence interval ( D ± 2.31s p 2 / 8 ). This method for finding s p may be slightly optimistic; however, there was some statistical evidence of nonstable conditions during the course of the study, and so this method was used. (Statistical designs such as blocks of 2 × 2 Latin Squares could be used in larger studies to mitigate the effect of changing conditions while still providing an accurate estimate of variation.)

0 10

30 Sec

50

70

Figure 3: Difference between DWW and SW Speeds (Means of 8 Runs) versus Time, and Nominal 95% Confidence Intervals, along with Information on Altitude and Regions, to test Hypotheses 1 to 3. This figure suggests that these data are in agreement with all three hypotheses. In the H1 region, no differences were detected in mean speeds, while in the H2 and H3 regions, there is evidence that the DWW outperformed the SW. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS There is evidence from this small study that a DWW can outperform an equivalent SW. Future studies will focus on determining the optimal dynamic weight/ band tension ratio for a given course profile and rider ability.

730

0

10

30 Sec

50

70

730

750 770 Altitude (feet)

H1 750

Altitude (feet)

25

20

0.0

0.5

790

DWW SW Alt

These results are shown in Figure 3.

H1 H2 H3

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WARNING ­ PLEASE READ THIS!

IMPORTANT PRECAUTIONS

!! WARNING: To reduce the risk of incorrect operation, premature failure, wheel damage, personal harm and possible serious injury, install the ActiveSpokes product exactly as described in this manual. 1. ActiveSpoke weight sets MUST ONLY be installed on the REAR WHEEL. Any deviation from this installation requirement will VOID any warranties and release Tarryan Technologies LLC from any liabilities. 2. ActiveSpoke sets must be installed in a symmetrical, balanced manner ­ see installation notes. Any deviation from this instruction will cause wheel imbalances, potential damage to the wheel and possible harm and injury to the rider. 3. As you select combinations of LONG and SHORT sets to match your average speed, maintain weight balance around the wheel. Do not have a LONG or SHORT set on one spoke without a corresponding, identical set on the opposite side. 4. Only use ActiveSpoke certified springs. They are specifically calibrated for the ActiveSpoke application. Use of outside engineered parts may void your warranty and compromise your safety and performance. 5. In any configuration, DO NOT attach more than 9oz (255g) to the rear wheel .i.e. 6 x 1.5oz LONG sets 6. As part of your preride checklist, always check that ActiveSpoke weights are screwed together tightly and move freely along the spoke.

WARRANTY AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

Tarryan Technologies, LLC ("TTLLC") warrants, but only to an original purchaser who purchased the product from TTLLC or a licensed Tarryan Technologies dealer or distributor, that for a period of 3 months from original purchase the new Tarryan Technologies product (the "Product") shall be free from material defects in workmanship and material. If the purchaser discovers within this period a material defect in Product workmanship or materials, the purchaser must promptly notify TTLLC in writing, through an authorized dealer or distributor, accompanied by proof of purchase of the Product. In no event shall such notification be received or effective later than 4 months after the original purchase. In the event that a Product does contain a material defect in workmanship or materials and proper notification is provided as required by this limited warranty, then within a reasonable time after such notification, TTLLC will correct any material defect in workmanship or materials, or provide replacement parts or products. If TTLLC is unable to repair the Product to conform to this limited warranty, TTLLC, within its sole discretion, will provide a replacement product, or a full refund of the purchase price. TTLLC does not warrant (a) any product, components or parts not manufactured exclusively for TTLLC, (b) defects caused by failure to provide proper and suitable Product installation and maintenance,

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(c) damage caused by use of the Product for purposes other than those for which it was designed, including use on unsuitable surfaces or at unsafe speeds, and including use of the Product without a helmet and other appropriate protective clothing or gear, (d) damage caused by misuse, abuse, neglect or natural elements, or normal wear and tear, and (e) damage resulting from or relating to use with unauthorized components, modifications or attachments. No employee, distributor, dealer or agent of TTLLC is authorized to make any warranty in addition to or different from the foregoing limited warranty. THE FOREGOING LIMITED WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE WHICH WARRANTIES ARE HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMED.

Limitation of Liability

The sole remedy for breach of the limited warranty set forth herein is TTLLC's repair, replacement or refund, as described herein. In no event shall TTLLC be liable for any other damages or liability, including special, incidental or consequential damages based upon breach of warranty, breach of contract, negligence, strict tort, or any other legal theory, and including damages arising from or related to any physical injury to person or property. Some states do not allow the exclusion of incidental or consequential damages, so the above exception may not apply to you. This warranty, and statutory law, gives the consumer specific legal rights, and those rights may vary from place to place.

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ACTIVESPOKETM Customer Survey

With your valuable feedback, we will be able to improve our product offering, functionality and ultimately, your performance. Please take a few minutes to complete this form and fax or mail it back to us at: Tarryan Technologies, LLC 2166 Singing Woods Drive Skaneateles, NY, 13152 Email: [email protected] Fax: (315) 685 4873

Note: Feedback can also be provided at www.activespoke.com.

Background 1. Where are you located? City/State/Country ______________________________ 2. How would you rate your riding level? Novice Intermediate Elite Pro 3. What brand/model wheel are you using? __________________________ Feedback Can we improve the installation / instructions? If so, please explain. Did the product perform as expected? If not, please explain. How can we improve the product and your satisfaction? Can we contact you? If so, please provide your name, tel # or email.

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ADDENDUM

WHEEL REQUIREMENTS TO INSTALL ACTIVE-SPOKE

Review your REAR wheel spoke pattern. Does it have a radial spoke pattern on the non-drive side of the rear wheel? IF YES ­ this is ideal. Otherwise, you need 9" of free spoke travel to install Active Spoke. With a radial pattern, you can install Active Spoke on rear wheels with a rim section of up to 50mm (While 404s work fine, we have used using Zipp 808 with a measure of success... but the effect is limited..

If you have spokes that cross over are not ideal and may make the wheel response become sluggish. Measure if the length between the cross and the rim has 9" of travel (as shown). Spoke patterns that have a cross over close to the hub may meet this requirement. Frog-Foot patterns and hubs with a wide flange, will not have 9" of travel, will not operate effectively and are not recommended. NOTES: 1. To install Active-Spoke, you do not need to remove any spokes. The Active-Spoke weight set slots over the spoke and securely bolts together over the spoke. 2. Active-Spoke must be installed on the Non=drive side of the rear wheel. Even if the drive side has a radial spoke pattern and 9" of travel, keep the installation on the non-drive side.

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3. Certain wheels have spoke patterns with a gap at the cross over (e.g.Shimano). These gap sizes vary based on the wheel model. Unless the gap between the spokes is more than 1/3" (8mm) apart, remain with the basic rule of 9" or more of free, clear travel on the spoke. Spoke Patterns Active Spoke comes with SIX weights. These weights can be installed in various configurations depending on the number of spokes on your wheel: 6 or 12 spokes on the NON-DRIVE side 8 or 16 spokes on non-drive side

14 spokes on the NON-DRIVE side

10 spokes on non-drive side

You're not restricted to using SIX weights. For example, if you have 10 spokes on the nondrive side, you could place FIVE weights on each alternate spoke. ACTIVE SPOKE comes standard with the ELITE and PRO spring sets. This will cover the majority of needs. If you're average speed is below 15mph, contact us for the SPORT spring set. Trials have shown that the average speed for a course is the most appropriate calibration for the spring tension and weights. Based on your average speed,

· · ·

SPORT Spring Tension - for average speeds of less than 16mph ELITE Spring Tension - for average speeds of between 17 and 23mph Pro Spring Tension - for average speeds of between 21 and 26mph

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TYPICALL WEIGHT CALIBRATION

1. During our recent Product Evaluation trials, it was found that it's essential to keep the weights CLOSE TO THE HUB. i.e. a radial spoke pattern. With weights installed after a spoke cross (i.e farther out from the rim), the wheel becomes sluggish. 2. As a rule of thumb, 6 to 8 oz of Active Spoke weight is ideal. 3. If you have a 650c rim or a deep section rim (404, 808, 50) or both, select a spring tension 'one up'. e.g. if you would use an ELITE spring, select and use a PRO spring instead.

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Verbatim Questions & Feedback from Athletes

Q: I guess my main question is why can't you use Active-Spoke on a front wheel? I could see an advantage in a rolling ITT but most people run rear disks in TTs. Are you afraid of some gyroscopic effect on steering? A: Our testing was done on the rear wheel to minimize drag. Also, our insurance carriers wanted Active Spoke installed exclusively on the rear as that's where all our testing was conducted. We did, informally, try Active-Spoke on a front wheel which had centered spokes using a third, center axle... no gyroscopic effect was reported. However, at this time, we do not endorse the installation and/or use of Active-Spoke on the front wheel. Lastly, we're releasing a bladed version in March and, due to demand, an Active-Spoke disc wheel is now in the works... Q: Will my Zipp 404s work with Active-Spoke? A: Zipp 404s have a radial spoke pattern. However, with a 40mm deep rim section, the spoke travel distance is limited. For this reason, we recommend that you step up one level on your spring tension selection i.e. if you intend to select an ELITE spring (17 to 23mph), rather select a PRO spring (21 to 26mph) as the Active-Spoke weight sets will travel to within 40m of the rim compared to within 25mm of the rim on a typical shallow section rim. Note: certain Zipp 404 models have bladed spokes. We will release a bladed spoke version in March 2008.

NOTE: Zipp is a registered trademark of Zipp Speed Weaponry. Statements made of other manufacturer's product is based on our research and/or our opinion using our best efforts to obtain the correct information.

Q: Do I need different weights based on the course and my speed? For example I might average 21-22mph on a fairly flat course. Which weight do I get if any? On a hillier course I might average 18-19. Which weights do I get? A: In this case, the Elite spring set offers a broad calibration of 17 to 23 mph. So you would use this spring option. When you plan your ride, you add/remove the center weight (a 30sec activity) to fine tune the calibration closer to 22mph (i.e remove weight) or closer to 17mph(i.e. add weight). Take a look at our recommended configurations under our web page - Personalise Q: Do you need to remove the wheel spokes to install Active-Spoke? A: No, you don't need to remove wheel spokes. The Active-Spoke weight sets slide over the spoke and lock together firmly over the spoke. The springs curl over the spoke. Download our user manual for details Q: What shape of spokes will these fit on? A: The current version of Active Spoke works with round/ oval spokes or bladed spokes. You need to select the option when ordering.

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Q: Can you actually feel the added momentum effect provided by Active-spoke? A: A few seconds per mile is difficult to detect while you're riding. So, the way to determine the impact of Active-Spoke, is to ride it hard on a route where you have established good baseline timing data and then compare your Active-Spoke performance over a period of a few runs. Rider's do report that when riding Active-Spoke for a while on a familiar course, when they switch back to a standard wheel, they feel their riding performance is 'flat' (i.e. unresponsive). Q: What is the best/worst course to ride an Active-Spoke wheel? A: As part of the Active-Spoke performance studies, experiments considered slopes of 200 to 600 meters, varying in slope from 2% to 6% - both up and down hill. As an outcome, here are the basic rules of thumb - Beneficial routes: deceleration situations (i.e. coming out of a downhill or entering an uphill); short uphills (i.e. less than 100 meters) where momentum can be maintained. Detrimental routes: sustained uphills where the added weight of Active-Spoke begins to become significant. For this reason,we recommend no more than 300g of added weight. All tests and experiments stated in the documentation used 300g or less Active-Spoke weight. So, in practice, a relatively fast, rolling hill course with gradients of less than 4% would be ideal for an ActiveSpoke wheel. o a sustained uphill, steep gradient course would not offer any benefits. In this case we would recommend that Active-Spoke simply be removed from the wheel.

o

Q: My rear wheel has a radial spoke pattern and 28 spokes - 14 spokes on the non-drive side. How do I install Active-Spoke, given that I can't evenly space the weights around the wheel... A:Good question! Consider installing weights on spokes on either side e.g. 3 spokes on one side and the identical installation on the opposite spokes. See diagram.

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Q: The physics doesn't make sense to me...going up a hill, you're carrying more weight; cresting the hill, you're going to take longer to speed up... so your Roll Down test may be accurate but it's not the whole picture... A: You're absolutely correct in your assessment. We're certainly not challenging the physics. We're just saying that on a typical, rolling course, the benefits outweigh the disadvantages. As a simple, practical example - every time we ride, we are faced with four possible scenarios where a change in speed may occur due to the course:

D/Hill deceleration - there has been general agreement that coming out of a downhill, there's a benefit to Active-Spoke. This is substantiated in the Roll-Down study. Note the chart below - Decel Region. Uphill Decelerate - upon entering an uphill at speed, Active-Spoke will, for an initial period, take you further up the hill for the same effort due to the added momentum provided. D/Hill Accelerate - when beginning from a stand-still, the Roll Down Study's chart below indicates the penalty for pushing the weights out is negligible as gravity is helping the rider accelerate. However, If you ride at speed into a downhill, there is no penalty as the weights would already be at the rim.

Uphill Accel - - during the climb portion, the rider carries the added weight of Active-Spoke up the hill. Consider though, that we're talking between 200 and 300 grams (9 to 11oz) of essentially static weight (about half a bottle of water).Once the rider crests the hill and enters a flat portion, he/she would require added power to move the weights back out to the rim as speed increases. So, if the course is a climb or a stepped climb, Active-Spoke has no advantages and we recommend the weight sets be removed for that race. However, given the above description, on a rolling course with zero net elevation, we have found Active-Spoke performs at ~+3 to +5% faster than an equivalent wheel without Active-Spoke.

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Q: What if a spring breaks? What's the safety aspects to this technology? A: Firstly, the weight components are fabricated to the highest quality standards and been tested to make sure they operate reliably and safely. We have been testing versions of the Active-Spoke technology for approximately 10 months under various riding profiles - from Z4 time trials to interval workouts, to long endurance rides to short sessions. We have had situations with early prototypes (using rubber bands!) where the weights have either stuck at the rim or the band has come loose during a ride - all without incident or compromising our safety. I'm not suggesting you ride under faulty conditions. I'm just letting you know that we have experienced them. Per the question, if a spring broke...it is a simple 30 sec operation to unscrew and remove the components. Note: you would remove the opposite spoke weight as well. ONE POINT - FOR MANY OF THESE REASONS, YOU MUST ONLY INSTALL ACTIVE-SPOKE ON THE REAR WHEEL. FRONT WHEEL INSTALLATIONS WILL VOID ALL WARRANTIES AND LIABILITIES.

THANKS FOR YOUR INTEREST AND SUPPORT FOR ACTIVE-SPOKE

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