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Competency-Based Education



This competency-based course focuses on using lettering to communicate on many levels. Three important aspects of this course are lettering with a broad pen or other tool, using letters to explore visual design, and seeing how letters change throughout history.

REVISED: July/1996



None Not recommended for concurrently enrolled students.

After a student has completed this course, he/she may not be allowed to re-enroll in the course.


Division of Adult and Career Education Instructional and Counseling Services Unit Adult Curriculum Office


This competency-based course outline is for use by students, teachers, counselors and school administrators, advisory committees, and all others having interest in the course. Before enrolling, students can read the course competencies listed to help them decide whether or not the course will meet their needs. After enrolling, a copy of the competencies can help a student track his/her progress through the course. Teachers can use competency-based areas and statements to gain an overview of the course. The competencies can be used to develop lesson plans and teaching strategies. The Instructional Materials and Other Resources page provides teachers with instructional support in the form of textbook titles, media and technology options, as well as the names of advisory personnel. Many course outlines provide sample lesson plans written by experienced teachers of the course. Counselors can use the course outline to explain course purpose, goals and content to students. Sharing competency lists with students will make them aware of the minimal skills and knowledge they need to demonstrate after taking the course. This process can identify potential candidates for a course. Principals can scan the competency-areas and statements to decide if the content of a course should be offered at their school in order to meet the needs of the community which it serves. Competencies can be used to generate relevant questions and items for tests. The writing of individualized instructional contracts also needs to reflect the competency-based course outline components. Clearly defined competency-based areas, statements, and minimal competencies are the points upon which curriculum, instruction, and assessment focus.


Every approved CBE course outline is written by Los Angeles Unified School teachers who teach the course. All teacher/writers have been inserviced and certified by the Adult Curriculum Office to learn about competency-based education and the outline format. New courses and course revisions are initiated by school and/or central office subject area departments. The schools and the subject area departments share the responsibility for approving the subject content, hours, credits, etc. Teacher/writers submit their first draft to the appropriate central office subject area supervisor, specialist, consultant or adviser. Course outline draft copies are next submitted to the curriculum office. There all information required by the District and the State is verified. The outlines are edited and entered into the course outline computer data base. One formatted copy of an outline, with every page stamped "Draft Copy Only", is either approved by the curriculum office or returned for clarification or improvement. Once signed off by the curriculum office an outline is routed back to the department that submitted it. When approved there, it is routed to the office of the Director of Instructional Services and finally to the Division's Assistant Superintendent for approval. The curriculum office then requests the required approvals by the LAUSD Board of Education. The curriculum office sends master file copies of every approved CBE outline to principals of all Community Adult Schools and Employment Preparation Centers. These masters are used to produce copies for counselors and teachers. Students, community members, and other interested parties may also request copies. The curriculum office maintains a limited inventory of all outlines for additional distribution. Changing needs are reflected in the constant development and revision of course outlines. It is an ongoing process designed to support the various demands of students, teachers, and the communities we serve.

TOM CALDERON Adult Curriculum Office Instructional and Counseling Services



Course Outline Competency-Based Component Definitions

Course descriptions state the major emphasis and content of the course. Competency areas are units of instruction based on related competencies. Competency statements are competency area goals that together define the framework and purpose of the course. Competencies fall on a continuum between goals and performance objectives and denote outcome of instruction.

Competency-Based Philosophy Overview

Competency-based instruction tells a student before instruction what skills, or knowledge he/she will demonstrate after instruction. A competency is stated as a minimum. This is the least a student has to demonstrate or know to be judged as competent. Stating competencies as minimums does not mean minimum instruction. Activities and opportunities should be provided for students to achieve maximum potential. Competency-based education provides instruction which enables each student to attain individual goals as measured against pre-stated standards. CBE instruction provides immediate and continual repetition and remediation. A student repeats tasks until achieving competence. In competency-based education the curriculum, instruction, and assessment share common characteristics based on clearly stated competencies. Curriculum, instruction and assessment in CBE are: explicit, known, agreed upon, integrated, performance-oriented, and adaptive.



Thanks to JILL B. MEYER, M.S. Ed., for writing the original course outline. Thanks also to MARIE T. LEWIS for her revision. Thanks to PORTIA LEE and CARLYNN HUDDLESTON for editing and preparing this outline as competency based. MOLLY MILNER Supervisor Adult Academic Instruction WAYNE MORRISON Director Instructional and Counseling Services

APPROVED: JAMES A. FIGUEROA Assistant Superintendent Division of Adult and Career Education


CBE Competency-based Education COMPETENCY-BASED COMPONENTS for the Calligraphy Course




INTRODUCTION Appreciate the historical significance of each style (hand) and identify differences.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Analyze historical models. Analyze poor models. Discern differences in technique. Identify style(hand) that is being studied. Distinguish between poor models and good models. Discuss historical background of style (hand) that is being studied.

(5 hours)

B. GUIDELINES Understand making and using guidelines.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Determine pen width that is used in historical model. Construct guidelines according to proper pen width. Identify base line. Identify waist line. Identify ascender line. Identify descender line. Construct capital line. Analyze lower case letters to see where they fit into guide lines. Analyze capital letters to see where they fit into guidelines.

(8 hours)

C. PEN ANGLES Understand the significance and reasons for different pen angles in making good letter forms.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Diagram 90-, 45-, 30-, and 0-degree angles. Create lines at each of these angles. Apply pen angle for hand being studied. Determine if pen angle changes for capital letters. Use proper pen angle in constructing lower case letters. Use proper pen angle in constructing upper case letters. Discuss italic hand, where lower case is done at 45-degree angle, and capitals are usually made at a 30-degree angle. Compare letters and words that are formed by holding the pen at 90-, 45-, 30-, and 0-degree angles. Analyze the thick and thin strokes, and how they vary with the change in pen angle.

(12 hours)


D. STROKING SEQUENCE Recognize the importance of the proper direction, sequebce, and number of strokes in each letter.

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Analyze the upper and lower case models for stroke direction for each letter. Identify the number of strokes in each letter. Determine the sequence of strokes for each letter. Trace each letter with a dry pen. Recognize the number of strokes for each letter, and the order and direction of strokes. Write each letter with ink as stroke sequence is learned.

(15 hours)

E. CORRECT LETTER SLANT Demonstrate proper and consiostent letter slant. (6 hours)

31. 32. 33.

Determine degree of slant from historical model. Use correct degree of slant to form letters. Use consistent slant in the formation of all letters.

F. SPACING OF LETTERS AND WORDS Demonstrate spacing that contributes to beauty and legibility.

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

(8 hours)

Practice smooth rhythm in writing. Write with a consistency of equal space around each letter within a word. Discuss the effect of improper spacing. Appreciate that two curved letters can be spaced rather close together. Appreciate that a curved letter next to a straight letter can usually be spaced a little farther apart. Appreciate that two straight letters can be spaced even farther apart. Appreciate that the space between words is often about the width of the letter "n". State that spacing is done optically not by using measuring instruments.

G. LAYOUT AND DESIGN Demonstrate harmonious layout and desgn of copy.

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.

Discuss that the most important element in a well designed layout is balance. Discuss how contrast makes a layout more interesting. Discuss how dominance also adds interest to a layout. Appreciate how a calligrapher spaces the lines depending on the letter style used. Recognize that an effective method of establishing a design is through the use of "thumbnails." Create a finished piece of calligraphy using all of the elements learned in the course.

(6 hours)



PUBLICATIONS Botts, Timothy. Doorposts and Windsongs and Messiah. Tyndale Huse, 1986. Camp, Ann. Pen Lettering. GB: Dryad, 1980. Child, Heather. Calligrapher's Handbook. A & C Black, 1986. Child, Heather. Calligraphy Today. NY: Taplinger, 1988. Douglas, Ralph, ed. Calligraphic Lettering. Watson-Cuptil, 1967. Dubay, Inga, and Barbara Getty. Italic Letters. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991. Fairbank, Alfred, A Handwriting Manuel, Faber & Faber, London, 1978. Furber, Alan. Layout and Design for Calligraphers. NY: Taplinger, 1992. Furber, Alan. Using Calligraphy. NY: Taplinger, 1992. Godine, David. Contemporary Calligraphy. Godine, 1991. Godine, David. Modern Scribes and Lettering Artists II. Godine, 1991. Haines, Susanne. The Calligrapher's Project Book. Harper and Collins, 1993. Johnson, Edward. Writing and Illuminating and Lettering. NY: Taplinger, 1995. Pearce, Charles. The Little Manual of Calligraphy. NY: Taplinger, 1981. Pearce, Charles. The Anatomy of Letters. NY: Taplinger, 1987. Speedball Textbook, 22nd edition. Hunt Manufacturing Co. Svaren, Jacqueline. Written Letters. NY: Taplinger/Pentalic, 1986. Trudgill, Anne. Basic Skills: Calligraphy Techniques and Creative Projects for Beginn ers. Watson-Guptill, 1989.

MATERIALS COMMONLY USED BY CALLIGRAPHERS Pens: Platignum lettering set, Osmiroid pen set, Rotring calligraphy pens Ink: Pelikan 4001, Sheaffers, Osmiroid (water soluble for fountain pens) Practice Paper: Felt Marker pad, Thor onionskin, or 9" x 12" pad of cotton composition Drafting tap, paper clips, hard pencil-6H or 8H (for making light lines), eraser, rags or paper towels Drawing Board - about 18" x 18" , T-square, 18" or longer


Box for storage of materials and supplies. Papers for finished projects: Strathmore bond and Drawing 400, Arches Textwove, Canson "Mi Teintes" - many colors, Frankfurt, Rives BFK, Strathmore Kid Bristol, Arches 90 lb. hot press OTHER MATERIALS TO EXPLORE Liquid oriental Ink Watercolors - transparent Watercolors - opaque (gouache) Speedball Nibs-C series and Pelikan fount ink Brause nibs Pen holders

ORGANIZATIONS Society for Calligraphy P.O. Box 64174 Los Angees, CA 90064

RESOURCE PERSON Subject area supervisor or adviser



METHODS AND PROCEDURES A. Lectures and discussion B. Demonstration/participation C. Community resources D. Multi-sensory presentation 1. Charts 2. Exemplars 3. Mounted pictures 4. Hand lettered examples. 5. Slides

EVALUATION A. Teacher developed tests can be created using the competencies in this course outline. B. Teacher observation C. Self assessment D. Group assessment


Statement for Civil Rights

All educational and vocational opportunities are offered without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, or handicap.




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