Read AAF Syllabus_part1 text version


Albert Whitted Airport (KSPG) 341 8th Ave SE St. Petersburg, FL 33701 Main: 727.823.0240 · Toll Free: 888-FLY-8001 · Fax: 727.894.2743

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Table of Contents

I. II.

Introduction/Banner Course Outline Banner Towing Equipment Aircraft Tow Releases Hook Assembly Letters Banner Construction Pick Up Poles Metal Stakes Tow Rope Lead Pole Tail Flag Banner Setup

III. Aircraft Procedures/Banner Tow Operations Expectations as a Commercial Pilot A word on Pawnee's Human Factors Required Documents Aircraft Pre-Flight, Post-Flight, and Squawking Tow Hook Installation Tossing the Hook Out Approach for Banner Pick Up Downwind Pickups Final Approach for Banner Pick Up En Route Flying Banner Drops The Descent The Level Off The Release and Climb Hot Hook ATC Procedures and Flight Safety Common Mistakes Emergencies Specific Emergencies Ditching Deteriorating Weather Conditions Extreme Wind Conditions Formation Flying Banner Towing Weather Practice Weight and Balance Aerial Banners, Inc. Company Flight Rules IV. Local Procedures Local Area Airport Directory Radio Terminology at Fort Lauderdale International Banner Box Diagrams for OPF and HWO Opa Locka Letter of Agreement North Perry Letter of Agreement Certificate of Waiver or Authorization ­ Example FAA Regulations Governing Banner Towing



Piper Pawnee Information

VI. Training Papers

Introduction ­ Banner Training Course Outline Aircraft Introduction These deals with basic aircraft knowledge and flying from pre-flight to taxiing procedures, take off, traffic patterns, and landings. Also included are crosswind procedures and emergency situations. This section fulfils the requirements of FAR 61.31 (d),(2). Ground School This is a classroom-oriented course, which covers the basics about Banner towing operations. This course includes training manuals, lectures, maps, and a final written test. Also included are local radio procedures, flight restrictions, and precautions. Field Training This course takes 20 hours to complete and includes "hands-on" experience in both hangar and field operations. In the hangar, you will design and build all types and sizes of banners, take banners apart, and learn how to properly check banners. In the field, you will learn proper safety procedures for working live banner operations. You will also learn the banner roll out and roll-up procedures for the various types of banners and billboards being flown. You will also learn that teamwork is vital in order to perform banner tow operations in a safe manner. Review This is a review of everything that you have learned up till now. You will go over aircraft and banner systems, aircraft pre-flight, radio operations, simulated traffic patterns, the tow release installation, and how to install hooks onto the aircraft. Flight Training This is the banner flight school. Now you will apply all of your new knowledge to the aircraft. Your banner training will consist of 15 hours of hands-on flying. After successful completion of this section you will be recommended for your FAA sign-off ride. Check Ride


This is your FAA checkout. Here a FAA Inspector will test your knowledge of aircraft/banner operations and observe a banner pickup and drop. It is at that time that the FAA agent will sign off on your paperwork.

Banner Training Course Outline

Ground training = 20 hours Flight training = 15 hours

Lesson 1 Objective: Evaluation Flight: The student will demonstrate their proficiency of flight maneuvers and general flight skills. Content: 1.0 Lesson Review Maneuvering at Critically Slow Airspeeds Power-Off Stalls Power-On Stalls Steep Turns Short Field Take Offs Short Field Landings Emergency Procedures Aircraft Systems Fuels Systems Aircraft Speeds (V-Speeds) Pre-flight Procedures (tow releases) Banner towing Waiver Banner towing rules, regs Banner towing manual Taxing Procedures (OPF) Prop. Strike Precautions (Only Tail wheel Pilots) Traffic Pattern (OPF-HWO) Radio Frequencies Altitudes (pattern) Demonstrate simulated Banner picks/Practice approaches

Lesson 2 Objective: Ground Lesson: The student shall become familiar with their specific aircraft type and banner procedures to prepare for banner training. Content: 1.0

Lesson 3 Objective: The student will learn Aerial Banners operating rules, regulations, and procedures for both airports. Content: 1.5

Lesson 4



Content: The student will 1.5 demonstrate their ability to safely operate the aircraft as well as an introduction to simulated pick ups.

Demonstrate Landings Practice Simulated Picks from east and west poles Post Flight Procedures

Lesson 5 Objective: The student is introduced to the actual use of the hooks in simulated pick ups. Content: 2.0 Hooking procedures & Safety Checks Hook Deployment Simulated Picks Ups and Simulated Hook Deploy Simulated Pick Ups with Actual Hook Deployed Emergency Procedures Failure of Banner Release System Loss of Rudder Control Partial Power Loss Engine Failure with Banner Dropping Procedures 2 Simulated Drops 4 Rope Pick Ups & Drops Banner Pick Up by Instructor Climbing procedures Thermals, lakes, clouds, Tarmac use. Descending Procedures Routes: FLL, Sobe, Hollywood, Dania, Bakers, Haulover, Gulfstream Park, Intercoastal ­ AA Arena, Bayside... w/ altitudes

Lesson 6 Objective: The student will practice picking up ropes as well as dropping procedures. In addition, special emphasis will be placed on emergency procedures. Content: 1.0

Lesson 7 Objective: The student will be shown an actual banner pick up, drop & routes to be flown. Content: 1.0

Lesson 8


Objective: The student will demonstrate solo simulated picks w/ simulated hook deploy.

Content: 1.0

OPF ­ pattern picks on west poles and east poles

Lesson 9 Objective: Content: Student will continue with 2.5 solo picks on west and east poles... following with a solo banner pick, demonstrating climb procedures then en route banner flying solo. Lesson 10 Content: Student must demonstrate 2.5 proficiency with solo pick, route flying and solo drop. Written Exam Pick banner solo Climb procedures Demonstrate a solo drop


Pick banner solo Climb procedures Demonstrate knowledge of routes Banner solo drop

Lesson 11 Objective: This is the final check conducted by a FAA Designee. The student must demonstrate banner towing proficiency, and knowledge. Content: 1.0 Student will be given oral exam Proceeding with a flight Check out Sign off

* Student will learn the ground portion of banner towing 2 Saturdays & 2 Sundays, totaling 20 hours of ground training.


Banner Construction Tail Flags Lead Poles Banners Roll ups & Roll Outs Billboard/Logos Roll ups & Roll outs Rope Procedures All equipment lengths and equipment parts Billboard Assembly Field Fixes




Aircraft As with any specialized field equipment with special capabilities caution is necessary. To tow banners the most important item is an aircraft capable of doing the job safely. A light aircraft with a 160 to 260 hp engine will perform the job and is relatively inexpensive to operate. Aircraft most commonly used in banner tow operations are the Piper J-3, Piper J-5, PA-11, PA-18, PA-25, Cessna 172, 182, 188, or a Bellanca Citabria. These aircraft are capable of safely towing a banner at speeds between 35 and 70 MPH. Because banner towing aircraft engines are air cooled, the engine will operate at higher temperatures while towing a banner in slow slight. To help prevent overheating, the oil cooler is usually relocated away from the engine into free flowing cooler air or a second cooler is installed resulting in an oil temperature 20° to 30° cooler. In addition to moving the oil cooler the cowling is also removed on some aircraft provided this doesn't drastically degrade the aircraft's handling characteristics. Just as a truck climbing a hill shifts to a lower gear to develop more power to the wheels, an aircraft with a variable pitch propeller will use a lower pitch setting (Higher RPM) during a climb to develop maximum power. On a banner tow aircraft with a fixed pitch propeller it is necessary to replace the "usual" cruise propeller with a lower pitch. Low pitch propellers are usually referred to as a "climb prop", or a crop dusting or seaplane propeller. Because the low pitch propellers bite less air they enable the engine to develop higher RPMs thereby increasing climb performance. Various Aircraft Propeller Types


Tow Releases This is the same type of release this is used on gliders. It is made and sold by Schweizer Aircraft of Elmira, New York. This tow release will attach to almost any aircraft with the proper installation kit. Installation of a tow release may require a FAA form 337 (Major Repair of Alteration) to be filled out. All releases must be installed in accordance with AC 43.13. Also, the Schweizer test procedure must be completed for all installations. Most banner aircraft have two or more releases installed, giving them the capability of towing two or more banners without landing. Schweizer tow release mechanism shown on the next page is common to virtually every glider and banner tow hitch in the U.S. today. It is a simple and reliable device, but there is one precaution that must be taken when it is used for the aerial pickup method of banner towing. Whether the grapple hook is dropped from the cockpit or released from a point elsewhere on the plane, the hooks rope will have to be pulled forward and kept under tension until the hook is dropped. If the rope ring is placed around the "pelican hook" part of the mechanism, "B", the forward tension could conceivably push the latch arm, "C", forward. If the latch arm, "C", is pushed far enough forward, the release will open, dropping the rope and hook on whatever is below the plane. If the arm is pushed forward even a small amount, the sudden load of the pickup may cause the release to open dropping the banner across a runway or hangar, etc... Neither case is likely to happen. However, every attempt to prevent an unsafe situation from developing should be taken whenever possible, especially when aircraft are involved. This hazard can be eliminated by simply being sure to place the tow ring on the mechanism arm, "A", as shown (for the sake of clarity the rope is not shown attached to the ring. See the next page for the correct representation of the tow rope assembly). If the release mechanism is mounted in an inverted position, as often is the case with tricycle gear planes, too much slack in the rope could allow the ring to slip off of the mechanism arm, "A", and on to the pelican hook, "B". This can be prevented by placing a small amount of masking tape over the ring and onto the mechanism arm, "A". The pickup or tow load will break the tape and allow the ring to ride in the correct tow position. Another way to keep the latch arm, "C", from opening inadvertently is to stretch a weak rubber band from point "D" to point "E". Under no circumstances should anything but a wear rubber band be placed around these points. The tow weight-breaking load of point "E" is 1200 pounds.


Schweizer Tow Release Mechanism The Hook Assembly The main item required for the pickup of the sign is the hook. The hook assembly consists of five parts: the 1" "ID" mild steel ring, the safety link, nylon rope, 12" section of tape, and the grappling hook. The ring is attached to the tow mechanism and must have an inside diameter of less than or equal to 1 ½ inches. The safety link is attached to the ring. The rope is attached to the safety link and the hook. The rope is nylon and is approximately 15 to 20 feet long. The criteria for the length of the rope is that, fully extended it should not be able to reach forward to the propeller. The hose helps prevent the rope from being tangled in the tail wheel. The grappling hook consists of 3 ­ 3/8" steel hooks welded together and tied to the rope.

Safety link is not shown in picture below but strongly recommended.


Letters Letters (alphanumeric symbols) come in any character that is found on a common computer keyboard. Spaces are used between words (a set of 8 blank straps, for separating words in the message). Banner letters are made of nylon rip-stop fabric and have a front and a backside. The straps are usually sewn onto the letter and on the backside. Each letter uses clips on the left end to attach it to the letter or space before or after. A loose or broken strap could cause severe damage to the letter in flight regardless of its position on the letter. Letters / characters are independent units that may be arranged in any desired message sequence. SMALL PUNCTUATION MARKS: small characters, such as dashes and periods, which do not extend vertically to full letter height. These are provided with the "blank" straps required to complete a full set of 8 straps. SPACER: a set of 8 blank straps, for separating words in the message CONNECTING RODS: slender rods, which serve both to stiffen the banner characters and spacers. Made of fiberglass. ADAPTERS: These are used to connect different size letters together. Letters vary in size from five feet to seven feet tall and can be connected together in any order although this manual will not cover them; some special application letters may be as small as three feet high or as large as twelve feet high.


Banner Construction Most banners are made up left handed, meaning that they are readable only from the left side of the aircraft. However, banners can be towed in both directions, or readable from either side of the plane. The only change required to make a left handed banner into a right handed banner is to reverse the position of the lead pole and the tail flag, being sure to use the correct lead pole. In order to prevent banner failure during flight or an inadvertent banner drop, a thorough inspection of the sign, lead pole, rope, hook and release must be completed prior to each flight.

Pick Up Poles Pick up poles are 5'-7' high with an outside diameter of 1.5" Metal Stakes 12"-18" half inch steel spikes. Tow Rope The towrope is made of 250 feet of 3/8" diameter Poly-Pro line and has one 30' foot loop on the end. The loop on one end of the rope is draped between two pickup poles. The pilot uses two brightly colored marker cones as an aiming point during his approaches to pickup the banner. Lead Pole The lead pole causes the banner to fly at the proper angle by the use of weights and a fin. The lead pole is the heaviest part of the banner. The first letter in the banner is connected to the lead pole, which has the same straps that letters use. Lead poles are either left or right handed causing the banner to tilt slightly down for easier viewing by the public. The lead pole is connected to the towrope by the use of a bridle.


Tail Flag The tail flag is attached to the trailing end of the banner, and is often called the "vertical chute". The tail flag is used to steady the banner in flight by trapping the air and pulling on the rear of the banner. The tail flag also prevents the banner from whipping around and twisting which can tear the letters. Consists of a set of spacer straps connected by a fiberglass rod to a rectangular, vertically oriented drogue (drag chute).

Field Operations Now that the banner is assembled the next step is to transport it to the banner pick up area and set it up for the pick up. As you arrive at the set up area check the windsock and determine the wind direction. Unless there is a frontal movement or concentrated heavy rain showers most of the winds will be out of the east. Many times a light northerly wind in the early morning will shift to an easterly wind shortly after the mid-morning. 13

Based upon wind direction, you are now ready to set up your pick up poles in the banner area. Example ­ if the wind is out of the east, you would set up your poles on the west side of the banner area with the banner rolled out to the east. Once you have established the correct spot for the pick up poles, pound 2 stakes into the ground 10-15 feet apart, then place your 6'x3" PVC pick up poles over the stakes. The pickup poles must be spaced at a distance greater then the width of the elevator on your aircraft. Put red cones 1 in front of each pickup pole. This is what the pilot aims at and is critical for safe pickup. You are now ready to set the towrope on the poles. The towrope is 250' long with a 30' loop at one end and a D ring at the other end. Take the looped end to the pick up poles, and even it out between the poles. Pick up one section, double the rope on one end of the loop, twist and insert into the pick up pole. Pull the rope towards the second pole; bend the second pole towards the first pole (about 20 degrees) and repeat the previous procedure. Bending the poles inward will keep tension on the rope causing it to be taught across the top of the poles. Walk out the rest of the rope upwind, place the letter banner down and attach the D ring to the bridle of the lead pole. Never tie a knot in the towrope because after the stress of the flight it will become weak at the knot and impossible to untie.

The banner should be rolled out into the wind so that the trailing edge (or tailflag) is upwind. This gives the pilot a slower ground speed on the approach and pickup causing less stress on the banner and its associated hardware. *Note that banners are rolled up from the trailing edge towards the lead pole. When the banner is rolled out always check for loose or broken straps and repair them before the banner is picked up. Roll the banner out slowly being sure that the end straps are not twisted or wrapped around the pole of the letter, this could cause the pole to get bent when it is rolled (kicked) out. DO NOT STEP ON THE LETTER POLES WHILE KICKING THE BANNER OUT! Verify that the banner is spelled correctly, that all of the letters are installed correctly, that the banner is not upside down or backwards, and that the lead pole is installed correctly with the weights and the fin at the bottom of the letters. 14



Aircraft Procedures / Banner Tow Operations

Expectations as a Commercial Pilot Any Commercial Pilot should be expected to operate and act with a level of professionalism above and beyond that of the general flying public. While flying is fun, it is also a career and should be treated as such. Any irresponsible actions you take not only reflect poorly against you, but also your company, pilots in general, and the aviation industry as a whole. You are a professional pilot, act like one. A Word on Pawnee's and their Purpose The Pawnee, while a forty plus year old design, are still a wonderful and capable aircraft easily able to perform the task at hand so long as they are operated within the boundaries of their design. Originally designed for aerial application (crop dusting), they are lifting machines. This translates quite well into banner towing offering more than enough power to pull the largest of billboards. Unfortunately, this excess of power may lead some pilots to believe that they can simple "throttle" out of trouble. Regardless of the amount of horsepower on board, if you are low (as often true in banner ops) and get too slow you could be facing an unrecoverable stall or spin. Remember, as bank angle increases so does the airspeed at which the wing stalls. Just because you're in the green arc doesn't mean the aircraft won't stall, especially if un-coordinated. ALWAYS keep the ball centered. Another occasion when a banner tow pilot could demand too much of his or her aircraft is after the banner is released. It is often described that once the drag and weight of the banner is no longer holding the aircraft back that it feels "free". REMEMBER, the Pawnee's are made for lifting and are not "sporty" aerobatic aircraft. Fly it like a normal category aircraft; even though it feels like it will easily snap roll or perform a loop it won't, and even if it would it is illegal. Human Factors Statistics place 80% of accident causes on human factors and at least half of those have no other contributing factors such as weather or maintenance. One may assume that since banner operations are done at low altitudes and in nonpressurized aircraft very little consideration needs to be taken to the effects of flight operations on the pilot. This notion is untrue and such assumptions can be dangerous if not deadly. One of the greatest dangers when flying open air, high powered aircraft like Pawnee's is hearing loss. The high decibels produced can be quite literally deafening. A high quality headset is essential and secondary protection method like earplugs (or in-ear buds from an iPod or MP3 player) can be a worthwhile investment. Extended exposure to high noise levels is not only physically dangerous but has also been proven to exponentially fatigue levels during long flights. This coupled with engine and airframe vibrations has been known to 16

cause nausea, vomiting, or disorientation. Should you ever experience these symptoms, head back to base ASAP. Remember, a few hundred bucks on these hearing protections are well worth it to keep your life, happiness and career intact. Eye protection is also very important in this industry. Flying in Southern Florida over the glare of the ocean is often a very "bright" career move, no pun intended. Get yourself a good pair of sunglasses that don't interfere with the ear seal of your headset. There's a reason they're called "aviators" and it's not because they look cool. Exposure to the elements is also a major concern when flying banners. Banner tow flights are often four hours long and up to eight hours a day of being exposed to high temperatures and high winds. This combination can often lead to sun-wind burn and downright miserable conditions. Always wear sunscreen and bring adequate water for the flight. The aforementioned accident statistic reveals that stress can be a leading factor in accidents and incidents. Some of these stresses are inherent to flying such as aircraft environments and associated noise and vibration. On the other hand, stress caused by a lack of knowledge or unhealthy lifestyle habits are fully within YOUR CONTROL and no excuse can be made if they jeopardize safe operations. If you have distractions such as financial, marital, or work related problems, you must resolve them to one extent or another prior to flight. Don't go out and get hammered drunk the night before you have to fly. If you work another job, NEVER let it interfere with your flying. If you have put in sixty hours this week already between two jobs and only got six hours of sleep before your flight, carefully consider if flying is really a safe prospect. Sleep deprivation, hangovers, and other outside stresses can be a deadly combination. Required document aboard all banner tow aircraft: AROW + certificate of authorization and special provisions Airworthiness certificate Registration Operation Manual (POH) Weight and Balance Certificate of Authorization and Letter of Special Provisions Each pilot must verify before every flight that all of these documents are aboard the aircraft. If you cannot locate these documents you are illegal to fly and must notify the chief pilot and/or the owner/operator.


Aircraft Pre-Flight, Post-Flight, and Squawking The aircraft preflight consists of all normal preflight checks of any standard single engine airplane (in this case, the Piper Pawnee). Banner towing airplanes have additional checks which include: checking the tow hook mechanisms proper operation and the attaching linkages; checking the release cable/rope's proper operation ­ check that there isn't anything interfering with its operation; check that the fire extinguisher has a full charge and is in place. Every pilot should know the importance of a thorough pre-flight. This is your opportunity to carefully inspect the aircraft prior to taking to the skies. Aerial Banners' policy is to arrive at least an hour and a half before a scheduled banner pick. This allows enough time to perform any last minute repairs, fuel (should have done that after the last flight), and charge or change a battery if the master switch was left on (don't ever leave the master on). While a detailed pre-flight is always important, in this business a complete post-flight is also imperative. Banner tow aircraft are workhorses and many things can break, tear, or vibrate lose during the course of a flight. Failure to do a post-flight check will likely one day end up in having to ground aircraft an hour before the scheduled pick time for a problem that could have easily been fixed if a proper post-flight inspection would have been performed after the last time the aircraft flew. Should a problem with an aircraft be found, there is a specific procedure to follow to make sure the issue is resolved. First, tell Bob. And don't just blurt out that "the plane is f&cked". Offer a detailed explanation of what's wrong and how the problem occurred. If Bob is busy or cannot be found, tell another mechanic now and tell Bob later. Secondly, squawk the problem. On a piece of paper, write down the date, aircraft, pilot, and a detailed description of the problem(s). Clip this to the squawk board under the appropriate aircraft located at the door of the northeast side of the hangar. If the problem is not addressed within a couple of days, a POLITE reminder is advisable. Tow Hook Installation First check the tow hook and line the metal ring for any damage/fray. Assure that the tow hook is in good operation condition and will not fail during the banner pick up or during towing. Hang two prongs of the hook over the Pawnee's metal tubular frame bar (this bar is above the cockpit dash near the overhead vent). Then run the line out through either side window towards the rear of the aircraft, under the tail assembly/elevators. Next, attach the metal ring to the tow hook release latch. Pull the metal ring around the side of the release mechanism that is away from the actual release latch. This will help prevent the release latch from being accidentally pulled and then releasing the tow hook/line when it is thrown out of the plane prior to banner pickup. (A thin strip of masking or duct tape can also be used to hold the release latch in place to prevent accidental release). Take up the slack in the tow hook line and bring it forward to the cockpit. The pilot can hold the slack taut while flying by placing the slack under his thigh or wrap it around the hook. CAUTION: Assure that there is no obstruction within the tow line before throwing it out (i.e. headset cords, the pilot's seatbelt, etc.) 18

Tossing the Hook Out After takeoff or drop, level off at about 400 feet at cruise power. Once clear of any populated area, unwrap the rope from around the hook, keeping the rope and simultaneously apply slight left rudder (for a toss to the left) to allow the hook to fall freely away from the aircraft. Now look back to ensure that the hook is clear of the aircraft by applying rudder pressure without losing your headset or sunglasses in the slip stream. NOTE: Ensure to keep the rope taught prior to tossing the hook out. Failure to do so can entangle the hook/rope on the elevator, rudder horn, or stabilizer brace wires. If this condition is not resolved prior to the pick, the weight/drag of the banner will cause a HOT HOOK and possible unresponsive rudder/elevator! The Approach for Banner Pick Up With the hook out, over-fly the pickup area and locate your pick-up poles and banner. Re-enter the downwind at 400 feet and cruise power (200 RPM less than maximum). As you turn base, reduce power to establish a 70 MPH approach speed, maintaining a constant rate of descent until the rotation point, remembering to establish full power before rotating. The stronger the wind, the closer the rotation point is to the poles. Rotation serves to swing the hook down and forward to snag the rope as opposed to a flat approach that drags the hook across the rope. As you rotate, raise the nose to approximately 30 degrees above the horizon (less in a strong wind) and almost immediately begin a smooth level out so as to be in level flight. Your airspeed at this point should be about 60 to 65 MPH and the banner should be leaving the ground. You may have to apply forward elevator pressure to keep the nose from pitching up as the weight and added drag of the banner acts on the tail of the aircraft. When the sign is off the ground and the aircraft is established in a climb, reduce the power to the climb setting and climb at best rate to 1000 feet or the minimum required altitude for the area. The rudder will be less responsive due to the added weight of the banner, however, this is normal. If you miss your pickup, line up and try again. Prior to each pickup, check the hook by looking back and stepping on the rudder. Be sure the hook is clear of the tail. If you miss the pickup, radio the man on the ground. He may tell you what you are doing wrong. IMPORTANT PICKUP NOTES: Do not fly through the poles prior to rotating to climb altitude. Do not maintain a nose high altitude as the banner is leaving the ground. Keep the power in the cruise setting when flying the pattern. Speed is your next best friend if you don't have any altitude.


Flat Approach

Final Approach for Banner Pickup Flat Pick



It is important that the engine is developing full power before passing the poles. On climb-out after the takeoff, be sure to lean the mixture for maximum RPMs. It is also important that you are not less than 60 MPH at the top of the pickup climb. Do not lost altitude when leveling off or level off too quickly as the aircraft may sink due to the drag of the banner. The most common reason for missing the pickup is an improper rotation point. Do not think that you are too high. Downwind Pickups Downwind pickups are not to be attempted by any pilot, period. If the wind direction changes and your banner is no longer set up into the wind you must land, taxi to the northwest corner, and help the ground crew realign your banner for an upwind pickup. As an example, a sign is set up for a west pickup and the wind direction changes to the southeast. The pilot receives authorization from the tower for a 27 low approach to remain west of runway 18L. The pilot now has to attempt a pickup with a quartering tailwind as well as shorten his pattern to remain west of 18L. You can see the problems this presents: 1) His pattern now is most likely smaller than normal and unfamiliar to him and 2) his turns are steeper, increasing the risk of an accelerated stall. Final Approach for Banner Pickup When the banner is airborne, climb at an airspeed that provides the best rate or climb for that aircraft/banner combination. If obstacle clearance is a factor, a coordinated climbing turn in either direction is acceptable. Caution should be used when turning to remain coordinated with a banner as the aircraft may stall with little or no warning. Noting that all airplane/banner combinations are different the performance must be determined during each flight. Never attempt to fly an aircraft/banner combination beyond the aircraft or pilot's capabilities. En Route Flying When the banner is airborne, check the sign by a slight left turn followed by a right turn looking back out the door. Verify that it is flying properly. Is the right side up? Is it flying flat? Is the rope clear of the aircraft structure? DO NOT FLY TO THE BEACH IF THE ROPE IS NOT ATTACHED TO THE HOOK! i.e. around the tail wheel. Assuming that everything is correct, fly to the display area or the beach. In doing so you should fly at a minimum altitude of 1000 feet over populated areas and along a route that offers you alternate landing sites and allows you to avoid restricted and noise sensitive areas. Refer to your maps for the locations of these areas.


While flying, periodically check your fuel supply, oil pressure, and temperature, magnetos, and carburetor heat. Watch for other air traffic. Your cruise power setting is generally 200 RPM less than full power. Also, do not fly at any airspeed/power setting that causes excessive tail shake. The banner display altitude at the beach will be 500 feet at a distance of 500 feet offshore (approximately the length of the piers). However, this altitude and distance may vary depending upon conditions. In a strong westerly wind you may choose a slightly higher altitude because of the turbulence caused by the tail buildings. An altitude of approximately 600 feet should be sufficient in this case. When flying at an altitude of 500 feet, be sure to have sufficient useable fuel in your tanks. Exhausting a fuel tank at 500 feet is against company policy and could be disastrous. On the non-display leg of a multiple-pass banner you will usually fly ½ mile offshore at an altitude of 500 feet. From Hollywood south to Crandon Park, or wherever possible, you should fly at an altitude of 1000 feet ¼ to ½ mile west of the beach so the people looking west can read the sign. ALWAYS GIVE THE CUSTOMER THE MOST EXPOSURE POSSIBLE. They are paying good money for this advertising and expect the best possible advertising service. Banner Drops Before you can drop a banner properly and with accuracy, you must know where the banner is in relation to the aircraft. Always look back at your sign after a pickup to see where it is. On a climb it should be flying straight back, well below the aircraft. After you level off, the sign should come up and fly at approximately the same level as the aircraft. During a descent the banner will be at a higher altitude than the aircraft. The drop is accomplished in three phases: 1. The Descent 2. The Level Off 3. The Release and Climb The Descent This phase is generally started a mile from the drop zone. Reduce the power and begin a descent. Do not let the airspeed exceed 70 MPH because the tow rope may break due to a higher drag forces created at higher speeds. Locate the correct release for the drop. Plan your drop into the wind in order to obtain the slowest possible ground speed. Your turn from base leg to final should be close enough to the drop zone so you do not have to level off before reaching the drop point. Do not make flat approaches.


The Banner Drop Sequence


The Level Off During the descent the sign will be higher than the aircraft. As you begin to level off (no lower than 200 feet) you will add full power and the sign will drop to approximately the same level as the aircraft. It is at this time that the release phase begins.

The Release and Climb When you are level over the drop area and are at full power, pull the release handle. Since you are at full power, if the banner fails to release you will be able to continue flying and attempt a second drop. Remember, when you level off it is time to pull the release. Give it one good pull. If it does not release, climb out at best rate of climb speed, not best angle. Only pull one release per approach and always stay with the same (correct) approach procedure. When the banner releases, the aircraft will suddenly move freely. At this time start a climb and let out your next hook, or land if the job is finished. Remember, only let out your hook over an unpopulated area and above 400 feet.

Landing with a Banner Attached (A Hot Hook) There is nothing to fear about landing with a banner. First, notify the tower of your situation and your plan of action. You will land on the runway, into the wind. Do not land in tall grass because the grass creates drag on the banner ­ which will also damage the banner. Choose a runway with no runway lights if possible, as they may catch the banner. The landing approach is like a banner drop approach except steeper. Remember, in a descent the banner will be higher than the aircraft. Fly to the approach end of the runway at about 400 feet, reduce the power and descend steeply. Begin to flare slightly higher than normal using some power as necessary taking into account that the drag of the banner will cause the elevator to be less responsive at slow speed. The aircraft should touch the ground before the banner touches. Once the aircraft is on the ground, stop the aircraft using normal procedures. When the aircraft is stopped, shut down the engine and roll up the sign. Inspect the banner for signs of friction burns on the hook, rope, tow rope, and bottom side of the banner. If it has bad friction burns, notify the ground grew. They will determine whether or not the equipment is still operational.


Landing with a Banner attached (Hot Hook)

ATC Procedures and Flight Safety As a commercial pilot, you should be aware of air traffic control procedures and be comfortable and proficient with talking to ATC. This is not a lesson on radio procedures. This is a reminder that you, as the pilot in command, hold the ultimate responsibility for the safety of the flight. If ATC directs you to perform a procedure, turn or maneuver that you, as PIC, deem unsafe then it is your responsibility to advise them that you are "unable". This one word, "unable", should be understood by all ATC operators that you as PIC deem the request above the limitations of the pilot, the aircraft, or the current weather conditions. As banner tow pilots, often the Tower will allow and give instruction that would not be typical of general aircraft operations to expedite traffic flow into and out of the banner box and runways. While the expectations that ATC has upon banner tow pilots is high, for many this is their first flying job and they have relatively low hours. If this is you, DO NOT do anything you are not comfortable with. Use full traffic patterns, don't get slow, and keep your banks shallow.


Common Mistakes Below you will find a list of unfortunate incidents, which were the result of common mistakes made by various banner pilots during their careers. As in most phases of flying, incidents are the result of pilot error and could have been avoided. 1. A pilot was taxiing between two rows of aircraft when the propeller on one of the parked aircraft cut through the wing tip. Use caution while taxiing close to objects. 2. In a similar incident the pilot was taxiing close to another aircraft. The right wing of the taxiing aircraft came in contact with the parked aircraft causing extensive damage to the rudder of the parked aircraft. Again! Use caution while taxiing. 3. During a banner pickup the rope became tangled around the rudder. The pilot was forced to use full right rudder to correct the problem. Do not get too low when flying through the pickup poles. If the preceding problem arises bank to the right and land in a half circling motion. 4. Before takeoff, a pilot switched to a full fuel tank, or so he thought. In fact, he switched to an almost empty tank which became empty during climb-out. The pilot lowered the nose, set up a normal glide, and fortunately found a landing area. He made a successful dead-stick landing. Visually check the fuel quantity. 5. Tow aircraft were taxiing for takeoff, one following the other. The engine on the lead aircraft stalled. The pilot of the following aircraft stopped, set the brakes, left the engine idling, and went forward to assist the pilot in the lead aircraft. The parking break on the rear aircraft failed and did severe damage to the tail of the lead aircraft. Never leave an aircraft unattended when the engine is running. 6. An experienced pilot was attempting a high speed taxi, with the tail raised. He had to make an emergency stop, and in doing so he tipped the aircraft up onto its nose causing extensive damage to the engine and propeller. Use common sense. DO NOT SHOW OFF!


Never allow loose objects in the cockpit. 7. A banner pilot, on his maiden voyage, flew too low during his final approach to the drop zone. He dragged the banner across the tails of several aircraft causing severe damage to the banner and several aircraft on the ground. Be aware of the location of your banner at all times. Be aware of the location of the aircraft in relation to the ground. 8. Two pilots were attempting a formation landing. The lead aircraft was equipped with flaps and could fly at slower airspeeds. The pilot of the second aircraft, realizing that he was getting too close to the lead aircraft, took corrective action. However, in doing so he ran off the edge of the runway into some soft earth and nosed the aircraft over. Use proper judgment when flying. 9. An experienced pilot attempted a landing in gusty crosswind conditions. The aircraft dropped below stall speed and dropped into the ground. Be alert and use good judgment at all times. 10. After the pickup the pilot noticed that the banner was flying upside down. He initiated a turn towards the airport and set himself up for a downwind drop. He attempted the downwind drop while he was on AUXILIARY FUEL. He ran out of fuel while descending, switched to the main tank, but pumped the throttle too much, which caused flooding. The result was a crash between two houses. Poor fuel management has no place in flying. Never use auxiliary fuel during a drop, pick-up, takeoff, or landing. There are countless thousands of errors such as those listed above. We hope that none of you who read this book will be added to the list.



Airline pilots often say that they earn their pay only a few minutes per year. This is when they are required to make a split second decision. An airline pilot certainly has a lot to lose, such as hundreds of lives and a $6,000,000 aircraft, should his decision be incorrect. Occasionally, banner pilots will be required to make quick decisions. Although we will not lose a hundred people and a $6,000,000 aircraft, people's lives are at risk (including yours), a $5,000 banner and a $60,000 aircraft. We will not attempt to brief you on every possible emergency that you may encounter; however, we do want to prepare you for anything out of the norm. As you approach your aircraft you should be thinking about it. Has it been fueled? Has the oil been checked? How much oil is it using per hour? Did the mechanic clear the discrepancies? Is it airworthy? Does is have all the documents required? Prior to the first flight of the day, conduct a rigid pre-flight inspection. It is best to locate discrepancies while you are still on the ground. After starting the engine, check the oil pressure, oil temperature, fuel quantity gauges, controls, radio, brakes, magnetos, and carburetor heat. The engine run-up aids in determining how the engine is performing. This should be done just before takeoff. Remember, if you taxi for an extended period of time at low power you may have loaded plugs. If so, they can be cleared during the engine run-up by leaning the mixture for maximum RPM. Now you are airborne. You come in for a pickup and get it on the first try. A smile of confidence, a sign of relief, and you lean back in your seat. But do not get too comfortable. You still have to fly. Check the magnetos occasionally. Check the engine RPMs. Lean the mixture a little. Does it increase the RPMs? Observe the terrain. See the big empty lot on the left? There is a better one to the right. Check constantly for other air traffic. While you are flying, formulate a plan of action in case the engine fails. What action would you take if the banner fell prematurely? Keep checking the gauges. Why has the RPM dropped 100 from cruise? Did the throttle creep back? You may have to hold it in place. These are all small problems with relatively simple solutions. Every problem has a solution. Let's go on to some tougher ones. You're flying at cruise power when suddenly you see an RPM drop. You push the throttle fully forward but the RPM is still less than it should be. The magnetos check normal; the fuel quantity checks normal. You check for carburetor ice by pulling the carb heat control. The engine starts to roughen, which indicates the ice is melting, and then smoothes again when the ice is cleared from the engine, increasing the RPMs. Continue to allow a minute or so for the engine to completely clear of the ice. For the remainder of the flight, periodically check the carb heat and continue to let the engine clear. You notice an excessive increase in oil temperature, if you reduce the power to reduce oil temperature can you hold altitude? Can you climb? Head for your nearest drop zone and return to the airport as soon as possible or head for the nearest airport, drop, and land.


Specific Emergencies Please keep in mind that these are only suggested actions during an emergency and the ultimate decision is upon you, the Pilot in Command as to how to react during a real emergency. Engine Failure on Climb out with a Banner 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Banner ­ drop Airspeed ­ best glide Mixture ­ full rich Aux fuel pump ­ on Carb heat ­ on Spot an area suitable for a forced landing, (may be within gliding distance of an airport)

The Pawnee's glide fairly well and if it looks like you're going to overshoot the landing area, do not hesitate to slip the aircraft, but remember to maintain airspeed. Engine Failure @ 500 ft along beach 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Banner ­ drop airspeed ­ best glide mixture ­ full rich aux fuel pump ­ on carb heat ­ on Big decision ­ land on beach or ditch in the ocean? This split second decision must be made immediately. An assessment of the amount of people on the beach should be the determining factor. Any crowded beach (i.e. South Beach on most days) is unacceptable for landing. A lightly populated beach will be at the pilot's discretion. Would it really be worth saving yourself and the aircraft at the expense of injuring, or worse, innocent bystanders on the ground. If landing on the beach, typically the further up-shore, the less crowded. A soft, three point landing should help avoid nosing over. If gliding to the beach is not an option or out of reach, you will be forced to ditch. Thoroughly read that section, preferably now ­ and not after the engine failure.

Engine Failure on Pick 1. Slightly nose low altitude to regain or maintain airspeed. 2. Pull banner release ­ whether or not you hooked the banner 3. Land straight ahead ­ For east picks, a slight right turn may be necessary to avoid parked aircraft. For west picks, you're probably going into the fence. Better that than the canal.


Electrical Fire in Flight 1. Master switch ­ off 2. Avionics ­ off 3. Fire extinguisher ­ deploy if necessary If fire appears to be out and electrical power is necessary for continuance of flight (radioing to tower) you may try to restore power to the radio and transponder (separately). To do this, first check circuit breakers for a fault circuit, do not reset. Then verify that the master, avionics master, radio, and transponder are all off. Starting with the master switch, turn on and watch for smoke and smell of electrical burning. Then proceed on to the avionic master, radio, and transponder, taking time between each one to try to localize the short. Side note: Rather than risk re-starting the electrical fire by trying to troubleshoot the electrical system, another advisable option would be to text message someone at Aerial Banners and have them call North Perry Tower to advise them of your situation or try to call the tower yourself (this may require climbing to an altitude at which the power can be brought back to idle to allow a phone conversation to take place). Expect to be cleared to approach the airport and look for light gun signals. Entanglement of Hook and/or Rope with Empennage If, upon deployment, the hook and/or rope become entangled on any part of the aircraft, do not attempt to pick the banner. Using only the necessary control surface movement maintain wings level and altitude. Visually inspect the empennage and degree of entanglement. If aircraft control does not seem to be affected by the entanglement, then consider landing as-is, and not releasing the hook and rope assembly. Release of the hook and rope could cause inadvertent deflection of the control surfaces. If the entanglement is hindering the movement of any control surface, use whatever force necessary to maintain control of the aircraft. Release of the hook and rope in this situation would be at the pilot's discretion because it could affect controllability of the aircraft either positively or negatively. While the rope may be partially hindering the control, once the rope is released it may slide through the gap between the control surfaces only to bind worse when the tape, braid, and steel ring contact the surfaces. On the other hand, release of the rope and hook may allow it to fall completely free of the aircraft. In this situation, a careful visual inspection is imperative before any action is taken. If the entanglement is so bad that aircraft control cannot be maintained, then the hook and rope assembly should be released immediately.


Elevator Cable Failure Failure of any control surface is a very serious issue, but most people agree that the most catastrophic failure would be the elevator. Luckily, the Pawnee is designed in a way that should allow some amount of control via the trim wheel. This is connected to the elevator in the rear of the aircraft by a separate small wire, so remember, always be gentle when applying trim. It could save your life one day! Ditching As a banner tow pilot, a large part of your flying will be done over water, and although you may typically be within gliding distance to land, a crowded beach is not an option. If you are forced down in an emergency, your only reasonable choice may be to ditch. Ditching is a precautionary or forced landing of a landplane in water. Thirty to forty general aviation ditchings occur in U.S. coastal or inland waters each year. If performed properly, ditching an aircraft is a very survivable event and many pilots walk (or swim) away unscathed. As in any emergency, the pilot first must control the airplane. Many ditching procedures suggest that rather than pitching for best glide, pitch for minimum-sink rate (about halfway between stall and normal glide speed), since the water ahead is usually no different than the water below and time is more valuable than distance. Considering that most banner tow pilots will be at or below 500 feet, normal glide speed should be established because maneuvering may be required. At this low altitude, very little time will be available to make radio calls, squawk emergency code (7700), or do anything else other than drop the banner and maneuver the aircraft for ditching. Be aware, though, that anything heavy or sharp stored in the area behind your head may become a projectile upon impact. A subject of controversy is the relative seaworthiness of high-wing versus low-wing airplanes and fixed gear versus retractable gear. Most pilots contend that the ideal airplane for ditching is a low-wing aircraft with landing gear retracted. Statistics, however, do not substantiate this. Aircraft geometry and landing gear configuration do not appear to affect survivability appreciably. Although low-wing aircraft do offer superior planning and buoyancy, they should not be landed in water with flaps fully extended because this can cause pronounced nose-down pitching and make the aircraft submarine. Also, flaps hanging from a low-wing may be torn away during touchdown, which might create gaping holes in the wings and have a disastrous effect on buoyancy. Consequently, low-wing airplanes typically land faster, increasing the probability of damage and injury. Since the flaps of highwing aircraft are less susceptible to water damage, they should be used to the maximum extent possible to reduce impact speed. Another significant disadvantage of a low-wing configuration is that it is easier to dig a wingtip into a rolling sea during initial touchdown. This can result in a lethal cartwheel. Also, the ailerons on high-wing airplanes are most effective in maintaining lateral control because they are kept "high and dry" 32

throughout most of the landing rollout. Those who have ditched slow, fixed-gear aircraft report that the main gear digging in during initial impact prevents the aircraft from skipping and subsequently striking the water a second time in a stalled, nose-low altitude. The aircraft simply decelerates rapidly with the nose burrowing only slightly. Fixed-gear proponents claim this is safer than risking the secondary, nose-low impact frequently associated with retractables. Considering all of the arguments, experts have yet to decide the optimum aircraft for ditching except perhaps that it should have STOL characteristics, be built of wood, and be stuffed with ping-pong balls. Compared to ditching in a lake or river, much more thought must be given to the safest landing direction in the ocean. The surface of an ocean almost always is characterized by long, parallel swells. These large undulations are cause by distant storms and are not wave irregularities caused by local winds. It is important that a landing be made parallel to these swells because landing into the face of one can be like flying into the side of a mountain. Although water often is regarded as a soft substance, it can be as hard as granite when struck head on at landing speeds. Although it is tempting to disregard swell movement and land directly into the wind, this must be avoided. Landing into the face of a welldeveloped swell can be catastrophic unless the wind component across the swells exceeds one-third of the touchdown speed. In this case, the pilot probably should compromise between landing parallel to the swells and into the wind. If the crosswind component exceeds half the landing speed, it might be wiser to land into the wind as long as the touchdown can be made in the valley between swells or on the backside of a swell. This can be very difficult, so "good luck". Although the initial touchdown should be at the lowest airspeed possible, a full-stall landing is dangerous because of the possibility of striking the water nose-first. A fixed-gear aircraft should touch down in a 10-12 degree, nose-high altitude. This target altitude is considered critical because if the aircraft lands with the nose too high, the tail may strike first and force the nose down too rapidly; if the aircraft altitude is too flat, the nose may dig in prematurely. After initial contact with the water, apply maximum up-elevator to keep the nose out of the water and work feverishly to keep the wings parallel to the surface; do not lower a wing to compensate for a crosswind. Otherwise, a wingtip may dig in and cause total loss of control. Although less than 15% of all ditchings involve fatalities, the U.S. Coast Guard points out that most of those who perish usually survive the procedure itself. Many of the fatalities occur after evacuation and are due to drowning because floatation equipment is unavailable or they can't or are unable to swim because of injury. Fortunately, in the banner towing business, we are ideally flying near large groups of beach-goers and boaters and hopefully some spectators will come out to our aid.


Deteriorating Weather Conditions As a banner pilot, you should always maintain a constant awareness of developing weather conditions. If a fast moving thunderstorm has developed over North Perry Airport, you need to be aware of your alternatives. There are several airports in the local area that you can divert to (Opa Locka, Kendall/Miami Executive, Ft. Lauderdale Executive, or Pompano). When diverting to alternate airports, tell the tower that you are unable to return to base, and you ­"Banner-AB" are "requesting a banner drop and landing". You should avoid larger airports conducting airline passenger operations whenever possible. However, as pilot in command, you may take whatever action you feel is necessary to terminate your flight safely. The best plan of action should be to avoid getting "hung out to dry" away from your home base. If there is at all the slight possibility of inclement weather, always check the radar on the computer before you depart. There are many good websites to do this, one of which is It's accurate, easy to navigate, and very up to date. Just click on the NEXRAD button, then on the plus sign over Miami International, and the Animate Map. Pay attention not only to the current weather overhead, but also to any precipitation on its way in. Trends are very important. Remember a thunderstorm is never idle. It is typically either growing or dissipating. A small cell growing over the Everglades heading this way is often more potentially dangerous than a fully developed storm which may soon be dissipating. Once in the air, a valuable tool for detailed weather information often overlooked is your radio. North Perry Tower has a weather radar feed and they are always happy to relay information on storm intensities, speed, and direction. They will often give an estimate of how many minutes until the precipitation reaches the field. The Pawnee's can carry a lot of fuel so if you have plenty to spare, try to wait it out or slip in between cells. If you cannot make it to an airport and are forced down by weather, an empty beach is always an option, but remember that it will be considered an "off airport landing" and the FAA will likely get involved. Extreme Wind Conditions You are inbound for landing and the ATIS is calling winds out of the northwest at 40 knots. There are no northwest runways available and the crosswind component exceeds the maximum demonstrated crosswind component for your aircraft. In this type of situation you can drop your banner and determine if an alternate airport is available. If no satisfactory alternate is available, you can request either to land on the grass or on the closed runway. The control tower can not authorize this for legal reasons but it can be done. You will need to announce your intentions "at pilot's discretion" and request traffic separation. After landing, do not attempt to taxi crosswind. Radio ground control and ask them for assistance to hold the wings down.


Formation Flying No pilot is authorized to fly in formation unless specifically briefed and authorized by the Director of Operations. Each pilot to be involved in a formation flight must plan the flight before takeoff. Items covered on the formation flight pre-flight brief should include: · · · · Who is the formation leader? What reference points each following aircraft will keep position on? Turning procedures. Emergency procedures.

Banner Towing Weather The majority of our work is done at the beach areas, therefore we must be able to judge beach attendance. The easiest way to do this is by observing the weather. Although beach attendance is the highest during the weekends, holidays, the tourist season, and when the weather is desirable, the local people tend to stay away from the beach on cool, windy days. The tourists on the other hand spend a great deal of money to visit sunny Florida and are determined to get a tan regardless of the weather. However, our banner company will only fly during periods of good beach weather. Problems can arise from unexpected weather build-ups in the local area. Constant checking of the weather from the Flight Service Station, weather reports, and forecasts are very imperative. From these services we can usually anticipate frontal passages, high winds, and other potential weather hazards. During the summer months, South Florida often has numerous fast moving daily convective thunderstorms. These thunderstorms are very dangerous due to high winds, reduced visibility, and most important, wind shear. Banner pilots should pay close attention to these storm movements and trends and should always have an alternate airport available. Remember, "Always leave yourself a way out". A few good rules to practice are: 1. Allow a minimum of 45 minutes of reserve fuel in the event that you do encounter adverse weather and have to go to an alternate airport. 2. Keep in mind that the winds associated with a thunderstorm are usually very strong and gusty and may shift rapidly. 3. Once you make a drop at the airport of intended landing, watch for shifting winds. If the wind speed is 20 knots or greater, do not attempt a crosswind landing or a crosswind taxi. If you must taxi in strong crosswind conditions, seek the assistance to hold the aircraft on the ground. 4. Maintain your approach speed and fly the aircraft onto the runway or ground. Do not use flaps in strong gusty wind conditions. 35

5. When the wind is westerly, the air will be extremely choppy. Kites may also be flying in the area. A kite string can cut through a banner rope like a sharp knife, causing the banner to fall into the ocean. If this happens, choose a good reference point to assist in the location of the banner. If the banner is located, it is possible to retrieve it by boat.

Practice Weight and Balance for Piper Pawnee PA-25-260 The following pages include the information necessary to complete a sample weight and balance for Pawnee N9732P. Remember, although weight and balance may be time consuming, it is always necessary to verify that the aircraft's weight and center of gravity are within limitations before every flight to ensure proper aircraft control and performance.




Using the above information and a pilot weight of 170 lbs, find the C.G. of Pawnee 9732P with full fuel (72 useable). The arm for the fuel is 90 inches and pilot is 135 inches. Oil is 12 qts (23 lbs) at station 30.


Aerial Banners, Inc. Company Flight Rules

1. Under no conditions (except collision avoidance) is the bank angle in a turn to exceed standard rate. 2. After takeoff, no turns will be initiated below 300' AGL. 3. Except on banner pickup, no climb in excess of 30 degrees will be tolerated. 4. Minimum altitude for orbiting while waiting for a banner will be 300' AGL. 5. On a banner pickup or pickup attempt, no tunes will be initiated until an altitude of 300' is reached. 6. No grapple hook will be deployed outside the banner area. 7. No hook will be deployed over any congested area, ramp, or active runway. 8. Maximum speed (V NE) with a banner shall be limited to 60 knots. 9. Except with an exceptionally heavy banner, full throttle in a climb is limited to one-minute operations. 10. Strict adherence to company minimum altitudes is mandatory at all times. 11. Shoulder harnesses will be worn at all times. 12. No one is to leave or enter the banner area without establishing contact with company ground crew (frequency 120.8) 13. When not in contact with any ATC, the company frequency should be monitored. 14. Always read your banner. If you have any questions with spelling or routes, call the office. Do not take off with a misspelled banner, we won't get paid and neither will you. 15. The pilot is responsible for the reasonable care of all Aerial Banners, Inc. equipment/aircraft. Example: Taxiing into a building or another aircraft is not reasonable care.



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