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Chapter 6 - Supplemental Exercises - Answers 1 _____________________________________________________________________________ CHAPTER 6 - STRUCTURE CLASS WORDS II - SUPPLEMENTAL EXERCISES

Identifying Prepositions, Adverbs, and Verb Particles 1. PREPOSITIONS - Since, of, in ADVERBS - on PREPOSITIONS - of, to VERB PARTICLES - out PREPOSITIONS - on VERB PARTICLES - up PREPOSITIONS - of, of, in VERB PARTICLES - out ADVERBS - recently, how VERB PARTICLES - out PREPOSITIONS - to, for ADVERBS - patiently VERB PARTICLES - in PREPOSITIONS - on, to VERB PARTICLES - back PREPOSITIONS - for, into, for, of ADVERBS - deeper

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Distinguishing Between Prepositions and Subordinating Conjunctions 1. While - conjunction during - preposition After - conjunction

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Chapter 6 - Supplemental Exercises - Answers 2 _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Since - preposition if - conjunction until - preposition Since - preposition After - conjunction Since - conjunction

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Identifying Types of Conjunctions 1. After - subordinating conjunction both . . . and - coordinating conjunction (correlative) Subsequently - conjunctive adverb and - coordinating conjunction and - coordinating conjunction nevertheless - conjunctive adverb Because - subordinating conjunction but - coordinating conjunction not only, but also - coordinating conjunction (correlative) and - coordinating conjunction and - coordinating conjunction when - subordinating conjunction However - conjunctive adverb before - subordinating conjunction

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Chapter 6 - Supplemental Exercises - Answers 3 _____________________________________________________________________________ Correcting Run-ons and Comma Splices This is a good exercise for small group work, followed by a discussion of the results. Students might choose which alternative they prefer and discuss why (based, perhaps, on logic or context). Our suggestions do not exhaust the possible appropriate revisions. 1. comma splice a. Punctuation: Everything seems to be going well; you have obviously forgotten something. b. Coordinator: Everything seems to be going well, so you have obviously forgotten something. c. Subordinator: If everything seems to be going well, you have obviously forgotten something. d. Conjunctive adverb: Everything seems to be going well; therefore, you have obviously forgotten something. run-on a. Punctuation: The early bird gets the worm; the second mouse gets the cheese. b. Coordinator: The early bird gets the worm, but the second mouse gets the cheese. c. Subordinator: Although the early bird gets the worm, the second mouse gets the cheese. d. Conjunctive adverb: The early bird gets the worm; however, the second mouse gets the cheese. comma splice a. Punctuation: Be nice to your kids; they will choose your nursing home. b. Coordinator: Be nice to your kids, for they will choose your nursing home. c. Subordinator: Be nice to your kids, because they will choose your nursing home. d. Conjunctive adverb: They will choose your nursing home; consequently, be nice to your kids. comma splice a. Punctuation: There can't be a crisis today; my schedule is already full. b. Coordinator: My schedule is already full, so there can't be a crisis today. c. Subordinator: There can't be a crisis today, since my schedule is already full. d. Conjunctive adverb: My schedule is already full; hence, there can't be a crisis today.

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Chapter 6 - Supplemental Exercises - Answers 4 _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. comma splice a. Punctuation: You can smile when things go wrong. You have someone else to blame. b. Coordinator: You have someone else to blame, so you can smile when things go wrong. c. Subordinator: If you can smile when things go wrong, you have someone else to blame. d. Conjunctive adverb: You have someone else to blame; thus, you can smile when things go wrong. run-on a. b. c. d.

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Punctuation: Hard work pays off in the future; laziness pays off now. Coordinator: Hard work pays off in the future, but laziness pays off now. Subordinator: Although hard work pays off in the future, laziness pays off now. Conjunctive adverb: Hard work pays off in the future; meanwhile, laziness pays off now.

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run-on a. Punctuation: He who asks is a fool for five minutes; he who does not ask is a fool forever. b. Coordinator: He who asks is a fool for five minutes, yet he who does not ask is a fool forever. c. Subordinator: Whereas he who asks is a fool for five minutes, he who does not ask is a fool forever. d. Conjunctive adverb: He who asks is a fool for five minutes; on the other hand, he who does not ask is a fool forever. run-on a. b. c. d.

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Punctuation: God could not be everywhere; he made mothers. Coordinator: God could not be everywhere, so he made mothers. Subordinator: Because God could not be everywhere, he made mothers. Conjunctive adverb: God could not be everywhere; accordingly, he made mothers.

Identifying Relatives 1. 2. 3. (the only ex-President) who (the year) when (many reasons) why 4

Chapter 6 - Supplemental Exercises - Answers 5 _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. 5. (the basis) which (a mall) where (the man) that (The pretend Lincolns) whom (places) where (children) whose

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Distinguishing Between Interrogatives and Relatives 1. [When - subordinating conjunction, not an interrogative] what - interrogative (the San Andreas) which - relative (a point) where - relative where - interrogative ("trap lines") that - relative (a point) where - relative (the fault) that - relative What - interrogative (earthquake) whose - relative (researchers) who - relative (signs) that - relative Whatever - interrogative when - interrogative where - interrogative

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Chapter 6 - Supplemental Exercises - Answers 6 _____________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW EXERCISES Structure Identification 1.

Can - modal auxiliary any - determiner, indefinite why - relative adverb my - determiner, possessive car's - determiner, possessive does - do auxiliary whom - interrogative pronoun did - do auxiliary that - determiner, demonstrative rather - qualifier that - relative pronoun on ­ preposition The - determiner, definite article that - relative pronoun this- determiner, demonstrative is - be auxiliary in fact - conjunctive adverb very - qualifier will - modal auxiliary to - preposition your - determiner, possessive unless - subordinating conjunction that - relative pronoun are - be auxiliary who - relative pronoun was - be auxiliary for - preposition why - relative adverb all - determiner, indefinite those - determiner, demonstrative Of course - conjunctive adverb completely - qualifier

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Chapter 6 - Supplemental Exercises - Answers 7 _____________________________________________________________________________

6. When - subordinating conjunction that - relative pronoun during - preposition when - relative adverb was - be auxiliary Does - do auxiliary Donna's - determiner, possessive less - qualifier George's - determiner, possessive might - modal auxiliary have - have auxiliary out - verb particle how - interrogative together - verb particle that - relative pronoun half ­ determiner, indefinite before - preposition

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Practical Applications - Using Structure Words Effectively

Here is the original paragraph : There are just two things about the World Cup that prevent Americans from caring: it involves soccer and the rest of the world. We could get over the soccer part eventually--after all, it's kind of like the soccer we make our suburban children play, only without the goal scoring. But the global part just isn't going to happen. When I hear that Tunisia is playing Belgium for the crucial Group H runner-up spot, all I want is a map. The only way Americans are going to learn another country's name is if it attacks us.

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Chapter 6 - Supplemental Exercises - Answers 8 _____________________________________________________________________________ Practical Applications - Missing Structure Words

1. WOMEN IN PRISON SYSTEMS OFTEN ARE VICTIMS OF ABUSE. WOMEN IN PRISON SYSTEMS OFTEN ABUSE THEIR VICTIMS. PRIVACY CONCERNS DOG THE BANKING INDUSTRY. PRIVACY CONCERNS THE DOG-BANKING INDUSTRY. A SHIP CAPTAIN SAYS THE STARVING SEALS ARE OK. A SHIP CAPTAIN SAYS STARVING THE SEALS IS OK. EUGENE NICKERSON DIES; A POLICE TORTURE TRIAL JUDGE. EUGENE NICKERSON DIES; THE POLICE TORTURE A TRIAL JUDGE. THE STATE JAILS MOST OF THE PEOPLE IN THE NATION.

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THE STATE JAILS THE MOST PEOPLE IN THE NATION. 6. YOUNG SUPPORTS THE HITTING COACH. YOUNG SUPPORTS HITTING THE COACH.

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