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Exotic Pet

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VOLUME 5

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ISSUE 12

DECEMBER 2000

Many of the homemade feeds available are, unfortunately, high in sugars. Enteropathies with intermittent diarrhea that alternate with irregular, overly dry feces or feces with excessive mucus may be the result of an improper diet. Table foods and fruits contribute to enteropathy. Clinical signs of gastroenteropathies include anorexia, dehydration, hypersalivation, hunched position, failure to thrive, reluctance to move, grinding of the teeth, excessive grooming of the abdomen or cloacal area, change in normal eructation/flatulence pattern, and diarrhea, lack of stool, or irregularly shaped or overly dry stool. The differential diagnoses include dietary imbalances, bacterial gastroenteropathy, parasitic enteritis, intestinal impaction or torsion, and Clostridium species overgrowth with or without endotoxemia. Impactions and stasis are fairly common because wallabies kept in homes tend to chew on fabrics, upholstery, and carpets. In

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Medical Problems of Pet Wallabies

Cathy A. Johnson-Delaney, DVM

Wallabies that can be kept as pets include Bennett's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus) and the Tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Bennett's wallaby is the larger of the two, with average adult males weighing 15 to 26.8 kg and females weighing 11 to 15.5 kg. Adult Tammar wallaby males average 6 to 10 kg, and females average 4 to 6 kg. Bennett's wallabies can tolerate cold temperatures, and even snow, if they have a dry, sheltered area to rest. Tammar wallabies should be kept in an environment with a temperature above 60°F because they have little tolerance for cold. Tammars are frequently kept indoors with access to a yard during periods of warm weather. Environment and Diet Both species require large amounts of space for exercise. In the wild, Tammar wallabies on Kangaroo Island, South Australia, have been tracked and found to travel an average of 1 to 2 km each night. This type of activity is impossible in a typical urban yard. Pet wallabies are frequently brought to the clinic having experienced trauma related to collisions with walls, furnishings, bushes, and fences. Natural grazing activities are replaced with rug and furniture nibbling; I have encountered foreign body impactions caused by this behavior. Obesity among pet wallabies is common. These pets are commonly fed commercial alfalfabased diets, along with many human table foods. Although hay should be a significant portion of their diet, they are fed a pelleted feed, a diet that contains insufficient roughage to keep their gastrointestinal tract motility healthy. In the wild, wallabies eat grasses and browse. Many of the problems that are seen when these animals are kept as pets stem from dietary insufficiencies. Diseases Common disease problems include coccidiosis, gastroenteropathies, trauma, toxoplasmosis, and necrobacillosis ("lumpy jaw"). Coccidiosis Eimeria species, a major cause of coccidiosis in mammals, is a common parasite. Once an infection develops, it can be difficult to get under control. Wallabies will be presented with anorexia, dehydration, and chronic, sometimes intermittent diarrhea. A diagnosis can be made when the characteristic oocytes are found in the feces. Sulfadimethoxine (SulfadiVed 12.5% Solution; VEDCO Inc, St Joseph, Mo) may control the problem; the dosage is 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days, repeated several times with 1 to 2 weeks in between treatments.1 Amprolium (Amprol; Merck, Rahway, NJ) has also been used at 10 mg/kg administered orally for 5 days, with repeat treatments.2 In the home environment, sanitation rules that are used for other species for prevention of reinfection, including picking up all fecal material, should be followed. Yards and outdoor areas should be cleaned of feces if possible, but infective oocysts may still remain in the environment for some time. Gastroenteropathies Wallabies are foregut fermenters and should be thought of as pseudoruminants.3 Their diet should be high in fiber and low in sugars and carbohydrates.

ISSUE HIGHLIGHTS:

Reptile Dystocia

ROUNDTABLE

page 91 Feeding Bearded Dragons

FROM THE LITERATURE

page 93

VOLUME 5 SUBJECT INDEX

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EXOTIC PET PRACTICE

VOLUME 5 · ISSUE 12 · DECEMBER 2000

Editor in Chief

Shawn Messonnier, DVM

Paws and Claws Animal Hospital Plano, Texas

Medical Problems of Pet Wallabies

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Editorial Board

Terry W. Campbell, DVM, PhD

Department of Clinical Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado

Cathy A. Johnson-Delaney, DVM

Attending Veterinarian SNBL USA, Ltd Redmond, Washington

James K. Morrisey, DVM, Diplomate ABVP­Avian Specialist

Avian and Exotic Animal Medicine and Surgery Service Animal Medical Center New York, New York

Wm. Kirk Suedmeyer, DVM

Senior Staff Veterinarian Kansas City Zoological Gardens Adjunct Assistant Professor of Zoological Medicine UMC College of Veterinary Medicine Kansas City, Missouri

Amy Beth Worell, BS, DVM, Diplomate ABVP­Avian Specialist

All Pets Medical Centre West Hills, California

Advisory Board

Michael A. Dutton, DVM, Diplomate ABVP­Companion Animal Practice

Weare Animal Hospital Weare, New Hampshire

Gregory Rich, DVM

West Esplande Veterinary Clinic & Bird Hospital Metairie, Louisiana

ISSN 1086-4288 ©December 2000 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Exotic Pet Practice (ISSN 1086-4288) is published monthly by Mosby. Corporate and Editorial Offices: 11830 Westline Industrial Dr, St Louis, MO 63146-3318. Accounting and Circulation Offices: Mosby, 6277 Sea Harbor Dr, Orlando, FL 32887-4800. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to Exotic Pet Practice, Mosby, Periodicals Department, 6277 Sea Harbor Dr, Orlando, FL 32887-4800. Annual subscription rates for 2000: individual $52.00, resident $31.00, institutional $79.00.

my experience, blockage occurs more frequently in the pyloric region of the stomach and in the upper duodenum, but it can be anywhere in the intestinal tract. The diagnostic tests to be used include fecal analysis with Gram stain, which tests for Clostridium species spores, numbers of gram-negative bacteria, protozoa, and other parasites. Radiographs, including a contrast series with barium, are helpful to diagnose impactions. Surgical guidelines for removal of impactions follow those for rabbits. Reestablishment of healthy flora and motility are critical for survival. Treatment guidelines for bacterial enteropathies and surgical convalescence follow those for rabbits and other small herbivores. These include the use of motility enhancement medications such as metoclopramide (Reglan; Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Wayne, Pa) at 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg given every 6 to 12 hours (as needed) intravenously, intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or orally; metronidazole (Flagyl; Searle, Chicago, Ill) at 80 mg/kg by mouth every 24 hours; and broad spectrum antimicrobials such as enrofloxacin (Baytril; Bayer, Westhaven, Conn) at 2.5 to 5.0 mg/kg every 12 to 24 hours, initially given subcutaneously or intramuscularly, then by mouth.1 Lactobacillus has also been administered orally to promote flora restoration. Delivery by both oral and rectal/colonic enema routes may be effective. Fluid therapy along with gavage or assisted feeding must be instigated to correct dehydration and stimulate the gastrointestinal tract. Critical Care for Herbivores (Oxbow Pet Products, Murdock, Neb) can be mixed to a consistency suitable for gavage or syringe feeding. In addition to assisted feeding, grass hay should always be available. Toxoplasmosis Cats and macropods don't mix. Australian wildlife did not evolve with cats, which may explain the increased susceptibility of Australian animals to contract disease from felines.4 The oocysts shed by cats into the environment can remain infective in moist soil for long periods. Cats should not be allowed access to barns and hay storage areas housing wallaby food supplies. Clinical disease in wallabies related to cats includes severe encephalitis, lymphadenitis, myocarditis, splenomegaly, and skin rashes. The clinical signs include progressive weakness, ataxia, circling, diarrhea, torticollis, loss of balance, and difficulty in drinking or chewing. Signs may be mild or severe, resulting in death.3,5 If the wallaby survives the initial infection, it forms tissue cysts and antibodies that will most likely prevent future infections or progression of signs. Diagnosis using serology may not be definitive because many wallabies with no clinical signs can have titers. Rising titers with clinical signs should be considered a diagnostic variable. Treatment has been attempted with the use of sulfadimethoxine at 50 mg/kg given orally every 24 hours or trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (Septra Grape Suspension; Monarch Pharmaceuticals, Bristol, Tenn) at 20 mg/kg given orally every 12 to 24 hours, along with fluid therapy to maintain hydration.1 Atovaquone suspension (Mepron Suspension; Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC), at 100 mg/kg every 24 hours administered by mouth in canola oil (1 part atovaquone, 2 parts canola oil), has reversed blindness, neurologic signs, and severe myocarditis in two Bennett's wallabies. The canola oil is used to increase absorption. Canola oil contains fatty acids closer to those of wallaby milk than other food oils available.6 Since the initial report,6 atovaquone has been used in other cases of toxoplasmosis in wallabies and is considered to be a better medical choice than a sulfa drug. The duration of treatment may be 2 to 12 months, depending on the severity of the illness, although this has not been fully established at this time. Necrobacillosis Unfortunately, necrobacillosis, also known as "lumpy jaw," is a fairly common disease among captive macropods. The animal will be brought in with a

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EXOTIC PET PRACTICE

R O U N D TA B L E

Reptile Dystocia

Q. Which species (snakes, lizards, turtles) are most commonly involved with dystocia? Dr Suedmeyer: Iguanas (Iguana iguana), chameleons (Chamaeleo species), aquatic turtles (Chrysemys species), boas (Constrictor constrictor), king snakes (Lampropeltis species), and rat snakes (Elaphe sp) appear to be most often affected, but these may merely be over-represented because of their prevalence in the pet trade. Dr Campbell: Reports in the literature suggest that snakes are more prone to dystocia than other types of reptiles. However, in our practice, we tend to see dystocia more often in lizards (especially green iguanas and chameleons). Perhaps this is because we see few breeding snakes. Also, female lizards such as green iguanas can produce clutches of eggs without the presence of a male. Q. How does the presentation differ among the species? Dr Suedmeyer: In my experience, clinical signs associated with dystocia are very similar. Females of a species that exhibit nesting/digging behavior, inappetence progressing to anorexia, loss of weight, and, for species other than chelonians, caudal abdominal distension, are common signs seen in any reptile dystocia. Dr Campbell: Dystocia in snakes often presents as an enlargement in the caudal abdomen. Sometimes the client has noticed the pet straining, but typically the snake does not act abnormally. Lizards such as green iguanas that are experiencing dystocia present with a history of anorexia. The physical examination often reveals a distended coelomic cavity where the outline of eggs can be seen or palpated. Lizard with prolonged dystocia can become severely depressed. It is usually difficult to detect dystocia in chelonians; therefore, when presented, they are often in advanced stages resulting in clinical signs of severe systemic illness. Q. What are some clinical signs exhibited by each species? Dr Suedmeyer: As above, no significant differences. Dr Campbell: Snakes often appear normal unless there are systemic complications, such as coelomitis, in which cases they appear severely depressed. Lizards with dystocia may also appear normal, but it depends upon the duration and the cause

of the dystocia. Dystocia in lizards can result from renomegaly associated with renal disease or secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism. Those with renomegaly usually appear very ill and are extremely depressed. Those with secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism may exhibit muscle tremors or seizures and are reluctant to move. Q. What diagnostic tests are performed? Dr Suedmeyer: History, abdominal palpation, ultrasound, or radiographs will diagnose virtually all cases of dystocia in reptiles. An astute owner will know when breeding took place and can extrapolate a due date. Very high levels of serum or plasma calcium (>12-15 mg/dL) are compatible with a gravid female but not necessarily with dystocia. Dr Campbell: A radiographic evaluation is helpful in the diagnosis of dystocia. In green iguanas, for example, eggs in the oviduct appear oval and lightly mineralized compared to the nonmineralized round follicles seen with folliculostasis. Because eggs can be seen in the coelomic cavity on radiographs, this does not necessarily prove dystocia. Whole blood profiles are often useful in detecting serious complications of dystocia in reptiles. Toxic and immature heterophils suggest severe inflammation that can be seen with egg-related coelomitis. Reptiles with chronic dystocia are often anemic. The plasma biochemical profile may suggest hepatic or renal involvement. An analysis of the coelomic fluid may also be useful in detecting coelomitis. Q. What are some treatments (including doses) for dystocia? Please compare the treatment for mild and severe cases. Dr Suedmeyer: In cases of mild dystocia, simply providing proper substrates, lighting, and heating for the female may induce oviposition. Secluded, undisturbed areas of peat, clean soil or other

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W H AT ' S Y O U R D I A G N O S I S ?

Problematic Egg Hatchings in Tortoises

Shawn Messonnier, DVM

(Adapted from Cooper J, Sainsbury A: Self-Assessment Picture Tests in Veterinary Medicine, Exotic Pets. London, Mosby-Wolfe, 1995.)

The owner of a group of breeding Mediterranean tortoises (Testudo hermanni) had several eggs that did not hatch. The eggs were kept in an ice cream tub containing moist soil, and the container of soil was kept in a cupboard for 150 days and incubated at 22°C to 26°C (71.6°F-78.8°F). An examination of the eggs showed fully formed baby tortoises with no gross abnormalities. The shells are well calcified but brittle. Questions 1. Is the incubation temperature correct? 2. Discuss the meaning of the brittle shells. 3. What is the most likely cause of death of the baby tortoises?

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Medical Problems of Pet Wallabies

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swelling of the face, jaw, or neck area. There may be excessive tearing of the eye, as well as nasal discharge. The animal is usually anorectic, and the owner may report the pet's difficulty in chewing coupled with excessive salivation that has a foul odor. Accompanying the anorexia is weight loss and changes in feces production. Predisposing factors include overcrowding; poor sanitation; improper wear of the teeth; trauma to the head, teeth, face, or mouth; and diet (too soft, lacking roughage, low vitamin A levels, sharp or spiky foods) that leads to poor mucous membrane health with soft gums.7,8 In macropods, molars and premolars erupt posteriorly in the jaw and migrate anteriorly before being lost adjacent to the diastema. Any disruption of this process compromises the integrity of the gums and periodontal tissue, leaving tissue open for colonization by bacteria.8 The normal flora has been found to consist mainly of gram-positive bacteria (92.2%), primarily Actinomyces species, Bacterionema matruchotii, and some Streptococcus species. Other normal flora included Neisseria species and Moraxella species.9 Organisms most commonly cultured from jaw lesions include Actinomyces sp. and Fusobacterium necrophorum.3,10 A diagnosis is made with the use of radiographs, a physical examination with the wallaby under anesthesia, and culture tests (both aerobic and anaerobic). Hematology and clinical chemistries are helpful in the study of the degree of systemic involvement and in the assessment of whether hepatic lipidosis from prolonged decreased intake is a complication. Aggressive treatment includes curetting the necrotic tissue, using polymethylmethacrylate beads impregnated with an appropriate antimicrobial, and using analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents to not only control the inflammation but also to relieve the pain associated with the disease. If any

cheek teeth are loose, they should be removed and the alveoli should be curetted and flushed. Use of supportive care, such as systemic antimicrobials, fluid therapy, gastrointestinal motility enhancers and gavage or assisted feeding, is necessary to prevent the spread of the disease and to keep the gastrointestinal track moving. It is essential to healing that the wallaby intakes proper nutrition during this process and returns to masticating as quickly as possible. Controlling the oral pain significantly improves the wallaby's ability to eat. If treatment is initiated early, the prognosis is better than if there are major bone lesions. Total treatment time varies but may take several months before the dental mill is functioning properly and the gums and bone are healed. Additions of hay and bark to the diet help keep the teeth and gums toughened and wearing properly. Trauma Wallabies in confined spaces frequently hit walls and various obstacles. Lacerations, fractures, torn nails, and bruising can be treated as they are in rabbits. Fractures of hind leg bones will need internal fixation because weight is distributed largely to them and to the tail during locomotion. A return to function needs to be immediate. Fractures of the midshaft or proximal tibia are usually treated with pinning rather than plating because the skin is in direct contact with the distal two thirds of the tibia, which makes covering plates difficult.3 Cases of myopathy caused by electrolyte imbalances or deficiencies in vitamin E/selenium are common, particularly if a wallaby is highly stressed and has had a period of intense exercise (such as being chased around an enclosure for capture).3,5,7,11 Symptoms of myopathy include increased heart rate, muscle stiffness, and general weakness. The animal's urine may become dark. Untreated, it can lead to death. Vitamin E should be administered to wallabies with any musculoskeletal disease or weakness. Commercial vitamin E/selenium products for livestock (eg, Bo-Se; Schering-Plough Animal Health,

Union, NJ) can be used--dose to the vitamin E content. For the wallaby, 25 mg of vitamin E per 5 kg of body weight per day can be used as a guideline.1 Fluid therapy to restore electrolyte balance should be initiated and continued until the urine returns to a normal pH of between 6 and 8 with no myoglobin present.5

References

1. Johnson-Delaney CA: Therapeutics of companion exotic marsupials. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 3:173-181, 2000. 2. Beveridge I: Parasitic diseases, in Fowler ME (ed): Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, ed 2. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1986, pp 577-588. 3. Wallach JD, Boever WJ: Diseases of Exotic Animals: Medical and Surgical Management. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1983, pp 574-611. 4. Williams A, Williams R: Caring for Kangaroos and Wallabies. East Roseville, Australia, Kangaroo Press, 1999, pp 92-93. 5. White S: Caring for Australian Wildlife. Terry Hills, Australia, Australian Geographic Pty Ltd, 1997, pp 106-109. 6. Crutchley CA, Dubey JP, Adams DS: Recovery from blindness caused by toxoplasmosis in Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) [abstract]. Presented at the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists Annual Meeting, Reno, Nev, July 1997; personal communication for dosage. 7. Reddacliff G, Spielman D: Diseases and parasites of Australian fauna: A brief introduction, in Hand SJ (ed): Care and Handling of Australian Native Animals: Emergency Care and Captive Management. Chipping Norton, Australia, Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd, 1990, pp 191-197. 8. Hume ID, Barboza PS: Designing artificial diets for captive marsupials, in Fowler ME (ed): Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy 3. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1993, pp 281-288. 9. Beighton D, Miller WA: A microbiological study of normal flora of macropod dental plaque. J Dent Res 56:995-1000, 1977. 10. Butler R: Bacterial diseases, in Fowler ME (ed): Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, ed 2. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1986, pp 572-576. 11. Jakob-Hoff RM: Diseases of freeliving marsupials, in Fowler ME (ed): Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy 3. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1993, pp 281-288.

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vegetation will induce many reptiles to lay their eggs. For simple dystocia involving eggs retained at the cloaca, immersion in warm water or administering mineral oil per cloaca often aids in egg passage. At times, gentle digital manipulation will help remove the egg. Percutaneous aspiration of egg contents has been advocated to ease the passage of eggs. The use of oxytocin at 10 to 20 IU or, better yet, arginine vasotocin (1 mg) will help induce egg laying in uncompromised cases. In severe cases, immediate surgical intervention is warranted. Even in relatively mild dystocia, animals exhibiting prolonged, unresponsive cases should be considered as surgical candidates. We routinely administer presurgical physiologic fluids (Tyrodes Ringer's; Sigma Chemical Co, St Louis, Mo) and preoperative antibiotics, and we maintain a

heated surgical area. Most prolonged cases are life-threatening; thus, we generally mask the individual with isoflurane, followed by intubation. Depending on the owner's wishes, the animal's history, and the long-term effects, salpingotomy may be advised. In most cases of dystocia, the primary importance is the gravid female and not the eggs or offspring. In many instances, we have seen too much energy focused on the eggs and not on the mother. Long-term postoperative or medical care must include proper husbandry. Proper nutrition, lighting, heat, exercise, substrates, and routine medical examinations will help prevent dystocia from occurring. Dr Campbell: Treatment depends upon the severity of the reptile's condition. Those exhibiting marked depression and/or toxic heterophils should receive immediate attention. This usually indicates a need for exploratory

surgery to identify a coelomitis and perform an ovariosalpingohysterectomy. Those with less severe clinical signs and normal blood profiles can be treated medically. Medical treatment consists of environmental support, fluid therapy, and treatment with calcium supplementation or oxytocin as indicated. Oxytocin often does not perform well in causing expulsion of the eggs in snakes and lizards. Some suggest that higher doses (such as 5-30 IU/kg IM) are required for the reptiles that are not responsive to oxytocin. Oxytocin does perform better for this task in chelonians. You can try prostaglandin E2 (Prepadil Cervical Gel, 0.5 mg/2.5 mL) applied topically into the cloaca as an attempt to dilate the cervix and create contractions. A prostaglandin A oral tablet mixed with K-Y jelly (Johnson & Johnson) in the same concentration can also be tried if prostaglandin E2 is unavailable.

F R O M T H E L I T E R AT U R E

Feeding Bearded Dragons

Shawn Messonnier, DVM As with most reptiles, the exact nutritional requirements of bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) are unknown. One concern is the vitamin E/selenium requirement of bearded dragons, because there are increasing case reports of these reptiles exhibiting clinical signs such as ataxia, muscular weakness, and limb paresis or paralysis. Although many reptiles, such as iguanas, exhibit these signs as a result of metabolic bone disease, bearded dragons exhibiting these signs do not respond to the standard therapy for metabolic bone disease. An additional sign often seen in affected bearded dragons is edema of the limbs, similar to that seen in pets with white muscle disease. Anecdotal reports from the literature suggest response to treatment with vitamin E/selenium.

Hatchling bearded dragons begin life as insectivores eating crickets. As they mature they become more omnivorous, and other invertebrate prey (mealworms, waxworms) and small mice are added to the diet. It is believed that wild adult dragons also ingest vegetation, and many doctors recommend that the diet of adult dragons contain at least 20% plant material.

Paoloni M, Freeman L, Mertz G, et al: Glutathione peroxidase activity and vitamin E concentrations in bearded dragons, Pogona Vitticeps. J Herpetol Med Surg 10:21-25, 2000.

Problematic Egg Hatchings in Tortoises

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Answers 1. If there are no rapid temperature fluctuations, the temperature range is acceptable. The temperature affects the length of incubation, but for most tortoises a

range of 20°C to 30°C (68.0°F86.0°F) is satisfactory. 2. A brittle shell can be normal because tortoise shells range from parchment-like texture to thicker, calcified shells. The shell form may vary among individuals and may be related to the accessibility of minerals such as calcium. This variation in con-

sistency is not known to affect hatching. 3. An adverse reaction close to the time of hatching was most likely involved. Low humidity and high or low temperatures are possibilities.

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A

Abscess, jaw, as sequela to facial trauma, in Tammar wallaby, 68, 71 Abscessation, secondary to food impaction, in cheek pouch of hamster, 52 Acepromazine, in drinking water for alopecia, in rodents, 27-28 Adrenal disease, ferret, medical treatment, 11-12, 13, 15-16, 81-82, 84 gland aspiration, fineneedle, in ferrets, 15 tumors in ferrets care sheet on, 54 hair loss due to, 14 African grey parrots, keel problems in, 83 African pygmy hedgehog, diet of, 62 Air sac mites, in birds, 49 Alopecia facial, in llama, 72 in ferrets care sheet on, 14 castrated, 43, 45 in rodents, 27-28 Amazon parrot adult, with severe liver necrosis, Pacheco's disease causing death in, 64 foot problems in, 75-76 Ammonium urolith, in iguana, 79 Anastrozole, for ferret adrenal disease, 15, 82 Anesthetic for neutering of prairie dog, 48 of rabbit, New Zealand white, 8 propofol as, for tree snakes, 29 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, for heart disease, in ferrets, 9, 13 Anorexia in rabbits, care sheet on, 70 in snakes, and limited client finances, 19-20 Antibiotics for ear mites, in rabbits, 4 for mycobacteriosis, cutaneous, in Moluccan cockatoo, 7 nystatin added to, and Candida, in birds, 88 Aquarium, marine, in a restaurant, parasitic disease in, 28 Aquatic freshwater turtles, basic care of, 22 Arginine vasotocin, for reptile dystocia, 93 Arthroplasty, excisional, for degenerative joint disease, in toco toucan, 39 Aspiration bone marrow, in ferrets, 66 fine-needle, of adrenal glands, in ferrets, 15 liver, in ferrets, 68 lymph node, in ferrets, 68 splenic, in ferrets, 66 Atovaquone suspension, for toxoplasmosis, in wallabies, 90 Atrophic rhinitis, in potbellied pigs, 6 Australian grass parakeets, hypovitaminosis E in, 23 Avian (see Birds) Calculi, cystic, surgical removal from desert tortoise, 85 Candida infection, in birds, 88 Canola oil/with atovaquone suspension for toxoplasmosis, in wallabies, 90 Capillary hemangioma, on neck of zebra finch, 87 Carbaril powder, for ear mites, in sugar glider, 37 Cardiomyopathy, dilated, in ferrets, 9 Castrated ferret, with hair loss, 43, 45 Cells, white blood, counting, 2 Chameleon, Jackson's, care sheet on, 30 Cheek pouch, distended, in hamster, 51, 52 Chemistry, reptile plasma, and sample dilution, 77 Chlamydia psittaci infections, respiratory, in birds, 49-50 Chlamydiosis testing, 46 Chloramphenicol, for otitis interna, in rabbits, 4 Chordoma, causing hair loss in castrated ferret, 45 Chromatophoroma, malignant, in day gecko, 73-74 Ciliary dyskinesia, in potbellied pigs, 6 Circling, in rodents, 51-52 Clostridia, in blood from lizards, 21 Coccidiosis, in wallaby, 89 Cockatiel, Lutino, mycobacterial infection in, 47 Cockatoo, Moluccan, cutaneous mycobacteriosis in, 7 Collar, in prevention of selfmutilation, in birds, 60 Copper sulfate treatment, in aquarium water for parasitic disease, 28 Cost, of surgery for adrenal tumors, in ferrets, 54 Crop disorders, in psittacines, 17-18 Culture and sensitivity, 46 Cutaneous mycobacteriosis, in Moluccan cockatoo, 7 Cystic calculi, surgical removal from desert tortoise, 85 prostatic disease, in ferret, 13 facial, in llama, 72 Desert tortoise, surgical removal of cystic calculi from, 85 Diabetes mellitus, in guinea pig, 5 Diagnostic sampling, in ferrets, 65-66, 68 testing, in exotic pets, 46 Diarrhea, in rabbits, 35-36, 39 Diazoxide, for insulinoma, in ferrets, 29 Diet of chameleon, Jackson's, 30 of hedgehog, African pygmy, 62 of parrots, Amazon, and foot problems, 76 of sugar glider, 33, 34 of turtles, aquatic freshwater, 22 of wallaby, 89 of waterfowl, pet, 38 Digoxin, for heart disease, in ferrets, 9, 13 Diuretics, for heart disease, in ferrets, 9, 13 Dove, foreign body in, 31 Dragons, bearded, feeding, 93 Dyskinesia, ciliary, in potbellied pigs, 6 Dystocia, reptile, 91, 93

F

Facial dermatitis and alopecia, in llama, 72 trauma causing jaw abscess, in Tammar wallaby, 68, 71 Fecal examination, 46 sample collection and interpretation, in ferrets, 66 Feeding of dragons, bearded, 93 of iguana, care sheet on, 86 of rabbits, newborn, 40 of reptiles, ill, 42 of tortoise, Bell's hingeback, 85 Fenbendazole, for anorexia in snakes, 20 Ferrets adrenal disease in, medical treatment, 11-12, 13, 15-16, 81-82, 84 adrenal gland aspiration in, fine-needle, 15 adrenal tumors in, care sheet on, 54 blood collection from, 13 castrated, with hair loss, 43, 45 diagnostic sampling in, 65-66, 68 fibrosarcoma in, vaccineinduced, 87 hair loss in, 14, 43 heart disease in, 9-10, 13, 79 hyperadrenocorticism in, 43 insulinoma in, 29 prostatitic disease in, cystic, 13 trimming nails on, 61 weakness in, 67 Fibrosarcoma, vaccineinduced, in ferret, 87 Finances, limited client, and anorexia in snakes, 19-20 Finch, zebra, with yellow neck lump, 84, 87 Flunixin in rabbits for bacterial infections causing head tilt, 4 for diarrhea, 36 Food impaction, causing abscessation in cheek pouch of hamster, 52 Foot problems, in Amazon parrots, 75-76 Foreign body, in dove, 31 Furosemide, for heart disease, in ferrets, 13

B

Bacterial infections, respiratory, in birds, 49 Bandaging, of extremity wounds, in monkeys, 61 Baylisascaris infections, causing circling, in rodents, 51-52 Bell's hingeback tortoise, feeding of, 85 Bicalutamide, for ferret adrenal disease, 15, 82 Bile acids evaluation, 46 Biochemical profile, serum or plasma, 46 Biopsy in ferrets liver, 68 lymph node, 68 Birds blood transfusions in, 5 Candida infection in, 88 liver disorders in, 58-59 mycobacterial infection in, 47 respiratory disorders in, 49-50 self-mutilation in, 59-60, 63 Blood cells, white, counting, 2 collection from ferrets, 13, 65 from iguanas, 21 count, complete, 46 of lizards, clostridia in, 21 transfusions, avian, 5 Boa constrictors, inclusion body disease of, 1-2 Bone marrow aspiration, in ferrets, 66 Bottles, water, of guinea pigs, Pseudomonas in, 24 Breeding of gerbils, 32 of Jackson's chameleon, 30 Bumblefoot, in Amazon parrots, 75 Burmese pythons, inclusion body disease of, 1-2 Butorphanol, for diarrhea, in rabbits, 36

E

Ear mites in rabbits, treatment, 53, 77 in sugar glider, 34, 37 Egg hatchings, problematic, in tortoises, 91, 93 Electrophoresis, protein, 46 Enalapril, for heart disease, in ferrets, 13 Endoscopy, gastric, in ferrets, 68 Enrofloxacin for bacterial infections causing head tilt, in rabbits, 4 for diarrhea, in rabbits, 36 for gastroenteropathies, in wallabies, 90 for otitis interna, in rabbits, 4 Environment of Jackson's chameleon, 30 of wallaby, 89 Exotic pets diagnostic testing in, 46 helping owner construct appropriate habitat for, 69 zoonotic potential of HIV-positive patient keeping, 56 Extremity wounds, bandaging, in monkeys, 61

D

Day gecko, malignant chromatophoroma in, 73-74 Dental care, of nonhuman primates, 78 Dermatitis erythematous, alopecic, moist, in gerbils, 59-60

G

Gastric endoscopy, in ferrets, 68 Gastroenteropathies, in wallaby, 89-90

C

Calcium supplementation, for iguanas, 86

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Gecko, day, malignant chromatophoroma in, 73-74 Gerbils breeding of, 32 dermatitis in, erythematous, alopecic, moist, 59-60 Granuloma, mycobacterial, in Lutino cockatiel, 47 Guinea pig diabetes mellitus in, 5 polyuria/polydipsia in, 3, 5 Pseudomonas in water bottles of, 24 for mites air sac, in birds, 49 ear, in rabbits, 3, 53, 77 ear, in sugar glider, 37 Metronidazole for anorexia, in snakes, 19, 20 for diarrhea, in rabbits, 36 for gastroenteropathies, in wallabies, 90 Mice, circling in, 51-52 Mineralization, metastatic, 35 Mites air sac, in birds, 49 ear in rabbits, treatment, 53, 77 in sugar glider, 34, 37 Mitotane, for ferret adrenal disease, 12 Moluccan cockatoo, cutaneous mycobacteriosis in, 7 Monkeys, bandaging extremity wounds in, 61 Mycobacterial infection, avian, 47 Mycobacteriosis, cutaneous, in Moluccan cockatoo, 7 Mycoplasma pulmonis infection, in rats, 40, 80 Mycotic infections, respiratory, in birds, 49 Oxytocin, for reptile dystocia, 93 Protein electrophoresis, 46 Pseudomonas, in water bottles of guinea pigs, 24 Psittacines adult, Pacheco's disease causing hepatitis and death in, 64 crop disorders in, 17-18 Psittacosis testing, 46 Pythons, Burmese, inclusion body disease of, 1-2

P

Pacheco's disease, causing hepatitis and death in adult Amazon parrot, 64 Parakeets, Australian grass, hypovitaminosis E in, 23 Paramyxovirus, in snakes, 1-2 Parasitic disease, in marine aquarium in a restaurant, 28 Parrots African grey, keel problems in, 83 Amazon adult, with severe liver necrosis, Pacheco's disease causing death in, 64 foot problems in, 75-76 Pets, exotic (see Exotic pets) Pig guinea polyuria/polydipsia in, 3, 5 Pseudomonas in water bottles of, 24 potbellied lameness in, 75, 76 respiratory diseases in, care sheet on, 6 Piperacillin, for cutaneous mycobacteriosis, in Moluccan cockatoo, 7 Pneumonia, in potbellied pigs, 6 Pododermatitis, in Amazon parrots, 75 Polydipsia, in guinea pig, 3, 5 Polyuria, in guinea pig, 3, 5 Portal system, reptilian, 63 Potbellied pig lameness in, 75, 76 respiratory diseases in, care sheet on, 6 Povidone-iodine solutions, for ear mites, in rabbits, 4 Prairie dog malocclusion in, 43-45 neutering of, anesthetic for, 48 Prednisolone, for facial dermatitis and alopecia, in llama, 72 Prednisone in ferrets for heartworm, 10 for insulinoma, 29 Primates, nonhuman, dental care of, 78 Prolapse, in short-tailed opossum, 55 Propofol, as anesthetic for tree snakes, 29 Prostaglandin E2, for reptile dystocia, 93 Prostatic disease, cystic, in ferret, 13

J

Jackson's chameleon, care sheet on, 30 Jaw abscess, as sequela to facial trauma, in Tammar wallaby, 68, 71 Joint disease, degenerative, in toco toucan, 39

K

Keel problems, in African grey parrots, 83 Knemidokoptes mange, on feet of Amazon parrots, 75

Q

Quality assurance, in inhouse laboratory, 25-26

H

Habitat appropriate, for exotic pet, helping owner construct, 69 captive, for pet waterfowl, 38 Hair loss (see Alopecia) Hamsters, cheek pouch distention in, 51, 52 Hatchings, problematic egg, in tortoises, 91, 93 Head tilt, in rabbits, 3-4, 5 Heart disease in ferrets, 9-10, 13, 79 weakness due to, 67 Heartworm disease, in ferrets, 9-10, 79 Heavy metal testing, 46 Hedgehog, African pygmy, diet of, 62 renal disease in, 20-21 Hemangioma, capillary, on neck of zebra finch, 87 Hemochromatosis, in birds, 59 HIV-positive patient, zoonotic potential of keeping pets, 56 Hyperadrenocorticism, in ferrets, 43 Hypovitaminosis E, in Australian grass parakeets, 23

R

Rabbits anorexia in, care sheet on, 70 diarrhea in, 35-36, 39 ear mites in, treatment, 53, 77 head tilt in, 3-4, 5 New Zealand white, anesthetic for neutering, 8 newborn, feeding of, 40 thymoma in, malignant, 69 Rats, Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in, 40, 80 Rectal prolapse, in shorttailed opossum, 55 Renal disease, in hedgehogs, 20-21 Reptiles care sheet on, 86 dystocia in, 91, 93 ill, stabilization of, 41-42 portal system of, 63 sample dilution effects on plasma chemistry in, 77 Respiratory diseases in potbellied pigs, care sheet on, 6 disorders, in birds, 49-50 Rhinitis, atrophic, in potbellied pigs, 6 Rodents alopecia in, 27-28 circling in, 51-52 malocclusion in, 43-45 neutering of, 37

L

Laboratory, in-house, quality assurance in, 25-26 Lameness chronic, in toco toucan, 39 in potbellied pig, 75, 76 Leuprolide acetate in ferrets for adrenal disease, 12, 13, 15, 16, 82 for adrenal tumors, 54 Listeria infection, causing circling, in rodents, 51-52 Liver aspiration, in ferrets, 68 biopsy, in ferrets, 68 disorders, in birds, 58-59 necrosis, severe, in adult Amazon parrot, Pacheco's disease causing death in, 64 Lizards, clostridia in blood from, 21 Llama, facial dermatitis and alopecia in, 72 Lymph node biopsy and aspiration, in ferrets, 68

N

Nails, trimming, on ferrets, 61 Neck lump, yellow, in zebra finch, 84, 87 Necrobacillosis, in wallaby, 90, 92 Necrosis, severe liver, in adult Amazon parrot, Pacheco's disease causing death in, 64 Neutering of prairie dog, anesthetic for, 48 of rabbit, New Zealand white, anesthetic for, 8 of rodents, 37 New Zealand white rabbit, anesthetic for neutering of, 8 Newborn psittacines, crop disorders in, 17-18 rabbit, feeding of, 40 Nitroglycerin 2%, for heart disease, in ferrets, 13 Nutrient composition, of invertebrates, 53 Nystatin, added to antibiotic therapy, and Candida, in birds, 88

M

Malocclusion, in prairie dogs and rodents, 43-45 Mange, Knemidokoptes, on feet of Amazon parrots, 75 Marine aquarium, in a restaurant, parasitic disease in, 28 Marrow aspiration, in ferrets, 66 Meclizine, for bacterial infections causing head tilt, in rabbits, 4 Melarsomine, for heartworm, in ferrets, 10 Melatonin, in adrenal disease, in ferrets, 81 Metal, heavy, testing, 46 Metastatic mineralization, 35 Metoclopramide, for gastroenteropathies, in wallabies, 90

I

Iguana blood collection from, 21 feeding of, care sheet on, 86 urolith in, 79 Inclusion body disease, of snakes, 1-2 Insulinoma in ferrets, 29 weakness due, 67 Invertebrates, nutrient composition of, 53 Iron storage disease, in birds, 59 Isoflurane anesthesia, for neutering of prairie dog, 48 Ivermectin for alopecia, in rodents, 28 for facial dermatitis and alopecia, in llama, 72 for prevention of heartworm, in ferrets, 10

S

Sample dilution, and reptile plasma chemistry, 77 Self-mutilation, in birds, 59-60, 63 Silver sulfadiazine cream, for ear mites, in rabbits, 77 Snakes anorexia in, and limited client finances, 19-20 paramyxovirus and inclusion body disease of, 1-2 tree, propofol as anesthetic for, 29

O

Opossum, short-tailed, prolapse in, 55 Osteoarthritis, in potbellied pig, 76 Oxytetracycline, for Listeria infection, in rodents, 51-52

continues on page 96

95

EXOTIC PET PRACTICE

VOLUME 5 · ISSUE 12 · DECEMBER 2000

Volume 5 Subject Index

continues from page 95

Splenic aspiration, in ferrets, 66 Sugar glider, medical problems in, 33-34, 37 Sulfadimethoxine for diarrhea, in rabbits, 36 for toxoplasmosis, in wallabies, 90 Sulfamethazine, in drinking water for diarrhea, in rabbits, 36 Tortoise Bell's hingeback, feeding of, 85 desert, surgical removal of cystic calculi from, 85 egg hatchings in, problematic, 91, 93 Toucan, toco, with chronic lameness, 39 Toxoplasmosis, in wallaby, 90 Tracheal wash, in ferrets, 68 Transfusions, blood, avian, 5 Trauma facial, causing jaw abscess, in Tammar wallaby, 68, 71 foot, in Amazon parrots, 75 hair loss due to, in ferrets, 14 keel problems in African grey parrots due to, 83 in wallaby, 92 Tree snakes, propofol as anesthetic for, 29 Triamcinolone diacetate, for facial dermatitis and alopecia, in llama, 72 Trimethoprim -sulfa antibiotics for diarrhea, in rabbits, 36 -sulfamethoxazole for toxoplasmosis, in wallabies, 90 Trimming of nails, on ferrets, 61 Tumor, adrenal, in ferrets care sheet on, 54 hair loss due to, 14 Turtles, aquatic freshwater, basic care of, 22

V

Vaccine-induced fibrosarcoma, in ferret, 87 Virus testing, 46 Vitamin injections for anorexia, in snakes, 20 supplementation for iguanas, 86

WBC counts, 2 Weakness, in ferrets, 67 White blood cells, counting, 2 Wounds, extremity, bandaging, in monkeys, 61

Y

Yellow neck lump, in zebra finch, 84, 87 Yogurt, for diarrhea, in rabbits, 36

W

Wallaby medical problems of, 89-90, 92 Tammar, jaw abscess as sequela to facial trauma in, 68, 71 Water aquarium, copper sulfate treatment of, for parasitic disease, 28 bottles of guinea pigs, Pseudomonas in, 24 Waterfowl, pet, basic care of, 38

T

Tammar wallaby, jaw abscess as sequela to facial trauma in, 68, 71 Tamoxifen, for ferret adrenal disease, 12 Thiacetarsemide, for heartworm, in ferrets, 10 Thymoma, malignant, in rabbit, 69 Toco toucan, with chronic lameness, 39

Z

Zebra finch, with yellow neck lump, 84, 87 Zoonotic potential, of HIVpositive patient keeping his pet, 56

U

Urine collection, in ferrets, 65-66 Urolith, in iguana, 79

As you know, this marks the last issue of Exotic Pet Practice. I, along with the board members, have enjoyed sharing our knowledge with you and meeting some of you at various meetings. I would like to thank the board, along with our developmental editor Susan Sibiski, for a job well done. Many of you have inquired about continuing to receive information on exotic pets because there is a big need for this education. If you would like to continue receiving regular updates, please send me your name and address and we will send you information on exotic pets if there is enough interest. Send your address to Shawn Messonnier, DVM, 2145 W Park, Plano, TX 75075, or, preferably, to <[email protected]>. Once again, thank you for your support. I look forward to hearing from you and continuing to share our knowledge about exotic pets! Shawn Messonnier, DVM

11830 Westline Industrial Drive St. Louis, MO 63146-9988

PRSRT STD U.S. Postage PAID FULTON, MO Permit No. 37

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