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N+3 Technologies and Concepts

Green Aviation Summit Integrated Solutions for Fuel, Noise, and Emission Reduction

NASA Ames Research Center

September 8-9, 2010

Dr. Rich Wahls Project Scientist Subsonic Fixed Wing Project Fundamental Aeronautics Program Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate

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Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

What is N+3?

· Low TRL research today TRL 4-6 by 2025 · Impact future aircraft 2030 & beyond · Research for the far term scenario-based futures

Today

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Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

NASA NASA/VaTech/ GaTech

Many Possible Futures

NASA Subsonic Transport System Level Metrics

.... technology for dramatically improving noise, emissions, & performance

CORNERS OF THE TRADE SPACE Noise (cum below Stage 4) LTO NOx Emissions (below CAEP 6) Performance: Aircraft Fuel Burn Performance: Field Length N+1 (2015)*** Relative to Single Aisle Reference -32 db -60% -33%** -33% N+2 (2020)*** Relative to Twin Aisle Reference -42 db -75% -50%** -50% N+3 (2025)***

-71 db Better than -75% Better than -70% Exploit metroplex* concepts

*** Technology Readiness Level = 4 - 6: ** Additional potential gains from operational improvements * Optimal use of available runways in metropolitan areas.

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Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

How Can These Goals Be Met?

a range of technologies & leveraging of NextGen in aircraft design

reduced secondary structure weight active load alleviation

high bypass ratio engines (BPR=20) w/ high efficiency small cores

LDI advanced combustor boundary layer ingestion

health monitoring

distortion tolerant fan Tt4 materials & advanced cooling variable area nozzle

high aspect ratio laminar wing lifting body faired undercarriage

adv structural materials

- reduced cruise Mach - optimized cruise altitude - descent angle of 4º - approach runway displacement threshold

adv engine materials

example from MIT N+3

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Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

Weight Reduction and Manufacturing

electron beam free form fabrication (EBF3)

structural design optimization with curvilinear stiffeners

fabrication & testing of structural designs

lightweight aeroelastically tailored wing structure with integral control surfaces

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Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

Weight Reduction via Advanced Multifunctional Materials

nanotubes

Variable Stiffness CNT for airframe components Hot Section BNNT for propulsion components

nano-structured elements within active polymeric materials for active wing skin (load bearing + electric conductivity)

Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

nanotube reinforced fibers for incorporation in ceramic composite (load bearing + thermal management)

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Aero-Structures

changing the multidisciplinary trade space

Multi-Objective Leading Edge balancing aero, structures, acoustics slat cove unsteady aero Truss-Braced Wing balancing drag, weight, speed

low drag strut wing/strut/truss optimization bench-top demo hardware

main element

cove filler assembly

wing weight uncertainty

slat

Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

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Hybrid Electric Propulsion

..... gas turbine­battery hybrid system (GE "hfan" from Boeing N+3 Study) Ultra-high PR Core Compressor active clearance control Adv Composite Fan 4-Stage Booster Adv HPT adv 3D aero, sculpted CMC nozzles/blades

Variable Core Nozzle Adv Motor & Gearbox

Advanced Combustor Adv Nacelle Advanced LPT unitized composite highly loaded stages adv acoustic features Integrated Thrust Reverser/ CMC blades/vanes min outer diameter Highly Variable Fan Nozzle

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Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

Hybrid Electric Propulsion

leverage greening of America ... (GE "hfan" from Boeing N+3 Study) Weight of Jet Fuel & Advances in Battery Technology Required Batteries at Takeoff

Battery Wh/kg

RANGE

750 Wh/kg for SUGAR Volt

Jet Fuel

Battery Packs

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Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

N+3 Integrated Vehicle Concepts

technology collectors ... revolutionary performance ... low TRL ... a lot of techs needed

Truss-Braced Wing with Hybrid Electric Propulsion

Boeing ­ NASA N+3 Study

Hybrid Wing Body w/ Turbo-Electric Distributed Propulsion

NASA in-house

D8 Double Bubble w/ high BPR BLI Propulsion

MIT ­ NASA N+3 Study

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Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

Closing Remarks

· Exciting times

­ Many opportunities ... many challenges

· Technologies

­ Many broadly applicable technologies ­ Some uniquely enabling technologies

· Vehicles, Operations, Energy · N+3 NRA studies see:

http://www.nasa.gov/topics/aeronautics/features/future_airplanes_prt.htm

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Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

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