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African Scientific Legacy

Andrew Ose Phiri

Illustrations on cover: Top Patricia Bath, left Philip Emeagwali. Below: Hamilton Naki and Christian Barnard and right, Maheru Imhotep Ra.

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Published by MWAJIONERA ENTERPRISES, P.O. Box RW 50614, Lusaka. Cell: +260 96 755842 Email: [email protected]

Copyright©2006 (6247 AC), Andrew Ose Phiri [email protected] First Printing, 2006 (6247 AC) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

ISBN 9982-45-125-X

Design and typesetting by Andrew Ose Phiri and Keegan Petama Cover design by Keegan Petama Illustrations by Don Kazembe

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An ancient Egyptian temple saying says: `The body is the house of God. That is why it is said,

"Man Know Thyself."'

It is to the renascent African, the one that is springing up anew, being born again, that I dedicate this book.

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Contents

In Lieu of an Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Chapter One Ancient Contributions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Chapter Two Modern Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Chapter Three African-American Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

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In Lieu of an Introduction

"History dictates that if you do not know your past, then you cannot analyze the present and plan for the future." -Kwame Nantambu "The most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed." -Steve Biko "A man without the knowledge of where he has been knows not where he is, or where he is going." -Yosef A. A. ben-Jochannan

THE PRIVILEGED yet sometimes uninformed people have an undeserved deadly grip on the media and education dissemination systems in the world. This stranglehold in Africa and Zambia in particular results in a fatally distorted information order. While being reminded daily of the failures of African or black societies, the information on remarkable achievements made by continental and Diaspora African individuals and some nations is usually withheld from the public domain. This is compounded by the small number of books on the subject of positive African experience. This persistent democratization of ignorance brings about negative perceptions about our people and is detrimental to our collective confidence in ourselves and, consequently, holds back positive development. The complete story of African achievements, especially in scientific and technological fields must be told to the African youth not only to fill the yawning knowledge gap but to provide inspiration and possible role models. The educational, cultural, religious and general mass-media do us a disservice by not including this vital information in their discourses.

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Conventional knowledge as expressed by the ever-present Western mythorians and readily regurgitated by the local diminutive intellectuals and their students is that Africans have not contributed anything to world technological development.1 Yet, the contrary is true. According to eminent historian Prof. Ivan van Sertima, the Africans are the Almost every `inventors of math, science and geography.

European/American invention can be traced back to the principles and 2 practices that were developed, first in Africa.'

Inventions by Africans or black people range from the calendar, paper making, astronomy, domestication of animals, agriculture, making of ocean going crafts, engineering, medicine, writing systems, stone architecture, ways of counting (in Ancient Africa) to technologies to produce the fastest computers (Philip Emeagwali); the shoe lasting machine (Jan Matzeliger); blood transfusion techniques (Dr. Charles Drew); the traffic lights (Garrett Morgan); improvements to the elevator which made it safer (Alexander Miles); ice-cream (Augustus Jackson); pencil sharpener (John Love); and the air conditioner (Frederick Jones). The list goes on to include the performing of the first open heart operation (Dr. Daniel Dale Williams); the lawn mower (John Burr); the electric trolley (Elbert Robinson); the corn planter (Henry Blair); the electric bulb filament which lasted longer (Lewis H. Latimer); the fountain pen (William B. Purvis); and the co-invention of the electronic microscope among others are some of the many black inventions which have revolutionized everyday life. In fact the very etymology of many modern scientific terms bespeak eloquently of their African origins. The physics term atom corresponds to the Egyptian God Atum, a self created God, everything and nothing, positive and negative just as the atom has

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Lerone Bennett Jr., 10 biggest lies about black history http://www.black-history.biz/black-history/ 2 Blacks are key to world progress, historian asserts http://emeagwali.com/special/black-scientists/black-inventors.html

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positive and negative electrons and is everything since it is the elemental building block and nothing since it is infinitesimally small.3 The term chemistry is derived from Khem/ Kemit/ Kemet/ Kamit/ Chem or some other phonetization of Km't, the name of Ancient Egypt. The science of the Kemites, the black African people of Ancient Egypt was mystery to the Europeans of that time hence the term Khem mystery which later became chemistry. The mathematical term algorithm is a corruption of the name of the Persian mathematician Mohammed Al Khwarizmi4 while the term caesarian section was coined directly as a result of the surgical operation the Egyptian high priests carried out on Cleopatra of Egypt to deliver Caesarion, her child with the Roman emperor Caesar in 47 BC.5 This monograph is an attempt to outline some landmark scientific and technological contributions by African peoples globally. Chapter one traces the ancient contributors starting with Imhotep, `father of scientific medicine' to the contributions of the black Moors - precursors of European scientific enlightenment and remarkable progress during the European Renaissance. The second chapter covers modern contributions of scientists such as Dr. Thomas Mensah, Dr. Philip Emeagwali, Dr. Charles Ssali, Dr. Ahmed Zewail, Dr. Christiaan Barnard and Hamilton Naki, Dr. Allan M. Cormack, Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop and others. The third and final chapter gives an outline of the contributions of the African-Americans, a group which has made notable scientific and technological breakthroughs in spite of the oppression they have undergone. The epilogue explores the theme of the importance of African history and challenges African scientists to once again take a leading role in world technological development.

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Femi Akomolafe, Review of George G. M. James, Stolen Legacy http://www.africawithin.com/bios/review_ggmjames.htm see also Ekowa A. Kenyatta, Atom, Atum and the Adam http://www.angelfire.com/journal2/essaysbyekowa/The%20Atom,%20Atum,%20Adam.htm The History of Mathematics and Computing http://www.mathematicians.biz/mathematicians Dr.Kwame Nantambu, Historical facts about ancient and modern Afrikans http://www.trinicenter.com/kwame/20010615b.htm

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Sources for further research through websites and other supplementary information on African scientific societies and individual scientists are given in the appendices. In a marked departure from traditional literary research, I have deliberately gleaned most information from websites. I do not make any apologies for this; we are in the digital age. While being mindful that some web sources, being in the infancy of development, are sometimes hastily put up with attendant errors and may not be permanently sited, the internet being truly egalitarian and democratic has the advantage of almost immediate access to everyone computer literate and has exponentially increased the dissemination of information. Where certain publishers would censor or not support the publication of other opinions, the internet affords us a chance to access such opinions uncensored. The internet makes it possible for us to unshackle ourselves from the yoke of information imperialism if we make creative and aggressive use of this media. The selection of scientists featured in this volume has been tempered by the availability of information. Because of the political divide of the continent into predominantly Anglophone and Francophone countries, information on non-English speaking scientists has been hard to find. Thus few, if any, scientists from Congo, Mozambique, Sudan or Cote d'Ivoire are featured. Further, since barring unforeseen circumstances, African scientists will never cease to be born, this work could never pretend to be exhaustive; it is only a progress report that may be updated time and again as we discover more information. This monograph also raises cultural issues and as such it may be useful to policy makers in educational matters wishing to offer a correction to our science curricula where Western scientists and inventors such as Pythagoras, Newton, Einstein, Galileo, Copernicus, Pasteur, Curie, Bell, Faraday, Edison and so on and so forth, are on the lips of every school child while non-Western, particularly African scientists remain uncelebrated even after discovering some life-changing processes. Therefore, the science

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teachers and in fact all teachers should find this book useful. However, as we celebrate the achievements of black scientists and inventors, we should not forget the fact that today's high-tech industries are led by large corporations which are Western and seldom employ black or African peoples unless they prove to be exceptionally talented. As a result African or black contributions in high technology are presently minor. It is, however, the few who have left indelible footprints in this exclusive domain we highlight here. I take cognizance of various suggestions and criticisms from people who were part of this project. To start with, it was J. Zimba and M. Simenda who suggested to me that I write a book when I showed them the various materials and perspectives I had gathered on African history. I have since narrowed that to a monograph on scientific achievements. I wish to specially thank my better half and my literary executrix, M. D. Phiri for typing the manuscript and for the many corrections and suggestions she made. The following people, after reading the draft manuscript, made comments some of which I have adopted: M. Nkhoma, E. Phiri, C. Chandi, H. C. Mhango, H. Sakala, A. Phiri, C. Zavare, M.A. Nkhata, W. Tembo, M. Tabor, A. Bwalya, T. B. Chimata, N. Siame, W. Scott and R. Kasongo. We are also grateful to Sylva Catering for supporting this project through an advert. Thanks are also due to the Publisher and other persons who helped in one way or another in realizing this project but could not all be mentioned here either because my memory had omitted them or because their contributions were made after we had already gone to the printing press.

A. O. Phiri Lusaka, Zambia March, 2006

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Chapter 1

Ancient Contributions

"Africa is not only the original home of humanity; it is the cradle of its intellect...Over the course of millions of years, groups of prehistoric Africans of the genus Homo reasoned, judged, understood, and created the basis for much of the technology and industry that exists in the world today." -John E. Pfeiffer "...When we say that the ancestors of the Blacks, who today live mainly in Black Africa, were the first to invent mathematics, astronomy, the calendar, sciences in general, arts, religion, agriculture, social organization, medicine, writing techniques, architecture...we are merely expressing the plain unvarnished truth which no one today can refute by arguments worthy of the name." -Cheikh Anta Diop "I believe that as Black people, if we are to be a strong people again on a global scale, we must continually clarify who we are and where we are, and constantly emphasize the things that made us great in the past." -Runoko Rashidi

AS INNOVATORS of early civilizations globally (Genesis 10: 610), Africans invented writing systems, astronomy, astrology, mathematics, science, philosophy, social and political organization, farming, domestication of animals, urban planning, metallurgy, ocean going crafts, religious beliefs, calendars, art, literature, learning, judicial systems and many moral principles. Today's numerals, the so-called `Arabic' numerals were not introduced to the world by the Arabs.6 Strangely the `Arabic'

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KCTS Diversity Programmes ­ The History of Black History http://www.kctcs.net/diversity programs/stolenlegacy.htm

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numerals as purportedly introduced by Arabs were only from one to nine and are used in Maghreb Arab (Arab countries in Africa) only. The zero is said to be from India allegedly introduced by Aryabhatta in 476 AD. The Arabic script letters are cursive and are written from right to left, while the numerals are clearly all single characters and are written from left to right. A pan-African magazine in an article titled Ancient Egypt: Africa's stolen legacy7drew on the discovery by Egyptologist Dr. Kiredorf (Kierderf or Kierdorf?) of the Arabic numerals including zero in the stepped pyramid inscribed on the walls of the interior dating some 3000 years ago. These numerals were conceived in zoolatry i.e. in form of snakes, human beings and a bird and must have had special magico-spiritual-philosophical significance. The invention of the number systems by Africans has had far reaching consequences. Imagine trying to multiply large numbers using the Roman numerals! Or where would our digital industry be today without the zero and one? Numbers in Ancient Africa had special meanings. The numbers 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 42 and 49 with their sums, multiples or factors signified special occasions and situations. For instance there are 60 seconds in one minute, 60 minutes in one hour, 12 hours in a day. Thirty, a multiple of six, makes the number of days in a month. The division of days into hours, minutes and seconds was done by ancient Egyptians. In fact, the original Egyptian calendar had twelve months each of thirty days and the thirteenth month at the end of the year with five or six days depending whether the year was a leap year or not.8 This division of the day into twelve hours, an hour into sixty minutes and a minute into sixty seconds and so on was done by ancient Africans.9 Today in

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Saafu Khpera, "Ancient Egypt: Africa's stolen legacy" New African, No. 389, October 2000, p.25 See also http://www.africasia.com/newafrican/oct00/cover_story.html 8 What is the Sidereal Calendar? http://www.theearthcenter.cal/sca.html 9 Moustafa Gadalla, The Egyptian Origin of the Gregorian Calendar http://www.egypt-tehuti.org/articles/gregorian-calendar.html

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Ethiopia the thirteen month calendar, the oldest surviving calendar is still in use.10 There is more on the magico-spiritual role of numbers in the African worldview. The number seven specifically signified completion in Ancient Egypt and this is evident in the seven days of the week where God rested on the seventh-day.11 Dr. Maulana Karenga, an African American cultural activist and black studies professor, when he created kwanzaa, not only assigned seven days of celebration, but also assigned the seven principles, namely, unity (umoja), self-determination (kujichangulia), collective work and responsibility (ujima), cooperative economies (ujamaa), purpose (nia) creativity (kuumba), and faith (imani).12 In addition there are seven colours on the electromagnetic spectrum (rainbow), there are seven seals in the biblical Revelation story and every normal human being has seven senses if we include clairvoyance/consciousness and intuition/nervous aerial; in addition to the five usually recognized senses.13 One could also ask why we have nine planets, why a human infant stays nine months in the womb of the mother, and why the proverbial cat has nine lives! These and many other manifestations are beyond the scope of this work but suffice it to illustrate that our ancestors practiced a magico-spiritual-philosophical science which recognized natural, cosmic and human cycles in balance and harmony. An animal bone, the Lubondo bone, estimated to be more than 35,000 years old with markings probably used for counting was discovered in Swaziland while the Ishango bone, discovered

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Dr. Aberra Molla, The Ethiopian Calendar http://www.ethiopic.com/calendar/ethiopic.htm 11 Dr. Kwame Nantambu, Role of Numbers in Ancient Kemet (Egypt) http://www.trinicenter.com/kwame/2002/Aug/ see also Grisso, The Kamitic Story of Creation and its Purpose http://www.theafrican.com/Magazine/Cosmo.htm 12 Ibid. 13 Ibid.

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in the Democratic Republic of Congo is another calculating device found in Africa dating some 10,000 years old.14 The Dogon people of Mali, like most black Africans, consider themselves to be the descendants of ancient Egyptians. They are known to have a long tradition of charting the heavenly bodies spanning several hundreds of years and have had the knowledge that the star Sirius B was the `heaviest star' or `white dwarf' as dense stars are known.15 Africans elsewhere throughout the continent in Zimbabwe, Togo, Benin, Botswana, Kenya, South Africa, Senegal, The Gambia, and Sudan and in Ancient Egypt have built several astronomical monuments and developed calendars.16 Elsewhere in Africa from the North East to West and Central, East and Southern Africa we have technological achievements in the use of metals (iron, copper, bronze etc), elegant town planning, architecture and irrigation techniques spanning at least 2000 years B.C.17 It is a remarkable discovery that models of today's advanced flying machines ­ helicopters, gliders, submarines and UFOs some 3000 years old are found engraved in Egyptian temple ceiling beams.18 Many scholars and writers such as Cheikh Anta Diop, Ivan van Sertima, Nwankwo Ezeabasili, Beatrice Lumpkin, Carmille Yarbrough, Margaret Alic, Claudia Zaslavsky, Charles S. Finch, Wini Warren, Hattie Carwell, John Pappademos among others have outlined in their researches several contributions made by black scientists, women scientists and the African technological

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Arthur Lewin, Africa Unlimited http://www.swagga.com/arthurlewin.htm 15 Dogon Theory of Creation http://crystalinks.com/dogon2.html 16 Jarita Holbrook, African Astronomy http://www.wam.umd.edu/~Haloc/archastro/ae28.html 17 The use of technology and science in pre-modern Africa http://www.coloq.org/Articles/1999/afrotech.htm 18 Ancient Egyptian Flying Vehicles http://crystalinks.com/ancientaircraft.html

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and scientific legacy from the earliest times in Africa and the African Diaspora to the present.19

Maheru Imhotep Ra (circa 2980 BC)

Father of Scientific Medicine Imhotep is the world's first recorded multi-genius and lived in ancient Egypt. He is the father of scientific medicine, the first recognized doctor and the first recognized architect who designed the stepped pyramid at Saqqara, the world's first skyscraper and which monument still stands today after over 5000 years. Imhotep defined therapeutic principles, established medical centres, treated diseases, taught medical sciences and was made a God of medicine in Egypt, Greece and Rome. The so-called `father of medicine' the Greek Hippocrates lived some 2,500 years after Imhotep and acknowledges the ancient indebtedness to Imhotep in this Hippocratic Oath now recited worldwide by physicians when he said:

`I swear by Apollo the physician, by Aesculapius, Hygeia and Panacea, and take to witness all the gods, all the goddesses, to keep according to my ability and judgement, the following Oaths . . .'20

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Alicia Ann Randolph (Compilation), Exploring African American Ingenuity http://www.lapl.org/central/guides/affirmingenuity.html see also Brian Murfin, African Science in School Curriculum http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/K-12/African_Science.html 20 The Hippocratic Oath http://www.hal-pc.org/~ollie/hippocratic.oath.html

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Aesculapius is a God identified with Imhotep. Imhotep, in addition to medical and architectural expertise was also a sage, scribe, poet, high priest, astrologer, vizier and chief minister and is the indisputable first multi-genius in world recorded history. The ancient medical treatise which has been misnamed the `Edwin Smith Papyrus' is believed to have been authored by Imhotep. More than 90 anatomical terms and injuries are described in this medical text.21 The engineering problems solved by the Ancient Egyptians in building the Pyramids have made researchers wonder how the ancients could have achieved such a feat. The task of carving the millions of stones and lifting them to such heights seems impossible. French scientist Professor Joseph Davidovits maintains that Imhotep synthesised the stones used in the pyramid from limestone and cast the limestone concrete in situ.22 These manmade stones were made using an Ari-kat technology pioneered by Imhotep which was lost but rediscovered by Davidovits at the Geopolymer Institute in Saint Quentin, France.23

Ahmes or Ahmose (1680-1620 BC)

Writer of First Mathematics Textbook Ahmes was a scribe and mathematician in ancient Egypt and compiled the Ahmes Papyrus or as Eurocentric scholars have called it the `Rhind Papyrus'. This mathematical treatise was excavated in Africa but was named after Alexander Henry Rhind, the Scottish traveler that purchased the nearly `one foot tall, 18 feet long' scroll, the oldest known mathematics textbook which gives

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Jimmy Dunn, Imhotep: Doctor, Architect, High Priest, Scribe and Vizier to King Djoser http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/imhotep.htm 22 Are Pyramids Made Out of Concrete? http://www.geopolymer.org/science_archaeology/pyramids_egypt/index.html 23 Ibid.

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us an insight into the mathematics of the Nile Valley some 4000 years ago.24 The Ahmes Papyrus `contains 85 problems, exhibiting the use of fractions, the solution of simple equations and progressions, and the mensuration of areas and volumes.'25 Head of Platonic School at Alexandria Hypatia was an Egyptian woman who is recognized as one of the earliest women scientists.26 She wrote on geometry, arithmetic and astronomy. According to Beatrice Lumpkin, `Hypatia lectured on mathematics, philosophy, physics and

astronomy. She wrote important treatises on algebra and conic sections. Hypatia is credited with designing an astrolabe, a water still 27 - an instrument to measure water level - and an hydrometer.'

Hypatia (circa 390 BC)

Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr Al Jahiz (776-868 AD)

Radical African Muslim Scholar Al Jahiz, the founder of the Jahizite school of thought, was a scholar who mastered several subjects including philosophy, poetry, zoology, anthropology, theology, lexicography, Arabic grammar and philology. He authored some 200 books, thirty of which still exist today.28 Described as `...the greatest scholar and stylist of the ninth century,' Al-Jahiz, an Afro-Arab born in Basra, Iraq, was a

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Philip Emeagwali, African History: Lost, Stolen or Strayed http://emeagwali.com/speeches/black-history-month/african-history-lost-stolen-or-strayed.html 25 Ahmes and the Rhind Papyrus (1680 B.C. to 1620 B.C.) http://www.malaspina.com/site/person_57.asp 26 African Female Mathematicians http://www.saxakali.com/COLOR_ASP/africanmfem.htm 27 Ibid. 28 Bakari Abil II, Uthman Al-Jahiz: African Scholar and Legend http://www.globalblacknews.com/Al-Jahiz.html

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brilliant scholar and prolific writer who also chronicled the lives of black men in the Arab world such as Loqman, the celebrated sage and Bilal a man claimed to be worth `one-third of Islam',29 and Antarah, the Lion.30 According to Al-Jahiz, the Prophet Muhammed is descended from Abd al-Muttalib who guarded the sacred Kaaba.31 Abd alMuttalib `fathered ten Lords, Black as the night and magnificent', and one of these men was Abdallah, the father of the Prophet.32

Euclid, Fibonacci, Heron, Al-Khwarizmi and Others

Computer scientist Philip Emeagwali has taken a prominent role in intelligently and ferociously challenging the Euro-centrism in the history of world science and the whitening of black mathematicians of ancient times such as Euclid and Fibonacci. Emeagwali contends that Euclid, from which the term Euclidean geometry is derived, was born in Africa and never lived outside Africa in his lifetime and is author of the book Elements, the second most reprinted book in history after the bible.33 One of the world's greatest mathematicians, Leonardo Fibonacci of the Fibonacci series fame, was also African by heritage. Fibonacci was born and raised in Africa but later immigrated to Europe where he became a famed mathematician.34 Heron was a mathematician and mechanical inventor well known for automaton inventions.35 According to Emeagwali, it was Heron

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Ibid. African Muslim Scholar `Too Black' For Arab Muslim Historians http://onepeoples.com/current/aljahiz.html 31 Ibid. 32 Ibid. 33 The History of Mathematics and Computing http://mathematicians.biz/mathematicians 34 Philip Emeagwali, Interview by Reuben Abati for the Nigerian Guardian http://www.emeagwali.com/interviews/Guardian/5.html The Fibonacci series is a number series which goes like this: 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13... 35 The Discoveries and Inventions of Ancient Egypt http://www.geocities.com/wally_mo/inventions.html

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who `first described sequence control, a technique that makes it possible to predict an output for a given input like today's computer programs'36 Muhammed Al-Kwarizmi was a black mathematician who lived in Persia and it is from him that the mathematical term algorithm as a corruption of his name is derived. He wrote a famous book on Algebra in 800 AD. Cleopatra VII is well known as Queen of Egypt rather than as a scientist. However, Cleopatra was also a scientist and wrote treatises on `gynecology, obstetrics, cosmetics and skin diseases.'37 Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Fullani al-Kishnawi, a Fulani man, was an eighteenth century mathematician who hailed from the present day Nigeria. He wrote, in 1732, `a manuscript of procedures for constructing magic squares up to the order of 11.'38

Other Sages and Luminaries

Throughout antiquity, great black men, sages, prophets and other luminaries have emerged throughout the world. Notable ones include Ausar or Osiris, innovator of civilization. Aesop was an Afro-Greek fabulist and a very witty storyteller. Aesop's writings and thoughts have influenced western greats such as Aristotle, Cicero, Julius Caesar, Shakespeare, Plato and Socrates.39 Buddha, founder of perhaps the most influential religion of the East was, according to British archaeologist and historian Godfrey Higgins, a black man but his image has been progressively changed over the centuries into a mongoloid phenotype.40

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History of the Internet http://www.emeagwali.com/history/internet/index.html 37 African Female Mathematicians http://www.saxakali.com/COLOR_ASP/africanmfem.htm 38 An African Mathematician in the early 1700s http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/special/muhammad_ibn_muhammad.htm 39 Phillip True, Jr., Historical Personalities & Issues, http://www.africawithin.com/hpi/hp9.htm 40 Black Messiahs http://saxakali.com/suzar/black.htm see also http://www.proudblackbuddhist.org/shakyamuni/Page%202.htm

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In fact the global African presence and pioneering civilizations the world over produced black leaders, heroes, religious leaders and messiahs such as Fu-Hsi, legendary first Emperor of China, Zaha of Japan, Quetzalcoatl of Mexico, Apollo the father of Zeus, Krishna of India, Isis and Moses of the Christian bible41 and Jesus Christ himself.42 In fact considering that Christianity is the most dominant religion in Africa, only a better and fuller understanding of the origin and nature of Christ should satisfy the Christians. According to the Bible, you will have to know the truth and only the truth can set you free.43 If Prophet Muhammad's grandfather was black, it follows that the Prophet could only be not very light. Muhammad's complexion could explain perhaps why there are no images of the Prophet in Islam. Perhaps it explains why he migrated to Africa when he was running away from persecution of the hostile Arab tribes. An example in our epoch of someone running away from danger to join one's kind is the story of Alberto Fujimori, ethnic Japanese and one time President of Chile who exiled to Japan when the going got tougher in Chile. It would surprise many that there were three African popes in the early Roman Church, namely Victor I (13th pope and reigned from 189-199 AD), St. Miltiades (31st pope and reigned from 311314 AD) and St. Gelasius I (48th pope and reigned from 492-496 AD).44 Pope Victor I is credited with uniting the Catholic Church.45

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Ibid. For a detailed analysis of Moses, see The Moses Mystery, http://www.essaysbyekowa.com/Moses.htm 42 Tim Wise, Santa, Jesus and the Symbolism of Racial Supremacy http://www.africanbynature.com/openeyes_dreamingnonwhite.htm The racial identity of Jesus is a matter which has caused so much ink to flow. See the other perspectives on these sites: www.godonthe.net/wasblack.htm www.melanet.com/clegg_series/wasjesusblack.html , http://saxakali.com/suzar/nappy.htm 43 Holy Bible, John 8:32 44 Corey Gilkes, African Popes, http://www.trinicenter.com/Gilkes/152001.htm The present Pope Benedict XVI is the 264 th catholic pontiff 45 Time line of African History http://saxakali.com/COLOR_ASP/timelineaf.htm

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In Japan, the first general to earn the title sei-tai-shogun in recognition of heroic record in battle was another black man, Sakanouye Tamura-Maro and the Japanese have a saying that: `For a samurai to be brave, he must have a bit of Black blood.'46 Other luminaries in different historical epochs are Akhenaten, Egyptian pharaoh who inaugurated monotheism in Ancient Egypt, the notion of worshipping one God; Zoser, builder of the Stepped Pyramid; Narmer, founder of the historic first nation state; Loqman, celebrated sage of the East and architect of the Morib Dam who is immortalized in the Quran where the thirtythird chapter is named after him; Bilah bin Rabah, first treasurer of the Islamic world and first Muezzin, or caller to prayer; Makeda, illustrious Queen of Sheba, and many others. They have enriched the African experience and victorious struggles by their advocacy and influence.

The Moors - Source of European Renaissance

The Moors (Maures, Marues, Mauros, etc these being GrecoRoman appellations for dark or black) are the ancient inhabitants of North Africa in the lands adjourning Mauritania and Morocco.47 The Moors, like the Egyptians, have had their identity Arabised or whitened by the racist academic establishment that has always for political reasons sought to deny any credit to Africans. The Moors were converted to Islam when Arabs overran North Africa in the eighth century A.D.48 Moorish knowledge, however, stems from the dispersions of Kemetic people who fled Egypt for adjacent areas when Egypt was being invaded by hordes of Persians, Greeks and Romans for centuries.49

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Runoko Rashidi, Rev. James Marmaduke Boddy and the African Presence in Ancient Japan and China http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/boddy.html 47 Yvonne Clark, Moors and Arabs http://www.africawithin.com/moors/moors_and_arabs.htm 48 Ibid. 49 Civilisations: The Moors http://www.nok-benin.co.uk/history_europe1.htm

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In 711 A.D. several thousand Moorish and Arab soldiers crossed the sea from North Africa to Spain under General Tarik ibn Ziyad.50 As historian Runoko Rashidi informs us, the rock promontory where Tarik disembarked was named `Djabal Tarik (`Tarik's Mountain'), or Gibraltar'51 The Moors and Arabs colonized and conquered Europe for some 800 years and brought the scientific and artistic knowledge that ushered in the European Renaissance. They `brought civilization, science, art, universities, libraries, paved and lighted streets, chess, the windmill, and a host of other objects that elevated Europe out of the dark ages.'52 The southern cities of Spain namely Toledo, Cordoba and Seville became famed centres of Moorish culture with universities and fine architectural masterpieces.53 The Moors did, however, lack a central government and were eventually to be killed in large numbers or expelled with the Christian re-conquest of Spain spanning a period from 1085 to 1609 AD.54

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Runoko Rashidi, The Moorish Conquest of Spain http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/moors2.html 51 Ibid. 52 Kwaku Person-Lynn, Setting the Record Straight on the African Influence of Europe http://www.africawithin.com/kwaku/setting_straight.htm 53 Moors: The Columbian Encyclopedia 6th Edition http://www.bartleby.com/65/mo/Moors.html 54 Ibid.

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Chapter 2

Modern Contributions

"If we can replace the entire brain, we can download it into the Super Brain. And if we can download it into the Super Brain our descendants will merely exist as pure thoughts, electronic cockroaches or human algorithms. Our descendants would have achieved digital immortality in 10,000 years." -Philip Emeagwali "Until the lions have their own historians, the stories of hunting will always glorify the hunters." -African Proverb "Black men, you were once great; you shall be great again. Lose not courage, lose not faith, move forward." -Marcus Garvey

THE GHANAIAN physician, Dr. Raphael E. Armattoe (19131953) is inventor of many medicines from herbs including the renowned Abochi drug, used to cure guinea worm disease.55 Dr. Raphael E. Armattoe was runner-up in 1948 for the Nobel Prize in Physiology.56 Africanus Horton was a legendary scientist-cumpolitician in Sierra Leone. Other notable scientists from the continent include the late Lemma Aklilu of Ethiopia57, Edward S. Ayensu of Ghana, the late Thomas R. Odhiambo of Kenya58 and the national hero of Madagascar, the late Professor Albert Rakoto Ratsimamanga.

55

Baffour Ankomah, "So black people can't invent?" New African, No. 384, April 2000, p.20 http://www.africasia.com/na/apr00/nacs0401/nacs0401.html see also http://people.africadatabase.org/en/profile/1899.html 56 Ibid. 57 Dr. Lemma Aklilu: Ethiopian pathobiologist and researcher http://people.africadatabase.org/en/person/11649.html 58 1987 Africa Prize Laureate: Thomas R. Ohdiambo http://www.thp.org/prize/87/odhiambo.htm

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South Africa is definitely the mecca of scientific and technological expertise on the continent. The South African government sponsored Council for Scientific and Industrial Research is the largest scientific research organization on the continent.59 Many innovations and industrial technologies developed in South Africa are used worldwide. Most prominent ones include the Kreepy Krauly, an underwater vacuum cleaner for use in swimming pools, the innovative Sasol's oil from coal extraction technology, military artillery and sea wave breaking barriers made from concrete called Dolosse.60 Others are Pratley Putty and the ultra deep mining techniques.61 The first human heart transplant was performed in 1967 at Groote Shuur Hospital in Cape Town by Dr. Christiaan Barnard and Mr. Hamilton Naki. The latter was to be written out of history by the then prevailing apartheid establishment order, which could not entertain the idea that a black man could do such kind of work. Naki, it was maintained, was only a gardener at the institution where he and Dr. Barnard performed the surgery.62

NAKI AND BARNARD

59

CSIR http://www.csir.co.za see also Websites to Explore About Africa ­ Scientific Achievements http://www.marekinc.com/WebsitesScience.html 60 Gaynor Paynter, South African Firsts http://www.g21.net/let12.htm 61 Robert Zipplies, Are South African Scientist Good Innovators and Entrepreneurs? http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2001/november/catalyst.htm 62 Alistair Leithead, Gardener behind Africa's heart pioneer http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3011105.stm see also http://www.africawithin.com/newsletters.hamiltonnaki.html

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Nigeria stands tall in mathematical sciences and research and has produced world renowned mathematicians such as Chike Obi, James Ezeilo, Gabriel Oyibo, Philip Emeagwali, George Okikiolu, Simeon Ola Fatunla, Katherine Okikiolu, Grace Lele Williams, John Amazigo, Alexander Animalu, Haroon Tejumola and many others.63 Of the most promising young mathematicians in Africa as compiled by the African Mathematics Union and the International Conference of Mathematical Sciences when they presented medals in 2003, five out of the six medal winners were Nigerian with the only other one from Gabon.64 Egypt in the north has made notable advances in medical sciences and, together with Libya; these countries have considerable expertise in nuclear physics. Egypt has produced pioneer modern physicist in Africa, Dr. Ali Moustafa Mosharafa65 (1898-1950), a world renowned scientist who called for social reform and also trained the first female Egyptian nuclear researcher and world class scientist, Dr. Sameera Moussa.66 Other renowned Egyptian nuclear scientists are Professors I. F. Hammouda, N. Barakat, T. M. H. Rihan, M. A. El-Nadi and M. Mokhtar.67 Our own late Professor Lameck Goma in Zambia was a noted entomologist who worked on mosquitoes while Dr. Clive E. Chirwa of The University of Bolton in the UK is an internationally renowned leading authority on engineering safety design for transport systems.

63

Mathematics in Nigeria Today http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/Africa-today/nigeria_math_today.html 64 Young African Medal Winners in Mathematics http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/AMU/YoungAfricanMathematicians.html 65 Dr. Ali Moustafa Mosharafa http://www.sis.gov.eg/calendar/html/cl110797.htm 66 Dr. Sameera Moussa: 1917-1952, First Egyptian Nuclear Researcher http://www.learnegypt.org/cow/science.htm 67 Memory of Distinguished Egyptian Physicists http://www.geocities.com/physicsegypt/memory.html

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Philip Chukwurah Emeagwali

Biggest Scientist on the Internet CNN called him `A father of the Internet'68; a British Mensa society voted him `smartest man alive'69; and in a speech to Nigeria by the then visiting United States president, Bill Clinton, he was called `one of the great minds of the Information Age'70. These are some of the many accolades heaped on this Nigerian supercomputer scientist, inventor, geological, civil, environmental and marine engineer and Africa's most honoured scientist who was born in Nigeria in 1954 and acquired his higher education in the United States. After having his secondary education in Nigeria disturbed by the Biafran war where he served as a child soldier and by lack of funds to pay the school fees, Emeagwali, a child mathematical prodigy, engaged in self-study obtaining more than the equivalent of ordinary level education. He eventually won a scholarship to the United States in 1974 to study mathematics, engineering and computer science. Emeagwali shot into fame in 1989 when he won the Gordon Bell Prize, one of supercomputing's annual prizes, a feat which was more remarkable in view of the fact that Emeagwali was the

68

Innovators who break barriers http://fyi.cnn.com/fyi/interactive/specials/bhm/story/black.innovators.html 69 Emeagwali is the Most Searched-For Scientist ( Sunday Herald, Glasgow, May 5, 2002 ) http://emeagwali.com/media/worlds-most-famous-scientists.html 70 The White House: Remarks by the President to the Joint Assembly http://clinton6.nara.gov/2000/08/2000-08-26-remarks-by-the-president-to-joint-assembly.html

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first solo winner of an award usually taken by a team of researchers. He won it after programming a new supercomputer, the Connection Machine owned by the United States government to perform very fast computations, namely 3.1 billion calculations per second which became a world record. Emeagwali's 3.1 billion calculations per second using some 65,536 processors in the Connection Machine he assessed over the internet were not only at the level of record-breaking but was a feat related to solving one of America's 20 Grand Challenges: simulating oil in underground reservoirs. Partial differential equations developed by Emeagwali were used to `see' the inside of oil field and this led to enhanced oil recovery.71 Emeagwali is said to have submitted some 41 inventions with the United States Patent and Trademark Office on how to design fast computers and perform fast computations. Some of these inventions include the hyperball communication network. Emeagwali's hyperball network is one technology among many others which resulted in the internet becoming global as the original internet was planar, that is, for a flat world and covered parts of the United States only;72 the invention of a new approach to design computers by observing nature i.e. bees' honeycombs or plants; invention of massively parallel computing which has made it possible to increase the speed of computers with immense benefits for businesses including safety from hackers, constant response time even at complex high volume websites and many others.73 Among the many awards and honours bestowed on Emeagwali include the Scientist of the Year (1991) by the National Society of Black Engineers, Computer Scientist of the Year (1993) by the National Technical Association, Distinguished Scientist Award (1998) by the World Bank and the IMF, the Nigeria Prize

71

Emeagwali http://emeagwali.com/booking/biography/for-high-school-students.shtml 72 Ibid. 73 Mary Bellis, Philip Emeagwali and Supercomputers http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa111097a.htm

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(1995), by the Nigerian government, Distinguished Lecturer (1995) by the Association of Computing Machinery and he is also listed in the 2001 edition of the Who's Who in 20th Century America.74 Emeagwali Research, a company owned by Emeagwali is listed as one of the fifty most important technology contributors in scientific research in black America.75 Emeagwali's future endeavors and works include the pursuit for the next generation internet and working on an earth sized grid supercomputer.76

Father of Femtochemistry The Nobel Prize for chemistry for the year 1999 was scooped by Egyptian chemist Professor Ahmed Zewail, for pioneering the science of femtochemistry in the 1980's. Femtochemistry is the use of very high speed cameras to observe chemical reactions and holds promise in technology and life science since it revolutionized the scientific view of the dynamics of matter. Professor Zewail works at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, United States of America where as the Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Physics, he is also Director of the National Science

74

Ahmed H. Zewail

Awards, Prizes and Honors http://emeagwali.com/awards/awards.html 75 The Fifty Most Important Blacks in Research Science http://www.blackengineer.com/artman/publish/article_283.shtml 76 History & Future of the Internet http://emeagwali.com/history/internet/index.html

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Laboratory for Molecular Sciences of the United States government at the same institute.77 Educated in Egypt where he obtained a Bachelor of Science degree and a Masters of Science degree from Alexandria University, he also obtained a PhD. from the University of Pennsylvania. He has for his work collected a hatful of prestigious awards from around the world including the Robert A. Welch Prize, Wolf Prize, King Faisal Prize, Benjamin Franklin Medal, Peter Debye Award, The E.O. Lawrence Award and Egypt's highest state honour: the Order of the Grand Collar of the Nile. He has had stamps for postage issued to mark his scientific contributions to humanity.78 A holder of many honourary degrees from institutions around the world, Prof. Zewail is also a member of prestigious learned societies.

Telecommunications and Information Technology Specialist Dr. Edmund J.B. Katiti is a Ugandan electrical and electronic engineer, inventor, information and communications technology (ICT) consultant, lecturer and entrepreneur. Educated in England in late 1970s and early 1980s where he obtained Bachelors, Masters and Doctorate degrees, Dr. Katiti has made contributions

77

Edmund Jennings Bisherurwa Katiti

Professor Ahmed Zewail: Biography http://www.its.caltch.edu/~femto/biography/index.html 78 Ibid.

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toward the development of computer based telecom systems and image processing and the telefax. The `Group 3 Digital Facsimile Coding Scheme' he drafted as part of his Master of Science project is now, with minor changes, the world standard and has led to wide use of facsimile around the world.79 In 1981, Dr. Katiti invented a `Technique for Image Transform Coding with Offsets,' `technique for improving computational efficiency of orthogonal transforms' and a variety of television special effects.80 Dr. Katiti has served as consultant on various information technology projects, started the Institute of Computer Science at Makerere University and is founder of CableSat TV, the first independent television station in Uganda, which collaborated with the global CNN.81

Discoverer of the Theory of Everything Professor Gabriel A. Oyibo was born in 1950 in Nigeria. Professor Oyibo, a mathematical physicist and inventor, has arguably eclipsed the famous Dr. Albert Einstein as the greatest physicist to walk on the face of this planet.82 Gabriel A. Oyibo obtained his

79

Gabriel Audu Oyibo

Katiti's C.V. http://www.ict.co.ug/pages/CVs/katiti.htm 80 Ibid. 81 Ibid. 82 Arthur Lewin, Oyibo Replaces Einstein?

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first degree in mechanical engineering from Ahmadu Bello University in 1975 in Nigeria and his PhD. in aeronautics and mathematics at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, United States of America, in 1981. He worked for the United States space agency NASA/AFOSR on research projects making contributions in aircraft design, aerodynamics, aeroelasticity and mathematics.83 Specifically, he introduced the concept of `affine transformations' (scaling of variables) into the field of aeroelasticity and aeronautics; solved the hitherto unsolved Navier-Stokes equations, thought to be among the seven toughest problems in mathematics history by Harvard University's Clay Math Institute; proved Einstein's theory of relativity mathematically using his New Group Theory; discovered a new holograph tool, resulting in a new analytical wing design tool for aeroplanes with the promise of making future flights shock-free even at the speed of sound. To crown it all, he developed the Theory of Everything or, as he calls it, the God Almighty's Grand Unified Theorem (GAGUT)84, the Holy Grail of mathematical physics long sought by eminent physicists throughout the ages and which Dr. Einstein tried hard to formulate but could not. GAGUT is the all encompassing theory which serves to explain the origin of the Universe and unites all known forces ­ Newton's gravitational, Maxwell's electromagnetic, Einstein's relativistic and the Ying and Mills strong and weak forces ­ and any other forces ever to be known by mankind are recoverable from the GAGUT equation: Gij, j = 0 85 A more elaborate formula could be viewed at www.geocities.com/igala1/faxpt1.jpg as written on the Nova Science Publishers' flier announcing the publication of Oyibo's book Grand Unified Theorem: Representation of the Unified Field Theorem or the Theory of Everything.

http://www.swagga.com/arthurlewin.htm God Almighty's Grand Unified Theorem (GAGUT) http://www.geocities.com/igala1/pressrelease.htm 84 Ibid. 85 Ibid.

83

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For his work on GAGUT, Oyibo was nominated for the Physics Nobel Prize in 2002, 2003 and in 2004. That he deserves a physics Nobel Prize is indisputable but whether he is being denied because of racism or perhaps it is because his theories are still undergoing academic scrutiny - which can take a long time - is an open question. Be as it may, GAGUT is a revolutionary discovery in science. It fundamentally changes scientific thinking, just like Einstein's E = mc2 fundamentally changed the scientific conception of matter and ushered in the atomic age. GAGUT brings science, ancient African belief as engraved on the Shabaka Stone86 in ancient Egypt and many religious beliefs including the Biblical story of creation together.87 GAGUT teaches us that there is only one element, HYDROGEN in the Universe and that immortality is possible if `the escape velocity for life waves could be determined and a means for preventing their escape could be found similar to light waves in black holes.'88 Black holes are very dense stars that do not even allow light to be emitted. Their gravitational pull is so great. GAGUT offers hope in finding solutions to human problems and diseases such as AIDS, cancer, such phenomena as cold fusion and so on and so forth. The human race will benefit from clean, superior humane technology the all-encompassing GAGUT opens up. Professor Oyibo founded OFAPPIT Institute of Technology. OFAPPIT is an acronym for Organization For African Peoples' Participation In Technology. Located on Long Island, New York, this institute serves as the Official Home of GAGUT just like Cambridge University (UK) and Princeton University (USA) served as official homes for Sir Isaac Newton's and Dr. Albert

86

The Shabaka Stone: Our Guide to the Memphite Theology http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/PDS/shabaka.htm 87 Herb Boyd, If Einstein was right, so is Dr. Oyibo http://www.amsterdamnews.org/News/article/article.asp?NewsID=42227&sID=4 88 Gabriel Oyibo, Highlights of the Grand Unified Theorem: Formulation of the Unified Field Theory or the Theory of Everything http://www.nexusworld.com/detailed_search.asp?id=1-59033-259-8

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Einstein's discoveries respectively.89 It is remarkable that in its short period of existence, OFAPPIT Institute of Technology has made important contributions to mathematics, namely, devising a mathematical model for turbulence, the generalised mathematical proof of Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations not to mention the books New Group Theory for Mathematical Physics, Gas Dynamics and Turbulence, Applied Math ­ Methods and Applications and Oyibo's magnum opus, Grand Unified Theorem: Representation of the Unified Field Theory or the Theory of Everything.90 Ofappit Institute of Technology is also listed as one of the few high energy physics institutions in the world by Stanford University. Professor Oyibo's many honours, references and awards include the International Personality of the Year 2000-2001; 2000 Outstanding Scientist for the 21st Century; One Hundred Most Outstanding Citizens of the World; Who's Who in America; Who's Who in Science and Engineering; Who's Who in the World and Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics among others.91 Professor Oyibo is consultant to several aerospace companies, the United States government, the United Nations and a contributor to NATO/AGAR unsteady transonic aerodynamic research.92

89

Ifiemi Ombu, Interview with Dr. Gabriel Oyibo http://www.africanabroadonline.com/covera102.htm 90 Significant Accomplishments at Ofappit Institute of Technology http://www.geocities.com/igala1/OITaccomp.htm 91 God Almighty's Grand Unified Theorem (GAGUT) http://www.geocities.com/igala1/pressrelease.htm 92 Ibid.

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Founder of Mariandina Research Foundation Professor Charles L. K. Ssali has made contributions in scientific research by developing scientific techniques for cures of diseases that mainly affect the poor people in the developing world. Born in 1930 in Uganda, he attended Makerere University in Kampala to obtain MBCHB degree in 1960 and the Royal College of Surgeons in the United Kingdom culminating in his becoming Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.93 He has developed the Mariandina herbal AIDS/HIV therapy, a non-toxic nutritional supplement which has helped thousands of people affected by the condition.94 Professor Ssali has also developed cures for atrophic rhinitis, a disease which causes a smelly nose; for rhino scleroma, a condition which defaces the nose, face and throat of the victim and is fatal and for laryngo tracheobronchitis, a condition that affects children and blocks the respiration by inflammation in throat, nose and lungs.95

Charles Lwanga Kabalu Ssali

93

Professor Charles Ssali, MBChB FRCS http://www.sarafina.nl/ProfSsaliCVMariandina.html 94 Mariandina Books http://www.sarafina.nl/Mariandina.html 95 Ibid.

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Renowned Sickle Cell Disease Expert In 1972, Professor Helen Ranney MD of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine commented that the clinical experience of world-renowned sickle cell expert Dr. Felix I. D. Konotey-Ahulu was unsurpassed, even by any American experience.96 Dr. Konotey-Ahulu was born in 1930 and was trained in the United Kingdom qualifying MB, BS in 1959 and obtaining a doctorate degree in 1972. Dr. Konotey-Ahulu, a fellow of the Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences is also Consultant Physician at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital and Director of the Ghana Institute of Clinical Genetics.97 Among the awards and honours he has received include the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Foundation Award for outstanding research in Sickle Cell Anaemia (1972), the Guinness Award for Scientific Achievement in the Commonwealth (1976), and the Third World Academy of Sciences Award (1988). He has served on the WHO Expert Advisory Panel on Human Genetics (197681), and was visiting professor to Howard University's Centre for Sickle Cell Disease at one time. 98

Felix I. D. Konotey-Ahulu

96

Comments on Dr. Konotey-Ahulu http://www.sicklecell.md/author.htm 97 Ibid. 98 Ibid.

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Mathematical Physicist and World-class Researcher Professor Alexander Animalu was born in 1938 and is a renowned scientist, researcher, former university don and serves as the Chairman/CEO of the Nigerian Division of the Institute for Basic Research.99 He has also been Director of the National Mathematics Centre in Abuja, President of Nigerian Academy of Science and won the Nigerian National Merit Award in 2000.100 Prof. Animalu obtained higher degrees in Nigeria and in the UK, a PhD in Theoretical Solid State Physics of legendary quality which:

`...became by 1983, a citation classic, having been cited more than 729 times between 1965 and 2001. Professor Animalu is the only African in Physics to have earned such a record of citations, his paper being the best among the best twelve cited papers from the University of Cambridge in fifty years (1930 - 1980). It is of interest to note that four of these twelve most cited works from Cambridge have subsequently won the Nobel Prize in Physics.'101

Alexander Obiefoka Enukora Animalu

Professor Animalu has done scientific research work at Stanford University, University of North Carolina, University of Missouri, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and in Nigeria where he has trained many in physics and solar energy.102 He is the only African on the Advisory Board of the Euro-Journal Physica

99

CV-Citation for Prof. Alexander O.E. Animalu http://www.i-b-r.org/animalu.html 100 Ibid. 101 Ibid. 102 Ibid.

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(B), the only African editor of the US based international Hadronic Journal and Hadronic Journal Supplement and is author of the book titled Intermediate Quantum Theory of Crystalline Solids, a world classic having seen three editions published in USA and in India, a Russian translation by the Russian Academy of Sciences and is also available on the internet.103

Nobel Prize Winning Scientist Professor Allan M. Cormack shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology with Godfrey Hounsfield, an Englishman.104 Born in 1924 in South Africa, he attended the University of Cape Town and obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics in 1944 after which he went on to do postgraduate studies at St John's College at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom and obtained a Master of Science in Crystallography in 1945.105 During a sabbatical leave at Harvard University in 1956, he worked with the physicist Norman Ramsey where his interest in Xray technology intensified. Professor Cormack developed the first computerised axial tomography (CAT) scan machine with Godfrey

Allan MacLeod Cormack

103 104

CV-Citation for Prof. Alexander O. A. Animalu, op.cit. Professor Allan MacLeod Cormack, 1924-1998 http://www.joh.cam.ac.uk/Publications/Eagle99/Eagle99-Obit3.html 105 Cormack, Allan MacLeod http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/1979/cormack-autobio.html

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Hounsfield in 1972.106 The CAT scan enables a three-dimensional X-ray of body organs.

Adekunle Olusola Adeyeye

Nano-technology Rising Star Professor Adekunle Olusola Adeyeye is a computer scientist and researcher. Born in the sixties in Nigeria, he obtained his undergraduate education in computer science in Nigeria and post graduate Masters and Doctorate degrees from Cambridge University in the United Kingdom.107 At Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory, Adeyeye devised nanofabrication techniques that allowed him to create novel nanomagnets.108 Nanomagnets are very minute magnets. A peer review journal Technology Review, in the year 2002, described Adeyeye as one of the top 100 innovators under 35 years `whose work and ideas will change the world.'109 Adeyeye is now Assistant Professor and Founding Researcher at the $10 million Information Storage Materials facility at the National University of Singapore. He works in a special field called spintronics, where the spin, one of the properties of electronics, when successfully utilized holds promise in revolutionizing memory and logic

106 107

Ibid. Computer Scientists of the African Diaspora: Adekunle Olusola Adeyeye http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/computer-science/adeyeye_adekunleo.html 108 Ibid. 109 Ibid.

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devices in computers and this could result in smaller, faster and more power efficient computers.110 Fibre Optics Expert and Inventor World renowned fibre optics expert and inventor, Dr. Thomas O. Mensah was born in Kumasi, Ghana in 1950.111 He was educated at the University of Science and Technology in Kumasi obtaining a degree in chemical engineering and at the Montpelier University in France and also at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he obtained a doctorate in chemical engineering and a certificate in modeling of chemical processes respectively. Dr. Mensah has seven patents in fibre optics technology.112 Dr. Mensah's work in fibre optics helped the development of the laser-guided missiles the United States used during the Gulf War (1991) and will in future impact on fax telecommunication, electronic banking and other information technology and communication applications.113 Dr. Mensah has worked for Corning Glass Works, AT&T and Bell Laboratories and later founded a high-tech firm Supercond Technologies in Norcross, Georgia in the United States that specialises in aerospace products and advanced structural material developments for supersonic aircraft like the U.S. fighter aircraft F-22, the world's fastest jet.114 He is an expert in advanced materials and has worked on NASA, the US Army and the United States Energy Department programmes on space communications, smart munitions and fibre optic sensors for highway traffic and has some patents pending in some of these areas.115

110 111

Thomas O. Mensah

Ibid. Ghana People http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/ghana/PEOPLE/DC/tm.html 112 Ibid. 113 Mike Foley, Color Blind Invention http://www.dreammerchant.net/feature_feb2001.html 114 Ghana People, op. cit. 115 Ibid.

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Leading Robotics and Automation Expert Bartholomew O. Nnaji, born in Nigeria in the fifties, is a world renowned robotics expert, researcher, computer aided design and automation consultant and an ALCOA Foundation Professor of Manufacturing Engineering at Pittsburgh University since 1996. Earlier he was a Distinguished Professor of Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Robotics at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.116 Nnaji obtained a Bachelors of Science degree in Physics with distinction from St. John's University in 1980; a masters of science and a doctorate in industrial engineering and operations research at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1982 and 1983 respectively.117 Professor Nnaji is heading the development of the National Science Foundation new e-design centre at Pittsburgh University, a venture involving the University of Massachusetts and other United States corporations.118 Previously, Professor Nnaji has been lead investigator on research sponsored by the United States National Science Foundation, NATO, Digital Equipment Corporation, IBM and General Electric Corporation.119 Other institutions he has done

116

Bartholomew Okechukwu Nnaji

Prof. Bart O. Nnaji http://www.npf-usa.org/prof_nnajis_bio.html 117 John Fedele, Wanted: Bart Nnaji http://www.discover.pitt.edu/media/pcc030224/bart_nnaji.html 118 Ibid. 119 Prof Bart O. Nnaji, op.cit

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research for are the Ford Motor Company and the United States Department of Defense.120 Among the many awards and honours bestowed on Professor Nnaji include the St. John's University President's Award for academic excellence awarded to him for being the top graduate; the 1988 Outstanding Young Manufacturing Engineer Award; 1992 Outstanding Industrial Engineer Award to mention but these few.121 Nnaji is a fellow of the Nigerian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Industrial Engineers and also of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers. He has been honoured in the United States by the government for public service, awarded the Distinguished Scientist Award by the World Bank, IMF Africa Group and by the Nigerian government with the national honour: the Commander of the Order of Niger.122 Professor Nnaji's current research:

`...is in the area of robotics, CAD/CAM, optimization techniques, and artificial intelligence as applied to computer-aided design, and robotics in both manufacturing and medicine. He is currently developing a general purpose mechanical products designer system that captures designer's intentions and propagates them to the manufacturing process planners...He is also developing technologies based on CAD visualization and robotics to improve medical diagnostics and minimally invasive surgical intervention 123 techniques.'

120

Bartholomew O. Nnaji, Phd.: Biography http://www.aetna.com/foundation/aahcalendar/1996nnaji_bio.html 121 Ibid 122 Prof Bart O. Nnaji, op. cit. 123 Nnaji http://www.pitt.edu/~arlweb/people/nnaji.html

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Futurist and Pharaoh of Knowledge Professor Cheikh Anta Diop is the father of scientific studies of African revised and more objective historiography. He was born in 1923 in Senegal and obtained his higher education in France. He was one of the world's greatest Egyptologist or as Afro centrists would say, Kemetologist. Dr. Diop trained as a physicist, sociologist, philosopher, historian, economist, anthropologist and linguist. It was this broad based encyclopaedic knowledge he acquired on Africa and comparative world studies he used to correct falsehoods perpetrated against Africa chief of which was reestablishing black Africa as the source of world civilization and specifically restoring ancient Egypt (Kemet) as a black African society.124 In 1951, Diop's doctoral thesis at the University of Paris, Sorbourne based on the premise that Pharaonic Egypt was an African civilisation was not accepted. He made two further attempts which met the same fate until after almost ten years when he entered the defense session of his thesis with `an array of sociologists, anthropologists and historians and successfully carried his argument.'125

124

Cheikh Anta Diop

Runoko Rashidi, Cheikh Anta Diop: A Brief Biography of an African Champion http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/diop2.html 125 Momodou Camara, Cheikh Anta Diop, Pharaoh of Knowledge http://home3.inet.tele.dk/mcamara/antadiop.html

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In 1974, with his colleague and academic ally Dr. Theophile Obenga, Dr. Diop soundly reaffirmed the African origin of Pharaonic Egypt at a UNESCO symposium in Cairo with presentations of thorough scientific irrefutable data which elicited no response from the opposition. This was a definitive demolition of cultural imperialisms' racist obsession of whitening ancient Egypt. In addition to many writings, Diop invented the melanin dosage test, a laboratory technique he used to determine the racial identity of the Egyptian mummies under his investigation and which test the United States government forensic department now uses to determine the racial identity of charred accident victims.126 Senegal's university at Dakar; the Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar is named in honour of this great historian and Egyptologist.

Distinguished Professor of Crashworthiness Born in Mufulira on the Copperbelt Province of Zambia, Professor Chirwa was educated in Zambia and the UK and holds the Chair of Automotive and Aerospace Structures at The University of Bolton's Automotive and Aerospace Research Group, a renowned centre of excellence in structural crashworthiness, impact biomechanics safety and accident investigations.127

126 127

Efford Clive Chirwa

Ibid. Bolton Automotive & Aerospace Research Group http://www.bolton.ac.uk/baarg

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Professor Chirwa, prior to 2001, led the team at The University of Bolton's Automotive and Aerospace Research Group that researched new technologies now used in the construction of the biggest passenger jet, the A380 which in an economy version carries some 800 passengers.128 In 2001, the European Union hired a team led by Dr. Chirwa, which team has provided consultancy to BMW, Rover, British Aerospace, Mercedes Benz, Jordan Grand Prix and others before to carry out a study and make recommendations on aircraft safety following the events of 11th September, 2001 in New York.129 Among the honours bestowed on Professor Chirwa include the TA Stewart-Dyer/Frederick Harvey Trevithick Prize (2001) and the Safety Award in Mechanical Engineering (2001) both awarded by the Institution of Mechanical Engineering. Professor Chirwa is listed in the Seventh edition of Marquis Who's Who in Science and Engineering (2003-2004). 130

Space Exploration Manager for NASA Born in Mali in 1952, Professor Cheick M. Diarra is a mathematician, astrophysicist and mechanical engineer working at

128

Cheick Modibo Diarra

Professor E. Clive Chirwa, "What you need to know about the biggest passenger jet A380 ­ Zambian contribution" Sunday Post, No. 3349SU211, December 18, 2005. p. XXIV 129 Bolton Institute Receives £16.5k Funding for Aircraft Safety http://www.bolton.ac.uk/news/archive/nov2001-5.html 130 Bolton Automotive and Research Group, op. cit.

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the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the United States space agency, NASA. He attended Bamako Technical School in Mali, the University of Pierre and Marie Curie obtaining a bachelor's degree in mathematics and Howard University in the United States to obtain a masters and doctorate degrees in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering.131 In 1988, Dr. Diarra joined NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California as an interplanetary navigator working on the Magellan exploration mission to Venus; the Ulysses exploratory mission to the poles of the Sun and the Galileo exploratory mission to Jupiter and recently the Pathfinder mission to Mars.132 In 1998, Dr. Diarra was appointed a Goodwill Ambassador for UNESCO and is also founder of an organization that promotes scientific education and development in Africa 133 (www.cmdfoundation.org). The space probes Dr. Diarra has guided have been hugely successful, especially the Pathfinder which landed on Mars in 1997 and accordingly have earned Dr. Diarra some awards including NASA's Annual Innovation Prize for 1999.134 Dr. Diarra is a member of the American Astronautical Society, the American Institute of Astronautics and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.135

131

Meet: Cheick Diarra http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/mars/team/diarra.html see also Cheick Modibo Diarra: Aiming for Excellence http://www.unesco.org/bpi/eng/unescopress/2002/02-17e.shtml 132 Ibid. 133 Exploration of Mars/ Meet with Cheick Modibo Diarra http://www.ankhonline.com/sciences.htm 134 Cheick Modibo Diarra: Aiming for Excellence, op.cit 135 Ibid.

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Other Scientists, Inventors and Entrepreneurs

Other prominent individuals in African science, technology and entrepreneurship include the following: Professor Francis Kofi Ampenyi Allotey of Ghana, a mathematician, scholar, nuclear physicist and consultant in information technology for development. He is an authority on soft x-ray spectroscopy.136 Nigerian Brigadier General Dr. Otu Oviemo Ovadje invented the Emergency Auto-Transmission Set (EAT-SET), a medical device that helps save the lives of women threatened by abnormal pregnancy complications.137 Dr. Ovadje has won, among other awards, the OAU/WIPO Best African Inventor Gold Medal Award in 1995, the Promex Medal in 1998 and is the first African winner of the World Health Organisation's Sasakawa Award he won in 2000.138 Dr. Elizabeth O. Ofili, a Nigerian domiciled in USA is a renowned physician and researcher with the Space Medicine and Life Sciences Centre at the Morehouse School of Medicine.139 Professor Riad Abdel Latif Bayoumi, a Sudanese bio-chemist has made contributions and studies on `cyto-adherence of malaria parasitized erythrocytes'140and was honoured by the World Health Organisation for the use of `recombinant DNA to study the genetic diversity of P.falciparum.'141 Ghanaian Dr. Ashitey Trebi-Ollemu is a multi-disciplinary engineer with the mechanical and robotics technology department at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.142 Another Nigerian, Professor Enitan Abisogun Bababunmi was

136

Technology: Professor Francis Kofi Ampenyi Allotey http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/people/pop-up.php?ID=136 137 EAT-SET ­ The Inventor http://www.eatset.com/inventor.htm 138 Ibid. 139 Elizabeth Ofili, M.D., M.P.H http://www.msm.edu/nasa/eofili.htm 140 Riad Abdel Latif Bayoumi http://www.uaeu.ac.ae/fmsa/bayoumi.htm 141 Ibid. 142 JPL Robotics Page http://robotics.jpl.nasa.gov/sportlight/ashitey_sportlight.html

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given a US patent for his formula of three chemical compounds that prevent rapid skeletal muscle degeneration or wasting in cancer and HIV/AIDS related illnesses.143 Throughout the continent and in the diaspora African peoples are contributing to world science and have positions in cutting edge scientific and technology establishments. Atta Diouf of Senegal, is reportedly a holder of `a patent on solar driven trains, boats and train technology'144 while Anthony Akpati serves as Boeing Corporation's rocket dynamics specialist. Technology entrepreneurs include the Kenyan Ayisi Makhatiani, founder of AllAfrica.com, Africa's largest internet service provider; Strive Masiyiwa of Zimbabwe is a leading telecommunications businessman and founder of Econet Wireless, one of the five largest telephone companies in Africa and Rwandese businessman, Miko Rwayitare, founder of Telecel. Ethiopian born Noah Samara founded, in 1990, WorldSpace Corporation, a company that provides digital satellite audio data and multimedia almost worldwide through the first ever satellite radio infrastructure in the world and enables access to the internet even without a telephone line.145 Chief Damian Anyanwu is the renowned Nigerian inventor with contributions ranging from electronic to medical innovations and founded the Damian Anyanwu Research Center Inc. (DARCI) in New York.146 Ugandan-American Kwasi Alibaruho is the first black Mission Control Flight Director for NASA147 while two Nigerians, Dr. Linus U. Thomas-Ogbuji and Dr. G. O. Obasi hold positions of senior scientist, NASA and General Secretary of the World

143

Africa Today.com http://www.africatoday.co.uk/nov02/nov02events.html see also http://groups.yahoo.com/group/igala/message/861 144 Prof. Nicholas Agbohou (interview), "CFA, the devil is in the details," New African, No. 409, July, August, 2002, p.48 145 See http://www.worldspace.com 146 Chief Damian Anyanwu, http://www.africanevents.com/DamianAnyanwu-Scientist.htm 147 NASA's First Black Mission-Control Flight Director On Duty http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2005/now/HQ_05357_black_mission.html

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Meteorological Organization respectively. Mention should also be made of Professor Lydia Phindile Makhubu, a prominent medicinal chemist, researcher and Vice Chancellor of the University of Swaziland; Professor Nana Pratt, a Sierra-Leonean chemist; the University of Nairobi's geology professor, Eric Odada, a renowned tectonic and seismic scientist and Professor Wangari Mutu Maathai, Nobel Prize laureate, environmentalist and Kenyan government minister. In North Africa, Egyptian Dr. Meguid Abdel Nagwa is a renowned female geneticist and awardwinning scientist.

Reflective Flashback

Many African peoples have brought their intellectual and spiritual abilities for the amazement and betterment of the world. Thomas Fuller (1710-1790) was born in West Africa and brought to slavery in America. He had no formal education but was, nevertheless, a mathematical prodigy who performed amazing mental calculations. He was known as the Virginia Calculator. When he had reached an advanced age of nearly 80 years old, he calculated mentally the number of seconds in the life of a man who had lived 70 years17 days and 12 hours ­ a whooping 2 210 500 800 ­ and when challenged, reminded the questioner of leap years!148 Fuller `could calculate the number of months, days, weeks, hours, minutes and seconds in any given period of time; the number of poles, yards, feet, and inches in any given distance; and even the sum of geometric progressions. Not only did he perform these mathematical feats while being interrupted in the process, but he would take less time than most men did with pencil and paper.'149 Ludwig van Beethoven, Europe's greatest composer of their classic music, was a black man being a son of a Moorish woman and was referred to as a `blackamoor.'150

148 149

Guinness Book of Records, 1998, p.51 Black History Pages: Thomas Fuller (1710-1790) http://purpleplanetmedia.com/bhp/pages/tfuller.shtml 150 Kwaku Person-Lynn, Beethoven: Revealing His True Identity http://www.africawithin.com/kwaku/beethoven.html

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Another African, Ahmed Baba was the greatest scholar of the sixteenth century and a prolific writer and intellectual as well as administrator of Sankore University, in Africa, at the time West Africa was the centre of world scientific knowledge.151 Ignatius Sancho was born on a slave ship on the Atlantic Ocean but emerged later as a man of letters, composed music and ran a grocery shop in Westminster, in the United Kingdom.152 In Russia, Cameroonian born Prince Abraham Petrovitch Hannibal (1696-1782) became an eminent engineer, wrote the books Fortifications and Practical Geometry and was an important person in the Imperial Russian ruling class having served as technical director and General-in-chief of the Russian Imperial Army.153 Hannibal's great-grandson, Alexander Sergeievich Pushkin, became Russia's greatest poet, was the first to teach the Russian public to read and his literary output was comparable to Britain's William Shakespeare. Phyllis Wheatley, a former slave, was a notable poet and the first woman to be published in USA while Alexandre Dumas the famous writer wrote the novels Count of Monte Christo and The Three Musketeers. Olaudah Equiano is a former slave turned abolitionist while Anton Wilhelm Amo, an African philosopher, taught in German universities in the 16th century. We also have King Solomon of biblical fame; Chinweizu, a great thinker; J. K. Aggrey, WEB DuBois, Edward Wilmot Blyden, Martin Delaney, Africanus Horton, Kwame Nkrumah, Marcus Garvey, Malcolm X, Jomo Kenyatta, Haile Selassie, Thabo Mbeki, Kenneth Kaunda, Steve Biko, Bob Marley, Julius Nyerere, Olowalu Obafemi, Frantz Fanon, Nelson Mandela and other great pan-African thinkers and activists too numerous to mention.

151

Ahmed Baba (1526-ca 1620) http://www.websn.com/Pride/Pride/ahmed_baba.htm 152 Brycchan Carey, Ignatius Sancho: African Man of Letters http://www.brycchancarey.com/sancho/index.htm 153 World's Great Men of Color: Abraham Hannibal http://www.marcusgarvey.com/zAbraham%20Hannibal.htm

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Chapter 3

African-American Contributions

"Black people need to present the complete history of black scientific and technological achievements in ancient medieval and modern times in an unprecedented level in this new age reality." -Khafra K Om-Ra-Seti "When a person of Afrikan decent is never exposed ­ that his/her ancient ancestors were the actual creators of civilization, built on the sciences they created, the advanced mathematics they brought to the world, the systems of technology they utilized, created the science of medicine for healing, the art of writing, even the educational system which they obtained, their degrees is just the beginning of mental deterioration and intellectual incompetence." -Kwame Nantambu "Your country? How came it yours? Before the Pilgrims landed we were here. Here we have brought our three gifts and mingled them with yours: a gift of story and song...in an ill-harmonized and unmelodious land; the gift of sweat and brawn to beat back the wilderness...and lay the foundations of this vast economic empire two hundred years earlier than your weak hands could have done it; the third, a gift of the Spirit." -W.E.B. Du Bois

AFRICAN peoples reached the Americas in more than one historical period and thousands of years before Christopher Columbus - himself navigated by an African, Pedro Alonzo Nino - reached there in 1492. These earlier visits by African traders, scientists and explorers influenced developments there. However, it was with the trans-Atlantic slave trade that millions of African

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peoples were uprooted from the continent and transported to the Western world to work as slaves. It was in the era of slavery that one of the first recognized African-American men of science Benjamin Banneker (1731-1803) emerged. Banneker, a free African, was an astronomer, mathematician, almanac maker and surveyor. He made the first clock in America from wood and it kept perfect time for over twenty years. He also taught himself by the agency of the books he used to borrow, astronomy and advanced mathematics.154 He calculated for almanacs and predicted the 1789 eclipse accurately. Banneker is well known for the role he played in planning and surveying Washington D.C., the capital of the United States.155 The team leader of the town planners and surveyors that were given the task of designing the new nation's capital was a Frenchman, Pierre L'Effants. While work was in progress, L'Effants was relieved of his duty and left in a rush with the drawings and it was Banneker who reproduced the drawings from memory so that the project could continue. Dr. George W. Carver (1860-1943) was a pioneer agricultural chemist and plant geneticist. Carver is a man who was born into slavery, struggled to obtain an education despite all odds and ultimately helped revolutionize the agricultural economy of Southern United States by encouraging the cultivation of peanuts rather than the soil-depleting cotton. The theory of crop rotation and the use of legumes to enrich soils were provided by Carver. Carver also derived some 300 products from peanuts and 118 from sweet potatoes. Granville T. Woods (1856-1910) was a self-taught but nevertheless highly regarded electrician and engineer credited with many inventions which improved railway and electric based industries. He received over sixty patents and some of his inventions are the `Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph'

154

Mitchell C. Brown, Benjamin Banneker: Mathematician, Astronomer http://www.princeton.edu/~mcbrown/display/banneker.html 155 Mathematicians of the African Diaspora: Benjamin Banneker http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/banneker-benjamin.html

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which combined telephone and telegraphy technology to send messages much quicker, an incubator which kept up to 50,000 eggs, automatic airbrake and a type of telephone transmitter superior to others then in use.156 When Woods sold the synchronous telegraphy invention to Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, the famous inventor, sued Woods claiming that it was his invention but Woods won the case beating America's most famous inventor.157 Some of Woods inventions were in developing the `third rail' used to power trains today that do not use the overhead electric system. The son of runaway slaves Lewis H. Latimer, was the only African-American among the 28 `Edison Pioneers'. Latimer invented the fine carbon wire filament which went into the Edison light bulb, and also doubled as a patent expert draftsman, author and musician. Latimer was born in 1848 in Chelsea, Massachusetts, and worked as an engineer for Edison Company for many years and while there he `supervised the installation of the electric light system in New York, N.Y.; Philadelphia, Pa.; Montreal, Canada; and London, England. Latimer wrote the first textbook on the lighting system used by the Edison Company, and he was employed by Alexander Graham Bell to make patent drawings for the first telephone. He also served as chief draftsman for General Electric and Westinghouse companies.'158 Jan E. Matzeliger (1852-1889) was born in Surinam, South America, worked in machine shops there before migrating to Philadelphia, the United States at the age of nineteen.159 He later went to Lynn, Massachusetts, in search of better working opportunities landing a job as an apprentice in a shoe factory. Because shoe manufacturing at that time solely depended on skilled hands called lasters, it took much long and was much more

156

Eric C. Swanson, Granville T. Woods: Genius Inventor http://www.inventorsmuseum.com/woods.htm 157 Ibid. 158 Lewis Howard Latimer, http://www.users.fast.net/~blc/xlhome4.htm 159 Jan Ernst Matzeliger, http://www.users.fast.net/~blc/xlhome9.htm

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expensive to manufacture shoes. Matzeliger solved this problem by inventing the shoe lasting machine which `was able to turn out 150 to 700 pairs of shoes a day versus an expert hand laster's fifty'160 This invention revolutionized shoe manufacturing industry in the United States and, by extension, the whole world making shoes affordable to many while also increasing the profits and making conditions of working in shoe factories better. Norbert Rillieux (1806-1894), a renowned chemical engineer, developed the sugar refining process in 1864. This process made the hitherto labour intensive and dangerous process of sugar refining safer and reduced the costs of production.161 Rillieux, later in his career went to stay in France where he continued work on inventions and work on the steam engines.162 Percy Lavon Julian (1898-1975), an industrial chemist and inventor synthesized physostigmine, a drug used to treat glaucoma as well as synthesizing cortisone from the Calabar bean for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.163 Julian also invented an AeroFoam; a product used for extinguishing gasoline and oil fires and was inducted into the American National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1990.164 Eminent astrophysicist and inventor, Dr. George R. Carruthers was born in 1939. Dr. Carruthers is internationally renowned `for his work which focuses on ultraviolet observations of the earth's upper atmosphere and of astronomical phenomena...George Carruthers' first major contribution to science was to lead the team that invented the far ultraviolet camera spectrograph. He developed the first moon based space observatory, an ultraviolet camera that was carried to the moon by Apollo 16 astronauts in 1972.'165 He also received a patent for

160 161

Ibid. Norbert Rillieux ­ History of Sugar Processing, http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blrillieux.htm 162 Ibid. 163 History of Cortisone http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blcortisone.htm 164 Ibid. 165 Inventors: George Carruthers,

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inventing an image converter for detecting electromagnetic radiation.166 Dr. Carruthers has headed many NASA space programmes and also found the proof of molecular hydrogen in outer space.167

MATZELIGER

CARVER

BANNEKER

WOODS

McCOY

JULIAN

Elijah M. McCoy (1843-1929) was a prolific inventor of automatic oiling devices for machines and it is from him that the expression `the real McCoy' ­ meaning something genuine is derived.168 McCoy was awarded some fifty seven patents in his lifetime. McCoy's automatic lubricating devices revolutionized industry in that it allowed the moving parts of machinery and

http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blcarruthers.htm Ibid. 167 Ibid. 168 Elijah McCoy, http://www.users.fast.net/~blc/xlhome6.htm

166

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railway cars to be lubricated automatically without having to stop them. Garret A. Morgan (1875-1965) invented the safety hood, precursor to the gas mask used today. He is also the inventor of the ubiquitous traffic lights, found on all the street corners of major cities of the world. The air conditioning unit was invented by Frederick M. Jones (1893-1961). Jones, a holder of over sixty patents, also invented the portable X-ray machine, built the first sound system in a movie theatre, and designed the refrigerator system used in trucks.169 Lloyd Augustus Hall (1894-1971) was another prolific inventor with some fifty nine American and over a hundred patents His many in food preservation technologies worldwide.170 `contributions to all of mankind has been puncture sealant in 1944 (Patent #2,357,650) meat curing products, seasonings, emulsions, bakery products, antioxidants, and many other products, that even today, keep food fresh. Prior to his discoveries, food preservation was iffy at best. Hall developed new methods for sterilization of spices, cereals, and other food components and has created pharmaceuticals that are widely used today'.171 In the medical sciences African American inventions and contributions are visible. The slave Onesimus introduced in 1721 the smallpox inoculation technique in America. Dr. James Derham was the first recognized black doctor while Dr. William A. Hinton (1883-1959) was an authority on the disease syphilis and developed the Hinton Test for Syphilis. Dr. Charles R. Drew (1905-1950) pioneered in developing techniques of blood transfusion by devising ways of storing blood plasma and set standards for blood banks internationally. Dr. Drew was born in Washington, D.C. and attended Amherst University

169

Great African American Inventors and Engineers http://www.uwm.edu/StudentOrg/NSBE/bie.html 170 Black Inventors http://www.members.home.net/amitzmi/page23.html 171 Ibid.

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and McGill University in Canada where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts and a Medical Doctorate and a Master of Surgery respectively.172 Dr. Drew also received a Doctor of Science Degree from Columbia University, taught at Howard University and during the Second World War, he organized a blood bank in the United Kingdom.173 Dr. Ernest E. Just (1883-1941) has done groundbreaking research as a zoologist, biologist and physiologist and excelled in his scholastic studies. Dr. Just made contributions `on the subjects of fertilization, experimental parthenogenesis, hydration, cell division, dehydration in living cells, the effect of ultra-violet rays in increasing chromosome number in animals and in altering the organization of the egg with special reference to polarity.'174 Dr. Just contributed as author of scientific books and research work in cytology. Dr. Benjamin Carson was born in 1951 and is the world's most celebrated paediatric neurosurgeon having played a leading role in successfully separating the first Siamese twins in 1987. Despite a shaky childhood, Carson was to later stabilize and attended Yale University, University of Michigan School of Medicine and did an internship at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. He is Professor Neurosurgery, Plastic Surgery, Oncology and Paediatrics and has been Director of the Division of Neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins since 1984 and Co-Director of the Johns Hopkins Craniofacial Centre.175 Dr. Carson has authored over ninety neurosurgical publications, been awarded twenty-four honorary degrees and other awards.176

172

Mitchell C. Brown, Charles Richard Drew: Physician, Surgeon http://www.princeton.edu/~mcbrown/display/charles_drew.html 173 Ibid. 174 Mitchell C. Brown, Ernest Everett Just: Zoologist, Biologist, Physiologist, Research Scientist http://www.princeton.edu/~mcbrown/display/just.html 175 Benjamin Carson, M.D. http://www.neuro.jhmi.edu/profiles/carson.html 176 Ibid.

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Dr. Patricia Bath M.D. is a laser scientist and inventor of the laserphaco probe.177 A laserphaco probe is a medical instrument used to remove cataracts from the eye. She has five patents on the laser cataract surgery device she developed and this invention helped restore the eyesight of many individuals some of whom had lost sight for over thirty years.178 Dr. Alexa Canady, was the first African-American neurosurgeon in 1977, a feat she achieved at the age of 26.179 Another woman, Madame C. J. Walker (1864-1919) is the inventor of black beauty products and cosmetics. She invented the hair softener, the spread comb and various cosmetics. She is the first self-made female millionaire in the United States.

CARRUTHERS

DREW

C.J. WALKER

Dr. Mark E. Dean was born in 1957 in Tennessee and obtained a doctorate degree from Stanford University. An employee of IBM since 1980, Dr. Dean is a computer scientist with some 20 patents in computer technology including three of IBM's original nine PC patents.180 He, with Dennis Moeller, developed the `ISA bus system', the interior architecture that allows devices like printers, modems and so on to be connected to

177

International Black Inventions Museum, Featured Inventors: Dr. Patricia Bath http://www.blackinventionsmuseum.com/features3.html 178 Ibid. 179 Alexa Canady: The First African American Neurosurgeon http://www.albion.edu/educate/art/aframsci/karen1.htm 180 Computer Scientists of the African Diaspora: Mark Dean http://www.math.bufallo.edu/mad/computer-science/dean_mark.html

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personal computers.181 Some of Dr. Dean's inventions allow personal computer users to add devices and he has made contributions in creating computer technology being used `in more than 40 million personal computers produced each year'.182 Dr. Shirley Ann Jackson was born in 1946 in Washington, DC and attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology obtaining bachelors and doctorate degrees in physics.183 She is a theoretical physicist and leading scientist in the United States of America. She once served as consultant to Bell Laboratories where she contributed towards many advances such as the:

`...development of the touch tone telephone, portable fax, solar cell and the fiber optic cables used to provide clear sound in overseas telephone calls...Dr. Shirley Jackson's technical skills made possible 184 Call Waiting and Caller ID'.

DEAN

CARSON

JACKSON

Dr. Lloyd Quarterman was one of a dozen or so black scientists that also worked on the Manhattan Project of the United States government to produce the atom bomb. The then U.S. Secretary of War cited Dr. Quarterman for `...work essential to the production of the Atomic Bomb, thereby contributing to the

181 182

Ibid. International Black Inventions Museum: Featured Inventors ­ Dr. Mark E. Dean http://www.blackinventionsmuseum.com/features7.html 183 Mitchell C. Brown, Shirley Ann Jackson: Theoretical Physicist http://www.princeton.edu/~mcbrown/display/jackson.html 184 International Black Inventions Museum: Featured Inventors ­ Dr. Shirley Ann Jackson http://www.blackinventionsmuseum.com/features4.html

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successful conclusion of World War II.'185 We dare add that this work now contributes to the insecurity of the world unfortunately. Dr. Quarterman worked with among others, Enrico Fermi and Albert Einstein at Columbia University.186 Later in 1946, Dr. Quarterman was involved in research at the Arbonne National Laboratory, where research into the development of nuclear reactors took place. It was also here that the reactor for the Nautilus, an atomic powered submarine was developed by a team led by Dr. Quarterman.187 Still in the nuclear energy field, it was an African American scientist, Dr. Henry T. Sampson who in 1971 co-patented the gamma-electric cell, a device that `converts nuclear radiation from reactors or isotopes, directly into electricity without going through a heat cycle.'188 The conversion of otherwise harmful radiation from nuclear reactions into electricity represents a desirable and peaceful use of atomic energy.

RILLIEUX

JOHNSON

BATH

Another physicist Dr. Earl D. Shaw, who was born in 1937, had worked for almost two decades at Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill and co-invented the spin-flip Raman tunable laser.189

185

Black Scientific Legacy http://www.geocities.com/WallStreet/Floor/8647/blackleg2.html 186 Ibid. 187 Ibid. 188 Ibid. 189 Physicists of the African Diaspora: Earl D. Shaw http:www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/physics/shaw-earld.html

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Lonnie Johnson, a nuclear engineer, is a prolific inventor with over forty patents and some twenty pending. He is president of a research company called Johnson Research and Development. His most celebrated invention is the Super Soaker water gun, a toy which has grossed over US $200 million in sales since 1992.190 Marc R. Hannah is a computer scientist who holds thirteen patents and helped design the early architecture for the Nintendo 64 game system. A special effects wizard, groundbreaking computer scientist and designer, Marc Hannah co-founded Silicon Graphics Incorporated, where he also served as principal scientist. Silicon Graphics Incorporated designed the computers and three dimension graphics technology used to create spectacular special effects in such Hollywood blockbusters as `Jurassic Park', `Beauty and the Beast', and `Field of Dreams'.191 Otis Boykin was a consultant and a successful innovator who invented an improved electrical resistor used in computers, radios, television sets and other electronic applications as well as a variable resistor for use in guided missiles parts.192 James West, a physicist who conducted research at Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, is the `co-inventor of the foil electret, a device used to convert sound into electrical signals in hearing aids, portable tape recorders and lapel microphones.'193 This invention revolutionized the communication and entertainment industry. Other notable African-American scientists and inventors include dermatologist Meredith Gourdine, mathematician, physicist and engineer J. Ernest Wilkins, Jr., and materials engineer John B. Christian.194 Engineer Dr. Thomas C. Cannon Jr., was a lead researcher for the group that developed the Tactical

190

Lonnie Johnson http://www.johnsonrd.com/ie/lj/factinfo.html 191 Jill Yesko, SongPro CTO Marc Hannah: Silicon Valley's Master Designer http://blackengineer.com/artman/publish/article_55.shtml 192 Inventors: Otis Boykin http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blboykin.htm 193 Black Scientific Legacy, op.cit. 194 Great African American Inventors and Engineers http://www.uwm.edu/StudentOrg/NSBE/bie.html

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Optical Fibre Connector used by the US military in the 1991 Gulf war to send firing signals to the Patriot missiles while other researchers and inventors include chemist Ernest J. Jamieson, who made improvements to car fuel compositions; Kenneth J. Dunkley, whose optical discovery in human vision led to the development of 3-dimension viewing glasses; industrial designer Ruane Jeter who invented the digital toaster; Kedrich Jackson, who played an important role in improving Hewlett Packard's printers and Maxwell R. Mitchell, experienced photographer who developed a method to reduce documents without losing resolution.195 Brian Jackson, Courtland Robinson, Annie Easley and Earl E. Jones made contributions in computer science which have made our computers smaller, have resulted in new chip durability determination, new computer codes development and new communication programming.196 Other inventors are W. Lincoln Hawkins, the first AfricanAmerican to work for Bell Laboratories who `made universal telephone service possible by co-inventing a chemical additive that prevents the plastic coating on telecommunications cables from deteriorating.'197 Rufus J. Weaver has a patent for a wheelchair that climbs stairs while engineer David Crosthwait, an authority on heating, ventilation and cooling with some 34 United States and 80 foreign patents, was responsible for the design of the heating system of the Rockefeller Center in New York.198 Little known Dr. Warren Henry, according to historian Hattie Carwell, is a pioneering physicist who has had an illustrious career spanning some seventy years teaching and researching.199

195

Martha Brown, Modern African-American Inventors http://emeagwali.com/inventors/ 196 African American Inventors in Computer Science http://www.cis.vt.edu/ws/wsmodules/blackinventors.html 197 African-American Inventors of Our Times: Continued successes, improving opportunities http://web.mit.edu/invent/www.inventorsA-H/AAweek4.html 198 Ibid. 199 Hattie Carwell, Dr. Warren Henry http://www.ncalifblackengineers.org/featured.html

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He researched in magnetism, superconductivity and low temperature physics and has worked with many Nobel laureates.200 In space science people of African descent have made a mark as well. One black individual who is easily forgotten in space adventure is ArnaldoTamayo-Mendez, the first Cuban cosmonaut and first black man to go into space flight in a joint Soviet-Cuban mission in the early eighties.201 The first African-American in space is Dr. Guion Bluford who joined NASA in 1979 and had his first space mission in 1983.202 Dr. Bluford is presently the President of Aerospace Technology Group.203 Other notable astronauts and space scientists include Charles F. Bolden, Frederick D. Gregory, Mae Jemison and Robert E. McNair204 as well as Robert E. Shurney, Patricia Cowings, Isaac Gilliam IV, Christine Darden, Ireen Long and Benjamin F. Peery.205 Jocelyn S. Harrison and Anna McGowan are NASA women scientists involved in cutting-edge research.206

JEMISON

200 201

HARRISON

McGOWAN

Ibid. Tamayo-Mendez http://www.astronautix.com/astros/tamendez.htm 202 Blacks in Aviation http://www.swagga.com/aviation.htm. 203 The Fifty Most Important Blacks in Research Science, http://www.blackengineer.com/artman/publish/article_283.shtml 204 The Final Frontier: Blacks in Space http://www.africana.com/articles/daily/ht20031023space.asp 205 Black Scientific Legacy http://www.geocities.com/WallStreet/Floor/8647/blackleg2.html 206 Innovators who break barriers http://fyi.cnn.com/fyi/interactive/specials/bhm/story/black.innovators.html

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In 2004, at a conference in Nashville, Tennessee, USA, Science Spectrum Magazine selected a contemporary list of `The 50 Most Important Blacks in Research Science.'207 Apart from the famous ones such as Mark Dean, Philip Emeagwali, George Carruthers and Dr. Shirley Jackson, it had such names as Darnell E. Diggs, research physicist at the U. S. Air Force Research Laboratory, chief astronomer of Philadelphia's Franklin Institute Derrick Pitts and Neil Tyson, designer of the Hayden Planetarium at the American Museum of Natural History.208 Others that are on the list are picked from academia, NASA, pharmaceutical, telecommunications, chemical and other corporations. The list of African-American inventors is inexhaustible. Not to be left out here is the inventor and professor of electrical engineering at MIT, Dr. Cardinal Warde, who is regarded as one of the world's leading authority on optical information processing technology.209 African-American contributions in American science are wide and cover a broad spectrum. Dr. Leroy Vaughn has lamented the apparent absence of any serious attention given to black scientists and inventors by historians yet made the observation:

`...the collective contribution of Black Americans to science is so extensive that it is not possible to live a full day in any part of the United States or the world for that matter, without sharing in the benefits of their contributions in such fields as: biology, chemistry, 210 physics, space and nuclear science.'

And these contributions are also being made continuously. It is, therefore, not possible to provide a list that could attempt to exhaust all of them in such a small publication.

207

50 Most Important Blacks in Research Science 2004 http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/special/50blacks2004.html 208 Garland L. Thompson, The 50 Most Important Blacks in Research Science http://www.blackengineer.com/artman/publish/article_283.shtml 209 Inventor of the Week: Archive http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/warde.html 210 Dr. Leroy Vaughn, Black People and Their Place in World History http://www.computerhealth.org/ebook/20thcentpost.htm

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The following websites will help in appreciating the extent of African-American ingenuity in science and invention. These contributions permeate the highest echelons of not only corporate America but the world at large and perhaps the best example is that of Ejovi Nuwere, formerly a mean Ghetto street kid and computer hacker who is now operating on the frontiers of cyber space in corporate computer security on no less than the Wall Street.211

www.princeton.edu/~mbrown/display/faces.html www.blackengineer.con/artman/publish/article_283.shtml http://community-2.webtv.net/Down_For_Knowledge/Top50African/index.html http://community-2.webtv.net/IMJs/BLACKINNOVATORS/page4.html www.geocities.com/citybay/top20black.html www.swagga.com/inventors.htm www.geocities.com/WallStreet/Floor/8647/blackleg2.html www.blackinventionsmuseum.com http://inventors.about.com/cs/blackinventors www.blackpatents.com www.blackinventors.org http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/DLHinson/AfroTech.html www.uwm.edu/StudentOrg/NSBE/bie.html www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/Bibliography/AFAM_Science.html

Also to note is the fact that some inventions made by African-Americans during slavery were appropriated by their masters. Yet while others remained anonymous, a significant number became free because of their skills in various trades. However, what remains a grave error is to mislead people on black inventions by calling improvements made by blacks on other inventions or devices and apparatus on existing patents as black inventions or make false claims altogether. So many websites state that Alexander Miles invented the elevator, and quite a few do claim that the cell phone was invented by Dr. Henry T. Sampson. That is not true. Dr. Sampson co-invented the gamma electric cell, a nuclear device while Alexander Miles invented a device which improved the safety in elevators.

211

Bill Alexander, An Apple a Day Gave Ghetto Kid Corporate Entry http://www.youthtoday.org/youthtoday/insert/hacker.html

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Epilogue

"There are a people, now forgotten, discovered, while others were yet barbarians, the elements of the arts and sciences. A race of men rejected now for their black skin and wooly hair founded, on the study of the laws of Nature, those civil and religious systems which still govern the universe...This race of black men...is the very race to which we owe our arts, our sciences and even the use of speech!" -Count C. F. Volney "Thought without practice is empty, and action without thought is blind." -Kwame Nkrumah "The 21st century is a new beginning for Africa. It is the point at which Africa, the birthplace of humanity meets Africa with hope for the future." -Philip Emeagwali

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY will always be central in Africa's quest for development. As this monograph attempts to show, Africa is the initiator of the progress much touted by the west as their heritage. Yet the scientific achievements of the Africans are never taught in schools and remain unknown to the general public. And not enough, nay, nothing is being done to redress this. This is an aberration. If we are to restore our positive self assertion, there is need to ensure that the biased Eurocentric world view is replaced by a balanced one which acknowledges scientific contributions from other cultures as well, not just European ones. If we are to inspire African youth to take up careers in science and technology, so important if we are to extricate ourselves from the fangs of underdevelopment, we have to give them appropriate African scientific role models to emulate, not the

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ubiquitous rascals, sportsmen, entertainers, `poly-tricksters', glitterati, warlords and strongmen that are made to dominate the television screens in our lounges. African past history and precedents in science are of special significance because it is this prior knowledge which significantly impacted on the subsequent development of science in Asia and Europe and laid the very foundation for the technology of today. The initiation of the Greeks by the Africans into the Kemetic mysteries, the first advanced educational system in the world, led to the sprouting of the Greco-Roman civilization. The GrecoRoman world was later to plagiarize Egyptian knowledge and build upon it. Greek scholars obtained their education from the Africans in ancient Black Egypt. The likes of Pythagoras, Solon, Thales, Archimedes, Erastothenes and many others, in fact the majority of the Greek world's who was who were pupils of the Egyptians and obtained their education in Egypt.212 That was the genesis of the era of classical European civilization. When this civilization declined, after the Anglo-Saxons defeated the Romans about 400 AD, Europe entered a period known as the Dark Ages which lasted to about 1000 AD in some parts of Europe.213 It was again the Africans, the black Moors and the Arabs, who entered Spain via Morocco in 711 AD and introduced science, medicine, mathematics, animal husbandry, chemistry, geology, optics, mechanics, astronomy, the arts, urban planning and basic hygiene; they introduced the first advanced university type education which gave birth to the first universities in Europe such as Salamanca, Cambridge, Rome, Oxford and Lisbon.214 They also introduced many technical inventions and created architectural masterpieces in the southern cities of Seville, Toledo and Cordoba.215

212

Cheikh Anta Diop, The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality? http://www.africanreviewofbooks.com/100best/100bestsamples/diop.html 213 Kwaku Person-Lynn, The Moors Bring Civilization to Europe http://www.drkwaku.com/ESSAYS.HTM 214 Ibid. 215 Moors: The Columbian Encyclopedia 6th Edition http://www.bartleby.com/65/mo/Moors.html

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Some prominent noblemen and aristocratic families of Europe were started or had as members black Moors or other black African people as if in fulfilling the Biblical prophesy that: `Princes shall come out of Egypt...'216 Examples abound. We have even the emperors of Rome such as Septimus Severus, who was born in North Africa and proved popular as a leader and military officer.217 Others include the first Duke of Florence, Alessandro de Medici218 and in the line of Portuguese and British Royal families we find Africans such as Queen Charlotte Sophie who was the wife of the English King George III (1769-1820) and is the greatgreat-great-great grandmother of the present Queen of England, Elizabeth II.219 African descended individuals can be traced in many other royal families of Europe due to intermarriages. As Sunni Ali informs us: `Prominent Arabs of African descent include Kuwaiti Crown Prince Saad and Saudi Arabia's longtime ambassador to Washington, Prince Bandar bin Sultan.'220 All peoples promote their histories, especially glorious ones. Our history has for the past five hundred years, unfortunately, been subjected to crude racist distortions. It has been lost, stolen, downplayed, slighted, distorted, obfuscated and strayed. However, we have now reached a stage where continued falsification of our history cannot go unchallenged. We now have a sophisticated cadre of Afrocentric scholars able to dig deeper to find out the truth as well as take on any mischievous American, European and Asian mythorians. Our scholars will not use romantic slogans but facts established scientifically, immutable facts beyond sane rebuttal. This cadre of our cultural saviours, some of whom have since made the transition to ancestorhood - yet their work remains

216 217

Holy Bible, Psalm 68 Septimus Severus: York based 3rd century Black Roman emperor http://www.100greatblackbritons.com/bios/septimus_severus.html 218 Alessandro de Medici http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_de_Medici 219 Ekowa A. Kenyatta, Black Britain http://www.essaysbyekowa.com/black_Britain.htm 220 Sunni Khalid, African Heritage Extends Across the Arab World http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/arab.html

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immortal - include Cheikh Anta Diop, Yosef ben Jochannan, George G. M. James, Ivan van Sertima, Walter Rodney, Marcus Garvey, Kwame Nkrumah, Charles S. Finch, Theophile Obenga, Molefi Kete Asante, John G. Jackson, J.C. DeGraft-Johnson, John Henrik Clarke, Runoko Rashidi, Nana Banchie Darkwah, Ekowa A. Kenyatta, William Leo Hansberry, J. A. Rogers, Chancellor Williams, Carter G. Woodson, Jacob H. Carruthers, Femi Biko, Drusilla Dunjee Houston, Leonard Jeffries, Maulana Karenga, W.E.B. DuBois and many others too numerous to mention. Our scholars did also draw on the work of some white scholars who were really honest in presenting the history of Africans without introducing crude falsifications such as Gerald Massey, Godfrey Higgins, Keasey Graves, T.O. Dione, T. Drake, Martin Bernal, Basil Davidson, Sir Arthur Evans, Count C.F. Volney and others. To this we add the testimonies of ancient writers who had great respect for the truth and acknowledged the African achievements such as Herodotus (the father of European history), Diodorus, Aetius, Strabo, Homer, Plato, Diogenes and Plutarch.221 History affords us an opportunity to understand the present by studying the past. It is also a key to the future. Rather than feast on the unpalatable mono-diet of western negative reports, attempts must be made to study our glorious past struggles and triumphs so that we can reflect, rejoice and celebrate. Appreciation of our history should give us inspiration and forewarn us against the mistakes of the past for, as they say, those that do not learn from their mistakes are condemned to repeat them. Glorious and victorious history always empowers a people. The adverse historic experience of Africans at the hands of slavery, colonialism, and neo-colonialism should not be a source of despair but must trigger the realization of the possibility to turn around the tables for a better future. The Jewish people furnish an excellent example of how a people can use glorious and victorious history to

221

Molefi Kete Asante, Race in Antiquity: Truly Out Of Africa http://www.asante.net/articles/lefkowitz.html

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liberate themselves. The Jews, despite their persecution by Babylonians and more recently by the Nazis, have overcome their sufferings thanks to their faith in their Talmud and in themselves. They celebrate their glorious history and have even made it sacred. They have become used to singing their own song. It is worth bringing to attention the disparities in the conditions of the African people in the United States and Brazil. African-Americans make up about ten percent of the population of the United States while the percentage of African descendants in Brazil is close to or more than fifty percent. But it is very rare to hear about a prominent Brazilian politician (Pele, the former football legend and one time Minister of Sports being a remarkable exception) lawyer, businessman, educator or scientist. The economic power of Afro-Brazilians is generally feeble. This compares very unfavourably with African-Americans who have not only dominated American sports but are also represented in business, politics, religion, the arts and even though still not satisfactorily, their representation in academics, legal and medical professions and science and technology is evident. Is it because Afro-Brazilians have lacked political activism? Is it because they have not stood up to be proud of themselves? While admitting that sociologists are better qualified to answer these questions, the contention that it could partly be due to lack of Brazilian versions of Harriet Tubman, Booker Washington, Martin Luther King, Maulana Karenga, Angela Davies, Malcolm X, Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglas, Jesse Jackson, W.E.B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey is not entirely without merit. Cultural articulation and propagation is a prominent feature in the public relation activities of the emerging Asian powers: Japan, Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, China and India. The preface to China's "Silicon Valley", a booklet on high technology industry in China starts thus:

`High technology, including the launching of satellites and the implementation of computerized photo layout indicate that China, an ancient country and inventor of gun powder, compass, papermaking

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and type printing, has returned to take a leading international role in 222 the advancement of science and technology...'

Technological advancement in China has to be seen to be legitimate, internalized, expected and not alien. It is for this reason that the Chinese cite previous achievements. The same could be encountered in Indian, Korean or Japanese literature. Africans too have made many contributions to the world progress not only under favourable enabling environments but even under the worst oppression and the most deprived conditions. What we have accomplished in spite of tremendous odds should serve to instill confidence in our children. As Marcus Moziah Garvey says `...man's history is his inspiration...our history is as good as that of any other race or people...'223 Let us start teaching and celebrating our scientific achievements today and see in it what African people did, what Africans or black people can do. What Imhotep, Heron, Ahmes, Hypatia, Euclid, Al-jahiz, Carver, Emeagwali, Animalu, Diop, Mark Dean, Oyibo, Fuller, McCoy, Katiti, Shirley Jackson, Matzeliger, Drew, Konotey-Ahulu, Woods, Bart Nnaji, Clive Chirwa, Thomas Mensah, Ovadje, James West...and Lonnie Johnson did, an African child could do, you and I can do. Pythagoras did not develop the Pythagorean Theorem; he copied it from Egypt where the Africans had been using it to build monuments which predate Pythagoras by thousands of years. African children must be taught that there is now the scientific principle called Allotey formalism in soft x-ray spectroscopy pioneered by a Ghanaian, Professor Francis Kofi Ampenyi Allotey; that there is an Emeagwali-Fibonacci algorithm used in computers; that there is also the Onabamiroid chemical formula devised by Dr. Sanya Onabamiro; that there is the test for syphilis developed by Dr. William Hinton, an African-American

222 223

China in Brief, China's "Silicon Valley", New Star Publishers, 1993 History and the Negro, from The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/garvey2.html

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scientist known as the Hinton Test; that there is a plant species known as plectranthus seyanii named in honour of Malawian scientist Dr. Jameson Henry Seyani; that here is the Turner's circling, a phenomenon characteristic of insects named after African American scientist Charles Turner and other scientific principles being named after African peoples. The English expression `the Real McCoy' meaning something genuine is derived from the African-American inventor Elijah McCoy. McCoy's devices, due to their popularity were copied by many and this prompted enquirers to question whether what was before them was the real McCoy, or a poor copy hence the evolution of the term. Others, in the tradition of the ancients, still would not put a name to some inventions or theories, but no latter day reincarnates of Pythagoras will be allowed to steal our modern scientific legacy. Connected to this should be our resolute resolve to reject certain terminologies that demean or put our contributions into second rate position or make the Western the ultimate standard or outright racist degrading terms. Bill Clinton and others have called Philip Emeagwali `the Bill Gates of Africa'.224 Emeagwali is certainly not a version of Bill Gates. Emeagwali is a highly educated and qualified scientist who made contributions in supercomputing, mathematics and petroleum engineering. Bill Gates is the world's richest entrepreneur who has made contributions to personal computers. There is no comparison between the two; Bill Gates made entrepreneurial contributions to PCs and Emeagwali made intellectual contributions to supercomputing, mathematics and petroleum engineering. And would you ever imagine their calling Bill Gates the `Emeagwali of America'? A biography on biologist Ernest Everett Just has the inappropriate title Black Apollo of Science: The Life of Ernest Everett Just. This is as if to suggest that Apollo was white. Yet

224

The White House: Remarks by the President to the Joint Assembly http://clinton6.nara.gov/2000/08/2000-08-26-remarks-by-the-president-to-joint-assembly.html

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Apollo, the father of Zeus, was a black God.225 The American Catholic Tribune reportedly called Granville T. Woods `The Black Edison ­ The Greatest Electrician in the World.'226 The absurdity of such accolades is evident. If Woods was the greatest, need he have to be an Edison? Terms such as Bushmen when referring to the San, Hottentots when referring to the Khoi-khoi, Nigger, Kaffir, African time, black magic, and a host of other derogatory and disparaging terms must be expunged from our peoples' vocabulary and we should not allow anyone to use them when referring to us. This is the message which also needs to be imparted in all our people, not least the ruling class of our societies. Our ruling classes need serious re-education. They are clearly off centre. Most do not stand for anything, so they fall for everything foreign. That politics can betray reason in unimaginable situations is proved over and over again by the obscene ravaging of national resources which end up being deposited in Swiss Bank accounts or spent on grandiose white elephants, fratricidal conflicts and presidential spiritual or religious pronouncements that verge on unmitigated fantasy from leaders on our troubled continent ­ oil from grass, supernatural powers from incestuous relations, cannibalistic behaviour, protection from bullets by smearing animal grease and so on and so forth. We must critically examine from where and when this disconnection and deviation from our scientific tradition arose and identify and mark a historic period of our own continent's `Dark Age' that spread its clouds to arrest African self determination and help the enemies of Africa to not only steal our heritage but oppress us. Marking our `Dark Age' would help us recognize how far down we have descended and help us realize the need for a renaissance.

225

Black Messiahs http://saxakali.com/suzar/black.htm 226 International Black Inventions Museum: Featured Inventors ­ Granville T. Woods http://blackinventionsmuseum.com/features5.html

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The apparent lack of a centre also explains why many of our so-called leaders pay through the nose for the irrational economic advice foreign economic greenhorns in the name of IMF advisers give them and which advice impoverish our nations and fuels the brain drain; driving to the West some of the best minds of our countries. They need re-education that their nationals could be trained to become scientists and engineers; that they could create technologies suitable for their countries and that technological development is not the preserve of the West. It just needs nurturing and massive investments in education and social services. Countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Korea to mention but these few have demonstrated what a focused and enlightened leadership can do to relatively resource poor countries and transform them into economically formidable entities. Extractive industries such as copper mining, timber, sugar, cocoa and rubber growing or oil production cannot benefit countries in the long run if the earnings from there are not invested in technology development to add more value to the raw materials. Ask the Nigerians. And also, Goodyear, an American tyre manufacturing company makes more profits from Liberian rubber than the Liberians and so do the chocolate companies from Ivorian cocoa. Our religion is also something that needs re-orientation. Religion should help liberate us and not enslave us. Religion should not be the veritable opium of the people Karl Marx remarked about. It should give us power. It should not make us lose ourselves. If people think that they can pray to God if they use only certain foreign languages, they have surely lost it. Why doesn't Africa feature as a pilgrimage site? Is it not in Africa where Joseph and Mary fled with an infant Jesus to avoid King Herod's wrath?227 Is it not in Africa where Joseph's famine struck brothers found the much needed food relief?228 Is it not in Africa where Moses was born and raised and well got all his education

227 228

Matthew 2:13-14 Psalms 105:23-27

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including what he was to later impart on the Jews?229 Is it not Africa where the Prophet Muhammad fled to when he was persecuted by hostile tribes in Arabia?230 Had it not been for the Negus of Ethiopia who sheltered him, Islam may well have had been nipped in the bud. In fact the first Hijra or migration was by Prophet Muhammad and his companions and relatives to Ethiopia.231 For being sheltered in Ethiopia, the Prophet is reported to have said that: `Who brings an Ethiopian man or an Ethiopian woman into his house, brings the blessings of God there.'232 This is a far cry from what present day Arabs, who have for a long time, pursued an aggressive racist posture against us, occupying our land and practising slavery. And yet we have some black Arabized African Muslims under the influence of religion not seeing anything wrong with this. They have not and are unlikely to protest. But when two Semitic subgroups, the Arabs and Jews, fight over a very little piece of land - and an arid one for that matter - there is all that solidarity with one or the other depending on whether the sympathiser is of fundamentalist Christian or Moslem persuasion. After a journey to Mecca, one proudly earns the title El-hajj; and after a journey to Jerusalem, one becomes a JP (Jerusalem Pilgrim). I do not share this. It is patently stupid for Africans to do this. Our centre must be and it is indeed Africa. We ought not be short of a place to make a pilgrimage to in Africa: Oshogbo, IleIfe, Thebes, Meroe, Axum, Dhlodhlo, Zimbabwe, Lake Bosumtwi, In'gombe Illede, Ipet Isut, Kom Ombo, On, Dongola, Oduvai Valley, Blombo's Cave, Djenne, Timbuktu, Gao, Kilimanjaro, Ruwenzori and the mighty Mosi-o-a-tunya. Africa is rich in terms of holy sites. It is the birthplace of humanity. There cannot be any

229 230

The Holy Bible, Acts 7:22. See also Exodus 2: 10 Runoko Rashidi, The African Presence in Early Arabia http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/arabia.html 231 The Haven of the First Hijra (Migration): an African nation is the Muslims' first refuge http://www.ethiopiabayareamuslims.com/islam_in_ethiopia.htm 232 Runoko Rashidi, op. cit.

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holier place than man's origin. In fact the Giza plateau in Egypt provides us an opportunity where one can even be baptized with sand under the very shadows of the Great Pyramid. Virtually every village in Africa, every famous place and every historic place is a potential pilgrimage site, even the back of my home or the site of my first school building. Because inevitably in each of these places, as Jean Paul Sartre would contend, the overwhelming humanitarianism and egalitarianism of traditional African society overrides the twisted, individualistic, and destructive conditions that dominate Western thought and practice in modern times. If the Christian world could have the Red Cross, and the Islamic world the Red Crescent, then surely the African world ought to have the Red Ankh, for indeed the ankh is the symbol of life. And as we know that the ankh is the symbol of life, and if the Red Cross or Crescent denotes that organization that saves life and if we really are honest enough to acknowledge that the ankh is the symbol from where the cross was derived, then we should only be silly if not ignorant not to use our symbols. The ankh was there before the cross. The ankh is the original cross.233 We must also be wary of the traditions we inherit from colonialism. For instance, why should our court judges wear those strange wigs? Or why should we have the twenty-one gun salute? We ought to know how some traditions came about. When Napoleon Bonaparte reached Egypt in 1798, and was overwhelmed at the sight of Her-em-akhet, the mighty monument known as the Sphinx in front of the Pyramids, he ordered his soldiers to shoot at it. It took twenty-one canon shots to knock down the distinctly Bantu nose off Her-em-akhet.234 Her-em-akhet means Heru-of-theHorizon in the ancient Egyptian language but the Greeks called that monument the Sphinx, meaning strangler.235 So every time we

233

Ankh: The Original Cross http://www.swagga.com/ankh.htm 234 Dr. Kwame Nantambu, Role of Numbers in Ancient Kemet (Egypt) http://www.trinicenter.com/kwame/2002/Aug/ 235 Km.T Liberation Front http://www.geocities.com/Athens/1314/KmT.html see also www.essaysbyekowa.com/Black%20Greeks.html

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have our soldiers perform a twenty-one gun salute, we are actually celebrating that despicable act of vandalism of an African monument. The ancestors and the Gods cannot be pleased with us for doing this. Finally, Professor Gabriel Oyibo's God Almighty's Grand Unified Theorem clearly demonstrates that science and religion are indeed inseparable and that knowledge comes from God. This was the belief of the Africans in ancient Egypt as well where knowledge was attributed to the God Thoth (Tehuti). African religion has had its prospects enhanced with the erudition of a world class scientist in the name of Oyibo. For starters, herbals are making a comeback in medicine and other commercial products. Herbal medicine, we would recall, was not so long ago derided in many circles but we now have herbs in toothpaste, tea, medicines and other products. It is my hope that this monograph will help our people to become more conscious of the contributions their ancestors made to world scientific heritage. It, hopefully, will help the general public know that science and technology are Africa's gift to the world. It is also my hope that it helps to encourage teachers to include examples of African scientific excellence on the continent and in the Diaspora in their curricula. If the teaching of the African scientific legacy increases the self-esteem of African peoples, which self esteem is crucial if Africans are to even attempt to again take a front seat role in technology development, I will consider to have accomplished the first stage of a sanctified mission, a mission started by others in the past and which mission is ongoing until Africans are liberated from the yoke of mental slavery.

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APPENDIX Table 1: Some African and African-American Science and Technology Organizations and Information Websites

Organization / Subject

African Academy of Sciences Chemistry in Africa African Physicists African Mathematical Union Council for Scientific and Industrial Research African Centre for Technology Studies Material Scientists in Africa African Association of Pure and Applied Chemistry African Scientific Network National Technical Association National Society for Black Engineers Africa Institute for Mathematical Sciences Scientific African African Network of Scientific and Technological Institutions Science and Scientists in Africa African Medical Research Foundation Association of African Universities Computer Scientists of the African Diaspora Mathematicians of the African Diaspora Physicists of the African Diaspora Mathematics in Africa Black Societies in Mathematical Sciences International Society of African Scientists African Scientific Societies UIPAC-African Countries Material Scientists in Africa Third World Academy of Sciences Third World Organization for Women in Science

Website

www.aasciences.org www.webanalytes.com/cheminafrica.html http://unicorn.ncat.edu/~michael/uses/genet/ees/physical.html www.math.buffalo.edu/mad.AMU/AMU-index.html www.csir.co.za www.acts.or.ke www.wits.ac.za/fac/science/physics/materials/ www.und.ac.za/und/aapac/ www.physics.ncat.edu/~michael/asn/ www.mindspring.com/~egrabs/nta.html www.nsbe.org www.aims.ac.za/english/people.php www.scientific-african.com www.ansti.org/ www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/Africa/science.html www.columbia.edu/cu/web/indiv/africa/cuvlSciTech.html www.amref.org/ www.aau.org www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/computer-science/cs-peeps.html www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/index.html www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/physics/physics-peeps.html www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/Africa-today/index.html www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/special/Black-Math-Societies.html www.dca.net/isas www.aaas.org/international/africa/soclist.shtml www.und.ac.za/und/aapac/country/country/html www.wits.ac.za/fac/science/physics/materials/ www.ictp.trieste.it/~twas/ www.twows.org

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APPENDIX Table 2: Some Notable African Scientists. This list is not exhaustive

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon

Elias Zerhouni Sidi Amar Assali Abdelkader Khelladi Diakanamwa Carlos deAssis Africano Albina Kounouhewa Basile Gnancadja Gilles Martial Marie-Paul Agueh Norbert Hounkonnou M Tlou Sheila Dinotshe Edward Lungu Traore Alfred S Koulibaly Akry Jumi Shabani Rusuku Gerard Thomas B. Bouetou Henri Hogbe Nlend Lehoue Noel Ngu Victor Anomah Tokpanou Isabelle Paul Nkwi Vincent Tanya Amilcar Cabral Ngobito Henri Ibni Oumar Jamal Mimouni Rachid Bebbouchi Moktadir Zerrouki Adriano Mixange Idris Assani Cyprien Gnanvo Gerald Michael Awanou Sunday O. Iyahen Basinyi Chimitza V. K. Bhandari Ousseynou Nakoulima Mathias Cora Batabe Janviere Ndirahisha Niyongalo Theodore Timoleon Crepin Kofane Michel Nguiffo Boyom Pauline Fotso Wouofa Kamga Marie Ndjole Assouho Asongna Folefoc Vincent P K Titani Louis Manuel Alves Gaston M. N'Guerekata Mahamat Saleh Ahmed Djebbar Youcef Guergour Benmouna Mustapha Pimental Carlos Jean Pierre Ezin Come Goudjo Djivede Armel Kelome Nelson Torto

Emmanuel Yomba Celestin Lele Bitjong Bi Ndombol G. Edward Njock Christiana Nso Mbi Pauline Fotso Ngaffo Maurice Tchuente

Cape Verde

Central African Rep

Chad Comoros Congo Congo DRC Cte d Ivoire Djibouti Egypt

Gombe Charles Mbalawa Dongala Emmanuel Koya Dzere Lurhuma Zirimwambagabo Nachega Jean B Wafula Mifundu Dieudonne Felix Malu wa Kalenga Guidy Wandia Josephine Almaz Amine Diopoh Kore Jacques Nabil Mohamed Nassar Hamed Saeid Mohamed Shafik Abdelghany Ali Tolba Mostafa Kamal Nagwa Abdel Meguid Molamoud Mohammed Raafat Mohamed Yousry M. Moursy Hebeish Ali Ali El Ashry Mohamed T Hassan Saad S. M A'Bodjedi Enenge Sebhatu Mesgun Ghidewon Abay Asmeron Bililign Solomon Kabede Adebe Seifu Dereje Petros Beyene Wolfe-Johannes Legesse Ashenafi Mogessie Guy Martial Nkeit Ousman Ceesay Ayim JSK Lawrence Victor Andam Kwesi

Patrice Ntumba Sekuo Traore Bouramoue Chris M. Mawanda Malala John Ibula Ntantu Ali Basira Henri Kampunzu Saliou Toure Etienne Desquith

Pascal Lissouba Victor Doulou Ne Ngangu Massamba Philippe Badibanga Luhahi Lahu Theophile Blanchard Logon Eholie Rose Hubertine

Hamas Fouad Khalifa Nsar Hassan Abdel-Kader Magdy A el-Akkad Mohammed Ibrahim el-Akkad Ahmad Abdel Moniem Farouk El-baz Fahmy A F M El Beltagy Adel El Nagdi Mohammed H. El Naggar Zaghloul Berhane T. Ghaim Berhanu Abegaz Halima Ali Semere Arai Kbenesh W. Blayney Worede Melaku Tsega Edemariam Donatien Mavoungou Dave Manneh Yakubu Abdul-Aziz D. Adu-Gyamfi Francis Ahia

Attia Ashour Raafat Habib Hassan Ragab Ashraf Mansour Fadel Mohamed Ali Nefertiti Megahed Muhamed el-Kassas Ezzat Essmat Hafez Mahmoud

Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia

Ermias Dagne Abdulcadir Issa Yohannes Truneh Brook Lakew Sossina Haile Daniel Koumba Koumba Ansumana Jarjue S.A. Adjei Thomas Ango Bediako Daniel E. Bentil

Gabon Gambia Ghana

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Guinea Guinea Bissau Kenya

Amuzu Joseph KA F.K.A. Allotey Ayensu Edward S Gabriel Ayine Dzandu James Kofi Oteng-Amoako A.M. Taylor Herbert Winful Robert Gyabaa Jones Butler Walter S. Alhassan Bekoe Daniel Adzei Kaba Mohammed Lamie Foula M Barry Amilcar Cabral Anzala Aggrey G. Eshiwani Bwayo Job Wangari Maathai Magoha George A.O. Wandera Ogana Nyaigotti-Chacha Chadia C. Oyuke Olumbe Kirasi Kewamoi Sogomo Ochieng Washington Yotto Ndinya-Achola Washington Romano Kiome Warraka Wamlole Gideon B. A. Okelo Emmanuel Omolo Wango Dennis Onyango John O Mugabe Nyawira Muthiga Eric Odada Ogallo Laban Raditapapole Nthethe Nehang Kateh Francis Dennis Emmet

Francis Benyah Kossi Edoh Andrew Akwesi Elsie Effah Kaufmann Akyeampong Daniel Afedzi Mathieu Kolie

Florence Wambugu Stephen Mwandoto George Saitoti Davy Koech Richard Leakey Kamau Kimoto Samson Gombe Thomas Odhiambo Carolyn Lang'at Simon Njoroge Mwaura

Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco

Ward Victor E Lasebae Aboubaker Saleh Mohamed Abughres Izzedin Abdullah Ahmed Rajaona Andriamananjara Albert Rakoto Ratsimamanga Philippe Rasoanaivo Chodziwadziwa Mjojo Chiphangwi John David Elizabeth Minofu Sibale Safiatou Dem F Seydu Louis J C Autrey G. Mohamedbhai Kerkour Ahmed Abdeseal El Harti Hicham Maaoumi Nouza El Yacoubi Baghdadi Mohamed

Gamal Bennaser Hussein Muhammed Elmehdi Anaizi Nasr Abu Hanek Salem Lahssumy Younis M Gerard Razafimanantsoa Suzanne Rakoto-Ratsimamanga Raoelina Andriambololoma Overtoun M Jenda Llolsten Kaonga Eunice Gogo Mphako J D Kalenga Saka Paxie Chirwa Aggrey Ambali Jameson Seyani Bagayoko Diola Daouda Sangare Barama Toni Toure Yeya Tiemoko Toka Diagana Abed Peeraly Arjoon Suddho Amina Berrahou Hammani Chidami Mohamed Khalil Chamcham Salma Bisbis Mohamed Aballagh Utui Rogerio Jose Paulus Gerdes Chris Brown Issoufou Kouada Adekoya Adeyemi Etta Kelvin Ugwu Onuegbu Okoro Alo Babajide Adegbile Philip Olamuyiwa Grace Lele Williams Samson A. Adeleke John O. Adeniran John C. Amazigo Abba B. Gumel Aderemi Kuku Amos Olagunju Adegoki Olubummo Kevin Osondu Adewale Solarin Grace Lele Williams Olatunde Akinlade Rufus Adegboye Etim Moses Essien Dhanjay Jhurry Indurlall Fagoonee Adbellatif Berbich Mikou Noufissa Kamal Al Wodghui Fouad Lahlou Ben Sari Driss Brito Lidia MSRA Kuiri Tjipangandjara Aboubakar Maitournam

Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria

Bouli Ali Diallo

Dorothy Ffoulkes-Crabbe David I. Adu Alexander E. O. Animalu Oluska Akinyele Lele Shakunle Ezekiel O. Ayoola Iya Abubakar Bamidele Awojoyogbe Ilesanmi Adesida Bola Olujide Balogun Sammani D. Abdullahi Charles E. Chidume Ethelbert Chukwu Sam Ale Anthony Afuwape James Ezeilo John O. Adeyeye Simeon O. Fatunla S.A. Ilori Samuel N. Jator Olowole Makinde Chike Obi David O. Olagunju James A. Oguntuase Yewande Olubummo George O. Okikiolu Gabriel Oyibo Francis Ohanyido Haroon Tejumola Livinus Uko Damian Anyanwu Ifeanyi Goddy Muokwue Emmanuel Adedolapo Lufadeju Katherine Okikiolu G.O.P.Obasi Lambo Thomas Adeoye Sunday Petters Charles O.N. Wambebe

78

Okigbo Bede Nwoye

Onwumechili Cyril Agodi Romain Murenzi M. Albert Batanage Mutesa Cherif Badji Galaye Dia Serigne Aliou Lo Souleymane Niang M'Bayang Thiam Sada Sory Thiam Diop-Mar Ibrahima

Donald Efiong Udo Ekong

Rwanda Sao Tome Senegal

Banyaga Augustine Katabarwa Jean-baptiste Sall Abdou Salam Mampasi Benjamen Gane Samb Lo Mary Teuw Niane Maguette Thiam Doudou Sakhir Thiam Toguobaye Bhem Sikina Godwin Vidal Allan James Alfah A. Williams Knox Macaulay Huxley Jama Salad Mohamed Sibisi Sifusiso John Bradley Godinabokao Lesole Zoyiso Nongxa Chris Brink Gugu Moche Jaqul Greenberg Mark Doyle Vorster H. H. Este Olihile Sebolai George Ellis Nigel Weiss Coovadia Hoosen M el Bashier el Tayeb Somaya Bayoumi Riad Abdel Latif Abdel Mageed Yahia Magboul M. Ali Magboul Salih Abdin M. A Lydia Makhubu

Salimatou Diagne Oumar Dioume Malick Ndiaye Hamet Seydi Aissa Wade Cheikh Gueye Toure Moctar Nana Pratt Wright Ernest James Patrick Monty

Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa

Lennox S.O. Liverpool Tanniemola Blackett Liverpool Africanus Horton Abioseh Nicol Ghedi Ali Muhammad Joseph Apaloo Seepe Sipho Dominic Clemence Themba Dube Joel Jolayemi R. M. Christopher Makgoba W. Malegapuru Wieland Gevers Thomson Jennifer David Mosimege Valerie Mizrahi Saymour Papert Christina Scott Salah-Eldin A. Mohammed Mohammed Ismael Sharif Sami Mohamed Izzeldin Mohamed Osman Hassan Muhammed Osman Patrick Phiri

Sudan

Adrian Peterson Matthew Adigun John Bradley Kavilan Moodley Sizwe Mabizela Berger Guy Eloff Fritz Persens Jan Walmsley Richard D. Issac Amoah Berjak Patricia Francis Guthrie Euan Nisbet Mohamed H. A. Hassan A. M. El Hassan Ahmad Al Safi Ahmed Adeel Babiker Adbel Ghayoum Jayantilal K Chande Matthew Luhanga Felix Chami Bernadette John Msolla Peter M Messanvi Gbeassor Kwawo Johnson Edee Emmanuel K. A. Mawulipklimi Baraket Sami Mounira Hmani Alfa Mohamed Souissi Bahri Akissa Charles Ssali Francis Ssennoga Kwatsi Alibaruho Alex Tindimubona Sabiiti Elly N Francis Yamba Habatwa V Mweene Tackson Lambert Amos Banda Magadza C. H. D Loveridge J.B David Mtwetwa Stephen Chandiwana David Gazi

Swaziland Tanzania

Togo Tunisia Uganda

Zambia

Zimbabwe

Masanga Verdiana Grace Mzige Ali Alhaji Ole Moi Yoi Onesmo Mwamhehe Hamza R.W.P. Masanja Keto E. Mshigeni Estomih Massawe John S Munkondya Sospeter Muhongo Kyomo Martin Luther Koudou Angelo Efoevi Koukou Abalo Koffi Fadimba Kenny Koffi Siggini Yawovi M D Gumedzoe Gueddana Nabiha Ghorbal Fathi Zohra Ben Lakhdar Najia Kbir-Ariguib Laila Abei-Lai Mehdi Benna Dellagi Koussay Hentali Faycal Okot-Uma Rogers Mangheni Patrick Luboobi Livingstone Serwadda Banyamureeba Venancius Ssebuwana Pancras John Lutabo Bbosa A. J Tamale Ssali Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo Kayanja Frederick Ian Bantuburo Mugyenyi Peter Ndimbirwe Egwang Thomas Njovu Chiyaba Benjamin Mweene Chifumbe Chintu Francis Khama Goma Lamech Kazembe Haza Nkandu Luo Mwananyanda Mbikusita-Lewanika Lupando Mukonge Efford Clive Chirwa Nicholas Lubaba Jane Gore Temba Shonhiwa Heneri Dzinotyiweyi A.M L.R. Ndhlovu C. J. Chetsanga Mutambara Arthur Jacob Mafunda Cephas T Musabayane Gordon Lloyd Chavunduka A. Mswaka

79

APPENDIX Table 3: Selected Webliography on African and African-American Scientists and Afro-centric Topics.

AFROCENTRICITY www.asante.net www.swagga.com/africa.htm www.zulunation.com www.marcusgarvey.com www.africanbynature.com www.geocities.com/ru00ru00/patrusi/Civilization/civil.html?20001 www.melanet.com www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html www.blackconsciousness.com www.geocities.com/Colosseum/Pressbox.7045/Afrocentric www.geocities.com/rootsghana/sociology/AHM.html www.theafrican.com www.citycom.com/ascac/links.html www.africawithin.com http://community-2.webtv.net/paulnubianempire AFRICAN AND AFRICAN-AMERICAN SCIENCE www.princeton.edu/~mbrown/display/faces.html www.blackengineer.con/artman/publish/article_283.shtml http://community-2.webtv.net/Down_For_Knowledge/Top50African/index.html http://community-2.webtv.net/IMJs/BLACKINNOVATORS/page4.html www.geocities.com/citybay/top20black.html www.www.fi.edu/tfi/info/current/bhmtrivia.html www.swagga.com/inventors.htm www.geocities.com/WallStreet/Floor/8647/blackleg2.html www.blackinventionsmuseum.com http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/DLHinson/AfroTech.html www.uwm.edu/StudentOrg/NSBE/bie.html www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/Bibliography/AFAM_Science.html www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/index.html www.scienceinafrica.co.za AFRICAN RELIGIOUS IDEAS www.asante.net www.essaysbyekowa.com www.rootsandrooted.org www.urhobo-world.org www.edo-nation.net/neiwu1.htm www.zulunation.com/RELIGIONS.html www.swagga.com/ankh.htm www.africawithin.com/asante/africangods.html www.ausar.org www.egypt-tehuti.org/other.html http://members.aol.com/pourchfour/religion/african.htm

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