Read Wheat Protein Enhancement and other Fertilizer Issues text version

Wheat Protein Enhancement and other Fertilizer Issues

Dave Franzen NDSU Extension Soil Specialist

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The final number is not the final number

The recommendations state that growers might consider adjustments up to 30 lb N/acre up or down due to-Varietal protein characteristics -Less than optimal N application methods - Soils with denitrification tendencies - Excessive straw the previous year - Other grower experiences

The recipe- apply the following post-flowering (post-anthesis) at the water-ripe stage of wheat berry development - if the kernel is turning milky it's too late -10 gal/acre UAN mixed with 10 gal/acre water -apply in the cool of the day -expect some superficial leaf burn -average about ½ % protein increase

QuestionsIs the protein increase with the recipe real?

Are N applications after the water-ripe stage real?

Finney et al., 1957, Agronomy Journal

Finney et al., 1957, Agronomy Journal

Finney et al., 1957,Agronomy Journal

Carrington, 1988-91 (Endres and Schatz) Year lbs N/acre 0 15 30 16.0 16.5 16.9 11.6 12.1 12.8 13.6 13.2 13.6 13.4 13.6 15.3 27.4 28.3 27.6

1988 1989 1990 1991 Yields

45 16.8 13.0 13.6 14.1 27.7

60 16.8 13.8 14.0 16.1 27.7

Carrington, irrigated, 1990-91, Endres and Schatz

Pounds N/acre Year 1990 1991

0

15

30 % Protein

45

60

12.0 12.9

12.3 13.6 12.9 50.6

12.5 15.9 14.2 49.7

12.6 16.4 14.5 46.7

13.2 16.9 15 43.4

Ave Pro 12.4 Ave Yld 50.3

South Dakota- Woodard and Bly- 1995-2000

Winter wheatCheck 30 lb N/acre boot 30 lb N/acre post-anthesis

Yield 70.5a 70.1a 69.7a Pro% 11.8a 12.2b 12.6c

South Dakota- Woodard and Bly- 1995-2000

Spring wheatCheck 30 lb N/acre boot 30 lb N/acre post-anthesis

Yield 42.5a 40.2b 41.2ab Pro% 14.2a 14.4b 14.7c

Valley City, 2008, 0-2-3 gal/a N-Pact 5-6 leaf yield with preplant N rate- urea

Valley City, N-Pact 5-6 leaf, flag-leaf N after preplant urea, 2008.

Valley City protein response to 5-leaf N-Pact application over preplant urea rates, 2008.

Yield response from post-anthesis application N-Pact, 3 gal/acre over preplant urea. Valley City, 2008.

Protein response of post-anthesis N-Pact application, 3 gal/acre. Valley City, 2008

Only point of increase

Effect of foliar treatment of spring wheat near Valley City, on yield, test weight and protein, 2008

Treatment Check 3.5 leaf 1 gal/a 3.5 leaf 3 gal/a Early joint 1 gal/a Early joint 3 gal/a Early boot 1 gal/a Early boot 3 gal/a Flowering 1 gal/a Flowering 3 gal/a LSD 5% Yield Test weight 68.3 58.2 65.7 58.0 66.3 57.9 60.2 57.7 57.5 57.0 67.3 58.2 62.2 57.3 59.0 57.4 65.5 57.5 NS NS Protein 12.5 11.9 12.5 13.0 11.2 13.4 11.8 11.9 12.5 NS

Minot-Roseglen- McKay. Preplant treatments compared to 1 gal/a Coron flag-leaf application after a preplant treatment, 2006.

Treatment Check 90 U Yield, bu/a 60 71.8 Protein, % 13.8 a 14.9 b

90 GP 43 90 UAN 90 GP 30L 90 U + 1 gal/a CoRon LSD 5%

69.8 68.7 71.6 69.1 NS

14.8 b 14.3 ab 14.7 b 15.1 b 0.6

2009 Carrington, ave. 2 sites, post-anthesis application for protein enhancement. Schatz

15 14.5

14 13.5 13 untreated check 10 gal UAN 12 gal Coron 2 gal Coron Irr Faller

Lebsock

average

Faller yields over 100 bu/acre

Slide courtesy of Greg Endres, NDSU, Carrington REC

ESN- Agrium

Images from Agrium ESN website

How ESN works (Agrium website)

Illinois4 locations over 12 years, ESN was similar in corn yield to urea + Agrotain, and 3 bu/a higher in yield than urea alone. In 4 years of no-till, ESN was 21 bu/a better than urea surface-applied. (Ebelhar et al., 2010)

Minnesota3 different ESN application methodsdeep band (4 inches), broadcast incorporated fall and spring resulted in similar corn yield to urea using the same methods over a 4-year period.

(Randall and Vetsch, 2009)

Kansas-

At drier locations, ESN not beneficial to corn or grain sorghum.

At wetter locations, some studies showed a benefit to its use. (Weber et al., 2009a and 2009b)

In Michigan in winter wheat, fall ESN at the 60 lb N/acre rate produced higher yield than urea. Not at the 90 lb N/acre rate. (Warncke, MSU)

50/50 blends of urea/ENS? KS studies (Weber and Mengel, 2009) compared to straight ESN or Urea. Results showed that in some years, the blend was superior, and in some years it was not.

Nitrification inhibitors-

N-Serve® /Instinct® nitrapyrin (2-chloro-6-[trichloromethyl] pyridine)

DCD, dicyandiamide

NBPT (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric acid triamide)

Agrotain Competes for active sites on the urease enzyme and ties up activity for about 10 days, depending on weather conditions.

Yield for side-dressed no-till corn in Hardin County, KY.

(From Schwab and Murdock, 2009)

Treatment Check (50 lb N/acre preplant N only) Urea Urea + Agrotain SuperU UAN UAN + Agrotain UAN + Agrotain Plus Ammonium nitrate

Yield, bushels per acre 117d* 158c 201b 201b 150c 179bc 175bc 239a

Indiana- Purdue, unpublished work by Phillips, Mengel and Walker, 1989. Corn Yield bu/acre Urea surface applied 130 Urea surface applied +Agrotain 143

Illinois, average of four southern Illinois locations, Varsa et al., 1999. Corn Yield bu/acre Urea surface applied 106 Urea surface applied +Agrotain 125

Nutrisphere, SFP Specialty Products, LLC, Leawood, KS

Formulation for dry fertilizer30-60% maleic-itoconic copolymer, pH 2.5-5 Formulation for liquid fertilizer40% maleic-itoconic copolymer, pH 1-2

Product literature states that nitrification inhibition is based on product ability to tie-up copper- a critical metal used by nitrification bacteria.

Inhibition of urease activity is due theoretically to a tie-up of soil nickela critical metal constituent of urease enzyme.

Effects of N additive, averaged over source (UAN and urea) and N rate on corn grain yield, earleaf-N and grain-N, Scandia, KS (2-year average). From Gordon, 2008.

Treatment Check Urea/UAN ESN Nutrisphere-N Agrotain LSD 5%

Yield, bu/acre 152 168 185 183 183 6

Earleaf N, % Grain N, % 1.72 2.57 2.96 2.96 2.98 0.09 1.13 1.26 1.33 1.35 1.36 0.04

(Research by R.J. Goos, in Franzen et al., J. Plant Nut 2011)

(Research by R.J. Goos, in Franzen et al., J. Plant Nut 2011)

Cumulative ammonia volatilization losses for urea, ammonium sulfate, urea + NBPT, and urea + 0.25% Nutrisphere (NSN) from a Dewitt silt loam soil during a 15-day laboratory incubation at 25C. (Norman data, University Arkansas, Fayetteville, from Franzen et al., 2011) Days after N source application 3 7 11 15 Cumulative NH3 loss, % of N applied 35.9 0.2 2.7 42.2 51.8 0.5 12.9 57.8 56.9 0.6 18.3 62.7

N sources

Urea 14.5 Ammonium sulfate 0.1 Urea + NBPT 0.006 Urea + 0.25% NSN 17.6 LSD(0.05) 12.2 LSD(0.05)§ 9.6

Laboratory studies clearly show that Nutrisphere has no nitrification or urease inhibiting properties. What is most curious is why some studies show some response. No Response Positive North Dakota 10 0 Kansas 7 5 (4 at Scandia) Minnesota 2 0 Illinois 3 1 Arkansas/Mississippi 3 0

Idaho work on barley showed a yield increase, but no increase in N uptake. Spring wheat studies showed not yield/protein increase

DESIGNER FERTILIZERS

S-10

S-15

SZ

MES concept was developed by a team of researchers at University of Adelaide in Australia led by Mike McLaughlin. They made Zn maps of fertilizer granules and concluded that diffusion from the granule would often be inadequate to support efficient plant nutrition at low practical rates.

Comparison of ME products and blends at two locations in IA P was all the same, except for SP control where no P was applied

Treatment OS MES-10 AMS-10 SP control

Leaf S% 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.14

Leaf P % 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.29

Corn Yield, bu/acre 239 244 241 224

MES-30

AMS-30 MAP-30

0.17

0.17 0.17

0.32

0.32 0.32

225

244 229

S-15 compared to similar P and P/S at Langdon, over four site-years

Treatment MAP S-15 MAP + AS + ES Canola Yield, lb/acre 1270 a 1540 b 1470 b

Research so far locally has shown-Equal but not better or worse P performance compared to MAP

-Equal, but not better or worse S performance with AMS rate per rate AMS -Zinc effectiveness has yet to be established

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Wheat Protein Enhancement and other Fertilizer Issues

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