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User Guide

AGAT

®

Oil Analysis

Laboratories Ltd.

AGAT

A. Why Test Lubrication Oils?

Oil Analysis User Guide

To determine when the oils lubricating properties have been depleted. To obtain clues about the mechanical and operating conditions of the equipment. Early warning signals mean problems can be rectified before permanent and costly damage occurs. B. Return On Your Investment Lost production is often the most expensive result of equipment downtime. A good Preventive Maintenance Program can reduce these costs, and improve production. Through an Oil Analysis Program premature failures can be reduced, thereby maximizing equipment life and reducing capital costs for new equipment. AGAT Laboratories oil analysis program can also allow the development of efficient maintenance schedules, reducing maintenance repair and even lubrication costs. C. Why Establish a Testing Program? A consistent testing program is required to determine normal wear from abnormal wear, as each unit will wear differently. Oil testing programs are most effective when sampling is conducted on a regular basis.

POSSIBLE CAUSE Soot, lead, water contamination, high temperature operation Fuel dilution, excessive high speed operation High operating temperature, long drain intervals, improper makeup oil Dirt, dust, soot, engine metals, high temperature operation Coolant leak, low temperature operation, poor mechanical conditions Cooling system leak Accelerated normal wear POSSIBLE CAUSE Soot, sulphur compounds, water, lead compounds and partially oxidized fuel Fuel in the oil Dirt and airborne dirt, wear metals, rust, corrosion and fuel soot Combustion, the cooling system or other mechanical problems Coolant leaks can react with oil additives RESULT Wear rate increase Wear rate increase Reduces lubricating properties, increases wear rate Increases wear rates, reduces life of equipment Reduces lubricating properties of the oil, causes corrosion formation Reduces lubricating properties of the oil, causes corrosion formation Reduces the life component RESULT Increased viscosity, deposit formation and can cause corrosion Reduced viscosity, increased wear rates and deposit formation Wears vital engine parts as well as increased oil viscosity Rusting and corrosion, forms sludge and acids, reduces lubrication properties of oil Sludge deposits and reduced lubrication properties of the oil

Benefits Of Oil Analysis

This guide is designed to assist the user in not only interpreting oil analysis test reports, but implementing appropriate corrective actions as well. It is not intended to be a definitive reference, but an "at a glance" guide to be used with other reference materials.

The Warning Signals

SIGNAL Viscosity Increase Viscosity Decrease Additive Depletion High Solids Content Water Contamination Glycol Contamination High Wear Metals CONTAMINATION IN THE OIL Fuel Combustion Products Liquid Fuel Solid Particles Water Contamination Coolant Contamination

©Copyright 2004 AGAT Laboratories Ltd.

Spectrochemical Analysis Wear Metals/Additives

Metal Aluminum (Al) Common Sources Bushings, shims, washers, pistons, bearing cages and surfaces (thrust/turbo), blowers Plating material, seals, bearing cages, piston rings, liners, shafts, may be chromate corrosion inhibitor from coolant system Bearings, bushings (wrist pin), oil coolers, radiators, camshaft thrust washers, gears, valves, clutch plate, sealing compounds Gears, blocks, cylinder walls/heads, liners, valve guides, piston rings, ball and roller bearings, oil pump, rust Bearings, bushings, wrist and piston pins, rings, piston overlay seals, solder Overlay on bearing surfaces, seals, clutch, solder, oil additive in gear lubes, anti-seize or grease compounds, gasoline contamination. External dirt/dust, grease additive, antifoam additive, gasket sealants Surface coating on some piston rings, oil additive (anti-wear) Bearing metals, valve stems/guides, ring inserts on pistons, turbo charger blades, stainless steel components Bearing cages, silver soldered joints General Purpose Strong, lightweight material (smaller mass) which dissipates heat well and aids in thermal transfer Because of its strength and hardness, is used to plate rings and shafts that are usually mated with steel (softer) Utilized to wear first in order to protect other components. Conforms well so is used to seat bearings to the crankshaft. (Remember: Cu + Zn = Brass, Cu + Sn = Bronze) Is used as the base metal of steel in many components due to its strength. Since Iron will rust, it is alloyed with other metals (i.e. Cr, Al, Ni) making steel Is a conforming material used to plate and protect surfaces to facilitate break-in. Surface coating on components such as pistons Is a conforming material use to plate bearings. Appears in new engines while the bearings are melding and conforming Can be an antifoam additive in the form of silicone. Can be primary indicator of dirt/dust contamination. An alloy used in some piston rings in place of Cr. Also used as a friction modifier (reducer) in some oils. Alloyed with iron in high strength steel, used to make valve stems and guides. Is use to plate components because it conforms well, dissipates heat and reduces coefficient of friction. Presence in oil may represent coolant contamination. Not a wear metal. Presence in oil may represent coolant contamination. General Purpose May represent mixing with another product, water inhibitor or glycol. Toxic additive but advantageous because it does not leave excessive ash residue. Used as an oxidation inhibitor and is used to neutralize acids formed in combustion engines (detergent additive) Oxidation inhibitor (detergent additive) Significance of Results (Required Action) Higher than expected Al level. May represent wear or be a component of silicon dirt. Identify and evaluate source of Al. Higher than expected Cr level. May represent component of water inhibitor or engine wear. Identify and evaluate source of Cr. Higher than expected Cu level. May represent wear, cooling water leaks or scaling compounds. Identify and evaluate source of Cu. Higher than expected Fe level. May represent wear of rust/scale contamination in case of water leaks. May be critical wear of due to break-in. Identify and evaluate source of Fe. Higher than expected Sn level. May represent bearing wear. Identify and evaluate source of Sn. Higher than expected Pb level. May represent normal flashing wear after overhaul or problem wear. If appears later, misalignment may be indicated. Identify and evaluate source of Pb. Higher than expected Si level. May represent dirt/dust contamination. Identify and evaluate source of Si. Unexpected Mo level. May represent wear or mixing with another product. Identify and evaluate source of Mo. Higher than expected Ni level. May represent initial stages of bearing wear. Identify and evaluate source of Ni. Higher than expected Ag level. May represent bearing wear or initial stages of cooling system degeneration. Identify and evaluate source of Ag. Higher than expected K level. May represent a coolant leak into engine crankcase. Identify and evaluate source of K. Higher than expected Na level. May represent coolant leak into engine crankcase. Identify and evaluate source of Na. Significance of Results / Required Action Unexpected B level. May represent mixing with another product, water inhibitor or glycol. Identify and evaluate source of B. Unexpected Ba level. May represent mixing with another product. Identify and evaluate source of Ba. Unexpected Ca level. May represent mixing with another product. Identify and evaluate source of Ca. Unexpected Mg level. May represent mixing with another product or gasoline. Possible indication of hard water. Identify and evaluate source of Mg. Unexpected Mn level. May represent mixing with another product or gasoline. Identify and evaluate source of Mn. Unexpected P level. May represent mixing with another product or coolant leak into engine crankcase. Identify and evaluate source of P. Higher than expected V level. May represent component wear. Identify and evaluate source of V. Unexpected Zn level. May represent mixing with another product. Identify and evaluate source of Zn.

Chromium (Cr)

Copper (Cu)

Iron (Fe) Tin (Sn) Lead (Pb) Silicon (Si) Molybdenum (Mo) Nickel (Ni) Silver (Ag) Potassium (K) Sodium (Na) Metal Boron (B) Barium (Ba) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg)

Coolant additive Coolant additive, grease additive, road salt, ingested dirt Common Sources Water inhibitor, limited EP additive, coolant additive (borate), grease additive Detergent additive, grease additive "Hard" water, alkaline based additive, road salt Component housing, a constituent in some Al alloys, detergent additive Valves, blowers, exhaust and intake systems. Detergent additive (unleaded gas) Anti-wear or extreme pressure (EP) additive, coolant additive Surface coating, turbine impeller blades, valves Anti-wear additive, oxidation and corrosion inhibitor, brass alloy

Manganese (Mn)

Unleaded gasoline additive Used to provide a protective film in highpressure areas. Coolant additive in conjunction with high Na and/or K. Fuel contaminant, can also be alloying element for steel Used to provide a protective anti-wear film.

Phosphorus (P) Vanadium (V) Zinc (Zn)

AGAT

Oil Analysis User Guide

Viscosity

Viscosity is one of the most i m p o r ta n t p r o p e r t i e s o f lubricating oil. Viscosity is a measurement of resistance to flow at a specific temperature in relation to time. The two most common temperatures for lubrication oil viscosity are 40 °C and 100 °C. Viscosity is normally evaluated with a kinematic method and reported in centistokes (cSt) In used oil analysis, the used oil's viscosity is compared to that of the new oil to determine whether excessive thinning or thickening has occurred.

SOURCE

The Warning Signals

RESULT Increased operating costs Engine overheating Restricted oil flow Oil filter by-pass Harmful deposits or sludge High Viscosity Contamination soot/solids Incomplete combustion (A-F ratio) Oxidation degradation Leaking head gaskets Extended oil drain High operating temperature Improper oil grade Low Viscosity Additive shear Fuel dilution Improper oil grade

Increased operating costs Engine overheating Poor lubrication Metal to metal contact

l l l l l l

Check air to fuel ratio Check for incorrect oil grade Inspect internal seals Check operating temperature Check for leaking injectors Change oil and filter

SOLUTION

Viscosity Grades

Low Temperature Viscosities High-Temperature Viscosities Low Shear Rate SAE Cranking (cP) Pumping (cP) max Viscosity Grade max at temp with no yield stress Kinematic (cSt) at 100°C °C at temp °C min max 0W 5W 10W 15W 20W 25W 20 30 40 40 50 60 3250 at -30 3500 at -25 3500 at -20 3500 at -15 4500 at -10 6000 at -5 -- -- -- -- -- -- 60,000 at -40 60,000 at -35 60,000 at -30 60,000 at -25 60,000 at -20 60,000 at -15 -- -- -- -- -- -- 3.8 3.8 4.1 5.6 5.6 9.3 5.6 9.3 12.5 12.5 16.3 21.9 -- -- -- -- -- -- <9.3 <12.5 <16.3 <16.3 <21.9 <26.1

High Shear Rate (cP) at 150°C min

-- -- -- -- -- -- 2.6 2.9 2.9 (0W-40, 5W-40, 10W-40 grades) 3.7 (15W-40, 20W-40, 25W-40, 40 grades) 3.7 3.7

©Copyright 2004 AGAT Laboratories Ltd.

Viscosity Equivalents

Kinematic Viscosities CSt 40°C CSt 100°C ISO

Grade Systems

AGMA SAE ENGINE OIL SAE GEAR OIL

800 600 500 400 350 250 200

40

680

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 20 50 90 40 85W 30 80W 140

30

480 320

20 16

220 150 100

150 100 80 60 50 40 30 10 9 8 7 6

68 46 32

5 4 22 15 10W 5W

75W

20 15 10

10

SAE 30

VI = 95 VI = 120 VI = 95

Viscosity (cSt)

SAE 10W30 SAE 10

Temperature (°C)

AGAT

Oil Analysis User Guide

Acid Number (An)

Acid Number (AN) is the quantity of acid or acid-like derivatives in the lubricant. An increase in AN from that of the new lubricant should be monitored. The AN of a new oil is not necessarily nil since oil additives can be acidic in nature. Increases in AN usually indicate lubrication oxidation or contamination with an acidic product. AN is an indicator of oil serviceability.

SOURCE High sulphur fuel Overheating Excessive blow-by Extended oil drain intervals Improper oil type

RESULT Decreased base number (BN) Corrosion of metallic components Promotes oxidation Oil degradation Oil thickening Additive depletion

SOLUTION

l l l l l

Drain oil Reduce oil drain intervals Confirm oil type being used Check for overheating Check fuel quality

Base Number (Bn)

Base Number (BN) represents the amount of alkaline additives in the lubricant, which neutralizes the acidic products of combustion.

SOURCE Low BN High sulphur fuel Overheating Extended oil drain Improper oil type

l l l l l l l

RESULT Increased acid number (AN) Oil degradation Increased wear rate Acid build-up in oil

Use low sulphur diesel fuel Re-evaluate oil drain intervals Verify base number of new oil being used Verify oil type being used Change oil Test fuel quality Check for loose fuel crossover lines

PH

SOLUTION

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Titrant Volume (eq)

©Copyright 2004 AGAT Laboratories Ltd.

SOURCE Incorrect air to fuel ratio Extended idling Stop and go driving Defective injectors Leaking fuel pumps or lines Incomplete combustion Incorrect timing

RESULT Metal to metal contact Poor lubrication Cylinder ring wear Depleted additives Decreased oil pressure Reduced fuel mileage (mpg) Reduced engine performance Shortened engine life

Fuel Dilution

Fuel dilution of crankcase oil by unburned fuel reduces lubricant effectiveness. The thinning of lubricant can lead to decreased lube film strength adding to the r i s k o f a b n o r m a l w e a r. Depending on certain variables, when fuel dilution exceeds 2.5% to 5%, corrective action should be taken. Fuel dilution is measured by both gas chromatography and fuel dilution meters.

l Check fuel lines, worn rings, leaking injectors,

SOLUTION

l l l l l l

seals, pumps Examine driving or operating conditions Check timing Avoid prolonged idling Change oil and filters Check quality of fuel Repair or replace worn parts

250°C

Flashpoint

Flashpoint is used to determine f u e l c o n ta m i n a t i o n o r t h e flammability hazard of a sample. Flashpoint (°C) can be taken as absolute or correlated against the sample viscosity to determine the percentage (%) of fuel in the sample. Water and glycol can bias this test. Flashpoint is done on fuels, engine oils and large bath application oils.

230°C

Flashpoint

210°C

SAE 30 SAE 20W/20 190°C

170°C

150°C

2%

3%

4%

5%

Diesel Fuel Content

Figure 3. Diesel fuel content and Flashpoint in motors oils (By Volume)

AGAT

Oil Analysis User Guide

Solids

Solids represent a measurement of all solid and solid-like material in a lubricant. The makeup of solids depends on the system. In diesel engines, fuel soot is usually the major component measured. In non-diesel components, wear debris and oil oxidation products are measured.

SOURCE Extended oil drain intervals Environmental debris Wear debris Oxidation by-products Leaking or dirty filters Fuel soot

RESULT Shorter engine life Filter plugging Poor lubrication Engine deposits Formation of sludge Accelerated wear Decreased oil flow

SOLUTION

l l l l l

Drain oil Flush system Change operating environment Reduce oil drain intervals Change filters

Fuel Soot

Fuel Soot is formed of carbon and is always found in diesel engine oil. Laboratory testing is used to determine the quantity of fuel soot in used oil samples. Recent EPA emission regulations have placed greater importance on fuel soot levels. The fuel soot level is a good indicator of engine combustion efficiency and should be monitored on a regular basis.

SOURCE Improper air/fuel ratio Improper injector adjustment Defective spray pattern Poor fuel quality Incomplete combustion Low compression Worn engine parts/rings

RESULT Poor engine performance Poor fuel economy Harmful deposits or sludge Increased wear Carbon deposits Clogged filters, reduced filter life

l l l l l l l l

Ensure injectors are working properly Check air induction / filters Change oil Assess oil drain intervals Check compression Avoid excessive idling Inspect driving and operating conditions Check fuel quality

Oxidation

Lubricating oil in engines and other components combines with available oxygen under certain conditions to form a wide variety of harmful by-products. Heat, pressure and catalyst materials accelerate the oxidation process. By-products of oxidation form lacquer deposits, corrode metal parts and thicken oil beyond its ability to lubricate. Most lubricants contain additives which inhibit or retard the oxidation process. Differential infrared analysis is the method used to measure the level of oxidation in used oil.

SOLUTION

SOURCE Overheating Extended oil drain intervals Improper oil type / inhibitor additives Combustion by-products / by-blow

RESULT Shortened equipment life Oil filter plugging Increased viscosity Corrosion of metal parts Increased operating expenses Increases wear rate Decreased engine performance

SOLUTION

l l l l

Use oil with oxidation inhibitor additives Shorten oil drain intervals Check operating temperatures Check quality of fuel

©Copyright 2004 AGAT Laboratories Ltd.

Nitration

Nitration products are formed during the fuel combustion process when combustion byproducts enter the engine oil during normal operation or as a result of abnormal blow-by past the compression rings. These products are highly acidic, create deposits and accelerate oil oxidation. Infrared analysis represents the only method of accurately measuring nitration products in used oil.

SOURCE

RESULT Accelerated oxidation Nitrous oxides introduced into the system Acidic by-products Increased cylinder wear Oil thickening Combustion deposits Increased acid number (AN)

Improper scavenge Low operating temperatures Defective seals Improper air/fuel ratio Abnormal blow-by

Particle Count

Particle Count testing basically measures the relative cleanliness of a given fluid. It is primarily used for hydraulic and turbine systems to evaluate the effectiveness of the filters. It has been proven that reducing the particulate debris in the fluid can greatly increase the life of these systems. The instrument that is normally used is a HIAC/ROYKO Particle Counter that measures the total population of particles in different size ranges. High levels of water can produce erroneously high readings. After the analysis is completed, an ISO Cleanliness Rating is determined from the results. The ISO Cleanliness Rating consists of two numbers and is a convenient method to communicate the sometimes unwieldy particle count results. The first number represents 5-micron (silt) particles. The second number represents 15micron (abrasives) particles.

SOLUTION

l Increase operating temperature l Check crankcase venting hoses And valves l Ensure proper air/fuel mixture l Perform compression check

SOURCE Water contamination Oil oxidation Worn seals Ineffective filtration Dirty make up oil

RESULT Increased wear Equipment/System failure Plugging and/or leakage Pressure pulsing Sluggish valves or actuators

SOLUTION

l l l l

Change filter Change oil Use higher quality filters Ensure integrity of seals

Typical fluid cleanliness levels for hydraulic

Component Types Servo Control Valves Vane and Piston Pumps Directional and Pressure Control Valves Gear Pumps Flow Control Valves and Cylinders

Normal 14 / 11 16 / 13 16 / 13 17 / 14 18 / 15

Abnormal 16 / 13 18 / 15 18 / 15 19 / 16 20 / 17

Excessive 18 / 15 20 / 17 20 / 17 21 / 18 22 / 19

Data Acquisition: In order to assign an ISO Cleanliness Rating to represent the contamination level of a fluid, the number of particles greater that 5 micron and 15 micron unit volume must be available. Furthermore, the particle population must be obtained from a particle counting system which has been calibrated per ISO/DIS 4406 or an ISO approved equivalent method in order to assign a valid cleanliness rating. The actual counting system is immaterial as long as the acceptable calibration certification is available.

AGAT

Oil Analysis User Guide

ISO Cleanliness Rating Reference Chart International Standard ISO 4406

Particle Concentration

(number of particles per)

# per ml More than 5 000 000 2 000 000 1 300 000 640 000 320 000 160 000 80 000 40 000 20 000 10 000 5 000 2 500 1 300 640 320 160 80 40 20 10 5 2.5 1.3 0.64 0.32 0.16 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.005 0.0025 Up to and including 10 000 000 5 000 000 2 000 000 1 300 000 640 000 320 000 160 000 80 000 40 000 20 000 10 000 5 000 2 500 1 300 640 320 160 80 40 20 10 5 2.5 1.3 0.64 0.32 0.16 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.005 # per 100 ML 500M ­ 1000M 200M ­ 500M 130M ­ 200M 64M ­ 130M 32M ­ 64M 16M ­ 32M 8M ­ 16M 4M ­ 8M 2M ­ 4M 1M ­ 2M 500K ­ 1M 250K ­ 500K 130K ­ 250K 64K ­ 130K 32K ­ 64K 16K ­ 32K 8K ­ 16K 4000 ­ 8000 2000 ­ 4000 1000 ­ 2000 500 ­ 1000 250 ­ 500 130 ­ 250 64 ­ 130 32 ­ 64 16 ­ 32 8 ­ 16 4­8 2­4 1­2 0.5 ­ 1 0.25 ­ 0.5

ISO Range Number

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0.9 0.8

©Copyright 2004 AGAT Laboratories Ltd.

Glycol Analysis

PARAMETER pH Reserve Alkalinity T.S.S. Freeze Point Glycol Strength Soluble Iron Soluble Copper Soluble Lead Total Aluminum Total Phosphorus Total Silicon Sulfate Nitrite Chlorides Sodium Salt as NaCl Free CO2 Conductance Total Hardness Specific Gravity RESULT 7-11 7 or greater < 1200 ppm < -30 °C 50 ­ 60 % < 2 ppm < 1 ppm < 3 ppm < 2 ppm 300 ­ 500 ppm 50 ­ 250 ppm < 100 ppm 800 ­ 2400 ppm < 40 ppm < 200 ppm < 200 ppm < 1000 ­ 2000 ppm < 6000 ppm < 170 ppm 1.050 ­ 1.14 POSSIBLE SOURCE Depletion of additives Depletion of corrosion inhibitors Poor water quality, scale or corrosion buildup, poor filters, reservoir open to atmosphere, component wear Glycol to water ratio to low Glycol to water ratio to low Improper coolant, pump wear, defective pressure caps, air leaks, cavitations, hoses Improper coolant, pump wear, defective pressure caps, air leaks, hoses Improper coolant, pump wear, defective pressure caps, air leaks, hoses Improper coolant, pump wear, defective pressure caps, air leaks, hoses Coolant additive Coolant additive, dust entry, silicon sealant Poor water quality, SO4, cleaner, gas leak into the system Defective pressure caps, gas leak into the system, water pump drowning air, insufficient chemicals HCl cleaners, poor water quality Coolant additive Poor water quality, defective pressure caps, old coolant, HCl cleaners Water pump drowning air, defective pressure caps, old coolant, HCl cleaners. Transportation of sample Poor water quality, gas leak into the system Poor water quality Glycol to water ratio

AGAT

Oil Analysis User Guide

Interpreting the results, Test reports and taking corrective action

Once all of the tests are complete, highly trained Quality Assurance personnel evaluate the results. The evaluation will result in (1) a statement that the unit is normal, or (2) general maintenance recommendations will be made. The report recommendations are only one tool that can assist you in making your maintenance decisions.

Recommendation Categories

Normal No explanation is needed for this category. Keep in mind that it is important to know that a unit is normal. This can save you unnecessary teardown. Abnormal (Reportable) This category is followed by specific maintenance recommendations, or a notation that component wear is abnormal/reportable. There might, for example, be a recommendation to change oil and filters, and a comment noting that abnormal bearing wear is present. We are not telling you that it is time to tear down the unit. We are suggesting that you perform the maintenance suggested, and advising you that bearing wear is present. A second sample (resample) in a shorter t i m e s p a n m i g h t b e requested/recommended. We do not recommend that you go into a unit on an abnormal recommendation unless you have thoroughly discussed the report with the appropriate Laboratory personnel (if required) or you have indications that the unit has a more serious problem than is apparent in the report. Again, your judgment must be based on all of the tools at your disposal, including our report, your knowledge of the unit, manufacturers guidelines/recommendations, your experience, etc... Critical This is the category we use to indicate potential failure and that serious condition exists. We will indicate the suspected nature of the problem and make a general recommendation for maintenance action. Critical units generally require immediate attention. Re-samples: Additional samples (re-sampling) are recommended to establish a trend whenever we have a potential "critical" unit with no previous history. If the wear increases, you will be advised of the suspected nature of the problem. Re-sampling may be recommended as a way to verify proper sampling techniques or contamination through the sampling procedure. In some cases, the data will identify an obvious problem. For example, a high level of water contamination along with high levels of sodium, potassium and boron is a good indication of antifreeze contamination. A high particle count and high levels of silicon usually indicate dirt or dust contamination, and the need to check air filters or breathers, reservoir access covers or oil storage and handling procedures. Sometimes however, the analytical data from an individual sample does not provide enough information to make more subtle judgments about oil or equipment condition. In these situations it is necessary to monitor the trends in the analytical data over a series of samples to establish a wear trend pattern. By monitoring wear metals such as iron, lead, copper, and tin it is possible to detect the early stages of possible bearing failure. In most cases it can detect problems far enough in advance that it will allow for scheduling of bearing inspection at a convenient time, reducing or eliminating expensive equipment downtime and repairs.

©Copyright 2004 AGAT Laboratories Ltd.

One measure to the degradation of an engine is an increase in viscosity. Normally, a viscosity increase from one grade to the next is a warning that the oil has reached the end of its useful life. Most engine oils are formulated with a variety of additives which enhance lubricity, inhibit oxidation and corrosion, and reduce the tendency for sludge and deposit formations. The levels of these additives can be determined by monitoring the Base Number (BN). The reduction of a (BN) below 4.0 is a warning that the additives have been depleted and an oil change should be scheduled. Some additive levels can be measured with spectrographic metals analysis. This test will detect the levels of zinc, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, ... which are common elements in most additive packages. The most common engine oil contaminants are silicon (dirt), fuel dilution, and antifreeze coolant. Silicon (dirt) contamination is the most common form of contamination and causes serious engine wear due to its abrasive actions against all moving parts within the engine. Silicon levels above 25ppm should be considered cause for inspection of the air intake system to locate the source of entry for the dirt and other airborne debris. Fuel dilution is serious since it can significantly reduce oil viscosity and lubricity thus causing engine wear. Fuel dilution can initially be detected by a lowering of the flash point of the oil, accompanied by a noticeable viscosity reduction, and a heavy fuel odor. Coolant is another very common oil contaminant and probably the most serious. Water from the coolant reduces the lubricity, which causes severe bearing problems, while the glycol degrades at high temperatures and forms a sludge. Monitoring water contamination levels is not reliable, since normal engine temperatures are high enough to evaporate the water over time and keep detectable levels as low as 0.05%. Coolant levels can be detected by chemical analysis and by monitoring the levels of boron, sodium and potassium in the oil.

Interpreting the results, Test reports and taking corrective action

Wear metal analysis can indicate which engine components are wearing and if the wear is becoming significant. This information can make the difference between minor component inspections and repairs and major overhauls. Wear metal levels, provided by spectrographic analysis of the oil sample, indicate the element level in parts per million (ppm) of each of the common metals found in the engine (iron, aluminum, chromium, lead, copper, tin, nickel, silver). Wear metal analysis requires more than simply plotting data on a graph. Wear metals can be generated from as many as a dozen different engine parts and locations making it difficult to identify the specific part that is wearing excessively. It is the knowledge acquired through years of experience and analytical training.

AGAT

Oil Analysis User Guide

Sampling Guidelines

FLUID TYPE OR SYSTEM Stationary Industrial Equipment

Gear Drives Compressors Hydraulic Systems Turbines Transformers Hot Oil Systems / Oil Baths HVAC Compressors HVAC Refrigerants Diesel Engines Natural Gas Engines Coolants Vehicle Fuel Tanks New Diesel Fuel Loads Diesel Fuel Storage Tanks 500 hours or monthly 500 hours or monthly 500 hours or monthly 250 hours or monthly Quarterly 500 hours or monthly 250 hours or monthly Quarterly 500 hours or monthly 500 hours or monthly 500 hours or monthly As required Every new shipment Quarterly 150 Hours 50 Hours 100 Hours 250 Hours Every new shipment Quarterly Annually 250 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours 150 Hours As needed for troubleshooting Every new shipment Quarterly Annually Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly Annually Quarterly Quarterly Annually Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly As required Every new shipment Quarterly 100 hour inspection and annually 100 hour inspection and annually 100 hour inspection and annually 100 hour inspection and annually Every new shipment Quarterly Annually Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly As needed for troubleshooting Every new shipment Quarterly Annually

REGULAR USE

INTERMITTENT

Aviation Equipment

Turbine Engines Piston Engines Gear Drives Hydraulic Systems New Aircraft Fuel Loads Storage Tanks (Bottom) Storage Tanks (Center)

Marine Equipment

Main Engine Non Engine Hydraulic Systems Coolants Support Engine Systems Vehicle Fuel Tanks New Marine Fuel Loads Storage Tanks (Bottom) Storage Tanks (Center

Highway Equipment

Diesel Engines Gearboxes Hydraulic Systems Coolants Gasoline or LPG Engines Vehicle Fuel Tanks New Diesel Fuel Loads Storage Tanks (Bottom) Storage Tanks (Center) 10,000 miles or 250 hours 20,000 miles or 500 hours 20,000 miles or 500 hours 20,000 miles or 500 hours 3,000 miles or 150 hours As needed Every new shipment Quarterly Annually Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly As needed Every new shipment Quarterly Annually

©Copyright 2004 AGAT Laboratories Ltd.

Sampling Guidelines

UNIT TYPE OR SYSTEM Mining Equipment

Electric Haul Truck Electric Haul Truck Electric Haul Truck Electric Haul Truck Electric Haul Truck Mechanical Haul Truck Mechanical Haul Truck Mechanical Haul Truck Mechanical Haul Truck Mechanical Haul Truck Mechanical Haul Truck Mechanical Haul Truck Dozers Cranes Hoists Graders Loaders Scrapers Shovels Water Trucks Water Trucks Water Trucks Water Trucks Water Trucks Flatbeds Forklifts Forklifts Pickups Compressor Compressor Air Compressor Misc. Handling Equipment Electrical Fans & Blowers Generators Pumps Transformers Diesel Engines Hydraulic Gearbox Wheel Motors Coolant Diesel Engine Transmission Hydraulic Differential Final Drive Wheel Hub Coolant Engine Transmission Hydraulic Differential Final Drive Steering Coolant Engine Transmission Hydraulic Differential Coolant Engine Transmission Hydraulic Engine Engine Sump Reciprocating/Centrifugal Agitators, Conveyers, etc. Hydraulic Gearbox Engine Gears, Bearings, Sump Transformer 250 Hours 250 Hours 250 Hours 250 Hours Quarterly 250 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours Quarterly 250 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours Quarterly 250 Hours 500 Hours 500 Hours 1000 Hours Quarterly Quarterly 6 Months 6 Months 6 Months Monthly Monthly Monthly 2 Months 500 Hours Monthly 500 Hours 2 Months Annually

COMPONENT TYPE

FREQUENCY

AGAT

Oil Analysis User Guide

Oil Sampling Techniques

Drain Port Sampling

SS Tube Ball Valve Drain Plug

Drain-port sampling

Drain-port tap sampling

Drop-Tube Vacuum Sampling

(Vampire Pump)

Flush assembly and tube first Vaccum Sampler

Sample from a Live Zone

Probe-on Style Valve

Twisty Rod

Flush Valve First Place clean plastic film over bottle opening before threading into cavity Leave¼ on bottle unfilled (Ullage)

Turbulent Fluid Line (Return Line)

Measure Standoff

Sampling Inlet Sludge Line

©Copyright 2004 AGAT Laboratories Ltd.

Oil Sampling Techniques

Diesel Engine

Sampling Engines

Cooler

Sample Here Pump Filter Sump

Hydraulic Sample Point

Fill Port

Gear Box Sample Point

Sample Here Drain Port

Portable Circulating System

AGAT

Oil Analysis User Guide

Oil Sampling Techniques

Sampling Engines

Air in

In let Air filter

Sample on circulating system before filter Oil Cooler Sample air compressor more frequently than gas compressors Sample oil flooded compressors more frequently than reciprocating and centrifugal compresors

Air/Oil Separator and Receiver Air Out

Screw Compressor

Reservoir

Temperature Regulaing Valve

Sample here

Oil filter Air Air, Oil Oil

Turbine Sample Point

Main Pump Oil Coolers

Oil oir Reserv

Centrifuge

Pump

Primary Sampling Point for trending Secondary Sampling Point for diagnostics

Oil ioner Condit

Water Drain

©Copyright 2004 AGAT Laboratories Ltd.

Notes

AGAT

©Copyright 2004 International Headquarters 3801 - 21st Street N.E. Calgary Alberta CANADA T2E 6T5 Tel (403) 299 -2000 Fax (403) 299 2022 www.agatlabs.com

AGAT

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