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Junior High Science ­ Grade 7 Curriculum

Course Overview: This course is designed to investigate the diversity, complexity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. It addresses the Life Science (Biology) learning standards of the Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering Curriculum Framework with emphasis on the structure and function of cells, reproduction and heredity, classification of organisms, evolution and diversity, and living things and their environment.

Unit Schedule: The curriculum is divided into eight units that follow a logical sequence based on the state standards. The skills of inquiry and scientific design/experimentation are taught first and then integrated into subsequent units. The remaining units can, but do not need to, be taught in the order that follows. There is flexibility in both the sequence and time allotted for all units.

Textbook / Resources / Technology: Textbooks: Prentice Hall Science Explorer: The Nature of Science* Prentice Hall Science Explorer: Cell and Heredity Prentice Hall Science Explorer: From Bacteria to Plants Prentice Hall Science Explorer: Animals* Prentice Hall Science Explorer: Environmental Science* *currently available for classroom use only Resources: Prentice Hall Science Explorer: Teacher Express manuals and CD-ROM Science World magazine subscription Discovery Education Streaming (online media library) VHS/DVD collection (department & library media center) Microsoft Word/Excel/PowerPoint/Explorer Technology: Computers & media projector Microscopes & analogue or digital microscope camera Internet Assessment Methods: Student performance will be assessed both formally and informally using a variety of methods including: class work, homework, laboratory investigations, quizzes, tests, projects and presentations, current events reports, portfolios, and class participation. Previous MCAS questions will be used to prepare students for Science and Technology/Engineering MCAS test. http://www.doe.mass.edu/mcas/testitems.html?yr

UNIT

Scientific Inquiry, Experimentation, and Design

Approximate Time

~ 4 weeks

Essential Question(s): What is science? How do scientists solve problems? Topics: · Observation (quantitative & qualitative) / Inference / Opinion · Scientific questioning · Hypothesizing · Variables (independent/manipulated, dependent/responding, controlled) · Scientific tools & technology · Measuring & graphing · Communicating & reporting results Standards: Inquiry Skills Grades 6-8 1. Formulate a testable hypothesis. 2. Design and conduct an experiment specifying variables to be changed, controlled, and measured. 3. Select appropriate tools and technology (e.g., calculators, computers, thermometers, meter sticks, balances, graduated cylinders, and microscopes), and make quantitative observations. 4. Present and explain data and findings using multiple representations, including tables, graphs, mathematical and physical models, and demonstrations. 5. Draw conclusions based on data or evidence presented in tables or graphs, and make inferences based on patterns or trends in the data. 6. Communicate procedures and results using appropriate science and technology terminology. 7. Offer explanations of procedures, and critique and revise them.

Suggested Activities / Investigations: Observation/Inference/Opinion activities (mystery objects) Teacher guided investigation (cricket chirping vs. temperature) Student designed investigations Write formal lab report Textbook / Resources / Technology: Text: The Nature of Science and Technology (1-1, 1-2) Activity books: Prentice Hall Inquiry Skills & McDougal Process and Lab Skills Science World magazines (September issues) Cricket Science CD & VHS VHS: Science As Inquiry IN ACTION (D) Understanding Science-Scientific Problem Solving (L) Internet: http://www.youthlearn.org/learning/activities/howto.asp

UNIT

Cell Structure and Function

Approximate Time

~ 4 weeks

Essential Question(s): What is the "cell theory"? How are cells similar and different among living things? Topics: · The cell theory · Discovery of cells & development of microscope technology · Cellular structures and functions in plant, animal and bacterial cells (cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, chromatin, cytoplasm, mitochondria, chloroplast, ribosome, vacuole)

Standards: L2. Recognize that all organisms are composed of cells, and that many organisms are single-celled (unicellular), e.g., bacteria, yeast. In these single-celled organisms, one cell must carry out all of the basic functions of life. L3. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells, including major organelles (cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuoles). L4. Recognize that within cells, many of the basic functions of organisms (e.g., extracting energy from food and getting rid of waste) are carried out. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms. L5. Describe the hierarchical organization of multicellular organisms from cells to tissues to organs to systems to organisms.

Suggested Activities / Investigations: Microscope investigations (letter "e", Elodea, human cheek, yogurt) Plant/animal cell models and manipulatives Organelle games (memory, charades, pictionary)

Textbook / Resources / Technology: Text: Cells and Heredity (1-1, 1-2) VHS: How to Use a Microscope (D), Journey Through the Cell-An Introduction (D), Assignment Discovery Cells (L), The Magic of Cells (L) DVD: Bill Nye CELLS Internet: www.cellsalive.com http://learn.genetics.utah.edu Microscopes/camera/projector

UNIT

Cellular Processes

Approximate Time

~ 6 weeks

Essential Question(s): How do cells keep us alive (move materials, get and produce energy, reproduce)? Topics: · Membrane transport (passive and active) · Photosynthesis · Respiration · Cell cycle Standards: L2. Recognize that all organisms are composed of cells, and that many organisms are single-celled (unicellular), e.g., bacteria, yeast. In these single-celled organisms, one cell must carry out all of the basic functions of life. L3. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells, including major organelles (cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuoles). L4. Recognize that within cells, many of the basic functions of organisms (e.g., extracting energy from food and getting rid of waste) are carried out. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms. L9. Compare sexual reproduction (offspring inherit half of their genes from each parent) with asexual reproduction (offspring is an identical copy of the parent's cell). L16. Recognize that producers (plants that contain chlorophyll) use the energy from sunlight to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water through a process called photosynthesis. This food can be used immediately, stored for later use, or used by other organisms. Suggested Activities / Investigations: Transport demonstrations (air freshener, food coloring, molecular role playing) Transport investigations ("eggsperiment", starch/iodine/dialysis tubing, Elodea osmosis, food

coloring/gelatin)

Photosynthesis/respiration activities (equation flash cards, molecular models, computer

simulations)

Photosynthesis/respiration investigations (exercise vs. CO2 production, yeast fermentation) Cell cycle activities (sequencing cards, pipe cleaner manipulatives) Cell cycle investigations (onion root tips ­ online & prepared slides) Textbook / Resources / Technology: Text: Cells and Heredity (1-4, 2-1, 2-2, 2-3) VHS: Journey Through the Cell- A Closer Look (D) Plant Life IN ACTION: Photosynthesis (D) Internet: www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/methuselah/phot_nf.html www.biology.arizona.edu Microscopes/camera/projector

UNIT

Genetics and Heredity

Approximate Time

~ 4-6 weeks

Essential Question(s): Why do we look like our parents? What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction? Topics: · Mendelian genetics (Law of Dominance) · Probability and Punnett squares (single trait) · Chromosome theory of inheritance (DNA genes chromosomes traits) · Meiosis Standards: L7. Recognize that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits. These instructions are stored in the organism's chromosomes. Heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another. L8. Recognize that hereditary information is contained in genes located in the chromosomes of each cell. A human cell contains about 30,000 different genes on 23 different chromosomes. L9. Compare sexual reproduction (offspring inherit half of their genes from each parent) with asexual reproduction (offspring is an identical copy of the parent's cell).

Suggested Activities / Investigations: Investigation of human traits (class survey, PTC tasting) Probability activities (penny toss, Punnett square worksheets) Heredity activities (paper DNA models, creature creation) Meiosis activities (pipe cleaner simulations, cartoon/flip book) Current events debate/position paper (cloning, stem cell research, genetic engineering)

Textbook / Resources / Technology: Text: Cells and Heredity (3-1, 3-2, 3-3, chapter 4 is optional) VHS: Assignment Discovery: Genetics (D & L) DVD: Bill Nye GENES (D) Internet: www.learn.genetics.utah.edu

UNIT

Classification of Living Things

Approximate Time

~ 4 weeks

Essential Question(s): What does it mean to be alive? How do scientists classify all living things? Topics: · Characteristics and needs of all living things · Modern classification systems (seven levels & binomial nomenclature) · Evolution and biodiversity · Six kingdoms overview Standards: L1. Classify organisms into the currently recognized kingdoms according to characteristics that they share. Be familiar with organisms from each kingdom. L2. Recognize that all organisms are composed of cells, and that many organisms are single-celled (unicellular), e.g., bacteria, yeast. In these single-celled organisms, one cell must carry out all of the basic functions of life. L4. Recognize that within cells, many of the basic functions of organisms (e.g., extracting energy from food and getting rid of waste) are carried out. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms. L5. Describe the hierarchical organization of multicellular organisms from cells to tissues to organs to systems to organisms. L9. Compare sexual reproduction (offspring inherit half of their genes from each parent) with asexual reproduction (offspring is an identical copy of the parent's cell). L10. Give examples of ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and the diversity of organisms. L11. Recognize that evidence drawn from geology, fossils, and comparative anatomy provides the basis of the theory of evolution. L18. Recognize that biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. Suggested Activities / Investigations: Classification activities (junk drawer/candy sorting) Characteristics and needs concept webbing Classification investigations (organism cards/pictures; taxonomic grouping research) Homologous structures & cladogram activities Textbook / Resources / Technology: Text: From Bacteria to Plants (1-1, 1-3*, 1-4) Cells and Heredity (5-1, 5-2)

*see 2009 edition 1-2

VHS: Eyewitness Life (D), Life Cycles (L) Internet: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html http://www.eol.org/index

UNIT

Unicellular Organisms

Approximate Time

~ 3 weeks

Essential Question(s): How do bacterial cells differ from the cells of all other organisms? Why do we think of protists as belonging to the "junk drawer" kingdom? Topics: · Bacteria (Archaebacteria & Eubacteria) · Protists (animal-like & plantlike) · Emphasis on identification, cellular structure, feeding, movement, reproduction, ecological roles, and human uses Standards: L1. Classify organisms into the currently recognized kingdoms according to characteristics that they share. Be familiar with organisms from each kingdom. L2. Recognize that all organisms are composed of cells, and that many organisms are single-celled (unicellular), e.g., bacteria, yeast. In these single-celled organisms, one cell must carry out all of the basic functions of life. L4. Recognize that within cells, many of the basic functions of organisms (e.g., extracting energy from food and getting rid of waste) are carried out. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms. L9. Compare sexual reproduction (offspring inherit half of their genes from each parent) with asexual reproduction (offspring is an identical copy of the parent's cell). L13. Give examples of ways in which organisms interact and have different functions within an ecosystem that enable the ecosystem to survive. L15. Explain how dead plants and animals are broken down by other living organisms and how this process contributes to the system as a whole. L16. Recognize that producers (plants that contain chlorophyll) use the energy from sunlight to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water through a process called photosynthesis. This food can be used immediately, stored for later use, or used by other organisms. Suggested Activities / Investigations: Bacteria/protist investigations (prepared slides, yogurt culture, puddle water, live specimens) Bacteria/protist activities (poster presentations, comic book, algae in your home) Current events debate/position paper (fuel production, environmental cleanup, genetic

engineering, algal blooms)

Textbook / Resources / Technology: Text: Bacteria to Plants (2-2, 3-1) VHS: Assignment Discovery-Understanding Bacteria (L) Simple Organisms IN ACTION Bacteria (L) Simple Organisms IN ACTION Protists (L) Microscopes/camera/projector

UNIT

Multicellular Organisms

Approximate Time

~ 6 weeks

Essential Question(s): Why are fungi not classified as plants? What are the four major groups of plants? Are most animals vertebrates or invertebrates? Topics: · Fungi (mushroom, mold, yeast, lichen) · Plants (seedless/seed, vascular/nonvascular, gymnosperm/angiosperm) · Animals (select invertebrate phyla & vertebrate classes) · Emphasis on identification, body structure, feeding, and reproduction Standards: L1. Classify organisms into the currently recognized kingdoms according to characteristics that they share. Be familiar with organisms from each kingdom. L5. Describe the hierarchical organization of multicellular organisms from cells to tissues to organs to systems to organisms. L9. Compare sexual reproduction (offspring inherit half of their genes from each parent) with asexual reproduction (offspring is an identical copy of the parent's cell). L13. Give examples of ways in which organisms interact and have different functions within an ecosystem that enable the ecosystem to survive. L15. Explain how dead plants and animals are broken down by other living organisms and how this process contributes to the system as a whole. L16. Recognize that producers (plants that contain chlorophyll) use the energy from sunlight to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water through a process called photosynthesis. This food can be used immediately, stored for later use, or used by other organisms. Suggested Activities / Investigations: Fungi activities/investigations (observation stations, build fruiting body models, mushroom/yeast

labs)

Plant activities/investigations (observation stations, fern lifecycle book, celery/carnation coloring,

celery/cone/bean/flower dissections, The Great Plant Escape webquest) Animal activities/investigations (observation stations, hydra/daphnia feeding, vertebrate research project)

Textbook / Resources / Technology: Text: From Bacteria to Plants (3-3, 4-1, 4-3, 4-4, 5-1, 5-2, 5-3) Animals (select sections) VHS: Simple Organisms IN ACTION Fungi (L), Eyewitness Plant (L), The Kingdom of Plants (D), Animals Without Backbones(D), Assignment Discovery-Invertebrates (L), Body By Nature (L) DVD: Bill Nye PLANTS (D) Internet: www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/gpe/index.html http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html microscopes/camera/projector

UNIT

Living Things and Their Environment

Approximate Time

~ 6-8 weeks

Essential Question(s): How do different organisms adapt to different environments? How do living things interact with each other and with their environment? Topics: · Evolution (adaptations, natural selection, speciation) · Evidence for Evolution (homologous, structures, embryology, fossils, DNA) · Ecosystems (abiotic/biotic factors, levels of organization) · Interactions (competition/predation/symbiosis) · Energy roles (producers/consumers/decomposers, food chains/webs) · Biodiversity Standards:

L10. Give examples of ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and the diversity of organisms. L11. Recognize that evidence drawn from geology, fossils, and comparative anatomy provides the basis of the theory of evolution. L12. Relate the extinction of species to a mismatch of adaptation and the environment. L13. Give examples of ways in which organisms interact and have different functions within an ecosystem that enable the ecosystem to survive. L14. Explain the roles and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web. L15. Explain how dead plants and animals are broken down by other living organisms and how this process contributes to the system as a whole. L16. Recognize that producers (plants that contain chlorophyll) use the energy from sunlight to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water through a process called photosynthesis. This food can be used immediately, stored for later use, or used by other organisms.

L18. Recognize that biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. Suggested Activities / Investigations: Evolution activities/investigations (Galapagos adaptations, homologous structures, cladograms) Ecosystem activities/investigation (mini-ecosystem exploration, ecosystem in a jar) Interactions & energy roles activities (Galapagos interactions, predator/prey graphs, food web

games)

Arctic ecosystem research project (incorporate all topics, emphasize climate change evidence &

impact)

Textbook / Resources / Technology: Text: Cells and Heredity (5-1, 5-3) Environmental Science (1-3, 2-1, 3-3) VHS: Biomes of the World IN ACTION series (L) DVD: Bill Nye FOOD WEBS Internet: http://www.science-class.net/Ecology/Ecology.htm

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