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MEASURE HUMAN AGGRESSION, HOW TO

Written by Dr. John D. Byrnesi INTRODUCTION The Complete Aggression Continuum provides a practical measurement of emerging human aggression. This continuum is a synthesis of data, based upon the research of eminent scholars. The combined Primal Aggression Continuum and Cognitive Aggression Continuum enable an individual to measure the emergence of aggression in others and in themselves. Whether applied in the workplace, schools or any public venue where an incident may occur, our endeavor is to identify a terrorist, and in a broader sense, to provide a practical tool to any individual who wishes to understand and counteract the emergence of human aggression. We as individuals have been measuring aggression subjectively since the beginning of human communication. Behavioral scientists like Dr. Albert Mehrabianii have long demonstrated that 55% of human social communications come to us in the form of facial expressions and body language. We have been consciously and non-consciously assimilating value and meaning from those around us, not necessarily through what they say but how they appear. Because we live in a more aggressive world it has now become necessary for us to measure aggression more objectively; because to measure aggression enables us to manage aggression more objectively. IF YOU CAN MEASURE IT, YOU CAN MANAGE IT A principle of Total Quality Management is, "If you can measure it, you can manage it". This principle is used to evaluate the productivity of an organization, of a plant, of a school district (student achievement scores), or of employees as a group or individually. Safety engineers, risk managers, security managers and human resource directors use performance measurement systems to convince CFO's and CEO's of the effectiveness of quality initiatives. BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY I had the pleasure of attending a number of behavior-based breakout sessions at several recent safety conferences and I was impressed by the importance of the subject and its application for employers around the world. I was, however, concerned with the terms used to describe the solutions. Words like "caring, anger, self-esteem, belonging, and feelings" were described as the tools to implement behaviorbased solutions. Everyone in the room realized the importance of these words and they were appropriately inspired by them; but what's next. How do you implement words like "caring, anger, selfesteem, belonging and feelings"? One person's caring can be another's interference. How do you measure "caring"? Doug Holtiii, The Role of the Amygdala in Fear and Panic, and Dr. Joseph LeDouxiv, The Emotional Brain, agree that "feelings are `red herrings', products of the conscious mind, labels given to unconscious emotions". These subjective terms are obstacles for anyone who desires to "measure, so they can manage". I experienced the same dilemma when I heard the term "anger management". How could I measure "anger"? However, I then discovered that I could measure "aggression".

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PRIMAL AGGRESSION The term aggression covers everything from the point where individuals are not coping with their anxiety, through its ultimate expression: violence. [A potential aggressor channels his appraisal into some form of coping. The strength of the reaction is a direct function of the validity of the threat and the degree of certainty that the threat will thwart an objective or a goal. Pierce J. Howard, Ph.D.v, The Owner's Manual for The Brain, Everyday Applications from Mind-Brain Research. Second Edition]. It is the feeling of being threatened and the inability to cope with that threat that initiates aggression. The common thread throughout this process is the release of adrenaline. Lt. Col. Dave Grossmanvi and Bruce Siddlevii [the authors of "Psychological Effects of Combat", in The Academic Press Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, 1999] have conducted landmark studies in the area of how aggression induces adrenaline's (or Epinephrine) influence on the heart rate and its resulting body language, behavior and communication indicators (Figure 1, Appendix 1).

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Darren Laurviii illustrates in his article titled The Anatomy Of Fear and How It Relates To Survival Skills Training, the research of Dr. Joseph LeDoux of New York University, who stated, "fear is a neural circuit that has been designed to keep an organism alive in dangerous situations." Throughout his research, Dr. LeDoux has shown that the fear response has been tightly conserved in evolution throughout the development of humans and other vertebrates. According to Dr. David Amaralix the areas of the brain that deal with fear are located in the phylogenetically older areas commonly known as the "reptilian brain." Dr. LeDoux and Dr. Amaral believe based upon their research that, "learning and responding to stimuli that warn of danger involves neural pathways that send information about the outside world to the amygdala, an almond-shaped gray area in the roof of the brain's lateral ventricle. This area, in turn, determines the significance of the stimulus and triggers emotional responses like running, fighting, or freezing, as well as changes in the inner workings of the body's organs and glands such as increased heart rate. According to Dr. LeDoux, Dr. Amaral and other neuroscientists, once the fear system of the brain detects and starts responding to danger [primarily the amygdala which receives input directly from every sensory system of the body and can therefore immediately respond], and depending upon fear stimulus intensity, the brain will begin to assess what is going on, and try to figure out what to do about it using the following process. Information of the threat stimulus is detected via the senses of the body; sight, sound, touch, smell, taste. Information from one or all of these senses is then routed to the thalamus [a brain structure near the amygdala that acts like an air traffic controller or a mail sorting station that sorts out incoming sensory signals]. In a non-spontaneous threat situation, the thalamus will direct information received to the appropriate cortex of the brain [such as the visual cortex], which consciously thinks about the impulse, assessing the danger, and making sense of it. In a spontaneous surprise attack, information received by the thalamus is quickly re-routed to the amygdala bypassing the cortex (the thinking brain). The amygdala immediately sets up a Survival Stress Reaction (SSR) or autonomic arousal into effect with the added benefit of what neuroscientists call the Somatic Reflex Potentiation also commonly known as the "startle circuit" - or what I call "The oh-god reflex" [i.e., an exaggerated startle/flinch response]. Other protective reflexes include: sneezing, eye blinking, gag reflex, pulling away from a pain stimulus, laryngospasm [closing of the airway to prevent water into the lungs]. Darren Laur explains that in response to an extreme unexpected spontaneous attack the body is hardwired to 1) push away, 2) push away with a back/turn away, 3) pull away, 4) pull away with a back/turn away, 5) crouch with hands coming up to protect the head, 6) crouch with hands up to protect head with back/turn away. After passing directly through the amygdala, which initiates SSR and "the oh-god reflex", sensory information is then sent to the cortex. Once the cortex has received this information, the frightening stimulus is then examined in detail to determine whether or not a real threat exists. Based upon this information, the amygdala will be signaled both to perpetuate the physical response and deal with the threat or abort action. Because the amygdala is aroused before the cortex can accurately assess the situation, an individual will experience the physical effects of fear even in the case of a false alarm.

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The direct effects of this threat stimuli is affirmed in a study conducted by Dr. Alexis Artwohlx (author of Deadly Force Encounters) between the years of 1994-1999, she interviewed 157 police officers that were involved in deadly force shootings. Dr. Artwohl's study revealed the following results specific to "perception" issues: 84% experienced diminished sound (auditory exclusion) 79% experienced tunnel vision (peripheral narrowing) 74% experienced "automatic pilot" with little or no conscious thought 71% experienced visual clarity 62% experienced slow motion time 52% experienced memory loss for part of the event 46% experienced memory loss for some of their own behavior 39% experienced dissociation; sense of detachment or unreality 26% experienced intrusive distracting thoughts 21% experienced saw, heard, or experienced memory distortion 17% experienced fast motion time 07% experienced temporary paralysis Dr. Artwohl's research is also echoed by other researchers (Soloman and Horn 1986; Hoenig and Roland 1998; and Klinger 1998), who found the same "perception" issues. As described in Darren Laur's article, these studies deal with the adrenaline response to a clear and present threat within the area of "use-of-force" in law enforcement. Therefore their focus here is after aggression had begun and how officers responded to existing aggressors. Their emphasis was not the source or stimuli of aggression. To identify the source of aggression, we turn to Dr. Archibald D. Hart (the author of Adrenaline and Stress, The Exciting New Breakthrough that Helps You Overcome Stress Damage)xi. Dr. Hart has conducted significant work relating stress and anxiety to adrenaline. Dr. Hart illustrates (Figure 2, Appendix 2) that when an individual stops coping with their anxiety, their mind perceives this anxiety as a threat. As with Dr. Pierce J. Howard's statement above, it is at that point when an individual starts to produce adrenaline, which triggers aggression. Although, both Grossman/Siddle and Hart allude to each other's areas of expertise, they do not complete the connection between the genesis of aggression through violence. To do that, I created the Primal Aggression ContinuumTM. This Continuum illustrates adrenaline's role in aggression from its genesis [the inability to cope with anxiety] through its ultimate result [violence]. It measures the effects of emerging adrenaline on heart rate and the resulting "non-verbal leakage," or body language and behavior; and on the verbal aggression scale that it produces both in an aggressor and in ourselves.

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Figure 2

Reading the work of these eminent scholars, one could see that they struggled to include Cognitive Aggression within the body of Primal Aggression, a challenge I found impossible. Primal Aggression is based upon the primal instinct of fight or flight, fueled by adrenaline and indicative of someone losing control and attacking their victim; but what about the predator, the victimizer and the terrorist. COGNITIVE AGGRESSION I realized early on that there were two distinct types of aggression: the aggressor who loses control, and the deliberate aggressor. The Cognitive Aggression ContinuumTM needed to measure what went on in the mind of a deliberate aggressor. Here I went to the work of Dr. Friedrich Glasl, Professor at Salzburg University in Austriaxii. Dr. Glasl developed the Model of Conflict Escalation (Figure 3, Appendix 3), which I realized addressed deliberate aggression prior to conflict. It therefore became the basis for Cognitive Aggression. After simplifying and placing Dr. Glasl's Model of Conflict Escalation within the structure of Aggression Management®, it became an excellent tool for measuring aggression in victimizers, predators (criminal behavior) and terrorists (one who seeks to create terror in their victim).

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Figure 3

From these elements, I was able to develop the Primal Aggression ContinuumTM and the Cognitive Aggression ContinuumTM. The Cognitive Aggression ContinuumTM (figure 4, Appendix 4) illustrated first followed by the Complete Aggression ContinuumTM (Figure 5, Appendix 5; a combined illustration of both Primal and Cognitive Aggression ContinuumsTM Stages); refined over years, these Aggression ContinuumsTM illustrate an effective means of measuring human aggression. Cognitive Aggression Continuum (Figure 4, Appendix 4) illustrates its inexorable connection with Primal Aggression within the context of the Escalation Phase and Crisis Phase. It presents the classic Cognitive Aggression synergies, of progressive loss of trust, suspicion of another's intent, feels of threat by another's intent and turning a victim's "community" against them. Your "community" is defined as those individuals whom you like and respect, and in return whom you desire to like and respect you. This type

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of aggression is more conscious i.e.: deliberate. It is possible that an individual has perpetrated this behavior enough that this behavior has become non-conscious. Where Primal Aggression is fueled by adrenaline, this aggression is fueled by intent. What is your intent with this individual, is it their best interest and your, in other words a "win/win" relationship. Or is it your intent to victimize this individual. You become a victimizer, a predator (criminal intent) or a terrorist (one who wishes to instill terror in their victims). You also realize that beyond the forth stage of Cognitive Aggression, once you have lost trust in the intent of this other individual, it becomes increasingly more difficult for you to "self-help" yourself from the binds of aggression escalation.

Figure 4

The Primal Aggression ContinuumTM (as illustrated within Figure 5, Appendix 5) on the other hand, represents that classic response to a feeling of threat (the primal instincts of fight, flight or freeze). This aggression is fueled by adrenaline (the chemical of aggression) and is indicative of an individual losing control and attacking their victim. Measured by adrenaline's effects on behavior, body language and communication indicators, the Primal Aggression ContinuumTM becomes an effect means to measure aggression attributed to losing control in others and in ourselves.

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Figure 5

THREE-WAY TEMPLATE The Complete Aggression ContinuumTM (Figure 5, Appendix 5) represents Primal and Cognitive Aggression as well as a three-way template. First, a template to identify where an aggressor is on the Continuum, thereby enabling the Aggression Manager® the opportunity to select the appropriate skills needed to defuse the aggressor. Aggression caught before conflict will enable the Aggression Manager to prevent conflict. The second template is used to identify and measure an Aggression Manager's aggression. This enables the Aggression Manager to use physiological skills offered to control their adrenaline and thereby providing the opportunity to respond effectively and professionally. Finally, the Complete Aggression ContinuumTM provides a clear clinical method for documentation. CAN WE MEASURE THE AGGRESSION OF A TERRORIST? Typically an aggressor escalates up both the Primal Aggression ContinuumTM and the Cognitive Aggression ContinuumTM concurrently. However, it is possible to escalate up the Cognitive Aggression Continuum and not yet be in the presence of your victim, as in the case of a terrorist. Although we focus here on terrorism, this could represent any person who is prepared to give up their lives for a cause. A person who goes through the cognitive process of preparing to give up their lives for cause takes on specific body language, behavior and communication indicators. A Wall Street Journal article explains

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how Boston's Logan Airport is training 200 Massachusetts state troopers to watch for things such as darting eyes and hand tremors and to conduct rapid-fire questioning to find inconsistent stories. "Terrorists behave differently than legitimate people", says Rafi Ron, an Israeli security consultant, who contends "well-trained body-language profilers might have spotted and questioned some of the September 11th hijackers by very basic behavior pattern recognition work". However, there is a difference between "profiling" and identifying and measuring emerging aggression, according to the U.S. Secret Service's report on Targeted Violence in Schools. Although this report deals with students, it also applies to adults. "The use of profiles is not effective either for identifying students who may pose a risk for targeted violence at school or ­ once a student has been identified ­ for assessing the risk that a particular student may pose for school-based targeted violence." It continues; "An inquiry should focus instead on a student's behaviors and communications to determine if the student appears to be planning or preparing for an attack." The basis for Aggression Management® is the use of behavior, body language and communication indicators to measure emerging aggression. The Wall Street Journal article goes on to quote David Harris a law professor at the University of Toledo College of Law, who is extremely concerned that the use of profiling `raises the specter of anxious travelers coming under suspicion when they're just nervous about flying'. The possibility of an innocent person harassed and or accused of terrorism that concerns Professor David Harris and other civil libertarians can be substantially solved through the ability to measure emerging aggression accomplished through the use of the Aggression ContinuumsTM. Although body language profilers do use behavior and body language to some degree, Aggression Management® provides a proven method of measuring these elements. Making it easier for an interviewer to measure the ticket-holder indicators for terrorism. The important question becomes: "Do I allow this person on that plane?" If you cannot measure aggression, you cannot answer that question. This is illustrated by the incident with Richard Reed, the shoe bomber. Security professionals kept Reed from boarding the plane because they knew intuitively that Reed was a problem. They were reading his body language, behavior and communication indicators. But because they were unable to measure his aggression, i.e.: his potential to be a terrorist, they had no sound basis to keep him from boarding the plane the next day. Whether you are a safety engineer, risk manager, security manager or human resource director, virtually all individuals in civilized society are becoming more aggression-vigilant. One of the greatest human fears is uncertainty. One of our greatest anxieties stems from our inability to get their arms around the subject of aggression. The solution is to be able to measure aggression, in agreement with the axiom "If you can measure it, you can manage it". Can you identify someone who intends to do harm to you or your loved ones? In the vast majority of cases, the answer is yes. John D. Byrnes, D.Hum. President, Center for Aggression Management®

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APPENDIX SECTION

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APPENDIX 1

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APPENDIX 2

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APPENDIX 3

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APPENDIX 4

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APPENDIX 5

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REFERENCE SECTION

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DR. JOHN D. BYRNES, Founder & President, Center for Aggression Management®, P.O. Box 2395, Winter Park, FL 32790, Phone: 407-628-2880; Email: [email protected]; Web Site: www.AggressionManagement.com; Author: Before Conflict, Preventing Aggressive Behavior; ISBN: 0-8108-4398-6, ScarecrowEducation Book Press, Lanham, MD, 2002. Dr. Byrnes has published articles with: The Aggression Continuum: A Paradigm Shift, Occupational Health and Safety, 1999 Stevens Publishing Corporation; Aggression in the Workplace, Insights - The AON Risk Services Risk Management and Insurance Review, 4th Edition, 1998; Managing Workplace Aggression, Public Risk - Published by the Public Risk Management Association, 1993; Risk Review, Florida Society for Healthcare Risk Management, August 1996; Aggression: The Early-Warning Signs, Safety Check - Rodale Press, Draining Away Aggression: Use the Same Techniques Law Officers Use to Keep Cool under Fire, Safety Check - Rodale Press; How to Plan for a Safe Escape, Safety Check Rodale Press; Recognizing Mounting Anxiety: In Extreme Situations, A Life May Depend On It, Workplace Violence Prevention Reporter; Safe or Sorry? Don't Overlook Warning Signs of Workplace Aggression, Professional Safety; Training May Help Prevent Tragedies, Business Insurance; Training is Key to Averting Workplace Violence, Employee Services Management, May/June 1997. Dr. Byrnes has been interviewed by the Wall Street Journal; Business Insurance Magazine; Safety+Health (National Safety Council); Professional Safety (ASSE); Risk Management Magazine (RIMS); HRMagazine (SHRM); CONTROLLER Magazine; Public Risk Magazine (PRIMA); American Health Consultants, Hospital Employee Health Magazine; Reuters Wire Service; CNN.COM; Knight Ridder Newspapers; Workplace Violence Prevention Reporter James Publishing; TODAY, Gannett Suburban Newspapers; Black Enterprise Magazine; The Cincinnati Enquirer; South Florida Sun-Sentinel; Yomiuri Shimbun; LA Times; The Orlando Sentinel; St. Petersburg Times; The Gazette, Montreal, Canada; Wired News; Global Energy Business; About.com, The Human Internet; NewsNet5; Denver Post; Rocky Mountain News; Federal Times; The Atlanta Journal; Washington Office; The Synergist; Long-Term Care Administrator - Published by American College of Health Care Administrators; and Safety Check - Published by Rodale Press; Florida Society for Healthcare Risk Management - an affiliate of the Florida Hospital Association; Global Television Network-Quebec, Canada; WCPX-TV Channel 6; WESH-TV Florida's 2 NBC; WOFL Fox35-TV; The Wall Street Journal Radio Network: Work & Family; WOMX-FM Radio 105.1; WCFB-FM Radio Star 94.5; WHTQ Radio 96.5; WHOO Radio 990; WDBO-AM Radio 580; WWKA-FM Radio K92; WTKS-FM Real Radio 104.1 WLOQ-FM Radio 103.1; News Talk Television - Gannett Co. Inc.; Radio KRRF Denver, 1280 Ralph; Kool 105 KXK Los Angles; CBS New Radio; and WMAL, ABC affiliate in Washington, DC.

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ALBERT MEHRABIAN, PH.D. , came to psychology with B.S. and M.S. degrees in engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received his Ph.D. from Clark University and in l964 commenced an extended career of teaching and research at the University of California, Los Angeles. He currently devotes his time to research, writing, and consulting as Professor Emeritus of Psychology, UCLA. Professor Mehrabian is known for his pioneering work in the field of nonverbal communication (body language). His experiments helped identify nonverbal and subtle ways in which one conveys likedislike, power and leadership, discomfort and insecurity, social attractiveness, or persuasiveness. Communication and leadership trainers and political campaign managers have often relied on these findings. Additional applications have led to methods for selecting personal names that are conducive to a desirable impression profile (ethical-caring, popular-fun, successful, masculine-feminine) and methods for selecting product, service, or company names that enhance consumer appeal. Dr. Mehrabian's background in engineering and natural science has provided him with a distinct approach to his work in psychology. Knowing that it is impossible to test the validity of ideas without measures, he has devoted much of his thirtythree years of research to the development of psychological scales. His numerous psychometric scales are used both nationally and internationally to help identify individuals with high levels of "emotional intelligence," or more precisely, those who are likely to succeed in various areas of life, high achievers, individuals with strong social and communication skills, or those who have a high capacity for empathy and emotional intelligence in intense person-oriented work. Several of Dr. Mehrabian's measures are particularly suited for identifying prospective employees' potential problems with depression, anxiety, somatization, panic disorder, psychopathy, racism, hostility, or violence. Dr. Mehrabian's approach to these problems includes a unique "opaque" (or camouflaged) system of measurement to obviate response distortions by those tested. Other application of his work have helped identify optimum emotional characteristics of top-level athletes and workers in high-stress situations and the emotional climate at work that is conducive to high levels of worker morale and productivity. Professor Mehrabian's major theoretical contributions include a three-dimensional mathematical model for the precise and general description and measurement of emotions. His emotion scales can be used to assess the emotional impact of a workplace, a specific packaging idea, an advertisement, or a psychotropic drug. His parallel three-dimensional temperament model is a comprehensive system P.O. Box 2395, Winter Park, Florida Phone: 407-628-2880 Fax: 407-671-1893 Email: [email protected] Web Site: www.AggressionManagement.com

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for describing and measuring differences among individuals (e.g., emotional intelligence, extroversion, achievement, empathy, depression, hostility, cooperativeness). Albert Mehrabian has served as consulting editor to Sociometry, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. He is currently consulting editor of Journal of Psychology and is a frequent contributor to psychological journals and has authored a large number of books and scientific articles. His books include "Tactics of Social Influence," "Silent Messages," "Nonverbal Communication," "Public Places and Private Spaces," "Basic Dimensions for a General Psychological Theory," "Eating Characteristics and Temperament," "Your Inner Path to Investment Success: Insights into the Psychology of Investing," and "The Name Game: The Decision that Lasts a Lifetime."

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DOUG HOLTiii, The Role of the Amygdala in Fear and Panic, 1998, Serendip, Bryn Mawr College

DR. JOSEPH LEDOUX of New York University. His research and that of fellow scientists, reported at the 24th annual Mathilde Solowey Award Lecture in the Neurosciences at NIH on May 8, 1996, has shown that the fear response has been tightly conserved in evolution, and probably follows much the same pattern in humans and other vertebrates. Observed NIMH director Dr. Steven Hyman, "Joseph LeDoux's investigations of how the brain processes fear and forms emotional memories are pathbreaking science in their own right; they also provide the most important current leads for research on anxiety disorders." Recent Research Articles: Weisskopf, M., Bauer, E. and LeDoux J.E. (1999) L-type voltage gated calcium channels mediate NMDA-independent associative long-term potentiation at thalamic input synapses to the amygdala. J. Neuroscience. 19:10512-10519. Amorapanth, P., LeDoux, J.E., Nader, K. (2000) Different lateral amygdala outputs mediate reactions and actions elicited by a fear-arousing stimulus. Nature Neuroscience. 3:74-9. Nader, K., Schafe, G. E., LeDoux, J. E. (2000). Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval. Nature 406:722-6. Doron, N. N., LeDoux, J. E. (2000). Cells in the posterior thalamus project to both amygdala and temporal cortex: A quantitative retrograde double-labeling study in the rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 425:257-74. Schafe GE, Atkins CM, Swank MW, Bauer EP, Sweatt JD and LeDoux JE (2000) Activation of ERK/MAP kinase in the amygdala is required for memory consolidation of pavlovian fear conditioning. J. Neurosci 20: 8177-87. Recent Reviews: Fanselow, M. S. and LeDoux, J. E. (1999) Why we think plasticity underlying Pavlovian fear conditioning occurs in the basolateral amygdala. Neuron 23:229232. LeDoux, J.E. (2000) Emotion circuits in the brain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23:155-184. Rogan MT, Weisskopf MG, Huang Y-Y, Kandel ER, and LeDoux JE (2001) Long- Term Potentiation in the Amygdala: Implications for Memory. In C. Hölscher (ed) Neuronal Mechanisms of Memory Formation. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 58-76. Book: LeDoux, J.E. (1996) The Emotional Brain. New York, Simon and Schuster. LeDoux J.E. (2002) Synatpic Self. New York, Viking. PIERCE HOWARD, PHD: Dr. Howard is director of research for the Center for Applied Cognitive Studies in Charlotte, North Caroline. Since the fist edition of The Owner's Manual for the Brain, Dr. Howard has appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show, been interviewed for Playboy, and has conducted countless seminars around the world.

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LT. COL. DAVE GROSSMAN: Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, On Killing, The Psychological Cost of Learning To Kill in War and Society, Little, Brown and Company, New York. (Pulitzer Nominated); Lt. Col. Dave Grossman & Bruce Siddle, Psychological Effects of Combat, an Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, Academic Press, 1997; Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "Terrorism and Local Police." Law and Order: The Magazine for Police Management, Dec 2001. Reprinted in Ohio Police Chief magazine, Summer 2002; Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "Cops, Kids, Killing and Video Games: The Psychology of Conflict, the Media's Role in Creating an Explosion of Violent Crime, and the Implications to Law Enforcement," Illinois Law Enforcement Executive Forum, Illinois Law Enforcement Training and Standards Board, August 2001; Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, & Siddle, B.K., "Critical Incident Amnesia: The Physiological Basis and Implications of memory Loss During Extreme Survival Situations." The Firearms Instructor: The Official Journal of the International Association of Law Enforcement Firearms Instructors, Issue 31/Aug 2001; Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "Pulling the Plug on Kids and Violence. Study Confirms Obvious: Less TV = Less Violence." American Family Association Journal, Oct 2001; Strasburger, V., & Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "How Many More Columbines? What Can Pediatricians Do About School and Media Violence." Pediatric Annals, 30:2/Feb 2001; Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "Teaching Kids to Kill." National Forum: Journal of the Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society, Fall, 2000; Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "Human Factors in War: The Psychology and Physiology of Close Combat." Australian Army Journal, Issue 1/99; Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "Trained to Kill: Are We Conditioning Our Children to Commit Murder?" Christianity Today, cover story, August 10, 1998. (Received national writing award, translated and reprinted in periodicals in eight languages; and reprinted in over a dozen U.S. and Canadian periodicals, to include: Hinduism Today, US Catholic, and Saturday Evening Post.); Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "Cops, Kids, Killing and Video Games: P.O. Box 2395, Winter Park, Florida Phone: 407-628-2880 Fax: 407-671-1893 Email: [email protected] Web Site: www.AggressionManagement.com

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The Psychology of Conflict, the Media's Role in Creating an Explosion of Violent Crime, and the Implications to Law Enforcement," The Law Enforcement Trainer: The Official Journal of the American Society of Law Enforcement Trainers, vol. 13, Number 3, May/June 1998; Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, "Moral Approach Only the Start," Army: Journal of the Association of the US Army, May 1984. BRUCE SIDDLE: Mr. Siddle is a 24-year law enforcement veteran whose entire career has focused on Use-of-Force and close quarter combat training. He is the Founder and Chief Executive Officer of PPCT Management Systems, Inc., one of the largest research-based Use-of-Force training organizations in the United States. Mr. Siddle is best known for establishing a research methodology of tactical, legal and medical research to the field of subject control. Through the PPCT organization, he has produced research projects which range from the development of Use-of-Force policies, the medical implications of subject control techniques, learning styles of criminal justice officers and analyzing competency based training methods relating to Use-of-Force training. Mr. Siddle's specific interest and field of research is the analysis of the survival-learning theory as it relates to motor performance capabilities under combat stress. Mr. Siddle has been a guest speaker for hundreds of agencies and associations throughout the United States, including the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, the International Association of Chief's of Police, the National Sheriff's Association, the International Association of Firearms Instructors, the Academy for Criminal Justice Sciences and the American Society of Law Enforcement Trainers. Personally Instructed and Actively Consults For: The United States Air Force, The US Department of State, The Hong Kong Government, The US Department of Defense, The Central Intelligence Agency, The US Department of the Navy's Redcell, The US Department of the Army's Delta Force, The US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, & Firearms, The United Kingdom Police and Prison Agencies The Royal Protection Group for the Queen of England, The Federal Bureau of Investigation Hostage Rescue Unit, The US Secret Service Counter Assault Team & Firearms Training Unit. PPCT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, INC.: Established in 1980 by Bruce and Sandy Siddle, PPCT Management Systems, Inc. has become an internationally recognized authority on researchbased use-of-force and tactical team training for criminal justice agencies. The corporation specializes in training instructors for police, corrections, security, and military academies throughout the world. PPCT is currently divided into four divisions; training, publishing, computer-based training via Internet, and products (which are distributed under PPCT Products, Inc.). Training Division: PPCT is best recognized for developing training systems based on documented tactical, legal, and medical research. This unique approach allows PPCT to design training systems that are quick and simple to learn, and easy to retain, while reducing the potential for significant injuries. This combination has become immediately popular with administrators and field officers, for they now have use-of-force training, which is reliable and defensible in court. From 1980 to 1987, PPCT concentrated on the development of nonlethal force subject control systems. By 1988, a methodology for assimilating documented tactical, legal, and medical research became the foundation of PPCT training systems -- now the standard for criminal justice use-of-force training. Since this time, PPCT has expanded its research to become an international authority in nonlethal force subject control, tactical firearms and officer survival training. In 1994, PPCT introduced a course for professional women to combat workplace physical sexual harassment. In 1995, a course followed for the healthcare community to control violent patients. PPCT is currently developing a "Violent Student Management" course for the educational field. Today, PPCT has become one of the largest use-of-force training organizations in the world - training over 25,000 instructors since 1990 and an estimated 40,000 instructors since 1980 throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong, and Australia.

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DARREN LAUR illustrates in his article titled The Anatomy Of Fear and How It Relates To Survival Skills Training, copyrighted 2002 of Integrated Street Combatives, Victoria, BC Canada.

DR. DAVID AMARAL, professor of psychiatry and neuroscience, University of California, EDUCATION:1972 B.A., Psychology Northwestern University, 1977 Ph.D., Neurobiology and Psychology University of Rochester, 1977-1980 N.I.H. Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; AWARDS: McKnight Foundation Scholars Award, 1981, Sloan Foundation Fellow, 1983, NIMH MERIT Award, 1989, Outstanding Teaching Award - Department of Neuroscience UCSD 1988/1989, Outstanding Teaching Award Department of Neuroscience UCSD 1991/1992, Human Frontier Science Award, 1992 ­ 1995, Human Frontier Science Award, 1996 ­ 1999, Elected to Associate Membership - Neuroscience Research Program, 1997; ACADEMIC APPOINTMENTS: 1999 - Beneto Foundation Chair, UC Davis, 98 - Research Director, the M.I.N.D. Institute, UC Davis, 95 Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Center for Neuroscience, UC Davis, 95 - Core Investigator, California Regional Primate Research Center, UC Davis, 97 - 2000 Chair, Doctoral Program in Neuroscience, UC Davis, 91 - 1995 Affiliate P.O. Box 2395, Winter Park, Florida Phone: 407-628-2880 Fax: 407-671-1893 Email: [email protected] Web Site: www.AggressionManagement.com

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Investigator, California Regional Primate Research Center, UC Davis, 93 - 1995 Professor and Director, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience SUNY at Stony Brook, 87 - 1993 Associate Professor, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies , 90 - 1994 Adjunct Professor, Departments of Neurosciences and Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, 90 - 1994 Adjunct Associate Member, Department of Neuropharmacology, The Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, 87 - 1990 Adjunct Associate, Professor, Department of Neurosciences University of California, San Diego, 84 - 1986 Assistant Professor, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 82 - 1987 Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Neurosciences University of California, San Diego, 81 - 1984 Staff Scientist, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 80 - 1981 Research Associate, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies; RECENT PUBLICATIONS: Journal Articles: 1999 Henke K, Kroll NEA, Behniea H, Amaral DG, Miller MB, Rafal R, Gazzaniga MS. Memory Lost and Regained Following Bilateral Hippocampal Damage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 11(6) pp. 682-697, 99 Jongen-Rêlo A, Pitkänen A, Amaral DG. Distribution of GABAergic Cells and Fibers in the Hippocampal Formation of the Macaque Monkey: An Immunohistochemical and in Situ Hybridization Study. Journal of Comparative Neurology 408: 237-271, 00 Hamam B N, Kennedy TE, Alonso A, Amaral DG. Morphological and Electrophysiological Characteristics of Layer V Neurons of the Rat Entorhinal Cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 418:457-472, 00 Jongen-Rêlo AL, Amaral DG. A Double Labeling Technique Using WGAapoHRP- Gold as a Retrograde Tracer and Non-Isotopic in situ Hybridization Histochemistry for the Direction of mRNA. Journal of Neurology Methods 101:1:9-17, 00 Loftus M, Knight RT, Amaral DG. An Analysis of Atrophy in the Medial Mammillary Nucleus Following Hippocampal and Fornix Lesions in Humans and Non-Human Primates. Experimental Neurology 163: 180-190, 00 Stefanacci L, Amaral DG. Topographic Organization of Cortical Inputs to the Macaque Monkey Amygdala: A Retrograde Tracing Study. Journal of Comparative Neurology 421:52-79, 00 Lavenex P, Amaral DG. Hippocampal-Neocortical Interaction: A Hierarchy of Associativity. Hippocampus 10:420-430, Book Chapters: 1999 Amaral DG. Anatomical Organization of the Central Nervous System. Chapter 17 in Principles of Neural Science (Fourth Edition) E.R. Kandel, J.H. Schwartz, T.M. Jessel (Eds.). pp. 317-336, 99 Amaral DG. The Functional Organization of Perception and Movement. Chapter 18 in Principles of Neural Science (Fourth Edition) E.R. Kandel, J.H. Schwartz, T.M. Jessel (Eds.) pp. 337-348, 99 Kobayashi Y, Amaral DG. Neuroanatomy of the Hippocampal Formation and Perirhinal and Parhippocampal Cortices. In: Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy (Ed.) F. Bloom. pp. 285-401. DR. ALEXIS ARTWOHL: During her 16 years as a private practice clinical and police psychologist she provided traumatic incident debriefings and psychotherapy to officers and their family members at multiple agencies in the Pacific Northwest. Dr. Artwohl provides training and consultation across the USA and Canada. She consistently receives excellent ratings from the many police officers she has trained across North America. In January 1999 Dr. Artwohl closed her clinical practice to join her husband, Assistant Chief Dave Butzer, in his retirement from the Portland Police Bureau. They can now devote all their efforts to training and consultation. Dr. Artwohl is co-author of the acclaimed book, Deadly Force Encounters, written with retired police officer Loren W. Christensen. DR. ARCHIBALD D. HART: Dr. Hart is currently Senior Professor of Psychology and Dean Emeritus of the Graduate School of Psychology, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California. He also serves as the Executive Editor and Director of International Relations for the American Association of Christian Counselors, a 35,000-member organization with members from all around the world. Having trained originally in South Africa, where he is licensed as a clinical psychologist, Hart first came to the United States in 1971 to do a Post Doctoral Fellowship at the Graduate School of Psychology, Fuller Theological Seminary. In May 1973, he joined the faculty. He is licensed in the state of California as a psychologist and specializes in psychotherapy from a Christian orientation, stress management and the use of biofeedback techniques, neuro-psychodiagnosis and cognitive approaches to psychology. His major research interests are in the area of the vocational hazards of the ministry and stress management. Dr. Hart lectures widely to church groups and ministers on topics of stress and stress management, emotions and how to handle them from a Christian perspective. He maintains an active private practice and continues a prolific publishing career, writing numerous journal and magazine articles in addition to books. His books include Children and Divorce (W Publishing Group), Adrenalin and Stress (W Publishing Group), The Sexual Man (W Publishing Group), Secrets of Eve, (W Publishing Group) which was co-written with his daughter Katherine Weber, and The Anxiety Cure (W Publishing Group) which is being re-released as a trade paper conversion in June 2001. His next new project with W Publishing Group, Unmasking Male Depression, releases in April 2001. DR. FRIEDRICH GLASL: Dr. Glasl, author of Confronting Conflict, A First-aid Kit for Handling Conflict, Hawthorn Press, Gloucestershire Great Britain, professor of politics and economy, management consultants, lecturer in organizational P.O. Box 2395, Winter Park, Florida Phone: 407-628-2880 Fax: 407-671-1893 Email: [email protected] Web Site: www.AggressionManagement.com

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development and conflict management at the University of Salzburg, guest professorship at several universities, author of numerous specialized technical publications and articles. 1967 beginning of the advisory activities (NPI Holland), particularly in industry and banks, public administrations, research organizations and hospitals. Emphasis: Conflict management in organizations as well as within the political and international range. Dr. Glasl is a industry leader in occupation training to organizational development and conflict consultation. (TRIGON)

P.O. Box 2395, Winter Park, Florida Phone: 407-628-2880 Fax: 407-671-1893 Email: [email protected] Web Site: www.AggressionManagement.com

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