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CHAPTER ­ 14

TURMERIC

1. Introduction

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is native to Asia and India. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric have been used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines. Turmeric is very important spice in India, which produces nearly entire whole world's crop and consumes 80% of it. India is by far the largest producer and exporter of turmeric in the world. Turmeric occupies about 6% of the total area under spices and condiments in India. World scenario Turmeric is also cultivated in China, Myanmar, Nigeria and Bangladesh. However, authentic figures about area and production are not available. Major area is in India which constitutes 82% followed by China (8%), Myanmar (4%), Nigeria (3%) and Bangladesh (3%) Indian scenario There is an increase from 162.9 thousand ha in 2001-02 to177.5 thousand ha in 2005-06. Similarly, the production has increased from 552.3 thousand tons in 2001-02 to 846.7 thousand tons in 2005-06.The details are given in table 14.1. Table 14.1: Area, production and productivity of turmeric in India YEAR 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 AREA ( 000'ha) 162.9 149.8 150.7 158.4 177.5 PRODUCTION (000'tons) 552.3 526.4 567.2 718.1 846.7 PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha) 3.3 3.5 3.7 4.5 4.7

Source: http://www.indianspices.com/pdf/state_prd.pdf

2. Major producing states with production of last three years

The main turmeric producing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka, West Bengal, Gujarat and Kerala. Maximum area under turmeric cultivation is in Andhra Pradesh (69.9 thousand ha), where production is very high ie.518.5 thousand tons. Then comes Tamil Nadu (area 25.9 thousand ha and production is 143.3 thousand tons), followed by Orissa and West Bengal (area is 24.0 thousand ha and 11.8 thousand ha respectively whereas production is 57 155

thousand tons. and 25 thousand tons. respectively) Productivity of turmeric like ginger is highest in Gujarat. The details are given below in the table 14.2 Table 14.2: Area, production and productivity of leading turmeric growing states in India STATE

2003-04

AREA (000'ha)

2004-05 60.3 21.6 23.5 12.4 5.4 1.02 2.8 0.52 30.9 158.4 2005-06 69.9 25.9 24.0 11.8 5.4 1.4 3.3 0.67 35.2 177.5 58.4 16.1 23.7 12.6 5.4 0.95 2.7 0.51 30.3 150.7

PRODUCTION (000'tons)

2003-04 320.6 67.2 56.4 24.5 26.3 11.1 5.6 1.7 53.8 567.2 2004-05 417.8 118.4 55.9 24.4 26.3 14.1 6.2 1.74 53.4 718.1 2005-06 518.5 143.3 57.0 25.0 26.3 16.5 8.2 3.6 48.3 846.7

PRODUCTIVITY (tons/ha)

2003-04 5.4 4.1 2.3 1.9 4.8 11.6 2.0 3.3 1.7 3.7 2004-05 6.9 5.4 2.3 1.9 4.8 13.8 2.2 3.3 1.7 4.5 2005-06 7.4 5.5 2.3 2.1 4.8 11.7 2.4 5.3 1.3 4.7

Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Orissa West Bengal Karnataka Gujarat Kerala Sikkim Others Total

Source: http://www.indianspices.com/pdf/state_prd.pdf

3. Commercially grown varieties

There are about 30 turmeric varieties grown in India. Among them Alleppey and Madras (Perianadan) are of great commercial importance. Some of the improved varieties are: CO-11983, BSR-11986, Krishna, Roma, Suroma, Ranga, Rasmi, Megha Turmeric-1, Suguna, Sudarshana, Suranjana, Duggirala, Kodur, Suvarna, Varna, IISR Prabha, IISR Pratibha, Rajendra Sonia etc. Description of some of the varieties is given below: Table 14.3: Some of the commercial and improved varieties Variety Characteristics Alleppey Highly coloured variety.It is grown in Kerala and is marketed as Alleppey turmeric. Duggirala A long duration type (9 months), major variety of Andhra Pradesh. Rhizomes are bright yellow in colour.Grown mostly in Guntur district. Yield of raw material 25 tons./ha. Armoor Mostly grown in Nizamabad district of Andhra Pradesh. Medium duration type. Yield of raw material 25-30 tons/ha. Suvarna This is a high yielding type released by IISR, Calicut. It has yield potential of 43 tons/ha.It has also high curcumin content of 8.7% 156

4. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)

· · · Use of improved cultivars namely, Suvarna, Suguna, Sudharshana, Prabha and Pratibha. For control of shoot borer namely, application of insecticides and biopesticides (Bacillus thuringiensis product) need to be used. Proper technologies for the storage of seed rhizomes, seed treatment with fungicides and insecticides and use of leaf mulches should be adopted.

5. Harvesting season of crop

STATES JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Orissa West Bengal Karnataka Gujarat Fig. - 34 *The above graph showing harvest pattern in leading turmeric growing states. Source: http://www.indianspices.com/

6. Arrival pattern

Turmeric is available in the markets almost throughout the year.

7. (a) Concentrated pockets

The details of concentrated pockets of turmeric in different states are given below in table 14.4. Table 14.4: Showing concentrated pockets of turmeric in India. State Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Kerala Tamil Nadu Orissa Districts Cuddapah, Adilabad, Medak, Nizamabad, Guntur Kheda, Anand, Sabarkantha Wayanad, Palakkadu, Idukki, Kollam,Kozhikode Karur,Villupuram,Coimbatore,Salem,Dharmapuri,Krishnagri,Erode Gajapati,Kalahandi,Keonjhar,Koraput,Belasore,Mayurbhanj, Phulbani,Nayagarh,Cuttack.

7. (b) Catchment areas of market

Table 14.5: Showing the details of catchment areas of market of turmeric in leading states States Districts Blocks Jammalamdugu, Proddatur, Muddanaru, Kamalapuram, Lakkireddipalle, Rajampet, Rayachoti, Koduru.

Andhra Cuddapah Pradesh

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States

Districts Adilabad Medak,

Blocks Boath, Mudhol, Nirmal, Utnur, Sirpur, Chinnur, Lakshettipet, if b d Dubak,Mirdoddi,Siddipet,Sadaseopet,Zanirabad,Sangareddi,Narsapur,

Nizamabad Madnur,Bodhan,Banola,Banswada,Kamareddi,Yellareddi, d Guntur Piduguralla, Prattipadu, Ponnuru, Pallapatla, Repalle, Manglagiri, Puru, Vinukonda, Durgi. Gujarat Kheda, Anand Kapadwanj, Balasinor, Tharsa, Madhudha, Mehmedabad, Matar. Sojitra,Umrath,Khambhat,Borsad,Sarsa,Tarapur,Undel,Vadtl

Sabarkantha Khedbrahma, Vijaynagar, Vadali, Idar, Bhiloda, Himatnagar, Prantij, Meghraj, Malpur, Bayad, Dhansura. Kerala Wayanad Palakkad Idukki Kollam Kozhikode Tamil Nadu Karur Thavinhal,Valatl,Hatika,Puthady,Kalpetta,Chegual,Thariode, Vallarimela,Koltappadi,Vayittri. Tudikki,Mukkali,Korgad,Pallavur,Chittadi,Mudarachal, Parambikolam, Elattodu, Kollangod, Naitala, Chittur Painavu,Nadunkandam,Devikulam,Todupulai,Piramad. Tekku,Todi,Karupra,Veliyam,Kanur,Anchal,Pallinam, li i k Chekkiad,Valayam,Mariyur,Kottur,Pudipaddi,Vavad, Kuruvattur, Mavur, Olavanna. Paramatti,Muntipalavau,Thantoni,Mayanur,Panjapatti, Kadavur, Kulittatai, Kadavur, Kulittatai, Krishnarayapuram

Villupuram Avalurpettai,Gingee,Sankarapuram,Kallakkurichchi, Ulundurpettai, Tirukkovilur, Vlundurpetti, Vanum,Vallam Coimbatore Muttuppalaiyam,Avinashi,Tiruppur,Palladam,Udumallaippettai,Pollac hi l i Salem Mettur, Yercaud, Idappadi, Omalpur, Attur, Gangavalli, Sankagiri Dharmapuri Pennagaram, Harur, Pappireedipatti, Palakkodu, Pochampalli Orissa Kalahandi Koraput Dharamgarh, Bhawanipatna, Lanjigarh, Jayapatna Kotapad,Boriguma,Jaypur,Machhakund,Nandapur,Singpuru,Bagra, Rayisingi,Jalaput,Gupteshwar.

Mayurbhanj Hemagiri, Banel, Panposh, Raj Gangpur,

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8. Criteria and description of grades

a) AGMARK standards for rhizomes Table 14.6: AGMARK standards for turmeric rhizomes a Broken pieces, fingers<15 mm Defectives Foreign matter Percentage of bulbs by weight, max.

Grade

Flexibility

Alleppey fingers b Good Hard to touch Fair Hard Fingers, other than Alleppey b Hard to touch, Special metallic twang on break Good Same Fair Hard "Rajapore" fingers c Hard to touch, Special metallic twang on break Good Same Fair Hard Non specified Bulbs d Special Good Fair

a b

No more than No more than No more than (% by (% by weight) (% by weight) weight) 5 7 2 3 5 3 5 7 1 1.5 1 1.5 2 1 1.5 2 4 1 1.5 2 3 5 0.5 1 1.5 3 5 7 1 3 5 4 5 2 3 5 2 3 5 -

-

http://www.turmeric.8m.com/standards.html

: Fingers shall be of secondary rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.; shall be well set and close grained; free from bulbs; be perfectly dry and free from weevil damage and fungus attack; not be artificially coloured with chemicals. : same as (b); have the characteristics of the variety; admixture of varieties of turmeric allowed at a

c

maximum of 2%, 5%, 10% and 10% in the four grades, respectively.

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d

: Bulbs shall be primary rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.; shall be well developed, smooth and free from rootlets; have the characteristics of variety; be perfectly dry and free from weevil damage and fungus attack; not be artificially coloured with chemicals b) Agmark standard for turmeric powder Table 14.7: Grade designation and definitions of quality of Turmeric Powder Special Characteristics

Lead starch chromate Grade Moistur Total ash Acid designation e % by %by wt insoluble (ppm) % by test wt max ash, %by max wt max wt max General Characteristics

Standard

10.0

7.0

1.5

2.5

60.0

Negative 1. Turmeric powder shall be prepared by grinding clean, dry turmeric rhizomes. 2. It shall have its characteristic taste, flavour and be free form musty odour. 3. It shall be free form dirt, mould growth & insect infestation. 4. It shall be free from any colouring matter such as lead chromate, preservatives and extraneous material such as cereal or pulse, ,flour or any added starch. 5. It shall be ground to such a fineness that all of it passes through a 300 microne sieve.

Source: http://www.turmeric.8m.com/standards.html Table 14.8: Grade designation and definitions of quality of Turmeric Powder (Coarse Ground)

Grade designation Grade Moisture Total ash Acid Lead starch % by chroma designation % by wt %by wt insoluble (ppm) wt max te test max ash, %by max wt max General Characteristics

Standard

10.0

9.0

1.5

2.5

60.0

Negati 1. Turmeric powder shall be ve prepared by grinding clean, dry turmeric rhizomes. 2. It shall have its characteristic taste, flavour and be free form musty odour. 3. It shall be free form dirt, mould

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growth & insect infestation. 4. It shall be free from any colouring matter such as lead chromate, preservatives and extraneous material such as cereal or pulse, flour or any added starch. 5. It shall be ground to such fineness that all of it passes through a 500 micron sieve. Source: http://www.turmeric.8m.com/standards.html c) European Spice Association (ESA) quality and sanitation specifications Table 14.9: ESA quality specifications S.No. Specification Turmeric Whole 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Extraneous matter % Foreign matter % Ash % w/w max (ISO) Acid insoluble ash % w/w max Maximum water % w/w max Volatile oil Microbe c. Salmonella abs in 25 g, yeast & 105/g target, max 106/g absolute molds d. E. coli BSI : Bureau Standards Institute ESA : European Spices Association ISO : International Organization for Standardization d) ASTA (American Spice Trade Association) Cleanliness Specifications for Turmeric: Turmeric exported to USA should conform to the cleanliness specification stipulated by the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) 102/g target, max 103/g absolute Source:http//www.espspices.org/content/pdts/ESAQualityMinimalDocument191104.pdp 1 2 8 (BSI) 2(BSI) 12(BSI) 2.5(BSI) Ground 1 2 9(ISO) 2.5 (ESA) 10 (ISO) 1.5 (ESA)

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Whole Insects dead(by count) 3

Excreta Mammalian (mg/lb) 5.0

Excreta Other (mg/lb) 5.0

Mold % (wt) 3.0

Insect defiled Extraneous Foreign infested (% wt) Matter(%/Wt) 2.50 0.50

9. Packaging and its details

(a) For exports Packaging is normally done in clean gunny bags and it should be polythene laminated gunny bags. (b) For domestic markets For domestic markets, turmeric are packed in gunny bags and jute sacks.

10. Distribution of produce from primary to terminal market

Turmeric grown in southern states like Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh find major markets in states like Maharashtra, M.P, U.P, and further goes to Delhi, Punjab and Haryana. Turmeric grown in Gujarat is distributed in nearby markets of Rajasthan. Turmeric from Orissa and West Bengal finds markets in Chattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar etc. Turmeric from Sikkim is distributed in North Eastern states.

11. Price graph of turmeric

Price Graph of Turmeric in leading states

jan 4000 3500 Price (Rs./Qtl.) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu States Karnataka feb mar apr may june july aug sep oct nov dec

Fig. - 35 *The above graph showing the price (in Rs./Qtl.) of turmeric in leading states

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12. Exports and export potential

A. Domestic strengths for exporting turmeric Domestic strengths for exporting turmeric are given below: India is a largest producer of turmeric in the world. India has bred improved and high yielding cultivars of turmeric India is in dominant position as far as production; trade etc. of turmeric is concerned. There is a strong research support for cultivation of turmeric on scientific lines, as Indian Institute of Spices Research is located in Callicut and also State Agricultural Universities in various states. More than 80% of turmeric is cultivated in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu states. APEDA has sanctioned an Agri Export Zone for turmeric in Orissa state to enhance export of turmeric from the state B. Export India has monopoly in turmeric trade at world level. Although India is the largest producer of turmeric in the world (846700 tons) but it exported only 6% of the total production. India, exported 51500 tons of turmeric during 2006-07. This is substantial compared to 37,644 tons during 2003-04. (Table 14.10 & Fig. 36). Table 14.10: Export of turmeric from India Year Quantity(tons) 2003-2004 37044.3 2004-2005 43096.6 2005-2006 46404.9 2006-2007 51500.0 Source: Spices Board, Cochin. Value(Rs. Lakh) 13111.7 15625.0 15286.0 16480.0

Export of turmeric from India

60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000

2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007

Quantity in tons

0

Years

Fig. - 36 163

C. Export potential Present exports and export potential of turmeric, region wise is discussed in the following pages:(i) GCC countries India exported 9550 tons of turmeric to GCC countries. UAE imported maximum quantity of 7823 tons, whereas Saudi Arabia imported 1406 tons and Kuwait 320 tons. Export potential should be further exploited by exploring exports to Bahrain, Oman and Qatar. (ii) Middle East countries Exports of turmeric was mainly to Iran (6094 tons), Egypt (2057 tons), Morocco (736 tons), Israel (632 tons) etc. amounting approx. to 9821 tons. India must also explore the opportunity of exporting to Turkey, Algeria, Kenya, Yemen, Jordan etc. (iii) European countries Turmeric was exported to EU countries up to 9508 tons, the largest importers were UK (2896 tons), Netherlands (1816 tons), Germany (1155 tons), France (627 tons) etc. Turmeric was also exported to East European countries like Russia (567 tons) and Poland (47 tons). Export of turmeric needs to be explored in remaining European countries as there is huge potential for export. (iv) ASEAN countries Some amount of turmeric was also exported to ASEAN countries comprising Malaysia (2263 tons) and Singapore (622 tons). Export needs to be pursued in Philippines, also. There is no scope of exporting to Indonesia. (v) Pacific Rim countries and China India exported 2631 tons of turmeric to Japan as per APEDA database. There are no authentic figures about exports of Indian turmeric to South Korea and Australia, but as per Comtrade database India exported 267 tons to South Korea and 462 tons to Australia.Further exports to these countries need to be tried, but there is no potential of exporting to China, as this country is itself an exporting country. (vi) U.S.A and Canada India exported 2460 tons of turmeric to USA and 347 tons to Canada during 2006. Efforts for further enhancement of exports must be made. Since India is exporting only 6% of its total production, therefore adequate campaign needs to be launched highlighting healing properties of turmeric for boosting exports of turmeric. Export of turmeric needs to be further explored in Central and South American countries. D. Measures for enhancing competitiveness in exportsFollowing measures are likely to enhance the competitiveness in export of turmeric. · As far as turmeric is concerned, India is in dominant position; however, it has to maintain its position with other future competitors like Indonesia, China, etc. · India must enhance its product quality, cleanliness of fingers, etc.

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·

India must also improve total productivity to remain in dominant position, so that it continues to supply at most competitive prices. For this, the area under high yielding cultivars needs to be increased by supplying micro tubers multiplied through tissue culture.

13. Documents required for exports

a) Documents related to goods a) Invoice a) Mate Receipt b) Packing List b) Shipping Bill c) Certificate of origin c) Bill of handing b) Bill of Exchange b) GLOBALGAP Certification c) Health Certificate d) Airway Bill b) Documents related to shipment c) Documents related to Payment a) Letter of Credit (L/C) a) Phytosanitary Certificate e) Organic Certification - Certificate indicating material produce is based on organic farming. f) Documents related to Foreign Exchange Regulations GR Form: Documents required by RBI which assures to RBI that the exporter will realize the proceeds of goods within 180 days from the date of Shipment. g) Other Document Bank Realization Certification (BRC): This is the advice given by Foreign Exchange Bank after the realization of money from Importer. d) Documents related to quality of goods

14. Chain of events (pack house up to shipment)

Harvesting Cooking Curing Drying Polishing Packing Storage Shipment 165

15. Price prevailing in international markets

The given below tables shows the annual average price range of turmeric in EU markets. The table 14.11 shows the pricing trend in the markets of EU countries. Table 14.11: Summary of prices for turmeric in target markets for India Country EU Source: Comtrade Database Annual Average price Range Currency USD/kg INR/kg 0.84 to 1.73 38.15 to 78.08 (2003-08)

16. Cost Calculation from harvest to packhouse to port

Cost estimates for exports of turmeric from India (as per information collected during 2008) (a) Procurement price*: Approx. price (Rs. /kg) : 30-40

*Price of turmeric varies according to variety, month of procurement (b) Charges for sorting/grading, processing/grinding, packing, transport etc. (below in table): Table 14.12: Charges for sorting/grading, processing/grinding, packing, transport, etc. Particulars (Cost per kg) Sorting / Grading Processing / grinding Packing (includes cost of packing material) Loading truck/container Transport to port includes C & F Total Source: Spices Board, Cochin 20' container (12500 kg) 3.0 3.5 4.0 2.0 2.0 14.5

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(c) Sea freight charges*: Freight rates for ordinary container are as follows: Ordinary containers (Rates in US dollars) 20' 40' (i) Dubai/Doha 600 900 (ii) Kuala Lampur/Singapore 100 175 (iii)Flaxo (UK)/Amsterdam 900 1450 * It varies from year to year /season to season, capacity of container and distance covered.

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