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April2006 ver.2.1

Artocarpus camansi (breadnut)

Moraceae (mulberry family)

breadnut (English), castaña (Spanish), chataignier (French), kapiak (New Guinea), dulugian, kamansi, kolo, pakau, ugod (Philippines), kelur, kulor, kulur, kuror (Malaya, Java), mei kakano (Marquesas), pana de pepitas (Puerto Rico)

Diane Ragone

photo:D.Ragone

IN BRIEF

Distribution Currently found throughout thetropics,includingsomePacificislands. Size Medium tree 15 m (50 ft) or more in heightatmaturity.

Habitat Grows best in equatorial lowlands below 600­650 m (1970­2130 ft) and rainfall of 1300­3800 mm (50­150 in) but is widely adaptable.

Vegetation In native range, an important component of the vegetation associated with lowland mixed alluvial forests; in cultivation, associatedwithawidevarietyofdomesticated plants. Soils Deep,fertile,welldrainedsoilsarepre ferred.

Growth rate Moderatelyfastgrowinginfa vorableconditions,growing0.5­1.5m(1.5­5ft) peryear. Main agroforestry uses Overstory, home gardens. Main products Staplefood,woodforcrafts.

Intercropping Interplanted with small fruit treesorshorttermfruitandvegetablecrops.

Yields Maturetreescanyield600­800fruits perseason.

Invasive potential It has little potential for invasiveness.

Young breadnut tree.

INTRODUCTION

Breadnut (Artocarpus camansi) is native to New Guinea andpossiblytheMoluccas(Indonesia)andthePhilippines. InNewGuinea,itisadominantmemberofalluvialforests inlowlandareasandisoneofthefirstspeciestoappearon the tops of frequently flooded banks of rivers.The trees grow widely scattered in the forest and are dispersed by birds,flyingfoxes,andarborealmammalsthatfeedonthe fleshanddropthelargeseeds.Artocarpus camansihasoften beenconsideredtobeaformofseededbreadfruit,A. altilis. Breadfruit, however, is a separate species that originated from its wild seeded ancestor, breadnut. Pacific islanders didnotdistributeitthroughtheregion,probablybecause theseedsareshortlivedandwouldbedifficulttotransport longdistances.Afewtrees,allfairlyrecentintroductions, canbefoundinNewCaledonia,Pohnpei,theMarquesas, Tahiti,Palau,andHawai`i.Whilebreadnutisuncommon inthePacificislands,ithaslongbeencultivatedandused inothertropicalregions.Beginninginthelate1700sthe BritishandFrenchspreadbreadnutthroughoutthetropics. Theoblong,spinyfruitshavelittlepulpandareprimarily grownfortheirlarge,nutritiousseeds,althoughimmature fruits,seedsandall,arethinlyslicedandcookedasaveg etable,especiallyinthePhilippines.Theseedsarehighin

proteinandrelativelylowinfat.Theyareboiledorroasted andaresimilartochestnutsintextureandflavor.

DISTRIBUTION

Thiswildseededancestorofbreadfruit(Artocarpus altilis) is native to New Guinea and possibly the Moluccas (In donesia)andthePhilippines.Itisdistributedthroughout its natural range by flying foxes (fruit bats) and arboreal mammals. BreadnutiswidespreadthroughoutthelowlandsofNew Guinea where it occurs naturally, and it is also found in cultivation in homegardens. It is now found only in cul tivationinthePhilippines,whereitistypicallygrownas abackyardtree.ItisinfrequentlygrowninthePacificis landsoutsideofitsnativerange.Afewtreescanbefound inNewCaledonia,Pohnpei,theMarquesas,Tahiti,Palau, andHawai`i,mainlyintroducedbyimmigrantsfromthe Philippinesinrecentyears.Itiscurrentlynotfoundonany ofthePacificatolls.Whilebreadnutisstillunderutilized

Native range

Current distribution

A mature breadnut tree can produce as many as 600­800 fruits per year. photo:D.Ragone

Artocarpus camansi(breadnut)

inOceaniaithaslongbeengrownandusedinothertropi cal regions. Beginning in the late 1700s the British and French spread breadnut throughout the tropics, and it is nowwidespreadintheCaribbean--whereitisespecially popular inTrinidad,Tobago, and Guyana--Central and SouthAmerica,SoutheastAsia,andpartsofAfrica,espe ciallycoastalWestAfrica.

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION

Preferredscientificnameandauthor Artocarpus camansiBlanco Family Moraceae(mulberryfamily) Non-preferredscientificnames These namesfor other Artocarpusspecieshave beenused incorrectlyforA. camansi: Artocarpus altilis A. communis A. incisa Commonnames breadnut(English) castaña(Spanish) chataignier(French) kapiak(NewGuinea) kamansi, dulugian, pakau, kolo, ugod(Philippines) kulur, kelur,kulor, kuror(Malaya,Java) mei kakano(Marquesas) pana de pepitas(PuertoRico) Size Treesgrowtoheightsof10­15m(33­50ft)ortallerwith atrunk1m(3.3ft)orlargerindiameter,oftengrowingto a height of 5 m (16 ft) before branching. A sticky, white, milkylatexispresentinallpartsofthetree.Canopydiam etergenerallymeasuresabouthalfofthetreeheight. Form Itisasingletrunkedtreewithaspreadingevergreencan opy.Thetreetypicallyformsbuttressesatthebaseofthe trunk.Ithasamoreopenbranchingstructurethanbread fruit(A. altilis)ordugdug(A. mariannensis). Flowering Floweringismonoeciouswithmaleandfemaleflowerson thesametreeattheendsofbranches,withthemaleinflo rescenceappearingfirst.Maleflowersareclubshaped,up to3cm(1.2in)indiameterand25­35cm(10­14in)long

Buttress roots and trunk of breadnut. photo:D.Ragone

orlonger.Thousandsoftinyflowerswithtwoanthersare attached to a central spongy core. Female inflorescences consistof1500­2000reducedflowersattachedtoaspongy core.Unlikebreadfruit,theindividualflowersdonotfuse togetheralongtheirlength.

Leaves Leavesarealternate,large,40­60cm(16­24in)long,mod erately dissected with 4­6 pairs of lobes and sinuses cut halfwaytothemidrib.Newleavesonyoungtreescanbe76 ormorecm(30in)long.Theyaredenselypubescent,with many white or reddishwhite hairs on upper and lower veins, lower leaf surface, and petiole. Blade is dull green withgreenveins.Twolargegreenstipulesenclosethebud, turningyellowbeforedehiscing. Fruit Thefruitisalargefleshysyncarp,ovalorovoid,13­20cm (5­8in)longand7­12cm(2.6­4.8in)indiameter,weigh ing approximately 800 g (1.8 lb). The skin is dull green togreenyellowwhenripewithaspinytexturefromthe

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pointed,flexible,5­12mm(0.2­0.5in)longtips ofindividualflowers.Thescantypulpisyellow whitishwhenripewithasweetaromaandtaste. Thefruitisnotassolidordenseasbreadfruit becausetheindividualflowersformingthefruit arefusedtogetheronlyattheirbases.

Seeds Thisspeciesisgrownforitsseeds,andthereis much variation in seed number, size, and nu tritional composition. The fruit contains nu merousseeds,from12toasmanyas150,each weighing an average of 7­10 g (0.25­0.36 oz), comprising 30­50% or more of the total fruit weight.The seeds are rounded or flattened by compressionandabout2.5cm(1in)long.They have a thin, lightbrown outer seed coat that ispatternedwithdarkerveins.Incontrast,the seedsofbreadfruitanddugdugusuallyhavea darkbrown, shiny seed coat. The seeds have littletonoendosperm,noperiodofdormancy, germinateimmediately,andareunabletowith stand desiccation. Typically spread by flying foxes and arboreal mammals. Seeds are har vestedfromsoft,ripefruits. Rootinghabit Therootsarespreadingandgrowonorslightly belowthesurface.Extensivebuttressesdevelop whenmature. Howtodistinguishfromsimilarspecies/ look-a-likes Breadnutcanbereadilydistinguishedfromits closerelative,breadfruit(A. altilis),byitsvery spinyfruitswithlittlepulpandnumerouslarge, lightbrown seeds. Dugdug (A. mariannensis) has small, darkgreen, cylindrical or kidney shapedfruitswithdarkyellowflesh,darkbrown seeds,andsmall,entiretoshallowly1­3lobed Top: Variation in seeded and seedless varieties of breadfruit (A. altilis) and leaves.

GENETICS

Variability of species

seeds of breadnut (upper right corner). Bottom: Breadnut fruits are readily identified by their spiny skin. photos:D.Ragone

Breadnut is genetically variable, diploid, and produces abundant fertile pollen. Most of the trees in cultivation throughoutthetropicsoriginatedfromafewearlyintro ductions, and little work has been done to evaluate and selectsuperiorseedlings.

Therearenovarietiesofbreadnut.

Known varieties

ASSOCIATED PLANT SPECIES

Breadnut isanimportantcomponentofthevegetationas

General flora of native habitat

Artocarpus camansi(breadnut)

sociatedwithlowlandmixedalluvialforestsofNewGuinea (PapuaNewGuineaandIrianJaya)below1000m(3300ft) elevation.Thistallforest(canopyof30m(100ft)orgreat er) is floristically and structurally very rich.The forest is ratheropenandtheupperstoryischaracterizedbyPometia pinnata, Ficus spp., Alstonia scholaris, and Terminalia spp. TypicallowerstorytreesareGarcinia,Diospyros, Myrstica, Maniltoa,andMicrocos.Palmspecies,suchasrattansand Licuala spp., gingers, and members of the Marantaceae family abound in the understory and shrub layer. Drain age affects forest height and composition. In regularly inundated areas, Planchonia papuana, Bischofia javanica, Terminalia complanata, Cananga odorata, Teysmanniodendron bogoriense, Intsia bijuga, Nauclea coadunata, Alstonia scholaris, Vitex cofassus, and Anthocephalus chinensis are lo callyabundantintheriversideforest,andtheshruband herb layer are typically sparse.The wild breadnut tree is oneofthefirsttreestoappearonthetopsoffrequently flooded, low levee banks. In areas where the banks are higherandlessfrequentlyflooded,itisjoinedbyOctomeles sumatrana,andayoungforestdominatedbyoneorboth species develops. Ficus, Dendrocnide, Nauclea, Kleinhovia hospita, and Terminalia eventually invade the young for est. On the inner curves of larger river banks of oxbows, sinuouslowridgesseparatedbyswampyswalesarebuiltup. Trees of Timonius spp., Althoffia spp., Artocarpus camansi, and Octomeles sumatrana form narrow, evenaged, and in creasinglyhigherstandsonsuccessivelyolderridges.Dur ingtheclearingofthelowlandforestforplantationsand treegardens,wildbreadnuttreesandotherspeciessuchas Canarium indicum, Terminalia kaernbackhii, Dracontomelon puberulum, Pangium edule, Gnetum gnemon, Areca betel, and Ceiba bombaxareleftstandingorplanted.

m (1970­2130 ft) but is found at elevations up to 1550 m (4950ft).Thelatitudinallimitsareapproximately17°Nand S;maritimeclimatesextendthatrangetotheTropicsof CancerandCapricorn.Itshoulddowellwhereverbread fruitisgrown.

Elevationrange 0­1550m(0­4950ft) Meanannualrainfall 1300­3800mm(50­150in) Rainfallpattern Prefersclimateswithsummerrains. Dryseasonduration(consecutivemonthswith<0 mm[1.6in]rainfall) 0­3months Meanannualtemperature 15­40°C(50­104°F),doesbestat21­32°C(70­90°F) Meanmaximumtemperatureofhottestmonth 32­38°C(90­100°F) Meanminimumtemperatureofcoldestmonth 16­18°C(61­64°F) Minimumtemperaturetolerated 5­10°C(41­50°F)

Deep,fertile,welldrainedsoilsarepreferred.

Soils

Associated introduced species in Pacific islands

Breadnut is a modern introduction in only a few Pacific islands,whereitisusuallygrownasabackyardtreearound homes.Itisassociatedwithbanana(Musaspp.),coconut (Cocos nucifera),Indianmulberry(Morinda citrifolia,noni), sugarcane, ornamental plants, and other common ho megardenspecies.

Soiltexture Thetreepreferslight,welldrainedsoils(sands,sandyloams, loams,andsandyclayloams). Soildrainage Itrequiresfreelydrainingsoils. Soilacidity Neutraltoalkalinesoils(pH6.1­7.4+)

ENVIRONMENTAL PREFERENCES AND TOLERANCES

Breadnut, like breadfruit, has a wide range of adaptabil itytoecologicalconditions.Itrequiresatropicalclimate and will not grow where the temperatures go below 5°C (41°F).Itgrowsbestinequatoriallowlandsbelow600­650

Tolerances

Drought Canwithstanddroughtforafewmonthsbutwillprema turelydropfruits. Fullsun Doesbestinfullsun.

Climate

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Shade Seedlingsdobestin20­50%shadebutpreferfullsuncon ditionsonceestablished. Frost Itisdamagedbyfrost,whichcausesittoloseallfruitsand leaves,andbranchdiebackwilloccur. Waterlogging Itcantoleratewaterloggedsoilsandperiodicfloodingfor briefperiods,andisthefirstspeciestocolonizeriverbanks initsnativehabitat. Wind Itcanwithstandstrongwindsandwillresproutaftersus tainingwinddamage.

PROPAGATION

Breadnut is easily propagated by seeds.The trees do not producerootshootsandcannotbegrownfromrootcut tings as can breadfruit. It has been successfully grafted in the Philippines using inarching (where one branch is grafted to another plant without first separating it from itsparent)andbudding.Seedsaretypicallygatheredfrom soft,ripefruits.

Propagation by seeds

Abilities

Itproducesnewshootsandbranchesafterwinddamage.

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Thisspeciesisfastgrowinginfavorableconditions,grow ing0.5­1.5m(1.5­5ft)inheightperyearforthefirst10­12 years. The canopy diameter keeps pace at approximately onehalftheheightofthetree.Branchesarewidelyspaced. Smallbranchesoftendiebackatthetipafterfruiting,but newshootsandbranchescontinuetodevelopthroughout thelifeofthetree.

Growth rate

Place seeds in seedling flats in a loose, well drained me dium.Plantatadepthtwicethewidthoftheseed.Keep moist, but not wet. Seeds germinate within 10­14 days. Transplant into 1­2 gallon (4­8 liter) pots once the true leaveshavehardened.Ifaddingfertilizer(suchasbalanced 888 slowrelease), use only sparingly, less than half the manufacturer's recommendations. Keep plants in partial shadeandweedfree.Seedlingsgrowquickly,reaching1m (3.3ft)inapproximately6monthsandarereadytoplant intothefieldinlessthanayear.

Seedsquicklygerminateandwilloftensproutinsidethe fallenfruits.Collectseedsfromsoft,ripefruitsandwash toremoveallpulp.Selectfirm,shiny,uniformseedsthatdo notyieldtothetouchwhensqueezed.Discardanysprout edorabortedseeds.Thelatteraretypicallymisshapen,flat, andcontainlittleornoendosperm.Surfacecleanina2% bleachsolutionfor5­10minutesortreatwithafungicide according to the manufacturer's recommendation. Plant immediately,asseedsarerecalcitrantandcannotbedried orchilled.Germinationratesarehigh,closeto100%.

Flowering and fruiting

FruitingseasonisOctobertoMay,withsomefruitsavail ableintoJulyinHawai`i.ItbeginsinAprilorMayinthe Philippines.Treesbeginproducingat8­10yearsofage.

Mature breadnut trees in the Philippines have been re portedtoproduce600­800fruitsperseason.Theaverage numberofseedsperfruitisvariable,rangingfrom32to94 perfruit,eachseedweighinganaverageof7.7­10g(0.25­ 0.33oz).Basedon100trees/ha(40trees/ac)producing200 fruits per tree, an average yield of 11 mt/ha (4.9 t/ac) of freshseedshasbeenestimated. Asevidencedbyitswidespreaddistributioninthenative lowland forest, this species is able to withstand competi tionfromotherforesttrees.

Yields

EstablishmentintheNursery Youngplantspreferpartialshade.Iftheyaretobeplanted infullsun,graduallymovethemtofullsunconditionsin thenurseryfor1­2monthstohardenthemtothesitecon ditions.Youngplantsshouldneverbeallowedtodryoutor beexposedtostrongwind. Outplanting Outplant when the plants have reached the desired size of about 1.25 m (4 ft) tall and 2 cm (0.8 in) in diameter. Becauseoftheirlargesurfacearea,itisbesttoreducethe sizeoftheleavestoreducetranspiration.Carefullyremove 1/2to2/3ofthelowerleavesbytrimmingthebladeand leavingonlyasmallsectionattachedtothepetiole.Donot removeordamagethegrowingpointoftheplantwhere newleavesdevelop.Protectfromwindandexcessiveheat during transport. Dig a hole the same depth as the con tainerandtwiceaswide.Addasmallamountofslowre leasefertilizer,suchas888,tothebottomoftheholeand coverwithsoil.Topreventinjurytothebrittlerootsystem,

Reaction to competition

6 Artocarpus camansi(breadnut)

DISADVANTAGES

Potentialforinvasiveness Thisspecieshaslittlepotentialforinvasivenessbecausethe large,fleshyseedsquicklyloseviabilityandarenotreadily spreadexceptbyflyingfoxes. Susceptibilitytopests/pathogens Ithasfewseriousdiseasesorpestsandisrelativelytrouble free, with disease and pest problems localized. Breadnut doesnotappeartobeassusceptibleasbreadfruittofruit rots caused by Phytophthora, Colletotrichum (anthracnose), andRhizopus. Hosttocroppests/pathogens Fruit flies are attracted to ripe fruits on the trees and groundandinfestmanyfruitandvegetablecrops. Otherdisadvantagesordesignconsiderations Thespreadingsurfacerootscaninterferewithotherplants andareeasilyhitbymowersorotherequipment.

AGROFORESTRY/ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES

Mulch/organicmatter Thelargeleavesofthisevergreenspeciesprovideabundant mulchforthetreeandotherplantsgrowingbeneaththe canopy. Soilstabilization Breadnut naturally occurs on frequently flooded river banks. Cropshade/overstory Canbeinterplantedwithawiderangeofcropsandplants, suchasyam,banana,medicinalplants,aroids,ginger,Indi anmulberry,smallfruittrees,andfieldandvegetablecrops suchascorn,beans,peanut,tomato,andeggplant. Homegardens Breadnut is ideal for homegardens, producing nutritious, highproteinseedsandprovidingbeneficialshade. Animalfodder Allparts--flesh,peel,core,andseeds--ofbothmatureand ripe fruits are edible and are fed to pigs and other live stock. Nativeanimal/birdfood Breadnutisanimportantfoodsourceforflyingfoxesand

Breadnut seeds readily germinate and should be gathered from soft, ripe fruits before they fall to the ground. photo: D.Ragone

The young plants prefer partial shade. It is best to plant attheonsetoftherainyseason,butiftheweatherisdry, irrigateforthefirst1­3monthsofestablishment.Oncees tablished,breadnuttreescanwithstandadryseasonof3­4 months,althoughtheyprefermoistconditions.Mulching young plants is beneficial by helping keep the soil moist andaddingasteadysupplyofnutrients.Italsohelpscon trolweedsaroundtherootsystem.Useofherbicidetocon trolweedsaroundthebaseofthetreecandamagethetree ifitcomesincontactwiththesurfacerootsoryoungtrunk. Youngtreesneedtobeprotectedtreesfromcattle,goats, horses,andpigs,whichwilleatthebarkandtendershoots. Close to 100% success rate can be expected if the above precautionsaretaken.

carefullycutoffthecontainerratherthanpullingtheplant out.Placethetreeinthehole,addsoilnohigherthanthe leveloftheplantinthepot,topdresswithcompost,and waterwell.

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arborealmammalsinitsnativerange.

Hostplanttrellising Couldbeusedasatrellistreeforyam(Dioscorea species). Beeforage Honeybeesvisitmaleinflorescencesandcollect pollen and also collect latex that oozes from thefruitsurface.

USES AND PRODUCTS

Staplefood The nutritious fruits are usually consumed when immature, thinly sliced and boiled as a vegetableinsoupsorstews. Nut/seed Breadnut is primarily grown for its nutritious Seeds comprise 30­50 percent or more of the weight of breadnut fruit. pho seeds;itisagoodsourceofproteinandlowin to:J.Wiseman fatcomparedtonutssuchasalmond,brazilnut, Medicinal andmacadamianut.Thefatextractedfromthe seedisalightyellow,viscousliquidatroomtemperature Nospecificmedicinalusesarereported,butthebreadnut withacharacteristicodorsimilartothatofpeanuts.Ithas tree probably has medicinal properties similar to bread achemicalnumberandphysicalpropertiessimilartothose fruit. of olive oil. Its seeds are a good source of minerals and Timber containmoreniacinthanmostothernuts.In100gedible portion,fouraminoacids,methionine(3.2g),leucine(2.6 Thewoodislightweight,flexible,andeasytowork. g),isoleucine(2.4g),andserine(2.1g)comprised50%of14 Fuelwood aminoacidsanalyzed. Thewoodisfastburning,butgenerallyonlyolder,lesspro ductivetreesareusedforfuel.

Nutritional composition of breadnut seeds per 100 grams edible portion (dry weight basis)

Water(%) Protein(g) Fat(g) 56.0­66.2 13.3­19.9 76.2 6.2­29.0 66­70 380­1620 320­360 8.7 8.3 1.6 10.0

Craftwood/tools The wood is easy to work and carve into statues, bowls, fishingfloats,andotherobjects. Toxin/insecticide/fishpoison Driedmaleflowerscanbeburnedtorepelmosquitoesand otherflyinginsects.

Thebreadnuttreeisnotasextensivelyusedasbreadfruit, butitstimber,latex,andinnerbarkcanbeutilizedinthe samefashion.

Carbohydrate(g) Calcium(mg)

Potassium(mg) Iron(mg)

Phosphorus(mg) Magnesium(mg) Niacin(mg) Sodium(mg)

Other uses

COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS

Breadnut is a natural component of the forests of New Guineaandisanimportantpartofthesubsistenceecon

From Ragone (2003) based on McIntoch & Manchew (1993), Negron de Bravo et al. (1983), and Quijano & Arango (1981).

Artocarpus camansi(breadnut)

omyinlowlandareas.Theseedsareavaluedfoodandare widely collected. Gathered seeds are sold in village mar kets,providinganimportantsourceofincomeforwomen insomeareas.IntheCaribbeanandpartsofCentraland SouthAmerica,theseedsarelocallyconsumedandavail ableinmarketsandrestaurants.Sincebreadnutseedsare sosimilarintasteandtexturetochestnuts,theycouldhave commercial possibilities roasted, canned in brine, or pro cessedintonutbutterornutpaste,flour,oroil.

INTERNET

TheBreadfruitInstitute:<http://www.breadfruit.org>.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

(indicatesrecommendedreading)

Barrau, J. 1976. Breadfruit and relatives. pp. 201­202. In: Simmonds,N.W.(ed.).EvolutionofCropPlants.Long man,London. Bennett,F.D.,andC.Nozzollilo.1988.Howmanyseedsina seededbreadfruit,Artocarpus altilis(Moraceae).Econom icBotany 41(3):370­374. Brown,W.H.1943.UsefulPlantsofthePhilippines.Philip pine Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources TechnicalBulletin10(1):453­455. Coronel,R.E.1986.PromisingFruitsofthePhilippines. University of the Philippines at Los Baños, College of Agriculture,Laguna,Philippines. French, B.R. 1988. Food plants of Papua New Guinea: A Compendium.AustraliaandPacificScienceFoundation, Sheffield,Tasmania,Australia. Graham,H.D.,andE.NegrondeBravo.1981.Composition ofbreadfruit.JournalofFoodScience46:535­539. McIntoch,C.,andP.Manchew.1993.Thebreadfruitinnu tritionandhealth.TropicalFruitsNewsletter6:5­6. Morton, J. 1987. Fruits of Warm Climates. Julia Morton, Miami,Florida. Negron de Bravo, E., H.D. Graham, and M. Padovani. 1983. Composition of the breadnut (seeded breadfruit). CaribbeanJournalofScience19:27­32. Paijmans, K. 1976. Vegetation. pp. 23­105. In: Paijmans, K. (ed.).NewGuineaVegetation. PartII.Elsevier,Amster dam. Powell, J.M. 1976. Ethnobotany. pp. 106­184. In: Paijmans, K.(ed.).NewGuineaVegetation.PartIII.Elsevier,Am sterdam. Quijano,J.,andG.J.Arango.1979.ThebreadfruitfromCo lombia--a detailed chemical analysis. EconomicBotany 33(2):199­202. Ragone, D. 1987. Breadfruit. Artocarpus altilis (Parkin son) Fosberg. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops 10. Institute of Plant Genetics & Crop Research, Gatersleban, Germany and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. Ragone,D.2003.Breadfruit.pp655­661.In:Caballero,B.,L. Trugo,andP.Finglas(eds.).EncyclopediaofFoodScienc esandNutrition.AcademicPress,SanDiego,California. Trujillo, E. 1971. Breadfruit Diseases of the Pacific Basin. South Pacific Commission. Information Document 27. Noumea,NewCaledonia.

INTERPLANTING/FARM APPLICATIONS

Breadnut trees provide shade, mulch, and a beneficial microclimate. It is generally planted as part of a ho megarden or mixed agroforestry system with a wide ar rayofusefulplants.Widelyspacedtreesinanorchardcan be interplanted with small fruit trees such as citrus and a leguminous cover crop. Shortterm fruit crops such as pineapple,banana,andpapaya,orfieldandvegetablecrops includingtaro,tomato,andeggplantcanalsobegrownbe tween breadfruit trees. A leguminous cover crop should replacetheseintercropswhentheybegintointerferewith orchardoperations.Interplantingsystemsinclude: In the Philippines the center of the square formed by fourbreadnuttreesisplantedwithsmallfruittreessuch as guayabano orsoursop(Annona muricata),citrus,chico or sapodilla (Manilkara zapota), and atis or sugar apple (Annona squamosa). Gnetum gnemon is grown for its edible leaf in Artocarpus camansiandPandanusorchardsintheJimiValley,Papua NewGuinea.

Example system 1

Example system 2

PUBLIC ASSISTANCE AND AGROFORESTRY EXTENSION

Extension offices for agroforestry and forestry in the Pa cific:http://www.traditionaltree.org/extension.html

GERMPLASM RESOURCES

AgermplasmcollectionattheNationalTropicalBotanical Garden in Hawai`i has 24 accessions of A. camansi from Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Hawai`i, Pohnpei, Palau, andTahiti.

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org)

Verheij,E.W.M.,andR.E.Coronel.1991.PlantResources ofSouthEastAsia2.EdibleFruitsandNuts.PROSEA, Bogor,Indonesia. Zerega,N.Y.C.,D.Ragone,andT.J.Motley.2005.Systemat icsandspecieslimitsofbreadfruit(Artocarpus,Moraceae). SystematicBotany30(3):603­615.

10 Artocarpus camansi(breadnut)

Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www.traditionaltree.org)

Artocarpus camansi (breadnut)

Author:DianeRagone,TheBreadfruitInstitute,NationalTropicalBotanicalGarden,3530PapalinaRoad,Kalaheo,Hawai`i96741 USA;Web:<http://www.ntbg.org>,<http://www.breadfruit.org>. Acknowledgments:TheauthorandpublisherthankRobertoCoronel,DaleEvans,andArtWhistlerfortheirinput.Aphotocontri butionbyJimWisemanisgreatlyappreciated. Recommended citation: Ragone,D.2006.Artocarpus camansi (breadnut),ver.2.1.In:Elevitch,C.R.(ed.).SpeciesProfilesforPacific IslandAgroforestry.PermanentAgricultureResources(PAR),Hlualoa,Hawai`i.<http://www.traditionaltree.org>. Sponsors:PublicationwasmadepossiblebygeneroussupportoftheUnitedStatesDepartmentofAgricultureWesternRegionSus tainableAgricultureResearchandEducation(USDAWSARE)Program;SPC/GTZPacificGermanRegionalForestryProject; USDANaturalResourcesConservationService(USDANRCS);StateofHawai`iDepartmentofLand&NaturalResourcesDivi sionofForestry&Wildlife;andtheUSDAForestServiceForestLandsEnhancementProgram.Thismaterialisbaseduponwork supportedbytheCooperativeStateResearch,Education,andExtensionService,U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,andAgricultural ExperimentStation,UtahStateUniversity,underCooperativeAgreement20024700101327. Series editor:CraigR.Elevitch Publisher:PermanentAgricultureResources(PAR),POBox428,Hlualoa,Hawai`i96725,USA;Tel:8083244427;Fax:808324 4129;Email:[email protected];Web:<http://www.agroforestry.net>.Thisinstitutionisanequalopportunityprovider. Reproduction:Copiesofthispublicationcanbedownloadedfrom<http://www.traditionaltree.org>.Thispublicationmayberepro ducedfornoncommercialeducationalpurposesonly,withcreditgiventothesource.©2006PermanentAgricultureResources.All rightsreserved.

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