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Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry www.traditionaltree.org

April2006

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Morinda citrifolia (noni)

Rubiaceae (coffee family)

canary wood (Australia); fromager, murier indien (French); i (Kosrae); Indian mulberry (English); lada (Guam, N. Mariana Islands); kesengel, lel, ngel (Palau); kikiri (Solomon Islands); kura (Fiji); mangal`wag (Yap); mora de la India (Spanish); nen, nin (Marshall Islands, Chuuk); non (Kiribati); noni (Hawai`i); nono (Cook Islands, Tahiti); nonu, nonu atoni, gogu atoni (Niue, Samoa, Tonga, Wallace, Futuna); weipwul (Pohnpei)

Scot C. Nelson

photo:S.C.NelSoN

In brIef

Distribution NativetoSoutheastAsia(Indonesia)andAustralia,itnowisfoundthroughoutthetropics. Size Typically3­6m(10­20ft)tallatmaturity.

Habitat Widely adapted to the tropics, 1­800m (0­2600 ft) depending on latitude, mean annual temperatures of 20­35°C (68­ 95°F),annualrainfallof250­4000mm(10­160 in). Vegetation Associated with a wide range of common coastal and littoral forest shrubs, as wellasnumerouscultivatedplants. Soils Grows in an extremely wide range of soils. Growth rate Moderate,generally0.75­1.5m/ yr(2.5­5ft/yr).

Main agroforestry uses Coastal protection, homegardens. Main products Medicinal. Yields Up to 80,000 kg of fruit per hectare (71,000lb/ac)annually. Intercropping Traditionally grown in mixed croppingsystemsthroughoutthePacific.

Invasive potential Has naturalized outside itsnativerangeinmanylocationsthroughout thePacificandthetropics,althoughitisrarely consideredapest.

Developing noni fruits.

InTrODUCTIOn

Morinda citrifolia,knowncommerciallyasnoni, growswidelythroughoutthePacificandisone of the most significant sources of traditional medicines among Pacific island societies.This small evergreen tree or shrub is native from Southeastern Asia (Indonesia) to Australia, andnowhasapantropicaldistribution.Noniis notedforitsextremelywiderangeofenvironmentaltolerances.Itcangrowininfertile,acidic, andalkalinesoilsandisathomeinverydryto verywetareas.Itisfoundnaturallyinrelativelydrytomesicsitesorlowlandareasinclose proximitytoshorelines,orasanimportantforestunderstoryspeciesinlow-elevationPacific islandforestsandrainforests.Noni'sextensive rangeofenvironmentaltolerancesalsoincludes exposuretowind,fire,flooding,andsalineconditions.Althoughnotconsideredtobeinvasive Noni can grow from elevations of 500 m (1640 ft) down to near sea level; to a degree that threatens ecosystems, noni is here seen at Apia Bay, Samoa.photo:C.elevitCh treatedasaweedinsomesettings,isveryper(e.g.,Fiji,Vanuatu,NewGuinea,NewCaledonia,andthe sistentanddifficulttokill,andisoneofthefirst SolomonIslands),WesternPolynesia(e.g.,Samoa,Tonga, plantstocolonizeharshwasteareasorlavaflows.Allparts Niue,`Uvea/Futuna,Rotuma,andTuvalu)andMicronesia oftheplanthavetraditionaland/ormodernuses,including (e.g.,Pohnpei,Guam,Chuuk,Palau,theMarshallIslands, roots and bark (dyes, medicine), trunks (firewood, tools), and the Northern Marianas), Indonesia, Australia, and andleavesandfruits(food,medicine).ThemedicinalapSoutheastAsia.Nonihasalsobecomenaturalizedonthe plications,bothtraditionalandmodern,spanavastarray openshoresofCentralandSouthAmerica(fromMexico of conditions and illnesses, although most of these have toPanama,Venezuela,andSurinam)andonmanyislands yet to be scientifically supported. Noni is well suited for of the West Indies, the Bahamas, Bermuda, the Florida intercropping within traditional agroforestry subsistence Keys,andpartsofAfrica. farmingsystemsorasamonocropinfullsun.Thetreehas attainedsignificanteconomicimportanceworldwideinrecentyearsthroughavarietyofhealthandcosmeticprodbOTAnICAL DeSCrIPTIOn ucts made from its leaves and fruits.These include fruit juicesaswellaspowdersmadefromthefruitorleaves. Preferredscientificname Morinda citrifoliaL.

DISTrIbUTIOn

Native range

NoniisnativetoSoutheastAsia(Indonesia)andAustralia. Itcanbefoundindisturbedforests,drytomesicforests, alien grasslands, open areas near the shoreline, pastures andcoconutplantations,inlittoralforestunderstories,fallowareas,wasteplaces,andaroundvillages.

The botanical name for the genus was derived from the two Latin words morus, mulberry, and indicus, Indian, in reference to the similarity of the fruit of noni to that of truemulberry(Morus alba).Thespeciesnameindicatesthe resemblanceoftheplantfoliagetothatofsomecitrusspecies.

Thedistributionofnoni ispantropicalatlatitudesof19°N orS.TheIndo-PacificdistributionincludesEasternPolynesia(e.g.,Hawai`i,LineIslands,Marquesas,SocietyIslands, Australs,Tuamotus,Pitcairn,andCookIslands),Melanesia

Current distribution

Family Rubiaceae(coffeefamily),subfamilyRubioideae

Common names

canarywood(Australia) fromager, murier indien (French) i (Kosrae)

Morinda citrifolia(noni)

Indianmulberry(English) lada (Guam,NorthernMarianaIslands) mangal`wag (Yap) kesengel, lel, ngel (Palau) kikiri (SolomonIslands) kura (Fiji) mora de la India (Spanish) nen, nin (MarshallIslands,Chuuk) non (Kiribati) noni (Hawai`i,Marquesas) nono (CookIslands,Tahiti) non, nonu atogi, gogu atogi(Niue,Samoa,Tonga,`Uvea/ Futuna) weipwul (Pohnpei) Noniisasmallevergreentreeorshrub3­10minheight atmaturity.Theplantsometimessupportsitselfonother plantsasaliana.Thereismuchvariationinoverallplant form,fruitsize,leafsizeandmorphology,palatability,odor ofripefruit,andnumberofseedsperfruit.

aremembraneous,elliptictoelliptic-ovate,20­45cm(8­18 in)long,7­25cm(3.5­10in)wide,andglabrous.Petioles arestout,1.5­2cm(0.6­0.8in)long.Stipulesareconnate or distinct, 1­1.2 cm (0.4­0.5 in) long, the apex entire or 2­3-lobed. The fruit (technically known as a syncarp) is yellowish white,fleshy,5­10cm(2­4in)long,about3­4cm(1.2­1.6 in)indiameter,andsoftandfetidwhenripe. Seedshaveadistinctairchamber,andcanretainviability evenafterfloatinginwaterformonths.

Fruit

Seeds

Size and form

Rooting habit

Nonihasarootinghabitsimilartothatofcitrusandcoffee, withanextensivelateralrootsystemandadeeptaproot.

Flowers

Flowersareperfect,withabout75­90inovoidtoglobose heads. Peduncles are 10­30 mm (0.4­1.2 in) long, the calyxatruncatedrim.Thecorollaiswhite,5­lobed,thetube greenishwhite,7­9mm(0.28­0.35in)long,thelobesoblong-deltate,approximately7mm(0.28in)long.Thereare fivestamens,scarcelyexserted;thestyleisabout15mm(0.7 in)long.

Thewoodofnoniisayellowishcolorandthefruitshavea uniqueanddistinctdisagreeableodorwhenripe.

How to distinguish from similar species

GeneTICS

Thereisarelativelyhighdegreeofgenetic(e.g.,morphological)variabilityofthefruitandleafwithinthespecies. Knownvarietiesincludethefollowing:

Leaves are opposite, pinnately veined, and glossy. Blades

Leaves

Morinda citrifolia var. citrifolia, theprimaryfocusofthis profile, is of greatest cultural, economic, and medicinal value, and is in greatest abundance in the Pacific region. Thisisamorphologicallydiversespeciesandwithnoclear

Left: Morinda citrifoliavar.bracteata fruit and leaves. photo:W.MCClatChey Right: Morinda citrifoliacultivar `Potteri'

with its variegated leaves. photo:S.C.NelSoN

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org)

Morinda citrifolia var. bracteata is a small-fruited variety with conspicuous bracts. Found in Indonesia and otherpartsoftheregionbetweentheIndianandPacific Oceans.

sub-populationsbearinguniquecharacteristics;thereexist large-fruitedandsmall-fruitedmembersofthisgroup.

Meanmaximumtemperatureofhottestmonth 32­38°C(90­100°F) Meanminimumtemperatureofcoldestmonth 5­18°C(40­64°F) Minimumtemperaturetolerated 12°C(54°F)

Nonigrowsinaverywiderangeofsoilsandenvironments, with a notable ability to survive in harsh environments, such asthosefound oncoralatollsorbasalticlava flows. Itcanalsobefoundinsolutionpitsorbrackishtidepools nearthecoast,inlimestonesoilsoroutcroppings,oncoral atolls,asacolonizingspeciesofbasalticlavaflows,aswell asinnativeforests.

Morinda citrifolia cultivar `Potteri' isanornamentaltype, withgreenandwhiteleafvariegation,distributedthroughoutthePacific.

Associated plant species

Soils

Noni is associated with a wide range of common coastal and littoral forest shrubs and tree species in its native habitat.Itgrowsasanintroducedplantinagroecosystems near the shoreline of Pacific islands in open areas or as a cultivated component of agroforestry and subsistence agriculture, and is therefore associated with such plants as breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), banana (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya), palms (e.g., betel nut palm, Areca catechu and coconut, Cocos nucifera), pandanus (Pandanus spp.), beach hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus), ti (Cordyline fruticosa),andPiperspecies(e.g.,kava,Piper methysticum). Someoftheseassociatedspeciesareunderstoryandsome are overstory for noni. Noni grows as a recent introductionaroundvillagesorinhomegardens,inbackyards,and alongstreamsandgulches.

Soildrainage Nonitoleratesawiderangeofdrainageconditionsincludingseasonalwaterlogging,butitprefersfree,welldrained soils. Soilacidity Itcangrowinawiderangeofaciditylevels,fromacidic toalkaline. Specialsoiltolerances Nonitoleratesshallow,saline,sodic,andinfertilesoils.

enVIrOnMenTAL PreferenCeS AnD TOLerAnCeS

Climate

Elevationrange 1­800m(3.3­2600ft),dependingonlatitudeandenvironment. Meanannualrainfall 250­4000mm(10­160in) Rainfallpattern Noni can tolerate a wide range of precipitation patterns, includingsummer,winter,bimodal,anduniform. Dryseasonduration(consecutivemonthswith <0mm[1.6in]rainfall) At least 3­4 months depending on age, size of tree, temperature,relativehumidity,andsoils. Meanannualtemperature 20­35°C(68­95°F)

Tolerances

Drought Mature,cultivatednonicaneasilywithstanddroughtfor6 monthsormore.Wildnoniplantsgrowinginaridconditionscanspendtheirentirelivesinconditionsofperpetual drought. Fullsun Theplantgrowswellinfullsun. Shade Nonicangrowinawiderangeoflightintensities,from fullsuntoover80%shade. Fire Itcanregenerateafterfirebysproutingnewfoliagefrom rootsorstems. Waterlogging Noni withstands and even thrives in brackish tide pools.

Morinda citrifolia(noni)

GrOWTH AnD DeVeLOPMenT

Thegrowthrateismoderate,generally0.75­1.5 m/yr (2.5­5 ft/yr), slowing as the tree reaches maturity.

Growth rate

Flowering and fruiting

Noni flowering and fruiting is continuous throughoutyear.Fluctuationsinfloweringand fruitingmayoccurduetoseasonaleffects(temperature, rainfall, sunlight intensity and duration).

Noni does not compete well with grasses or Growing in a crack in lava rock, noni is tenacious in this hot, windy, and with grassy weeds in deep soils as an agricultural monocrop. However, it is a good forest dry area of Kona, Hawai`i. photo:C.elevitCh understory plant that can tolerate very harsh conditions and plant competition from forest Itcanalsotoleratefloodedconditionsforlongperiodsof trees,includingallelopathicspecies.Infact,noniisoneof time. thefewplantsthatcanthrivebeneaththecanopyofironSaltspray wood(Casuarina equisetifolia)trees. Itisverysalt-resistantandtolerantofoceansaltspray.Noni istolerantofextremesalinityingeneralandisthoughtto PrOPAGATIOn possibly gain nutritional benefit from the minerals containedinseawater. Noni is relatively easy to propagate from seeds, stem or root cuttings, and air-layering.The preferred methods of Wind propagationarebyseedandbycuttingsmadefromstem Althoughwindyareasarenotadvisedforcommercialproverticals. duction,nonicangrowinwindsweptlocations.However, yieldsandoverallplantgrowthofnoniinsuchareasare Propagation from seed diminished. Seedcollection Abilities Noni flowers and fruits year-round. Fruits are harvested when they start turning white, or even when they have Regeneraterapidly become fully ripe, i.e., turned soft, translucent, and charIthastheabilitytoregeneratefromshootsorrootsuckers acteristically odorous. For seed production, the riper the ratherthanfromseed,producingsmallthicketsorgroves. fruit,thebetter.Collectfruitfromplantsthathavedesirablecharacteristics,suchaslargefruitforfruitproduction, Self-prune vigorousleafgrowthforhedges,etc. Noni is not considered to be self-pruning, although the Seedprocessing woodybranchesofthisplantarebrittleandmayberelativelyeasilybrokenduringoverlyheavyfruitingloadsor Afterpicking,letthefruitripenfullyuntilitallturnssoft duringhighwinds. (almostmushy)andtranslucent.Thismaytake3­5daysif onlysemi-ripefruitswerecollected.Oncethefruitshave Coppice fullysoftened,pressthemagainstascreenorcolanderwith Noni plants regenerate well, even after severe pruning. holesslightlysmallerthattheseeds.Thesoft,fibrouspulp Noni may be cut back to the trunk ("stumping") to prowillslowlyberemovedfromtheseedsastheyarerubbed motethegrowthofadenseheadoffoliage.

Reaction to competition

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org)

Germinationishighforfreshseeds,oftenover90%.There are approximately 40,000 seeds/kg (18,000 seeds/lb) for Hawaiiannoni.

slightlyscarifyingtheseeds(seenextsection).Iftheseeds aretobestored,thefleshshouldberemovedcompletely, thentheseedsair-driedandstoredinapaperbaginacool room with low humidity. It is unknown how long seeds remainviable;however,1yearisthoughttobeareasonable storagetime.

Noni seeds can remain viable floating in water for months.

photo:S.C.NelSoN

Pre-plantingseedtreatment Withoutpretreatment,noniseedsgerminatesporadically over6­12months.Scarificationofthetoughseedcoat,althoughnotarequirement,canshortenthetimerequired forseedgerminationandincreasetheoverallgermination percentage.Scarificationcanbeachievedbyanyphysical method that abrades, damages, penetrates, or cuts open theseedcoat.Asimplemethodistoplaceripefruitsin ablenderandpulsetheblendingmechanismafewtimes to cut open the noni seeds before separating them from thepulp.Amoretime-consumingmethodthatresultsin highergerminationpercentageconsistsofclippingoffthe tipofnoniseedsneartheembryotoallowwatertopenetratetheseedcoat.

If the seeds are to be used immediately, soft fruits can besuspendedinwaterandsubjectedtoshortpulsesina blender,verysparingly,toremovemostofthefleshwhile

against the screen. It may take 15 minutes to completely remove the clinging flesh. Rinsing in water periodically helps float off the pulp.The seeds have an air bubble trapped inside, so unlike most other seeds, healthy noni seedsfloatinwater.

Germinationtimeforscarifiednoniseedsis20­120days, dependingupontemperature,environment,andvarietyor genotype.Seedgerminationcanberapidanduniform(20 days)infullsuntopartialshadeandmeantemperatureof approximately38°C(100°F).

Pottingmedia Weedandnematode-freenaturalorlocalforestsoilmixed withsand,volcaniccinderand/orcompostedorganicmatterareexcellentforseedlingproduction.Apreferredpot-

A very reliable--but time-consuming--way to scarify noni seeds is to clip the pointed end of the seeds with a fingernail clipper, which allows water to quickly enter the seed coat. Left: Unclipped seed. Middle: Properly clipped seed. Right: Seed clipped too much, exposing embryo (visible as white spot at lower right). photoS:S.C.NelSoN

6 Morinda citrifolia(noni)

traysorpotsmaybekeptinshadeorinfullsun. Aneventemperatureof38°C(105°F)isrecommended, which can be achieved with bottom heat.

Activegrowthphase When the seedlings reach the four-leaf stage, carefullytransplantthemtoindividualcontainers for the growth phase. Root-training pots approximately6cm(2.5in)squareby12cm(5 in) deep or larger work well. Four-liter (1 gal) root-trainingcontainerscanalsobeused.

Seedlingsshouldbegrowninpartialshadeand moved into full sun after 1­2 months. Keep seedlingsspacedwellaparttoallowmaximum penetration of sunlight and air circulation. In somecases,amendingwithadditionalfertilizer suchasalighttop-dressingof slow-releaseor organic 8-8-8 will aid in growth and development.

C.NelSoN

Rooted cutting (left) and seedling (right) ready for outplanting. photoS:S.

tingmediumfornoniseedsislightandwelldrainedbut inherently moisture-retaining, slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (depending on locally available source material), aerobic,andhighinorganicmatterderivedfromcompost orpeat.Nematode-infestedsoilsormediashouldbeavoidedortreatedwithheat(atleast50°C[122°F]for15minutes) priortousing.Mostnurseriesprefernaturalpottingmedia ratherthancommercialmediafornoniproduction.Mulch (e.g.,cinder,sawdust,leaflitter,orsand)maybeplacedover theseedsforweedcontrolandmoistureretention.

The size of noni plants at time of outplanting dependsontheseedlingage,fertilityofthemedium,potsize,nonivariety,andtheshadelevelusedfor seedling cultivation. A hardened seedling having at least 20­25cm(8­10in)ofwoodystemtissue(beingatleast150­ 180daysold)hasexcellentperformanceafteroutplanting.

Growingarea Arain-andwind-protectedbutsunlitarea(suchasacoldframewithaclearfilmroof )isrecommendedforgermination in trays. Germinate the seeds in trays filled with onepartpeattoonepartperliteorvermiculiteonly.Warm, moist,andlightconditionsarebeneficialforoptimalgermination. Noni seeds can germinate in conditions ranging from deep shade to full sun. Most uniform germinationisachievedinlightpartialshade(20­30%).Afterthe germinationandearlyestablishmentphases,partialshade (20­30%)isusedforgrowingouttheindividualseedlings incontainers. Establishmentphase Sowthescarifiedseedsevenlyingerminationtraysorpots filled with a moisture-retaining, sterile or pathogen-free growthmedium,perhapsamixtureconsistingofonepart perlitetoonepartpeat.Coverlightlywith5­10mm(0.2­ 0.4in)ofpottingmedia.Keepmoistwithafinesprayerso as not to disturb the seeds or the medium.The seedling

Timetooutplanting Noniseedlings(ifnotdirect-seededintotheground)may beoutplantedabout2­12monthsaftergermination.Young noniseedlings(8­12weeksold;10­15cm(4­6in)tall)may require more care and may be more vulnerable to environmental fluctuations and pest attack than older seedlings.Olderseedlings,growninfullsunin2-or3-liter(2­3 quart) pots for 24­36 weeks, are preferred for their vigor andabilitytoestablishquickly.Evenolderseedlings(1­3 yearsold)maybeoutplantediftheyarehealthyandnot significantlyroot-bound.Forolderseedlings,loosenroot systems gently by hand after removing them from their potsorcontainers. Seedlingdevelopment After outplanting, the first year of seedling development isslowduetotransplantshockandtheestablishmentof arootsystem.Afterward,seedlinggrowthismuchmore rapidasthecrowngainssizeandphotosyntheticmass. Usingvolunteerseedlings As an alternative to sowing noni seeds in seed-germinationbeds,youngnoniseedlingscanbecollectedcarefully from forest areas and transplanted into pots. Noni may

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org)

alsobesownontoraisedmoundsandoutplantedasbarerootseedlings,althoughthisisnotapreferredmethodof seedlingproduction. Varyingsizesofstemcuttingscanbeused,but20­40cm (8­16in)cuttingsaremanageableandeffective.Stemcuttingsmayrootin3weeksandbereadyforoutplantingin 6­9weeks.Aswithplantsderivedfromseeds,rootedstem cuttingsmaybegrowninpotsforupto26weeksormore withexcellentresultswhenoutplanted.

Propagation from stem cuttings

thegreenhousethrips,Heliothrips haemorroidalis),andan unidentified species of eriophyid mite. Overuse of fertilizercanattractsap-feedinginsects(e.g.,aphids,whiteflies, scales)thatcauseabuildupofsootymoldonnonileaves. Stress from lack of nutrients or root problems may also leadtoinfestationsofwhitefliesorscales.Insectdamage maybemoresevere inrelativelydryorlow-rainfall locationsorinfull-sunplantingsasanexpansivemonocrop.Of theinsectpests,whitefliesandscalesareperhapsthemost destructive.Theycanbecontrolledwithspraysofinsecticidalsoapsandoils.Insomelocations,leafminersperiodicallycauseseveredamagetononileaves.

DISADVAnTAGeS

NonihasnaturalizedoutsideitsnativerangeinmanylocationsthroughoutthePacificandthetropics.Although notconsideredinvasivetothedegreethatitthreatensecosystems,noniisrecognizedforitsabilitytopersistandto disperseandcolonizewithoutaspecificbiologicaldispersalagent,suchashumans,rodents,andbirds.Forexample, noniseedsfloatforlongperiodsoftimeinoceanwateror streamsandriversandcanremainviableformonthsduringtheirjourneyuntiltheirdepositiononasuitablesubstrate.Noniisconsideredtobeaweedinsomelocations (e.g.,insomeagroforestryordiversifiedfarmingsettings inMicronesia). Noniissusceptibletoattackbyawiderangeofpestsand disease-causingpathogens.However,thedamagedepends upon the pest or pathogen and upon the environment. When grown in a diverse, forested ecosystem, noni usually suffers from few significant pest and disease problems or damage. Conversely, when grown in a modern monoculturalfarmingsystem,noniismuchmoresusceptibletoattackbymanymorepestsanddiseasesandwith greater intensity than in natural ecosystems. In addition, nonigrowninmonoculturesonlandspreviouslyusedfor fruitorvegetablecropstendstobeexposedtonewpests andpathogensthatmaynotbeabundantorevenpresent inforestornaturalecosystems.

Potential for invasiveness

Susceptibility to pests/pathogens

Themostcommonandseverepestproblemfornoniisrootknotdiseasecausedbyroot-knotnematodes(Meloidogyne spp.).Thesesoil-dwelling,root-parasiticroundwormsare verydestructivetononiandmustbekeptoutofthenursery. Thediseasecancausefarmfailure.Tokeepnematodesout of nurseries, use soil-less media or only heat-treated soil forseedlings.Onceestablishedinafield,root-knotnematodes are virtually impossible to eradicate and can eventuallyresultinplantdeath.Therefore,itisrecommended that seedlings infected with nematodes never be planted (theyshouldbedestroyed).Avoidplantingnoniwhereit doesnotgrownaturally,andavoidfieldswhereothercrops have been planted. Rocky soils are best for noni cultivation.Properuseofirrigation,fertilizer,andcompostscan help minimize damage caused by root-knot nematodes (formoreinformation,see"theNoniWebsite"listedunder "Internet"below).

Pathogensandbioticdiseases In damp, high-rainfall or flooded areas, noni is prone to certain plant diseases caused by fungi or fungus-like organisms: leaf spots (Colletotrichum sp. and others) and stem, leaf, and fruit blights (Phytophthora sp. and Sclerotium rolfsii).Thefungalleafspotdiseasesarerelativelyminorbutcanbeanuisanceinsomelocations.Theycanbe minimizedbysanitation(pickinguporremovingseverely diseased leaves) or by periodic application of approved fungicides. Some foliar diseases caused by fungi (fungal leafspots,or"blackflagdisease"causedbythefungus-like Phytophthora) may significantly inhibit leaf growth and fruitdevelopment.

Insectpests Noni is susceptible to attack and damage by a range of insects,suchasaphids(e.g.,themelonaphid,Aphis gosypii), scales(e.g.,thegreenscale,Coccus viridis),weevils(unidentifiedspecies),leafminers(unidentifiedspecies),whiteflies (e.g., the Kirkaldy whitefly, Dialuerodes kirkaldyi), caterpillars(e.g.,crotoncaterpillar,Achaea janata),thrips(e.g.,

Nutritionaldeficienciesandabioticdiseases Noni can display a wide range of abnormal foliar symptoms due to deficiencies in fertility elements (e.g., nitrogen,iron,andphosphorous).Deficienciesinironorother minor elements are expressed as interveinal chlorosis or scorching of leaf margins. Deficiencies in phosphorous are expressed as leaf curling, purpling, and marginal ne-

Morinda citrifolia(noni)

crosis. Symptom development and expression fornutrientdeficienciesonnonidependonthe setting (natural vs. agricultural), overall plant stress factors (water, disease, root health, and fertilizerpractices)andoveralldemandfornutritionand/orproduction(lowtohigh).

Parasiticweeds Noniissusceptibletoinfectionbysomecoastline parasitic seed plants, including dodder (Cuscutaspp.)andCassytha filiformis.

Host to crop pests/pathogens

Severalsignificantpestsandpathogensofgeneral agricultural concern are also problematic for noni (e.g., ants, sap-feeding insects, and root-knot nematodes). These pests have wide hostrangesandmayinitiateorcausesignificant damage to some crops (e.g., vegetables). Be- Noni growing under coconuts in phoehoe lava flow at 10 m (33 ft) elevacause noni attracts ants, some sap-feeding in- tion at Pu`uhonua o Hnaunau, island of Hawai`i. photo:C.elevitCh sectssuchasaphidsmaybeaconcernforcertainvegetableintercroppingdesignswithnoni. plant species throughout the Pacific. Noni itself is not Farm management plans should take into consideration managedforwoodproduction. thecommonpestsanddiseasesthatmayattackthecomNativeanimal/birdfood ponentsofaninterplantedsystem.Issuesregardingpesticide spray drift and potential contamination of products Ripefruitsareanaturalsourceoffoodforbirds,rodents, andphytotoxicitymustalsobeconsidered. andinsects.

AGrOfOreSTrY/enVIrOnMenTAL PrACTICeS

Mulch/organicmatter Althoughnoniregrowswellafterpruning,noniplantsare generallyarenotmanagedformulchproductioninagroforestrysituations. Homegardens Itiswellsuitedforhomegardens;asingleplantissufficient tomeettheneedsofoneormorefamilies. Boundarymarkers Nonicanbeusedforboundarymarkersduetoitspersistenceandabilitytosurviveharshconditionsandextended periodsofdrought. Animalfodder The fruits and leaves are useful as animal feed or fodder (petsandlivestock). Woodlot Noni is very compatible with lowland forest or woodlot

Beeforage Theflowernectariesareveryattractivetohoneybees. Coastalprotection Noniistenaciousenoughhelptostabilizelandsinharshor unstablecoastalenvironments. Ornamental Although the naturalized M. citrifolia (the wild and cultivatednonitypes)isconsideredbymanytobeabeautiful plantwithshinygreenfoliage,some objecttoitsuse asanornamentalplantduetothestrongandsometimes offensive odor of ripened fruits and because the fallen fruits attract many flies and other insects.The cultivated M. citrifolia variety `Potteri' is a beautiful and functional ornamental plant with small fruits and green and white variegatedleaves.

USeS AnD PrODUCTS

Fruit Usedinlocalmedicines(juice,poultice)andasafamine food (e.g., by Hawaiians, Australian aborigines). Unripe

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org)

fruitsarecookedincurriesandripefruitsareconsumed rawwithsalt(e.g.,Burma).Fruitiscookedandmixedwith coconutandeatenasstimulantonlongseavoyages(e.g., Nauru).

Leafvegetable Very young leaves are cooked as vegetables and eaten withriceinJavaandThailand;matureleavesarewrapped aroundfishbeforecookingandtheneatenwiththecooked fish.Theterminalbudisusedasfood(e.g.,Kiribati). Beverage/drink/tea Driedleavesorfruitsareusedtomakeinfusionsandteas formedicinaluse. Medicinal Leaves,fruits,stems,androotsareusedinvariousmedicinal preparations, healing protocols, and treatment methodsthroughoutthePacificregion.

amashoftheripefruit);bodyorintestinalworms(whole fresh fruits); laxative (seeds); fever (leaf poultice); cuts andwounds,abscesses,mouthandguminfections,toothaches(fruit);sties(flowersorvaporfrombrokenleaves); stomachache,fractures,diabetes,lossofappetite,urinary tract ailments, abdominal swelling, hernias, stings from stonefish, and human vitamin A deficiency (leaves).The leavesarealsousedasamedicinalpoulticeorbodywrap (e.g., Micronesia). The terminal bud has medicinal uses (e.g.,NorthernMarianas).

Medicinal uses (traditional) Treatment for malaria, generalfebrifuge,andanalgesic(leaftea);laxative(allpartsof theplant);jaundice(decoctionsofstembark);hypertension (extractofleaves,fruit,orbark);boilsandcarbuncles(fruit poultice); stomach ulcers (oils from the fruit); scalp insecticide (seed oil); tuberculosis, sprains, deep bruising, rheumatism(leaforfruitpoultices);sorethroat(gargling

Medicinalusesorpurportedapplications(contemporary, worldwide) Purportedvalueofnonifortreatmentofailments including attention deficit disorder, addictions, allergies, arthritis, asthma, brain problems, burns, cancer, cardiovasculardisease,chemicalsensitivity,chronicfatigue, diabetes, digestive problems, endometriosis, fibromyalgia, gout, hypertension, immune deficiency, infection, inflammation,jetlag,multiplesclerosis,muscleandjoint pain,polio,rheumatism,severedfingers,sinus,andveterinarymedicinehaveyettobevalidated.

Flavoring/spice Theleavesareusedtowrapfishorothermeatsandfoods duringcooking. Masticant/stimulant Fruits are believed to be as an appetite and brain stimulant. Timber The wood can be used in light construction, canoe parts andpaddles,axeandadzehandles,anddiggingsticks. Fuelwood Thetrunkisusedforfirewood(e.g.,inKiribati). Craftwood Rootsareusedforcarving(e.g.,Niue). Wrapping/parcelization The leaves are used to wrap and flavor food for cooking (e.g.,CookIslands). Dye Thebarkcontainsaredpigmentandtherootscontaina yellowpigment,bothusedinmakingdyes.Dyesfromnoni weretraditionallyandarestillusedtocolorclothingand fabrics. Foodforanimals Leavesareusedforlivestockfodder(e.g.,Niue,India)and

Ripe noni fruit. photo:S.C.NelSoN

10 Morinda citrifolia(noni)

tofeedsilkworms(e.g.,India).Thefruitisusedaspigfood (e.g.,PuertoRico).

Products commonly used in a Pacific island household

Repellent Afetidoilobtainedfromseedsisusedasscalpinsecticide orinsectrepellent(e.g.,Hawai`i). Ceremonial/religiousimportance Traditionallyusedasa"ghostmedicine,"basedonthereligious belief that ghosts are repelled by the odor of the fruitorplant.

Noni leaves and fruits are commonly used for medicine inPacificislandhouseholds.Oneortwomaturetreescan easilysupplytheneedsofafamily.

UrbAn AnD COMMUnITY fOreSTrY

Noniisanattractiveshrubwhichisgenerallywellsuited forhomegardensandlandscapes,butonlywheretheodoriferous,fallenfruitsdonotcreateanuisance.Thetreeproducesfreshfruitsyear-round,sofruitsarealwaysavailable. Itthrivesinwasteareasandisaveryhardyroadsideplant throughout the Pacific. The plant is easy to care for, respondswelltoseverepruning,anddoesnotrequiremuch fertilizerorwater. Thesizeofanonitreeinanurbanenvironmentdepends uponsoilqualitiesandspacing.Plantsgrowinginfullsun andwithoutcompetitioncanreachaheightofabout6m (20 ft) or more with a canopy spread of 2.4­3.6 m (8­12 ft)diameter.Crowdedorshadednoniplantstendbeless vigorousandbecomestunted. Young noni plants grow relatively slowly in a landscape, about30­60cm(1­2ft)peryearinheight,dependingon environment. Upon reaching maturity, noni plants grow muchmoreslowlyinheight,becomingmostlymoredense within the canopy. Plants derived from cuttings tend to becomeestablishedmorerapidlythanplantsderivedfrom seeds,butalsotendtoremainmoreprostrateanddonot growastallasseedlings.

Noniiscommonlyfoundgrowinginfullsunalongsunny roadsides,attheedgesofclearings,orinopenfieldssuch asthe`a`andphoehoelavafieldsoftheislandofHawai`i. However, the plant grows very well in full sun to about 80%shade.

Light requirements

Water/soil requirements

Nonihasnospecialorunusualwaterorsoilrequirements. Ittoleratesawiderangeofsoilconditionsincludingacidic toalkaline,saturatedtodry,andwelldrainedtocompacted soils.

Size in an urban environment

Anoniplant,withoutsignificantpestordiseaseattackor other stresses, may be expected to live for at least 40­50 yearsinalandscape,probablylonger.

Life span

Varieties favored for use in homegardens or public areas

Rate of growth in a landscape

Thevariegatednoni,M. citrifolia cultivar`Potteri',isapopular landscaping type of noni due to its beautiful leaves. Variegated noni is also used medicinally, although fruit yieldstendtobelowerandfruitsaresmallerthanregular Hawaiiannoni.Otherwise,seedlingsgrownfromseedcollectedfromtreeswithdesirablequalities(e.g.,largefruit) canbeplanted. Noni fruit production varies somewhat with the seasons inthePacific,withmorefruitbeingproducedinsummer than in winter. However, noni produces new leaves and fruitsallyearlongwhereveritisgrown. The variegated noni has exceptional ornamental value duetoitsunusualleafcoloringandrelativerarityinthe landscape. Noni plants have exceptional value for being salt-tolerantandabletogrowinrockyareasoronoldlava flows. Noniplantscanhaveaverydensecanopyandbeveryusefulashedgeplantsorlivingfences.Theplantscanthrive

Seasonality of leaf flush, flowering, fruiting

Root system

Exceptional ornamental values

Nonihasadeeptaprootandanextensivesurface-feeding rootsystem.Thetreemaynotcompetewellinalandscape withplantsthathaveaggressive,surface-feedingroots,such asgrasses.Noniisnotconsideredtohaveaninvasiveroot system,althoughonceanoniplantisestablishedinalandscapeitisverydifficulttokill.Volunteerplantsgrowingin cracksincementorasphaltorotherundesirablelocations shouldbeuprootedasearlyaspossible.

Use as living fence, hedge or visual/noise barrier

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org) 11

whereotherplantshavedifficultygrowing.Nonicanwithstandheavypruningalthoughmorefrequent,lightpruningcanbeusedtoensureadequatefoliagealwaysremains toservehedgefunctions.

Birds/wildlife

Noniflowersattracthoneybees.Fallennonifruitsmayattractratsandpigs.

Noni is a low-maintenance landscape plant. It responds welltomulchingaslongasthemulchiskeptawayfrom directcontactwithstem.Nonicanbeprunedorthinnedto virtuallyanyextentwithoutdamagingtheplant."Stumped" plantsmaygrowbackevenbushierthanbefore.Plantsrequireverylittlefertilizer,butdorespondwelltoperiodic applications of organic or inorganic, balanced fertilizers. Extra phosphorous may be applied to simulate floweringandfruitproduction.Typicalbalancedfertilizersused include13-13-13and16-16-16.Tostimulatefloweringand fruit production use 10-20-10 if a soil test indicates that phosphorouslevelsarelow.Ifnonileavesareturningyellow,theycouldbefertilizedwithabout225­450g(0.5­1lb) of fertilizer per plant, depending on age.The plants also respondverywelltofoliarfertilizers.Becausenoniplants aresalt-tolerant,itisveryunusualfortheirrootsystemsto beburnedbyexcessfertilizer.

Maintenance requirements

Insect pest and plant disease problems of noni are usuallylesscommonandsevereinmixedplantingsinurban environments.Thetypesofproblemsencountereddepend ontheenvironmentinwhichnoniisgrown.Inwetterlocations, for example, fungal leaf spots and blights might occur. In drier locations, insect infestations may become established.The most common pest problem for noni in theurbanlandscapeisperhapsroot-knotnematodes,the smallplant-parasiticroundwormsthatcauseconspicuous gallsandswellingsonrootsthatseverelyweakentheplant. Root-knot nematodes are best controlled by avoiding them, i.e., by starting with nematode-free seedlings and byplantingtheseedlingsinanematode-freelocation.If nematodesarepresent,theireffectscanbeminimizedby addingcompostaroundplantsorotherformsoforganic matertothesoilandbytheuseoffoliarfertilizers.Noni plants in the urban landscape may also become infested with ants and sap-feeding insects such as scales, aphids, whiteflies,andmealybugs.Thesesap-feedinginsectsmay becontrolledwithregularspraysofsoapywateroramixtureofsoap,water,andvegetableoil.

Common pest problems

COMMerCIAL PrODUCTS

Theprimarycommercialproductsfromnoniincludebeverages(fruitjuice,juicedrinks),fruitpowders(formanufactureofreconstitutedjuiceorjuicedrinkproductsmade fromdriedripeorunripefruits),toiletries(lotions,soaps, etc.),oil(fromseeds),andleafpowders(forencapsulation orpills). Althoughchoiceofsoiltypeisnotacriticalconsideration, areas that do not support natural populations of noni shouldbeavoidedforcommercialplantations. Spacing of 4­5 m (13­16 ft) within and between rows is common. Year1:Landclearingandpreparation;weedcontrol;plant establishment. Year2:Promotevegetativegrowthofseedlings. Year3andthereafter:Promotefloweringandfruiting. Annualfruityieldvariesamongnonivarietiesorgenotypes anddependsupontheenvironment(soil,water)andcul-

Fruit drop occurs year round. Dropping fruits are not considered to be a hazard to humans or animals during normalconditionsorduringstorms.Peoplecouldslipon ripe fruits along footpaths and sidewalks. Noni trees do nottoppleeasilyduringfoulweather,althoughbranches canbreak,especiallywhenheavywithfruit.Climbingnoni trees should only be done with caution, as branches can suddenlycrackoff. The fruits have a strong, unpleasant aroma which is considered by some to be a nuisance.The foul odor of noni fruitsisconsideredbymanytobeasignificantdetriment tousingnoniinalandscape.

Special considerations regarding leaf, branch, and fruit drop

Site selection

Spacing

Nuisance issues

Management objectives

Hazards

Noni plants are not toxic to humans or animals, nor are thereanyspines,thorns,etc.,ontheplant.

Yields

1 Morinda citrifolia(noni)

tivationsystemand/orecosystem.Yearlyyield maybeonlyafewpoundsperyearfortall,spindly plants growing under heavy forest shade. Annualyieldsofuptoapproximately80,000kg/ ha(71,000lb/ac)ormoremayberealizedwith large-fruitedgenotypesgrowninmonoculture (about716plants/ha[290plants/ac])infullsun with heavy fertilization. Yields depend upon many factors, including soil fertility, environment,genotype,andplantingdensity.

Processing required

Fermentedfruitjuice Ripe fruits are washed and sometimes pulped beforetheyareplacedintolargefermentation containers,sometimeswithaddedwater.With time, the juice separates naturally from the fruitpulp,andfermentsnaturallyviaabacterial Newly planted commercial field. photo:S.C.NelSoN (acidification)process.Thepreferredminimum processing (fermentation) time for fermented juiceproductsis60days;thereafterthejuiceis drainedfromthefermentationvesselandbottled. Fermented juice (when uncontaminated and with low pH, e.g., approximately 3.5­4.0) will store well at room temperature without pasteurization.The juice is bottled in glass or plasticcontainers. Fresh-squeezedfruitjuice The juice is pressed directly from ripe fruits usingamechanicaldeviceandbottleddirectly intoglassorplasticcontainersandnotallowed to ferment. These products are either pasteurizedorrefrigeratedtopreservetheirintegrity. Re-constitutedfruitjuiceandfruitjuice drinks Theseproductsaremadefromdehydratedfruits (greenorripe).

Ripe fruit ready for processing (left) and noni juice product (right).photoS:

S.C.NelSoN

Fruitjuicedrinks Rawjuiceismixedinvariousproportionswithothercompatibleliquids(e.g.,otherfruitjuices,coconutmilk,etc.). Fruitjuiceconcentrates Fermentedjuiceissubjectedtoflashevaporationorother evaporation technology to produce concentrated juice (a percentageofwaterisremoved).Theconcentratemaybe usedtoproducearangeofjuiceproductsorcosmetics.

Fruitpowders Fruits (whole or seedless, green or ripe) are dried and crushedintopowdersandsoldwholesaletodrinkortablet/capsulemanufacturers. Fruitleather Anotherproductisnonifruitleather,whichisathinsheet ofdehydratedfruitpulp.

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org) 1

Oil Oilisderivedfrompressedseeds. Leafpowders Driedleavesarecrushedintopowdersandusedtoproduce arangeofproductsforinternalconsumptionorcosmetic use.

The market for products is worldwide, with the largest markets in North America, Mexico, Asia, and Australia. Theworldwidemarketfornoniproductswasanestimated US$400millionin2002.

Example system 2

Location NorthernMarianas Description Traditional,low-yield/sustainablesystem. Othercrops/yields/services Coconut,banana,pasture. Spacing Random/natural.

Markets

InTerPLAnTInG/fArM APPLICATIOnS

The benefits of interplanting may include fewer disease andpestproblems.However,negativeplantpestanddiseaseinteractionsarealsopossiblewithsomeinterplanting systems. Someinterplantingsystemsinclude · traditional subsistence farming intercropping with breadfruit, kava, papaya, mango, coconut, cordage plants, banana, timber species, coastal shrubs, and grasses modern commercial intercropping with papaya and coconut.

Example system 3

Location

Hawai`i.

Description Newlydeveloped,moderate-highyields(experimental). Othercrops/yields/services Interplantedwithpapaya. Spacing The spacing is 4­5 m (13­16 ft) between plants within rows.

·

Nonicanalsothriveinforestunderstorysettingsandcan benefit from the composting organic matter and mulch providedbyassociatedplantspecies(benefitsincludenutrition,weedsuppression,soilstructure,andsoilmoisture retention).

PUbLIC ASSISTAnCe AnD AGrOfOreSTrY eXTenSIOn

TheCooperativeExtensionService(CES)oftheUniversityofHawai`icanassistlandownerswithquestionsrelatingtononi. UniversityofHawai`iatMnoa CollegeofTropicalAgricultureandHumanResources CooperativeExtensionService KomohanaAgriculturalComplex 875KomohanaSt.,Hilo,HI96720 Tel:808-959-9155;Fax:808-959-3101 Web:<http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu>

Example system 1

Location FederatedStatesofMicronesia(e.g.,Pohnpei). Description Traditional,low-yield,sustainablesystem. Othercrops/yields/services Othercropsinthesystemincludebanana,coconut,papaya, breadfruit, betel nut, citrus, kava, yam, taro, sweetpotato, andcassava. Spacing Random/natural.

Extension offices for agroforestry and forestry in the Pacific:<http://www.traditionaltree.org/extension.html>.

InTerneT

"The Noni Website" (University of Hawai`i at Mnoa) bytheauthorisfullofpracticalinformationaboutnoni: <http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/noni/>.

1 Morinda citrifolia(noni)

"SortingMorindanames"maintainedbytheUniversityof Melbournepresentsawiderangeofnoninamesandreferences: <http://gmr.landfood.unimelb.edu.au/Plantnames/ Sorting/Morinda.html>.

bIbLIOGrAPHY

(indicatesrecommendedreading)

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Dittmar,A.1993.Morinda citrifoliaL:UseinindigenousSamoan medicine. Journal of Herbs and MedicinalPlants Vol.1(3). Dixon,A.R.,H.McMillen,andN.L.Etkin.1999.Ferment this:thetransformationofnoni,atraditionalPolynesian medicine(Morinda citrifolia,Rubiaceae).EconomicBotany53:51­68. Dodd, E. 1990.The Island World of Polynesia. Windmill HillPress,Putney,Vermont. Elkins,R.1997.HawaiianNoni(Morinda citrifolia).WoodlandPublishing. Elkins, R. 2002.The Noni Revolution:TheTropical WonderThatCanFightDisease,BoostEnergyandRevitalize YourHealth.WoodlandPublishingCo,Utah. Emerson, N.B. 1965. Unwritten Literature of Hawaii. CharlesE.TuttleCo.,Inc. Fackelman, K. 1997. Diverse strategies to vanquish cancer. ScienceNews151(18):274­275. Fairechild, D. 1999. Noni and `Awa: Hawai`i Agriculture's Newest Hope. Spirit of Aloha (Aloha Airlines in-flight magazine). Fairechild,D.2001.Noni:AspirinoftheAncients.Flyana Rhyme,Anahola,Hawai`i. Fong,S.T.,A.Johnson,C-T.Ho,K.Csiszar.2001.Extractsof Morinda citrifolia (noni) exhibit selective anti-tumor activityagainstbreastandcoloncarcinomacelllines.Poster presented at: Building Bridges with Traditional KnowledgeSummit,May30,2001,Honolulu. Fornander,A.1967.CollectionofHawaiianAntiquitiesand Folklore,1916­20.BishopMuseumPress,Honolulu. Fornander, A. 1969. An Account of the Polynesian Race. CharlesE.TuttleCo.,Inc,Boston. Francis, J.K. No date. Noni, Morinda citrifolia L. Rubiaceae.USDAForestService,InternationalInstituteof TropicalForestry,RioPiedras,PuertoRico.<http://www. fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Morinda%20citrifolia. pdf>. Gibbons,E.1967.Beachcomber'sHandbook.DavidMcKay Co.,Inc.,NewYork. Guppy,H.B.1917.Plants,SeedsandCurrentsintheWest IndiesandAzores.WilliamsandNorgate,London. Gutmanis, J. 1994. Kahuna L`au Lapa`au:The Practice of Hawaiian Herbal Medicine. Island Heritage Publishing, HongKong. Handy,E.S.C.1985.TheHawaiianPlanter:HisPlants,MethodsandAreasofCultivation.BerniceP.BishopMuseum, Honolulu. Handy, E.S.C., and E.G. Handy. 1972. Native Planters in Old Hawaii: Their Life, Lore, & Environment. Bishop MuseumPress,Honolulu. Handy,E.S.C.,andM.K.Pukui.1958.ThePolynesianFamily SysteminKa`,Hawai`i.CharlesE.TuttleCo.,Boston.

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Handy, E.S.C., M.K. Pukui, and K. Livermore. 1934. OutlineofHawaiianPhysicalTherapeutics.BishopMuseum Press,Honolulu. Hargreaves,D.,andB.Hargreaves.1964.TropicalTreesof Hawai`i.HargreavesCo.,Inc. Heinicke,R.M.1985.Thepharmacologicallyactiveingredient of noni. PacificTropical Botanical Garden Bulletin 15:10­14. Henderson,C.P.,andI.R.Hancock.1989.AGuidetothe Useful Plants of Solomon Islands. Ministry of AgricultureandLands,SolomonIslands. Hiramatsu,T.,M.Imoto,T.Koyano,andK.Umezawa.1993. Inductionofnormalphenotypesinras-transformedcells bydamnacanthalfromMorinda citrifolia;CancerLetters 73(2­3):161­166. Hirazumi, A., and E. Furusawa. 1999. An immunomodulatorypolysaccharide-richsubstancefromthefruitjuice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) with anti-tumor activity. PhytotherapyResearch13:380­387. Hirazumi, A., E. Furusawa, S.C. Chou, and Y. Hokama. 1994. Anticancer activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni) on intraperitoneallyimplantedLewislungcarcinomainsyngenic mice. Proceedings of theWestern Pharmaceutical Society37:145­146. Hirazumi, A., E. Furusawa, S.C. Chou, and Y. Hokama. 1996.Immunomodulationcontributestoanti-canceractivityofMorinda citrifolia(noni)fruitjuice.Proceedingsof theWesternPharmaceuticalSociety39:7­9. Hirazumi,A.Y.1997.AntitumorstudiesofatraditionalHawaiianmedicinalplant,Morindacitrifolia(noni),invitro andinvivo.Doctoraldissertation.UniversityofHawai`i, Honolulu. Holmes,T. 1981.The Hawaiian Canoe. Editions Ltd., Honolulu. Issell,B.2001.TheNoniStudy.CancerResearchCenterof Hawai`i,ClinicalStudies,Honolulu.<http://www.hawaii. edu/crch/CenStudyNoni.htm>. Jansen, A.A.J., S. Parkinson, and A.F.S. Robertson (eds.). 1990. Food and Nutrition in Fiji: An Historical Review. Vol.1,FoodProduction,CompositionandIntake.UniversityoftheSouthPacific,Suva,Fiji. Johansson,J.T.1994.ThegenusMorinda(Morindae,Rubiodeae,Rubiaceae)inNewCaledonia:taxonomyandphylogeny.OperaBotanica122:1­67. Ka`ai`akamanu,D.K.,andJ.K.Akina.1973.HawaiianHerbs ofMedicinalValue.CharlesE.Tuttle,Co.,Boston. Kahiolo,G.W.1978.HeMo`oleloNoKamapua`a:TheStory ofKamapua`a.TranslatedbyT.Mookini,E.C.Neizmen, and D. Tom. Hawaiian Studies Program, University of Hawai`i,Honolulu. Kaltsas,H.2001.Noni:fromlegendtopromisingnutraceutical.AlternativeMedicineJournal,January.

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16 Morinda citrifolia(noni)

McClatchey,W.2002.FromPolynesianhealerstohealth food stores: changing perspectives of Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae).IntegrativeCancerTherapies1(2):110­120. McCormack, G. 1998. Noni--A Miracle Medicine? Cook IslandsNaturalHeritageProject. Merlin, M., A. Capelle,T. Keene, J. Juvik, and J. Maragos. 1994. Plants and Environments of the Marshall Islands. East-WestCenter,Honolulu. Merrill,D.E.1943.EmergencyFoodPlantsandPoisonous PlantsoftheIslandsofthePacific.WarDepartmentTechnicalManualTM10-420.USGPO,Washington,DC. Morton,J.1992.Theocean-goingnoni,orIndianmulberry (Morinda citrifolia, Rubiaceae) and some of its"colorful" relatives.EconomicBotany46:241­256. Mueller,B.A.,M.K.Scott,K.M.Sowinski,andK.A.Prag. 2000. Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia): hidden potential forhyperkalemia?AmericanJournalofKidneyDiseases 35(2):330­332. NarayananB.A.,O.Geoffrey,M.C.Willingham,G.G.Re, andD.W.Nixon.1999.CancerLetters136:215­221. Navarre, I. 2001. 76 Ways to Use Noni Fruit Juice. Direct Source. Neal, M. 1965. In Gardens of Hawai`i. Bishop Museum Press,Honolulu. Nelson, S.C. 2001. Noni cultivation in Hawai`i. PD­19. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai`i, Honolulu. <http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/noni/>. Nelson,S.C.(ed.).2003.Proceedingsofthe2002Hawaii Noni Conference. CTAHR­Cooperative Extension ServiceProceedingsP­1/03.CollegeofTropicalAgriculture andHumanResources,UniversityofHawai`i,Honolulu. <http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/noni/>. Nelson,S.C.,andC.R.Elevitch.2006(inpress).Noni: The Complete Guide for Consumers and Growers. PermanentAgricultureResources,Holualoa,Hawai`i.<http:// www.nonithecompleteguide.com>. O'Rourke-George, L. 1989. An Ethnobotanical Study of TraditionalMedicineinTonga(Master'sthesis).Brigham YoungUniversity,Provo,Utah. Palmer,R.M.J.1987.MauiOrganicGrowingGuide.Oasis Maui,Inc. Pukui, M.K. 1983.`lelo No`eau--Hawaiian Proverbs and PoeticalSayings.BishopMuseumPress,Honolulu. Pukui, M.K., and S.H. Elbert. 1986. Hawaiian Dictionary. UniversityofHawai`iPress,Honolulu. Pukui,M.K.,E.W.Hoirtig,andC.A.Lee.1979.NanaIKe Kumu--LookToTheSource,Vol.IandII.QueenLiliuokalaniChildren'sCenter,Honolulu. Pukui, M.K., S.H. Elbert, and E.T. Mookini. 1976. Place NamesofHawaii.UniversityofHawai`iPress,Honolulu.

Singh,Y.,T.Ikahihifo,M.Panuve,andC.Slatter.1984.Folk medicineinTonga:astudyontheuseofherbalmedicines forobstetricandgynecologicalconditionsanddisorders. JournalofEthnopharmacology12:305­325. Solomon,N.1998.LiquidIslandNoni(Morinda citrifolia). WoodlandPublishingCo.,Utah. Solomon,N.1998.Noni:Nature'sAmazingHealer.WoodlandPublishingCo.,Utah. Solomon, N. 1999.The Noni Phenomenon. Direct Source, Vinyard,Utah. Solomon,N.2000.TahitianNoniJuice:HowMuch,How Often,ForWhat.DirectSource,Vinyard,Utah. Stevens, R.L. 1981. Organic Gardening in Hawai`i. PetroglyphPress,Hilo,Hawai`i. Sugiura,K.,andC.C.Stock.1955.Studiesinatumorspectrum.III.Theeffectofphosphoramidesonthegrowthof a variety of mouse and rat tumors. Cancer Research 15: 38­51. Sylvester,E.J.1986.TargetCancer.CharlesScribner'sSons, NewYork. Tabrah, F.L., and B.M. Eveleth. 1966. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Ancient Hawaiian Medicine. Hawaii MedicalJournal25:223­230. TenBruggencate,J.1992.Nativeplantscanhealyourwounds. HonoluluSundayStarBulletinandAdvertiser,Feb.9. Valentine,N.1999.APreliminaryReportonNon-timber ForestProductsinSomePacificIslandCountries(witha CaseStudyonMorinda citrifolia).RAS/97/330,Working Paper6.SPC/UNDP/AusAID/FAOPacificIslandsForestsandTreesSupportProgramme,Suva,Fiji. Wagner, W.L., D.H. Herbst, and S.H. Sohmer. 1999. ManualoftheFloweringPlantsofHawai`i,rev.ed.UniversityofHawai`iPress,Honolulu. Wang,M.,H.Kikuzaki,K.Csiszar,C.D.Boyd,A.Maunakea,S.F.Fong,G.Ghai,R.T.Rosen,N.Nakatani,andC.T. Ho. 1999. Novel trisaccharide fatty acid ester identified from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). Journal of AgriculturalFoodChemistry47:4880­4882. Wang, M., H. Kikuzaki, Y. Jin, N. Nakatani, N. Zhu, K. Csiszar,C.D.Boyd,R.T.,Rosen,G.Ghai,andC.T.Ho. 2000. Novel glycosides from noni (Morinda citrifolia). JournalofNaturalProducts63:1182­1183. Wee, Y.C. 1992. A Guide to Medicinal Plants. Singapore ScienceCentre. Whistler,W.A.1980.CoastalFlowersoftheTropicalPacific. PacificTropicalBotanicalGarden,Honolulu. Whistler,W.A.1991.Polynesianplantintroductions.In:Cox, P.A.,andS.A.Banack.(eds.).Islands,Plants,andPolynesians.DioscoridesPress,Portland,Oregon. Whistler,W.A.1992.PolynesianHerbalMedicine.National TropicalBotanicalGarden,Lwa`i,Hawai`i. Whistler,W.A.1992.PolynesianHerbalMedicine.National TropicalBotanicalGarden,Lwa`i,Hawai`i.

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Whistler,W.A.1992.TonganHerbalMedicine.IsleBotanica, Honolulu. Whistler,W.A.1996.WaysidePlantsoftheIslands:AGuide totheLowlandFloraofthePacificIslands.TheUniversityofHawai`iPress,Honolulu. Williams,J.S.1997.FromtheMountainstotheSea:AHawaiianLifestyle.KamehamehaSchoolsPress,Honolulu.

Younos, C., A. Rolland, J. Fleurentin, M.C. Lanhers, R. Misslin,F.Mortier.1990.Analgesicandbehavioraleffects ofMorinda citrifolia.PlantaMedica56(5):430­434. Zenk,M.H.,H.el-Shagi,andU.Schulte.1975.Anthraquinone production by cell suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia.PlantaMedicaSupplement79­101. Zepernick,B.1972.ArneipflanzenderPolynesier.Verlagvon DietrichReiner,Berlin,Germany.

1 Morinda citrifolia(noni)

Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www.traditionaltree.org)

Author:ScotC.Nelson,UniversityofHawai`iatMnoa,CollegeofTropicalAgricultureandHumanResources(CTAHR),Department of Plant & Environmental Protection Sciences (PEPS), Cooperative Extension Service, 875 Komohana St., Hilo, Hawaii 96720,USA;<http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/noni/>. Acknowledgments:TheauthorandpublisherthankRobinDeMeo,DaleEvans,EileenHerring,KentLighter,MichaelRobotham, ArtWhistler,andKimWilkinsonfortheirinput.Theauthoracknowledgesthegeneroussupportfromacademiccolleaguesand farmersinHawai`iandthroughoutthePacific. Recommended citation:Nelson,S.C.2006.Morinda citrifolia(noni),ver.4.In:Elevitch,C.R.(ed.).SpeciesProfilesforPacificIsland Agroforestry.PermanentAgricultureResources(PAR),Hlualoa,Hawai`i.<http://www.traditionaltree.org>. Sponsors:PublicationwasmadepossiblebygeneroussupportoftheUnitedStatesDepartmentofAgricultureWesternRegionSustainableAgricultureResearchandEducation(USDA-WSARE)Program;SPC/GTZPacific-GermanRegionalForestryProject; USDANaturalResourcesConservationService(USDANRCS);Kaulunani,anUrbanForestryProgramoftheDLNRDivision ofForestryandWildlifeandtheUSDAForestService;StateofHawai`iDepartmentofLand&NaturalResourcesDivisionof Forestry&Wildlife;USDAForestServiceForestLandsEnhancementProgram;andMurielandKentLighter.Thismaterialis baseduponworksupportedbytheCooperativeStateResearch,Education,andExtensionService,U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture, andAgriculturalExperimentStation,UtahStateUniversity,underCooperativeAgreement2002-47001-01327. Series editor:CraigR.Elevitch Publisher:PermanentAgricultureResources(PAR),POBox428,Hlualoa,Hawai`i96725,USA;Tel:808-324-4427;Fax:808-3244129;E-mail:[email protected];<http://www.agroforestry.net>.Thisinstitutionisanequalopportunityprovider. Reproduction:Copiesofthispublicationcanbedownloadedfrom<http://www.traditionaltree.org>.Thispublicationmaybereproducedfornoncommercialeducationalpurposesonly,withcreditgiventothesource.©2006PermanentAgricultureResources.All rightsreserved.

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