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April2006 ver.2.1

Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi (sandalwood)

Santalaceae (sandalwood family)

S. austrocaledonicum: sandalwud (Vanuatu: Bislama) S. yasi: ahi (Tonga); yasi (Fiji); asi manogi (Samoa)

Lex A. J. Thomson

photo:L.thomson

In brIef

Distribution S. austrocaledonicum: New CaledoniaandVanuatu;S. yasi:Fiji,Niue,and Tonga.

Habitat Variesbyspecies,typicallysubhumid or humid tropics with distinct dry season of 3­5months. Vegetation At young stages, dry forest and woodland; possibly closed secondary forest whenmatureinnaturalhabitats.

Size Small shrubs or trees, typically 5­12 m (16­40ft)atmaturity.

Growthrate Slowtomoderate,0.3­0.7m/yr (12­28in/yr). Mainagroforestryuses Homegardens,mixedspeciesforestry.

Soils Requireslighttomedium,welldrained soils.

Mainuses Heartwoodforcrafts,essentialoil extraction for cosmetics and perfumery, incense,andreligiousceremonies. Yields Heartwoodin30+years(greaterthan 40kg/tree[88lb/tree]).

Invasive potential Has a capacity for invasivenessindisturbedplaces,butthisisrarely consideredaproblem.

Intercropping Becausesandalwoodishemiparasiticandrequiresoneormorehostplants, intercroppingisnotonlypossible,butnecessary.

Santalum yasi seedling planted in homegarden, Pangaimotu, Vava`u, Tonga, and protected from damage by stakes.

IntroductIon

Pacificsandalwoodspeciesaresmalltreesthatoccurnaturallyinopen,dryforestsandwoodlandcommunities.They aretypicallymulti-stemmedandsomewhatbushy,attainingaheightof5­12m(16­40ft),orupto15m(50ft)for S. austrocaledonicum in New Caledonia, at maturity and spreadingtoaboutthesamewidthastheirheight.Theyare capableofroot-suckering:followingharvesting,clumpsof suckers may regenerate in a circular pattern several metersawayfromtheoriginalstump.Theyareroot-parasitic, which means they have special root extensions that capturenutrientsfromrootsofcertainotherplantsinthesoil. Sandalwoodcannotpersistinmoist,denseforesttypesdue toitspoortoleranceofhighshadelevels.Sandalwoodspeciesgenerallyhaveabroadedaphicrange,usuallywitha preferenceforwelldrainedneutraltoslightlyalkalinesoils. Theygrowmorequicklyinfertilesoilsbutaremoreatrisk ofbeingshadedoutbytaller,fastergrowingtreesonsuch sites.

Sandalwood termS

Hemi-parasitic Describes a plant which photosynthesizesbutwhichderiveswaterandsomenutrients throughattachingtorootsofotherspecies.

Root-grafting This is where roots of different individual plants grow together, forming functional unions and exchanging materials. Sandalwood roots can root-graft onto many other species, effectively joining whole plant communities through their root systems.

Theprimaryadvantagesofsandalwoodsaretheirabilityto produceahigh-value,non-perishableproduct(heartwood) thatcanprovidecashincometopeoplelivinginouterislands and more remote communities. They may also be grown in environmentally sensitive areas, such as water catchment and biodiversity conservation areas, where extractionofafewsmalltreescausesminimumdisturbance whileprovidinggoodeconomicreturns.

Both S. austrocaledonicum and S. yasi have considerable economic potential, but their populations are depleted, and there is a need to promote greater regeneration and sustainably manage remaining populations. Santalum austrocaledonicum is currently being grown in small plantings or managed in natural stands in Vanuatu and NewCaledoniainthesouthwestPacific.Thespeciesgrows at moderate rates and can produce substantial quantities ofthevaluedheartwoodonarotationofabout25­40years. There is a growing interest among villagers, other smallscale entrepreneurs, and government organizations to expand the scale of planting in both countries. Replanting ofS. yasiisonasmallscale,mainlywithinvillagesinareas whereitnaturallyoccurs.ThelargestreplantingofS. yasi hasbeenontheTonganislandof`Eua,whereithasbeen successfullyplantedinassociationwithPinus caribaea.

goodregenerationpotentialandabilitytocolonize/invade nearbysuitablesites.Solongassomematurefruit-bearing treesareretained,birdswillspreadthefruit.Theirinvasive potentialisseldomconsideredadrawbackduetotheexceptionally high value of their heartwood. Furthermore, theirsmallstatureandsusceptibilitytobeingshadedout means they never become dominant and/or substantially modifyorreplaceexistingplantcommunities.

dIStrIbutIon

S. austrocaledonicum Thisspeciesisnaturallyfoundinthe islandarchipelagosofNewCaledoniaandVanuatuinthe southwestPacific.

Nativerange

Var.pilosulumisrestrictedtolowelevationsonthemain island of New Caledonia near Noumea. It also has limitedoccurrenceathighelevationintheKarakaregion(northeastslopeofMt.DobetweenBoulouparis andThio). Var.minutumisrestrictedtothenorthwestsideofthe mainislandofNewCaledonia.

Var.austrocaledonicumiscommonintheLoyaltyIslands andtheIsleofPinesbutisuncommononthemain islandofGrandeTerre.ItisalsopresentintheBelep islands.InVanuatutheprincipaloccurrenceisaround thenorthwest,west,andsouthwestportionsofErromango,andonthewestcoastofEspirituSanto;itis alsofoundonTanna,Aniwa,Futuna,Malakula,Efate, andAneityum.

Sandalwoodsarewellsuitedtointerplanting,anddueto their root-parasitic nature, they need to be grown with othersuitablehosttreespecies.Theymaybeinterplanted with various other species that can provide additional sources of revenue. In Tonga, sandalwood (S. yasi) has beengrownwithothercommercialspeciesincludingpine, casuarina,citrus,andpapermulberry.Sandalwoodshavea

S. yasi Thisspeciesoccursinlowland,drier,andmoreopen foresttypesinFiji,Niue,andTonga.TheNiueanpopulationmaybeanancientorPolynesianintroduction.Thereis onerecordforSamoa(Savai`i),whereitappearstobeintroducedbutnotnaturalized.TherangeextendsfromNiue and`Eua,asouthernislandintheTongangroup,through

Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi(sandalwood)

Left:Santalum austrocaledonicum.photo:L.thomsonRight:Santalum yasiinTonga.photo:C.ELEvitCh

Tongatapu,Ha`apai,andVava`u(Tonga),westandnorthwards,throughtheFijiIslands(Laugroup,Kadavu,Nausori Highlands/Viti Levu, Bua/Vanua Levu) to the Udu Peninsula,NEVanuaLevu,NorthofFiji. S. austrocaledonicum Outsideofitsnativerangethisspecieshaslimitedplanting,mainlyfortrialpurposesinAustralia,Fiji,andtheCookIslands.

Commonnames S. austrocaledonicum sandalwud (Vanuatu:Bislama) S. yasi ahi(Tonga); yasi(Fiji); asimanogi(Samoa) Othercommonnames boisdesantal,santal(French) sándalo(Spanish) sandalwood(English)

S. austrocaledonicum Ashruborasmalltreetypically5­12 m(16­40ft)tallby4­8m(13­26ft)incrownwidth.The maximumtreedimensionis15m(50ft)tallby10m(33ft) crownwidth.Maximumbolediameteratbreastheightis 40­50cm(16­20in). S. yasi Maturetreestypicallygrowto8­10m(26­33ft)tall by8­12m(26­40ft)incrownwidth,maximallyreaching 15m(50ft)tallby13m(43ft)incrownwidth.Maximum bolediameteratbreastheightis40­50cm(16­20in).

Currentdistribution

S. yasi Thisspecieshaslimitedplantingoutsideofitsnaturalrange,mainlyfortrialpurposesinAustralia.Someof itsoccurrences,e.g.,onNiue,maybecomprisedofnaturalizedpopulationsfollowingintroductionbyhumans.

Size

botanIcal deScrIPtIon

Preferredscientificnames Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieillard Santalum yasiSeem. Family Santalaceae(sandalwoodfamily)

Form S. austrocaledonicum and S. yasi Shrubtosmalltreetypically with a short, crooked bole and spreading crown in open situations. In forest and sheltered situations, the

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BarkofS. yasi. photo:L.thomson

bole may be straight for more than half the total height. In older specimens the crown is light, straggly, and with droopingbranches.Thebarkissmoothtorough,slightly longitudinally fissured or reticulated, which can be more pronouncedwithage,(greyishorreddishbrown,mottled withpatchesoflichen). Thesmallflowersareclusteredinterminaloraxillarypaniclesabout4.5cm(1.8in)long.Thebell-shapedflowersopen toabout5mm(0.2in)acrossandhavepartstypicallyin fours.Budsandnewlyopenedflowershavegreenishwhite to cream-colored perianth segments (or tepals), remainingcreamforS. austrocaledonicum,butturninglightpink, through pink to dark red at maturity for S. yasi. Shorter, dark yellow disk lobes alternate with the tepals.The anthers are yellow and red-tinged for S. yasi, yellow for S. austrocaledonicum,andthestyleandstigmasarecream/pale yellow.

Flowering

S. yasi Seedlings have very slender, near-linear, leaves. Leavesaresimple,opposite,narrowtobroadlylanceolate, shiny, and typically 6­7 by 1.5­2 cm (2.4­2.8 by 0.6­0.8 in).Thereisconsiderablevariationinfoliagesize;adjacent plantshavebeenobservedtorangefrom5by1cm(2by 0.4in)to8x2.5cm(3.1x1in).Thefoliageislighttodark green,butplantsgrowingintheopenwithfewhosttrees availablemayhaveayellowish-greenappearance. S. austrocaledonicum Thefruitisasubgloboseorellipsoid, one-seeded drupe (7­20 mm [0.3­0.8 in] long by 10­15 mm[0.4­0.6in]diameter),greenandfirm,ripeningred, andturningpurplishblackandthinlyfleshywhenmature. Fruitshavefourlongitudinalridgesandasquarecalyxscar attheapex.FruitsfromAniwa(Vanuatu)aremuchlarger (20x15mm[0.8x0.6in])thanthosefromtheLoyalty Islands(15x12mm[0.6x0.5in]).Maturefruitshavebeen reportedalmostthroughouttheyear,butthemainfruiting seasonisNovember­January.InNewCaledonia,twofruiting seasons are observed, in December­February (main fruitingseason)andJuly­August(lightfruitingseason).

S. austrocaledonicum The foliage shows wide variation. Leaves are opposite, usually in one plane, decussate on erectnewgrowth,simple,entire,glabrous,darkgreen,and shinyontopanddulllightgreentoglaucousunderneath. Theshapeoftheleafisinitiallylongandthin(5­9by0.5 cm [2­3.5 by 0.2 in]) in seedlings and young plants to about3yearsofage,becomingshorterandbroaderinolder plants.Matureleavesarenarrowlyelliptic,butmaybeovate, lanceolate,orobovate,(3­)4­6(­8)cmby(1­)1.5­2.5(­4.5) cm([1.2­]1.6­2.4[­3.1]inby[0.4­]0.6­1[­1.8]in)with6to 15pairsofbarelyvisiblesecondarynervestaperingequally tothebaseandblunttip.Var.minutumhassmaller,more glaucous,bluish-greenleaves,about2by0.8cm(0.8by0.3 in).

Leaves

Fruit

Undergoodconditionsplantsbeginfruitingfromanearly age,typicallyabout3­4years,butheavyfruitingmaytake 7­10years.Thereisconsiderablevariationinseasonalityof floweringandfruiting.Treesflowerandfruitthroughout theyear,usuallywithtwopeaks.Thetwomainflowering periodsforS. yasiinFijiareOctober­NovemberandFebruary.InthesouthernislandsofTonga(`EuaandTongatapu), themainfloweringperiodis( June­)July­August(­September).FurthernorthintheHa`apaiandVava`ugroups thepeakfloweringperiodisNovember­December.ForS. austrocaledonicum in Vanuatu, flowering occurs in January­April,July,andOctober.InNewCaledonia,flowering occursthroughouttheyear,buttherearefloweringpeaks inFebruaryandOctober,andfloweringisrarelyobserved inJuneandJuly.

S. yasi Thefruitisaone-seeded,ellipsoiddrupe,ca.12mm (0.47 in) long by 11 mm (0.43 in) diameter with a small, roundcalyxscar(about2mm[0.08in]diameter)atthe apex, enclosing a rather stout, cone-shaped point. Immaturefruitsarelightgreen,turningreddish-purple,andfinallydarkpurpleorblackatfullmaturity.Themainfruitingseasoncorrespondstothewetseason,January­March, with light fruiting in the cooler, dry season ( June­August). Fruitsofbothspeciesmatureabout4monthsafterflowering.

Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi(sandalwood)

Topleft:FlowersofSantalum austrocaledonicum.photo:L.thomsonTopright:MaturefruitofSantalum austrocaledonicum. photo: L. thomson Bottomright: MaturefruitandflowersofSantalum yasi. photo: L. thomsonBottomleft:Flowersof Santalum yasi.photo:C.ELEvitCh

Thekernelsconsistofahard(woody),smoothorslightly rough,light-coloredendocarpenclosingasingleseed.

Seeds

S. austrocaledonicum Within var. austrocaledonicum the seeds from the Loyalty Islands are much bigger (2400 perkg[1100seeds/lb])thanthosefromtheIsleofPines (6000perkg[2700seeds/lb]),whilethosefromVanuatu are intermediate (3300­4500 per kg [1500 seeds/lb]). Var. pilosulumhassmallerseeds(8400perkg[3800seeds/lb]). S. yasi The seeds are 9­11 mm by 6­7 mm (0.35­0.43 in by 0.24­0.28 in) with approximately 6000­7000 per kg (2700­3200seeds/lb).

speciesisintheprocessofbecomingnaturalizednearold trialplotsinnorthwestVitiLevu,Fiji,andhasnaturally hybridized with S. yasi where the two species have been planted together. S. album is the most well known and commercially traded sandalwood species, and its oil provides the international standard for sandalwood oil.The species is deeply ingrained in the philosophical, cultural, andreligiousethosofIndianculture,andhasbeenusedfor morethan2500years.

Howtodistinguishfromsimilarspecies

Similar species include S. album (India, Indonesia, and Australia)andS. macgregorii(PapuaNewGuinea).Todate, S. albumhasbeenlittleplantedinthePacificislands(Fiji, Tonga, Cook Islands, Samoa, and New Caledonia). The

Look-a-likespecies

Fruits are very useful for distinguishing related tropical species.InS. albumthematurefruitsaretruncate-globose toellipsoid;theraisedcalyxscarisuptoabout5mmacross, forminganapicalcollarandenclosingtheflatorslightly depresseddiscthatendsinasmallpoint.InS. macgregorii, thefruitisagreen,ovoiddrupe(to8­10mm[0.3­0.4in] long), turning purplish or bluish-black at maturity, and contains ellipsoid or sub-spherical seeds 4­6 mm (0.16­

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Left:FlowersofS. album.photo:C.ELEvitChRight:MaturefruitofSantalum album. photo:L.thomson

0.24in)longby(2­)2.5­4.5(­5)mm([0.08­]0.1­0.18[­0.2] in)wide,withthreetofourridgesatthepointedend.

GenetIcS

Variabilityofspecies

All Santalum species exhibit considerable morphological variation, and numerous traditional varieties are recognized.TherearethreeformallydescribedvarietiesofS. austrocaledonicuminNewCaledonia,aswellastwoheartwood chemotypes inVanuatu. One chemotype produces heartwoodoilsrichinsantalols(-santalol>30­40%and -santalol>15%)whiletheotherchemotypeheartwoodoil is rich in Z-nuciferol (7­25%) and/or Z-lanceol (15­41%), withlowerconcentrationsofsantalols. S. austrocaledonicum var.austrocaledonicumandvar.pilosulum havelargeleaves(about5by2cm[2by0.8in])andlong petioles (6­16 mm [0.24­0.63 in]) and tepals (1.3 x 0.8 mm [0.05 by 0.03 in]). The flowers and new shoots of var. austrocaledonicum are glabrous whereas those of var. pilosulum are villous or hairy. Var. minutum has much smallerleaves(about2by0.8cm[0.8by0.3in])andtepals (1.3by0.4mm[0.05by0.02in]).

mum,onplainsandwithruderalspecies(familiesFabaceae, Asteraceae, and Convolvulaceae).Var. minutum occurs in scrubland, with various shrub species including Cassinia trifoliata, Xanthostemon pubescens, Hibbertia deplancheana. InVanuatuitfrequentlyoccurswithAcacia spirorbis, low shrubs, and Cyperaceae. Other associated plant species include coconut, grasses, bamboos, Cryptocarya turbinata, Hibiscus tiliaceus,Dracontomelon vitiensis,Garuga floribunda, Leucaena leucocephala(introduced),andPterocarpus indicus.

Knownvarieties

S. yasi Yasiismainlyfoundinopenforesttypes(oftenwith agrassyunderstory),includingsecondaryforestsdevelopinginoldgardensites.InTonga,sometreeswerefoundin young dense forest on the islands ofVava`u, establishing themselveswhenthesurroundingtreesweresmallerand the stand had been opened up for cultivation of agriculturecrops.Italsooccursinlowcoastalforestassociations onsmallcorallineislands. InFiji associatedwoodyspecies include Acacia richii, Casuarina equisetifolia, Calophyllum vitiense, Cocos nucifera, Fagraea gracilipes, Storckiella vitensis, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Thespesia populnea, and Dodonea viscosa. AssociatedspeciesinTongaincludeBroussonetia papyrifera, Citrus spp., Diospyros spp., Hernandia nymphaeifolia, Inocarpus fagifer, Morinda citrifolia, Pandanus tectorius, Pometia pinnata,and Rhus taitensis.

aSSocIated Plant SPecIeS

S. austrocaledonicum InNewCaledoniaitmainlyoccurs insecondaryforestsandagriculturalfallowsintheLoyalty Islands.Indryforest(GrandeTerre),itisoftenassociated withAcacia spirorbis,Croton insularis,andArytera collina.It alsosometimesoccurswithgrasses,suchasPanicum maxi

BothspecieshavebeensuccessfullyinterplantedinPinus caribaeaplantationson`Eua,Tonga.Theyareoftenplanted inFijianvillagehomegardenswithornamentalsandcultural species(e.g.,Pandanus tectorius,Polyscias,Croton,Cordyline, and Euodia hortensis)andfruittrees(e.g.,Artocarpus altilis, Citrusspp.,Musaspp.,andPometia pinnata).

Speciescommonlyassociatedinmodernintroductions

Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi(sandalwood)

folk VarIetIeS

InVanuatu,twofolklorevarietiesofS. austrocaledonicum are widely distinguished. These are a "man" variety known variously as pior laman (Penour,Valpei;West Santo), initjinyat atamien (Anelghowhat, Aneityum), and man nipigisi (Port Patrick, Aneityum), and a "woman" variety called pior akae (Penour, Valpei), initjinyatataheig(Anelghowhat),andwomannipigisi (Port Patrick).The man variety is characterized as a tallertree,withlongerbole,longerpointedleaves,producingfewornofruits,whilethewomanvarietyhasa shorter,fatterbole,smallerbranches,amorerounded leaf,andproducesmanymorefruits.Thewomanvarietyproducesgoodheartwoodearly,whereasthemale treeneedstobeprunedtoinducegoodheartwood.

S. yasi 1400­2500mm(55­100in)

Rainfallpattern Allspeciespreferclimateswithsummerrains. Dryseasonduration(consecutivemonthswith<0 mm[1.in]rainfall) Mostlocalitiesexperienceapronounceddryseasonof2­5 months during the cooler months June­October (SouthernHemisphere). Meanannualtemperature S. austrocaledonicum 23­27°C(73­81°F) S. yasi 23­29°C(73­84°F) Meanmaximumtemperatureofhottestmonth S. austrocaledonicum 29­33°C(84­91°F) S. yasi 24­31°C(75­88°F) Meanminimumtemperatureofcoldestmonth S. austrocaledonicum 16­22°C(61­72°F) S. yasi 18­25°C(64­77°F) Minimumtemperaturetolerated S. austrocaledonicum Theabsoluteminimumtemperature is10­16°C(50­61°F),butpossiblyaslowas5­7°C(41­45°F) onMare,LoyaltyIslands,NewCaledonia. S. yasi The absolute minimum experienced is around 8­9°C(46­48°F)atthehigherelevationssitesinwestern VitiLevu.

Forbothspeciestheentiredistributionisfrost-free.

SeveralfolkvarietiesofS. yasihavebeenreportedin Fiji and Tonga. The varieties reported from Fiji include yasi dina (or true sandalwood, i.e., Santalum, distinguishingitfromothergenerathathavesweetly fragrantwood),yasi boi(fragrant),yasi buco,yasi vula (white),yasi damu(red),andyasi kula (red).Thelatter folkvarietyhasreddishleaves(possiblyamicronutrient disorder)andstronglyscentedheartwood.VarietiesreportedfromTongaincludefefine(literallyfemale,with small leaves), tangata (with large, long leaves), kolo (sweetsmelling), lau lahi,uhiuhi, andvao.Thesevarietiesmainlyrefertoparticularphenotypesinapopulationratherthanwholepopulations.InbothTongaand Fijitheidentityandmorphologicaltraitsofthesefolk varieties may be interpreted somewhat differently by differentvillagers/villages.

enVIronmental PreferenceS and toleranceS

S. austrocaledonicum and S. yasi prefer warm to hot, lowland,subhumidorwet/drytropics,withanannualrainfall of 1250­1750 mm (50­70 in) and a distinct dry season of 3­5 months.Tropical cyclones are a feature of the entire distribution,occurringmainlyduringthehot,wetseason (December­April). S. austrocaledonicum 5­800m(16­2400ft),usuallyless than300m(1000ft)inNewCaledonia S. yasi 0­300(­600)m(0­1000[­2000]ft)

Climate

S. austrocaledonicum Thespeciesgrowswellonpurecorallinesoil,volcanicash,schistorsedimentarysubstrates.The species prefers well drained acidic to alkaline conditions anddoesnotgrowwellonwaterloggedsoilsandstrongly acidicclayeysoils. S. yasi InFijithesoilsaremainlywelldrained,humicand ferruginousLatisols.InTonga,itsbestdevelopmentison soilsderivedfromvolcanicashoverlyingcorallinerock.

Soils

Soiltexture Thetreespreferlightandmedium,welldrainedsoils(sands, sandyloams,loams,andsandyclayloams). Soildrainage Bothspeciesrequirefreelydrainingsoils. Soilacidity Bothspeciesmaygrowonacidtoalkalinesoils(pH4.0­ 7.4),butpreferneutralsoils(pH6.1­7.4).

Elevation

Meanannualrainfall S. austrocaledonicum 800­2500mm(30­100in)

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Specialsoiltolerances Both species can tolerate shallow and infertile soils. In thePoyaregionofNewCaledonia,var.austrocaledonicum grows in ferrallitic/ultramafic soils with a limestone substrate.Thesesoilshavehighlevelsofexchangeablecalcium andpotassiumandarerichinnickelandchrome.Further north, around Pouembout, it grows in a highly acidic to neutral, magnesium-rich black clay derived from basalt. Var.minutumoccursonimmaturecolluvialsoilonserpentineperidotite/metamorphicandultrafmaficgravels.Such soils are infertile with very low levels of phosphorus, potassium,andcalcium,butarerelativelyhighinmagnesium, nickel,chrome,andmanganese.

scorchingbysalt-ladenwindsandtotaldefoliationfollowingcyclonicstorms,butusuallytheytotallyrecover.

Wind Mature plants are typically of low stature and are generallyfairlyresistanttostrongwindsassociatedwithcyclonic storms, except in open areas. Younger plants in open areas,especiallyiftheyhavegrownquicklyandhaveaheavy canopy,maybeblownoverorsufferbreakageofstemsand branches. Older trees growing among established forests can also suffer from limb damage during cyclone events. The most susceptible trees are those with forked trunks, whichcaneasilysplit.

Tolerances

Drought Theyareabletosurvivealongdryseason(upto5­6months) whenattachedhemi-parasiticallytosuitablydrought-toleranthostplants. Fullsun Theygrowwellinfullsunwhentheirrootsareattached hemi-parasiticallytosuitablehostspecies;otherwise,they becomeyellow(andcandie). Shade They can survive up to 60­70% shade, but growth will beveryslowathighershadelevels.Theoptimumlevelof shadeisuptoabout25%,preferablyas"sideshade."Side shadeisprovidedbyplantingadjacentrowsofbushybut not spreading plants, which grow up to about the same height as sandalwood but do not overtop and cast overheadshade. Fire Both species are sensitive to fire (and grazing from cattleanddeer)particularlyinthefirstfewyearsofgrowth. Plantsofsomesandalwoodspecieswillregrowfromcoppice following fire; e.g., S. austrocaledonicum and younger specimensof S. album. Frost Bothspeciesarefrost-sensitive. Waterlogging Theyprefergooddrainageandwilldieordiebackfollowinganyprolongedperiod(greaterthan2weeks)ofwaterlogging. Saltspray Plantsgrowinginnear-coastalsituationsmaysuffersevere

GrowtH and deVeloPment

S. austrocaledonicum InNewCaledoniainyoungplantations(upto5years)individualsshowmainlyanincrease inheightwithameanannualgrowthincrementintrunk diameterofabout6mm.Theaveragediametergrowthrate inolderplantsis3.8­4.8mmperyear.InVanuatuyoung plants(upto3yearsold)cangrowatmoderatelyfastrates, e.g.,1mheightperannumand1cmdiameterincrement (measured at 20 cm above ground level) per annum. Diametergrowthaveraged6­10mmperyearat18­26years, and6­7mmperyearafter28­33years.Treescangrowat moderaterateovertheprojectedrotationperiodofabout 25­40years.

Growthrate

S. yasi Earlyheightgrowthisslowtomoderate,e.g.,0.5­ 0.7mperyear,butisvariabledependinguponenvironmental conditions and host species. Under suitable growing conditionsitmayattainharvestablesizeinabout25years; e.g.,20­25cmdiameterneargroundlevel,withsubstantial heartwooddevelopment.

Rootinghabit

Sandalwoodshaveawidelyspreadingsurfacerootsystem capableofgraftingontomanyotherplantspeciesandtappingwaterandmineralnutrients. Sandalwoods, especially as young plants, react poorly to competitionfrommonocotyledons(includinggrassesand palmssuchascoconut).Beinghemi-parasitic,theyarebest grownincloseproximitytosuitablehostspecies.

Reactiontocompetition

S. austrocaledonicum InNewCaledoniaplantsaresometimesattackedbyinsects(CeroplastesandCoccus),butdam-

DiseasesandPests

Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi(sandalwood)

S. yasi YasiissusceptibletoPhellinus noxius, andmature specimens may quickly succumb to it.This disease is potentiallyserious,asitcanspreadrapidlytoadjacenttrees throughroot grafting.Incool,wet,cloudyweather,seedlingscanbeattackedbyafungus(anthracnosetype)that can cause severe leaf spotting (hypersensitive reaction) followed by defoliation. Seedlings are susceptible to root rot-fungiinpoorlydrainingandunsterilizedmedia.Yasi isalsosusceptibletosandalspikedisease,causedbyamycoplasma-likeorganism;thispathogencausesconsiderable damagetoS. albuminIndia(butisabsentfromtheSouth Pacificregion).

ageisratherminor.Fungaldamagehasbeenobservedon leavesofnurseryseedlings.Plantsaresusceptibletobrown rootrot(Phellinus noxius).

ProPaGatIon

AllSantalumspeciesarereadilypropagatedbyseedinthe nursery.Theymayalsobepropagatedthroughencouraging seedlingdevelopmentunderneathselectedheavy-bearing plants;suchwildlingscanbetransplantedtoanewlocation. Vegetativecuttingsmaybestruckundermistfromseedling material.Cuttingsfromyoungplantsinitiateanddevelop adventitiousrootsmuchmorereadilythancuttingsfrom more mature plants. Grafting and root segment cuttings frommaturespecimenscanbeusedtoconserveselected individualsorbringthemintobreedingprograms.

Propagationbyseed

Seedcollection It is recommended that mature fruits be collected while stillattachedtothetree,althoughrecentlyfallenfruitsmay also be acceptable if not exposed to the sun. Fruits that haveattainedmaturityarefullsizeandusuallyhavebegun toshowslightcolorchange,commonlyareddishtinge,the fruitbecomingentirelyredtodarkpurplishblack. S. austrocaledonicum Themainfruitcollectionperiodis fromNovembertoJanuary.

abIlItIeS

Regeneration Regeneration of wild sandalwood stands typically occurs very slowly following harvesting due to the removal of mostofthelargerfruitingspecimens,andinatleastsome casestheremovalofotherspeciesuponwhoserootsthe sandalwoodplantsparasitize. Self-prune Self pruning is variable; in open situations, sandalwood plants often retain branches to near ground level. In shadiersituations,especiallywheretheshadeiscastfrom overhead,theplantsexhibitreasonablygoodself-pruning characteristics.ForS. yasisuitableshaderegimestokeep plantsgrowingstraightandtoavoidabushyhabitinclude stronglateralshadewithnooverheadshadeorahighcanopyproducingintermediateshade. Coppice Plantsfrequentlyresproutfrombasalcoppicesorbyroot suckeringofflateralroots(followingremovalofthestump andmajorroots).Manyspeciesarecapableofrootsuckeringaslongasnottoomuchoftherootsystemisremoved duringharvest.However,suchcoppiceregrowthislikely todieoutinmoreheavilyshadedsituations. Pollard Plantscanbepollarded,butthisisnotanappropriateregimeforsandalwoodwheretheeconomicvalueisconcentratedintheheartwoodinthelowerboleandlargewoody roots.

S. yasi ThemainfruitcollectionperiodisfromJanuary toMarch.

Seedprocessing Thefleshymesocarpneedstoberemovedfromthefruits withoutdelay.Fruitsthatarehardtodepulpbyhandmay besoakedinwaterfor1­2daystosoftenthepulppriorto its removal. The depulped, cleaned seeds are then disinfected (e.g., with sodium hypochlorite or diluted bleach) beforebeingrinsedandairdriedinawellventilatedroom

When picked green, fruits are rarely viable. A reddish or purplishtingeisafirstindicationthatseedsaremature.Pictured:S. album. photo:L.thomson

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org)

Dependingontheseedsource,thereare2400­8400seeds perkg(1100­3800seeds/lb): S. austrocaledonicum Loyalty Islands: 2400 perkg(1100seeds/lb);IsleofPines:6000per kg(2700seeds/lb);Vanuatu:3300­4500per kg(1500­2000seeds/lb) S. austrocaledonicumvar.pilosulum 8400per kg(3800seeds/lb) S. yasi 6000­7000seedsperkg(2700­3200 seeds/lb)

atatemperaturebelow25°C(77°F)outofdirectsunforup to2­3weeks.Seedsusuallyhaveahighpurity,butnumber ofviableseedsperkgvariesconsiderablybetweenspecies, provenances,andindividualseedlots.

1. Nicktheseedcoatatthepointedendofseedusinga sharpknife. 2. Soakseedsovernightinasolutionofgibberellicacid (GA3)atrateof0.1to0.25g/l.

recommendedseedpretreatmentmethodisasfollows:

3. Drenchtheseedsinafungicidalsolution,e.g.,benlate,

For newly collected seed, viability is high for S. yasi and S. album, often 80­90% after 2­3months,fornakedseed(embryoextracted). Germinationislowerfornickedseed,e.g.,60­ 70%after3months,andlowerandmuchslower foruntreatedseeds.

Seed for storage should be placed in airtight containersintherefrigerator(2­4°C[36­39°F]) assoonaspossiblefollowingsurfacedrying.In general,ultra-drystorage(e.g.,downtoabout 2%moisturecontent)isrecommendedforseeds ofhighoilcontentthatarenormallyshort-lived instorage. Itisusuallypreferabletosowsandalwoodseed assoonaspossibleaftercollectiontoreducethe riskoftheseedslosingviabilityduringstorage.

Seedstorage Many Santalum species show intermediate storagebehavior,withseedsrapidlylosingviabilityduringstorage.Seedstoragebehaviorvariesbetweenspecies,andmayevenvaryamong different seed sources for S. austrocaledonicum. Forexample,seedsfromtheIsleofPinesmay besafelystoredforseveralyears,whereasthose fromtheLoyaltyIslandsloseviabilitywithina few months. Seed storage behavior for S. yasi is unknown, but seeds stored for longer periods(>6­12months)willhaveverylowviability. S. album has an orthodox seed storage behavior,butviabilitygenerallydeclinesafterseveral yearsinstorage.

Pre-plantingtreatments For S. austrocaledonicum, pretreatment of seed promotesrapidanduniformgermination.The

Top: Santalum seeds sprouting in pure vermiculite. photo: C. ELEvitCh Bottom:S. yasiincontainerswithhostplantsCalliandra calothrysus(foreground), Casuarina equisetifolia (middle), and Alternanthera sp. (background).photo:L.thomson

10 Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi(sandalwood)

Thefollowingtreatmenthasbeenshowntoproducequick germination of the Hawaiian species S. ellipticum and S. freycinetianum.Beforetreatment,seedsshouldberemoved from the ripe fruit, cleaned by hand, and air-dried for aboutaweek.Thenasmallpartoftheseedcoatattheapex oftheseedshouldberemovedsothattheembryobecomes visiblebutnotdamaged.Thiscanbedoneusinglargenail clippers,forceps,ormediumsandpaper.Subsequently,the seedcanbesoakedinsmallamounts(0.05%)oftheplant hormonegibberellicacidfor5days,changingthesolution daily.Thentheseedisremovedfromthegrowthhormone solutionanddustedwitha1:1mixtureofpowderedsulfur and captan to prevent fungus infection. Seeds should be placedinacoveredtrayonnew,wetvermiculitetoallow germinationtooccur.

Treatment of freshly collected seed with gibberellic acid (GA)givesquickandhomogeneousgerminationbutisnot recommendedforroutinenurseryproductionofseedlings due to high cost. GA treatment might best be used for smaller,morepreciousresearchsamples,etc.

forafewminutesbeforesowing(optional).

recommended HoStS

Acacia species, Calliandra calothyrsus, and Casuarina spp. may be used as pot hosts, but Calliandra needs frequentcuttingbacktopreventitfromovertopping thesandalwood.

S. austrocaledonicum Acacia spirorbis makes a good long-term host plant under both natural conditions and in plantations. For ultramafic soils, other good nitrogen-fixinghostspeciesareCasuarina collinaand Gymnostoma deplancheana. S. yasi Good long-term hosts include Citrus spp., Acacia richii, Calliandra calothyrsus, and Casuarina equisetifolia.

S. album Good intermediate and long-term hosts include Acacia trachycarpa, Casuarina junghuhniana (long-lived), Cathormium umbellatum (long-lived), Crotalaria juncea, Desmanthus virgatus, and Sesbania formosa. into polypots (16 x 6.5 cm [6.3 x 2.6 in]). At this time a host plant is usually planted together with the seedling (see"Recommendedhosts"sidebar).

As seedlings age they are moved to progressively higher lightlevels,e.g.,50%shadeintheearlymonths,then25% shadeandseveralmonthsofhardeningunderfullsunprior tofieldplanting.

Growingarea Seedsaregenerallygerminatedundercoverinaglasshouse (or other covered nursery structure) in a freely draining medium, e.g., 1:1 sterilized river sand, peat moss mixture, or 2:1 sand:compost.The mixture should be kept slightly moistened(butnotwet,inordertoavoidrottingofseeds and damping off ). The optimum temperature for germinationis28­31°C(82­88°F).Germinationtraysshouldbe protectedfromrats,birds,andotherpredatorsthatwilleat seedsoryounggerminants.

Media The potting mixture should be well drained with reasonablewater-holdingcapacity.Atypicalgrowingmediumfor S. yasiinFijiisamoderatelyfertile,forestloam(67%),and riversand(33%)plus2kgNPKfertilizerpercubicmeter (2oz/ft3). Timetooutplanting Seedlingsarereadyforplantingwhentheheightisabout 20­25 cm (8­10 in), usually taking approximately 5­6 months. Guidelinesforoutplanting Sandalwoods needtobeeitherplantedoutamongestablished long-term host plants, or else together with intermediate hosts (relatively short-lived woody perennials) whilelongertermhostsareestablished.

Survivalratesarehigh(oftenabove80%)forlarger,healthy seedlingsplantedattheonsetoftherainyseasonandkept wellweededinthefirst2years.Survivalandgrowthwill belowforplants · · · ingrassy,sunnysituations establishedinmoreshadyforestsituations

Germination S. austrocaledonicum Nicked seed commences germination after 2 weeks and is completed by 8 weeks; most germinationoccursbetween30and40days.Wholeseed ismuchslowertogerminate,commencingafterabout40 days.Germinationratesofgreaterthan50%areexpected forfreshseedthathasbeencollectedfrommaturefruits stillonthetreeandappropriatelyhandledandcleaned. S. yasi Germination of nicked seed occurs rather slowly over a long period, e.g., from 40 to 120 days after sowing.Astheyappear,germinantsaretransplantedintopots, preferablybeforetheseedcoatfallsfromthegerminating shoot.

Seedlings are pricked out at the two- or four-leaf stage

inpolyculturesunderneathcoconutplantations.

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org) 11

tainedusingshootmaterialcollectedfromseedlingsand struckunderintermittentmistinginsuitablemedia(e.g., 1:1 sand/peat or 1:1 sand/coconut coir).The order of ease ofrootingisS. yasi>S. austrocaledonicum>S. macgregorii >S. album.Thereisaneedforfurtherworktoidentifyappropriatestockplanttreatmentsandenvironmentalconditionstooptimizerootingsuccessforeachspecies. Rootsegments(about5­10cm[2­4in]longandgreater than 1 cm [0.4 in] in diameter) may be collected from larger specimens of S. album (and probably other sandalwoodspecies)andusedtostrikecuttings.Thecuttingsare treatedwithrootingpowder(e.g.,SeradixB2)andplaced horizontallyatadepthof1cm[0.4in]inafreely-drainingmedium(e.g.,50:50coarsewashedriversandandpeat moss) which is kept moist (but not saturated) in a glasshouse(oralike).Thetimeforsproutingisfromabout1to 3months.Thepercentageofrootsegmentsformingshoots androotsistypicallylow(e.g.,10­50%)anddependenton

Propagationbyrootcuttings

S.yasiseedlingreadyforoutplanting.photo:L.thomson

The following technique is useful for promoting germination of wildlings, which can then be transplanted and growninthenurserybeforefieldplantinginasuitablelocation: · Selectsandalwoodtreesthatarefruitingorareotherwiseknowntofruitheavily. Clean all undergrowth from beneath the canopy of theselectedsandalwoodtrees.

Propagationusingwildlings

· · · · ·

Wildlings begin to germinate in the cultivated area about1­2monthsaftersoildisturbance. Ifpossiblewaterthecultivatedareaduringdryperiods oraftersomegerminantsareobserved. Keepthecultivatedareafreefromregrowthofweeds.

Loosenthesoilintheclearedareabyshallowdigging orcultivatingonlythetop5cm(2in)ofsoil.

Propagationbyvegetativecuttings

Rooting of cuttings varies considerably between species andhalf-siblingfamilies,androotingsuccessdeclinesrapidlywithstockplantage.Successfulrootinitiationanddevelopmenttoalevelofgreaterthan40%,canonlybeob-

FreshlydugupS. austrocaledonicumseedlingsforimmediate transplant to other areas on the island of Aniwa,Vanuatu. photo:t.pagE

1 Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi(sandalwood)

Hosttocroppests/pathogens

Sandalwoodspeciesarenotknowntobeanimportanthost ofanycroppestsordiseases.

Thesetreesneed tobeplantedin wellprotectedareas in which opportunities for theft are minimized, such as in homegardens,smallerremoteislands,andwellfencedand closelyguardedlocations.Fencingisalsonecessaryinareas withwildsteersbecauseoftheirfeedingpreferencetoward developingsandalwoodsaplings.

Otherdisadvantagesordesignconsiderations

Young S. austrocaledonicum seedling with artificial shelter, Efate,Vanuatu.photo:L.thomson

aGroforeStrY/InterPlantInG PractIceS

Alleycropping Sandalwoods are suitable for inclusion in alley cropping systems, especially where the other alley species include goodhosts,e.g.,Calliandra spp. Homegardens Theyareverysuitableforplantinginhomegardens,which havetheadvantagesofmixtureofhostspecies,intermediate/variablelightlevels,andhighsecurity. Improvedfallows They could be included in improved fallows of nitrogenfixingtrees,withafallowrotationof20ormoreyearsto ensurethatsandalwoodsattaincommercialmaturity. Windbreaks Sandalwoodsaresuitableforinclusioninwindbreaks,especially where the main windbreak species include good hosts,e.g.,Casuarinaspp. Woodlot Sandalwoodsaresuitableforinclusioninwoodlots,especiallywhenplantedalongsun-exposededgesofthewoodlotandincombinationwithcompatiblespecies,e.g.,with Pinus caribaea,ashasbeendoneinTonga. Nativeanimal/birdfood Thefruitsofsandalwoodareconsumedbyvariousbirdspecies,includingpigeons.Forsoft-beakedspeciestheseeds maypassthroughthedigestivesystemintactandbewidely disseminated. Hostplanttrellising There is minor potential to trellis slower-growing vines thatwouldnotinterferewithfullsunreachingthecanopy,

seasonalfactors.

dISadVantaGeS

Themaindrawbacksofsandalwoodcultivationare: · · · · · lackofseedandplantingmaterials lackofvarietiesorcultivarswithknownoilqualities andyields

relatively complex silviculture and need to be grown withsuitablehostplantspecies susceptibilitytorootandbuttrotfungiandrapiddeath ofplantswhengrowninhigherrainfallzones

riskoftheftoftreeswhennearingmaturity.

Potentialforinvasiveness

Sandalwoodspeciesarerootparasites,withthepotential to root-graft and link almost whole plant communities. They are therefore at particular risk of pathogenic fungi thatcanalsospreadfromtreetotreethroughrootgrafts, suchasPhellinus noxius.

Pacific island sandalwoods have not become naturalized outsideoftheirnativerange.Sandalwoodspeciesgenerally have a capacity for invasiveness in disturbed, open plant communities,butthisisnotconsideredaproblembecause oftheirveryhighvalueandbecausetheydonotdominate orappeartomodifysuchcommunitiesinanysubstantial way.There is a risk that some planted host species, especiallyexoticleguminoustrees,mightbecomeinvasive.Accordingly, it is recommended that local plant species are screenedfirstforsuitabilityashostsandusedpreferentially ashosts,especiallyinandaroundareasofhighbiodiversity conservationvalue.

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org) 1

Left:S. yasigrownonfencelinebetweentwohouselotsinTonga.Right:Alyxia stellata,atraditionalvineusedingarlands, climbingonyasiinahomegardeninTonga.photos:C.ELEvitCh

suchasmaile(Alyxia stellata).

Ornamental Sandalwoodsarequiteattractive,especiallywheninflower, andareespeciallysuitableforhomeandvillagegardens.

uSeS and ProductS

WoodfromsandalwoodwastraditionallyusedintheSouth Pacificforcarvings,culturaluses,medicine,andburntasan insect repellent. However, it is rarely used nowadays becauseofitsscarcityandcashvalue.Thegratedwoodwas traditionallyusedtoalimitedextenttoscentcoconutoil (forapplicationtothehairandbody)andculturalartifacts suchastapacloth.

buildupofsandalwoodstocks,themostrecentinFijibeing inthemid­late1980swhenabanoncommercialexploitationwaslifted.S. austrocaledonicumwasheavilyexploited overaboutthreedecadesinthemiddleofthe1800sinNew Caledonia andVanuatu, and it has been utilized periodicallysince.Carvings,sandalwoodoil,andincenseproduction,listedinorderofhighesttolowestvalue,arethethree majorpresent-daywoodusesofS. austrocaledonicum.

Medicinal Sandalwoodhasvariousandgenerallynotwelldocumentedmedicinaluses.InSamoa,adecoctionofsandalwood and Homolanthus leaves is taken to treat elephantiasis or lymphaticfilariasis. Craftwood/tools The highest-value sandalwood is used for carving (religiousstatuesandobjects,handicrafts,art,anddecorative furniture).Largerbasalpiecesandrootsarepreferredfor carving. Cosmetic/soap/perfume The oil from the heartwood, extracted by steam distilla-

Both Santalum austrocaledonicumandS.yasi producehighlyprizedsandalwoods,oftensimilarinqualitytothewell known S. album fromIndiaandIndonesia.Theheartwood ofS. yasiwasamajorexportduringtheearly1800s,andthe sandalwoodtradewasoneofthefirstattractionsdrawing EuropeansintotheSouthPacific.SandalwoodfromS. yasi is still exported to a limited extent from Fiji andTonga, experiencing short-lived boom periods associated with a

1 Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi(sandalwood)

tionorbysolvent,isusedforcosmetics,scentingofsoaps, perfumery,aromatherapy,andmedicinalpurposes.Theoil content of heartwood varies considerably among species, individual trees, and location within the tree, but is typicallyintherangeof3­7%forbasalstem/largerootsections. Oil is currently distilled from S. austrocaledonicum and S. album,butnotS. yasi(duetolackofsupply).

commercIal ProductS

Theprimarycommercialproductsfromsandalwoodarethe heartwood and the essential oil distilled from the heartwood.The international standard for the oil of S. album (ISO/DFIS 3518) includes four compounds in the chromatographic profile (-santalol, trans--bergamotol, epi-santalol,andZ--santalol),butonlytwo,Z--santalol (41­55%) and Z--santalol (16­24%), are assessed in the standard.ThetotalsantalolcontentofS. yasioil(thecomponentmostassociatedwithsandalwood'sessence)is60­ 70%andsimilartothatofS. album (theindustrystandard andmostsought-afteroil).Thecompositionofheartwood oilfromS. austrocaledonicumfromNewCaledonia(Maré Island and Isle of Pines) resembles S. album, with very similar levels of the major fragrant constituents, 48­49% -santalol and 20­22% -santalol. In Vanuatu there are two chemotypes of S. austrocaledonicum, one chemotype being rich in santalols (>30­40% -santalol and >15% santalol) while the second chemotype contains Z-nuciferol(7­25%)and/orZ-lanceol(15­41%)andlowerproportionsofsantalols.

Ceremonial/religiousimportance Heartwoodfromsandalwoodtreesyieldsanaromaticoil thatiswidelyvaluedandhasbeenthebasisofalucrative andexploitativetradeforhundredsofyears.InTonga,the oilisusedtoscenttapaclothandanointcorpsesinroyal funerals. S. yasi is also featured in Tongan legends and songs.Heartwoodandsapwoodarepowderedtogetherto produceincenseorjosssticksusedinAsianreligiousceremonies. Sawdust, wood shavings from carving or wood residueafteroildistillationmaybeused.

TheheartwoodfromPacificsandalwoodspeciesismainly exportedtoAsia.MostS. yasifromTongagetsexportedto EastAsiancountries,particularlyChina(viaHongKong), Taiwan,andJapan,butsomeisalsosuppliedtotheUnited States.The main markets for sandalwood oil are Europe andtheUnitedStates. Spacingforcommercialproductionvariesconsiderablydependingonthetypeofplanting.Thefinalcropislikelyto bearound100maturesandalwoodtreesperhectare(10x10 m[33x33ft])duetoneedtoincludehosttree/shrubspecies (atarateof2­4persandalwooddependingonhostspecies). Duetothehighvalueanddemandforevenasinglemature tree, there is effectively no minimum area or number of treesrequiredforcommercialproduction.Theplantation arearequiredtoproviderawmaterialforasmall/medium scaleoildistillationoperationofS. austrocaledonicum,e.g., producing800litersperannum(845qt/yr)from20­40mt (22­44t)ofheartwood,isestimatedtobeabout60­120ha (150­300ac),basedona30-yearrotation.

Spacingforcommercialproduction

Managementobjectives Themainmanagementobjectiveshouldbetoestablishand manageagoodmixtureofhostplantspeciesthatprovidea suitablelight/shelterregime.

Sandalwood sculptures Bangalore, India. photo: m. mErLin

Hosttreespeciesmayneedtobeprunedorprogressively thinned to maintain good levels of sunlight to maturing sandalwoodplants.

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org) 1

Weedgrowth,especiallyoflong,flammablegrasses,needs tobewellcontrolledintheearlyyears.Weedsshouldbe manuallyremovedtoavoidtheriskofherbicidedriftand/ ortranslocationthroughweedstosandalwoodplantsvia rootsystemconnections.

Forsoilsoflowerfertility,periodicfertilizingwith100g (3 oz) NPK fertilizer per tree will promote more rapid growth.

ForS. yasicarefulpruningofsidebranches,removingno more than 25% of canopy at any one time, has been advocatedtoencouragedevelopmentofamainbole.Regular removal of competing leaders (breaking by hand) in youngerspecimensmaybeamoresatisfactoryapproach.

S. album It is estimated that trees can produce about 20­40 kg (44­88 lb) of heartwood on a 20 year rotation, underSouthPacificconditionsandgivenappropriatesilviculture. Wholetreesincludingmajorrootsareharvested.Themain on-farmprocessingiscarefulremovalofthesapwood,usingalarge,sharpknife.Sandalwoodwoodpiecesthatare kept in dry conditions for several months may exhibit smallincreasesinoilcontentandimprovementinquality (but this is offset by a lower weight and hence return to thegrower). The world production/consumption of sandalwood oil is in the order of several hundreds of metric tons. India is themajorproducer(90%ofworldproduction)anduserof sandalwoodoil.ExportsfromIndiaofS. albumoilduring the6yearperiod1987/88­1992/93averaged40.5mt(45t) withthemainimportersofthisoilbeingFranceandthe United States. Indonesian exports of S. album oil during 1987to1992averaged15mt/yr(17t/yr)andwentmainlyto theU.S.,whichisthesinglelargestmarketoutsideIndia. InternationaldemandforS. albumoilisnotbeingmet,and prices continue to rise. Markets for S. austrocaledonicum oil,uptoabout15­20mt(17­22t)peryear,includeFrance, Germany,andtheUnitedStates.

undergoodconditions,canproduce15­30kg(33­66lb)of heartwood(includingfromroots).

On-farmprocessing

Markets

Thisbrush-likeregrowthwithstuntedleavesisindicativeof herbicidepoisoning,inthiscasetranslocatedfromweedsthat werepoisonednearthisS. albumtree.photo:C.ELEvitCh

Designconsiderations

Greater accessibility of sandalwood plantations increases theriskoftheft.

· enablesandalwoodtreestooptimallyobtaintheir mineralnutrition/waterneeds,and, · reducepestanddiseaserisksassociatedwithreliance onjustoneortwomainhosts. S. austrocaledonicum Aroughestimateofheartwoodproductionis50­100kg(110­220lb)pertreeafter30years.

Advantagesanddisadvantagesofgrowingin polycultures Adiversemixtureofhostspeciesispreferredsoasto:

Annual global sandalwood heartwood production is estimatedtobeapproximately5100mt(5600t),however,productionhasdeclinedmarkedlyoverthepast20­30years. China,Taiwan,Singapore,Korea,andJapan,withnonaturalresourcesofsandalwood,arethemainmarkets,together withIndia,whichhasitsownproductioncapability.ProductionofsandalwoodheartwoodfromtheSouthPacific ishighlyvariable,experiencingperiodsofboomandbust sinceexploitationcommencedintheearly1800s.

InterPlantInG/farm aPPlIcatIonS

Examplesystem1

Location SouthEfate,Vanuatu Description Thisisarecentlydevelopedsystem(since1997)ofgrowing

Estimatedyields

S. yasi Withgoodsilviculture,itisestimatedthattreescan produceabout1­2kg(2.2­4.4lb)ofheartwoodeachyear fromage10years.Thereforea20­25-year-oldtree,growing

1 Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi(sandalwood)

sandalwood(S. austrocaledonicum)inplantedlinesaspart ofamixedfarmingenterprisefollowingrecommendations providedbytheSouthPacificRegionalInitiativeonForest Genetic Resources (SPRIG) Project. Sandalwood plants areestablishedeitherusingseedlingsordirect-seeding.

ginger,butthissystemwouldworkwellwithalmostany vegetableorrootcrop.

Yields Plants are healthy, bushy, and have shown good growth, e.g.,about1m(3.3ft)heightgrowthperyear.Theprevioussystemhadbeentoplantsandalwoodseedlingsunderneathresidualremnantforest,whichresultedinveryslow growthduetoinsufficientlight. Crop/treeinteractions The lines of sandalwood are interplanted with lines of Casuarina (everythirdline)thatactasapermanenthost and windbreak. Intermediate hosts included vegetable cropssuchasCapsicum. Spacing Thespacingisabout3m(10ft)betweenandwithindouble rowsofsandalwoodtreeswitheverythirdrowcomprising Casuarina.

Spacing Thesandalwoodtreesareplantedinalinealongtheboundaryperimeterofthegardenarea.Spacingisvariable,about 3­4m(10­13ft)betweentrees.

Examplesystem3

Location `Eua,Tonga Description Thisisarecentsystemdatingfromtheearly1990sinvolvinginterplantingofS. yasiinaPinus caribaeaplantation. Yields Sandalwood trees in pine plantations appear to reach 8­12m(26­40ft)inheightand15cm(6in)indiameter, withabout40%heartwoodinthebasalstemsection,after about 15­20 years. With improved silviculture, including

Examplesystem2

Location Tanna,Vanuatu Description Thisisarecentlydevelopedsystem(sinceabout 1996)inwhichsandalwood(S. austrocaledonicum) wildlings aretransplantedaroundtheperimeter ofnewvillagegardenareasestablishedwithin bushandsecondaryforest. Yields/Benefits Plantsarehealthyandhaveshowngoodstem formandearlygrowth,e.g.,about1m(3.3ft) heightgrowthperyear.Sandalwoodgrowsvery wellalongforestedges/verges,duetothegood balanceoflightandhosts,andthissystemtakes advantageofthis. Crop/treeinteractions On the bush/forest side of the plot, the sandalwood plants gain access to root systems of diversepermanenthostsandreceivesomeside and overhead shade, which encourages better stem form. On the garden side, sandalwood plantshavetheadvantageofgoodweedcontrol plushighlevelsofsunlight.Themaincropwas

S. yasigrownontheedgeofa Pinus caribaeawoodlot.photo:L.thomson

SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org) 1

morelightthroughearlythinningofpinesandinclusion ofsomebetterhostspecies,thegrowthrateswouldbeenhanced.Itisestimatedthattreesproduceabout1-2kg(2.24.4lb)ofheartwoodeachyearfromage10years.Therefore, aconservativeestimatewouldbethata20­25-year-oldyasi tree,growingundergoodconditions,canproduce15­30kg (33­66lb)ofheartwood(includingfromroots).

Crop/treeinteractions The pine provides a good physical environment for the sandalwood,i.e.,goodshelterandintermediatelightlevels thatencouragegoodstemform. Spacing Pinesareplantedat4x3m(13x10ft),or833stemsper hectare (340 stems/ac). The sandalwood is interplanted with pine, preferably when the pines are 3 years old (althoughthiscouldbedonewhenthepinesarebetween2­4 years)Sandalwoodcouldbeplantedbetweeneverysecond rowandataspacingof8x6m(26x20ft),orabout208 stems per ha (84 stems/ac). Ideally, the pine rows would runnorth-southtoallowmaximumsunlighttofallonthe smallersandalwoods.Thepinesshouldbethinned(atleast once) and heavily pruned to produce better quality and biggersawlogs,andtoprovideamoreopenstandthatis favorable to growth of sandalwood. Smaller nitrogen-fixingtrees,suchasCalliandra,Casuarina,Sesbania,Gliricidia, Cajanus,andCitrusoughttobeincludedinthissystem.

PublIc aSSIStance and aGroforeStrY eXtenSIon

Extension offices for agroforestry and forestry in the Pacific:http://www.traditionaltree.org/extension.html Organizations that have special sandalwood extension programs include Department of Forests, Vanuatu, DepartmentofForestry,Fiji,andConservationandForestry Division,Tonga.

bIblIoGraPHY

(indicatesrecommendedreading)

Alpha, T. 1997. Etude des concrètes et des essences de santal d'origine océanienne. Elucidation de nouveaux sesquiterpenoïdes par la RMN multi-impulsionnelle et bidimensionnelle.Ph.D.Thesis.UniversitéFrançaiseduPacifique,Papeete, FrenchPolynesia. Alpha,T.,P.Raharivelomanana,J.-P.Bianchini,Y.Ehrhart,and A.Cambon.1997.Etudedelacompositionchimiqued'essences desantald'origineduPacificSud.pp499­465In:RevistaItalianaEPPOS(Actesdes15èmesJournéesInternationalesHuiles

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atu.AreportforCIRAD­Foret,Nouvelle­Calédonie,10June 1998.Unpublished. Ehrhart,Y.,andR.Nasi.1995.Preliminaryresultsofsandalwood inventory on Ile des Pins. pp. 229­234. In: Gerum, Fox, and Ehrhart,op.cit. Elevitch,C.R.,andK.M.Wilkinson.2003.Propagationprotocol for production of container Santalum freycinetianum Gaudich.In:NativePlantNetwork.UniversityofIdaho,Collegeof Natural Resources, Forest Research Nursery, Moscow, Idaho. <http://www.nativeplantnetwork.org>. Fosberg,R.1962.MiscellaneousnotesonHawaiianplants3.OccasionalPapersoftheBerniceP.BishopMuseum23(2):29­44. Gerum, L., J.E.D. Fox, and Y. Ehrhart (eds.). 1995. SandalwoodSeed,NurseryandPlantationTechnology.Proceedings of a regional workshop for Pacific Island Countries, August 1­11,1994,Noumea,NewCaledonia.RAS/92/361.FieldDocument 8. UNDP/FAO South Pacific Forestry Development Programme,Suva,Fiji. Gunn, B., I.F. Bewang, and Y. Bun. 2002. A Strategy for Conserving and Managing the Genetic Resources of Santalum macgregorii(PNGSandalwood)inPapuaNewGuinea.AreportpresentedtothePapuaNewGuineaForestAuthorityas partoftheDomesticationofPapuaNewGuinea'sIndigenous Forest Species Project (ACIAR FST/1998/115). CSIRO ForestryandForestProducts,Canberra(unpublished). Haffner, D. 1993. Determining heartwood formation within Santalum albumandSantalum spicatum.SandalwoodResearch Newsletter1:4­5. Hallé,N.1988.Santalaceae.pp99­152.In:Jérémie,J.,D.J.Mabberley,Ph.Morat,J.M.Veillon,andN.Hallé.FloredelaNouvelle Calédonie et Dépendances. 15. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle,LaboratoiredePhanerogamie,Paris,France. Hamilton,L.,andC.E.Conrad(eds.).1990.Proceedingsofthe Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific, April 9­11, 1990, Honolulu,Hawai`i.GeneralTechnicalReportPSW­122.PacificSouthwestResearchStation,USDAForestService,Berkeley, California. Harisetijono, and S. Suriamihardja. 1993. Sandalwood in Nusa TenggaraTimur.pp.39­43.In:McKinnell,op.cit. Hong,T.D.,S.Linington,andR.H.Ellis.1998.Compendiumof InformationonSeedStorageBehavior.Volume2,I­Z.Royal BotanicGardens,Kew,UK. InternationalStandardISO/FDIS3518.2002(FinalDraft).Oilof sandalwood(Santalum albumL.)ISO,Geneva. Jiko,L.R.1993.StatusandcurrentinterestinsandalwoodinFiji. pp.13­18.In:McKinnell,op.cit. Kaufusi,S.1995.ThestatusofthesandalwoodtreeinTonga.pp. 179­180.In:Gerum,Fox,andEhrhart,op.cit. McKinnell,F.H.1990.StatusofmanagementandsilvicultureresearchonsandalwoodinWesternAustraliaandIndonesia.pp. 19­25.In:HamiltonandConrad,op.cit. McKinnell,F.H.(ed.).1993.SandalwoodinthePacificRegion. Proceedingsofasymposiumheldon2June1991attheXVII PacificScienceCongress,Honolulu,Hawaii.ACIARProceedings49.ACIAR,Canberra,Australia.

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0 Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi(sandalwood)

TraditionalTreeInitiative--SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry(www.traditionaltree.org)

Author:SouthPacificRegionalInitiativeofForestGeneticResources(SPRIG)Project,SPCForestryProgram,Suva,Fiji(current contactinfo:IPGRI,ViadeiTreDenari472/a,00057Maccarese(Fiumicino),Rome,Italy;E-mail:[email protected]). Acknowledgments:TheauthorandpublisherthankDaleEvans,TonyPage,JacquesTassin,andArtWhistlerfortheirinput.Photo contributionsfromMarkMerlinandTonyPagearegreatlyappreciated. Recommendedcitation:Thomson,L.A.J.2006.Santalum austrocaledonicumandS. yasi(sandalwood),ver.2.1.In:Elevitch,C.R.(ed.). SpeciesProfilesforPacificIslandAgroforestry.PermanentAgricultureResources(PAR),Hlualoa,Hawai`i.<http://www.traditionaltree.org>. Sponsors:PublicationwasmadepossiblebygeneroussupportoftheUnitedStatesDepartmentofAgricultureWesternRegionSustainableAgricultureResearchandEducation(USDA-WSARE)Program;SPC/GTZPacific-GermanRegionalForestryProject; USDANaturalResourcesConservationService(USDANRCS);StateofHawai`iDepartmentofLand&NaturalResourcesDivisionofForestry&Wildlife;andtheUSDAForestServiceForestLandsEnhancementProgram.Thismaterialisbaseduponwork supportedbytheCooperativeStateResearch,Education,andExtensionService,U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,andAgricultural ExperimentStation,UtahStateUniversity,underCooperativeAgreement2002-47001-01327. Serieseditor:CraigR.Elevitch Publisher:PermanentAgricultureResources(PAR),POBox428,Hlualoa,Hawai`i96725,USA;Tel:808-324-4427;Fax:808-3244129;E-mail:[email protected];Web:<http://www.agroforestry.net>.Thisinstitutionisanequalopportunityprovider. Reproduction:Copiesofthispublicationcanbedownloadedfrom<http://www.traditionaltree.org>.Thispublicationmaybereproducedfornoncommercialeducationalpurposesonly,withcreditgiventothesource.©2006PermanentAgricultureResources.All rightsreserved.

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