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Positivism Vs Constructivism by Les Siemsen

It is imperative in any study or report to have a firm understanding of the terms being discussed as well as their history to be able to critique and effectively discuss the question. In order to do justice to the question we will initially discuss Positive and Constructivism separately.

Positivism as a raw philosophical perception is the view that all true knowledge is scientific, in the sense of describing the co-existence and succession of observable phenomena. So named by Comte, it was the leading principle of his comprehensive philosophical system which too the unsophisticated form, from the most part, of an encyclopaedic classification of the findings of scientific enquirt. Positivism is a significantly orientated form of empiricism.

The word is now most commonly used as an abbreviation for Logical Positivism. In view of the close association with phenomolism and reductionism generally. It is sometimes opposed to realism. Particularly in the interruption of the nature of unobservable theoretical entities that occur in the scientific discourse. This is particularly true in adult learning in which we encounter numerous unobservable theoretical entities.

Constructivism has its roots in the "soviet" art movement, which was internationally influential in the 1920's based on the elimination of easel painting It applied a three dimensional cubist version inspired by the sculptor, Alexander Archipenko and by Pirasso's relief of 1912-1914 firstly to wholly obstruct non-objective "constructions" With a Kinelic element (1914-20) and thereafter to the new social demands and industrial tasks of the time was thus made up of the concepts or threads.

1) The concern with spare and rhythm compressed in Anto Peuner's and Naun Gabos realistic manifesto (1920). 2) A tussle within spare and rhythm commission between such supporters of "pure" art and a more socially orientated group heeded by Alex: Gen, Alexander Rodchenka and his wife Varvara Stepanova who wanted art to be absorbed into education and industrial production.

Through all these people shared much the same vision of constructivism as Vladmit Tolin whose model rotating lower for the 3rd international was its classic realisation, there was a philosophical split when Persneer a Gobo emigrated in 1922. Learning the newly formed movement to develop on socially Unitarian lines. As the productivist majority went into typography, education, photography, industrial and theatre design it gained the support of the proletkult and the left front of art in Vladimir Mayakovsky's magazine lef (123-28), becoming also a dominant influence in modern soviet groups for example O.S.A.

Through El Lissitzkys contracts with DADA,De stul Merz and the Hungarian 1 Laszlo Mohely the movement spread after 1922 to be carried everywhere as that schools basic education. In its "pure" form it was later assimilated in the abstraction-creation wing of the international abstract art, making a big impression of English art thinkers such as Ben Micholson, Barbra Hopworth and after 1950, Victor Pasmore.

In Russia meanwhile both sides of the movement alike become identified as Formolism, leading to its virtual suppression between the early thirties and mind fifties. It should not be surprising that art history as artists lend to be meditative thinkers.

When we relate positivism and constructivism to adults education we need to understand the framework in which it tends to take place as a spare-time activity however more adult learners are moving into the "mainstream" often the courses are non vocational but a large drift is occurring more vocational paths both as night and daytime. Increased demands by the labour markets often market often makes adults learning a must rather than an option for individuals who consider they to be upwardly socially mobile.

In adult learning the most difficult step is to motivate the adult to think again. Years of social conditioning as well as psychological conditioning has made the adults mind one dimensional. The adult mind has been neuro Linguistically programmed over many years complex imagination this and its subtle nature maybe precisely what the adult mind requires to re-tune it indirectly.

The adult mind in layman's terms it's "like trying to teach an old dog new tricks". It's common knowledge that the human mind learns best during the early formative years it follows on that as we age we "believe" our minds have been saturated by information objectivity and subjectivity "mental

propaganda, stereotypes, gender, social, racial profiling, statues, class, health structure, ego and the like dominate the structure of the adult mind. Preconceived ideas and willingness to change be it conscious or subconscious plague the adult adapt to a new way of learning and subtly re-wire the archaic and obsolete mental program in the adults mind.

Constructivism in this base sense is a Russian movement in which mechanical or industrial objects are combined into non-representational and mobile structural forms. It deals with what is, something visible, something that works. In a sense constructivism is more useful in adult learning because it is challenging and inspires the learning to take hands on approach to the subject matter and can take the information at hand and ingest it with relative ease.

In a sense constructivism is understood in the same manner in which kindergarten children learn with objects and subjects. It is a cognitive method of learning. However it is the more accurate method of learning as each individual has the opportunity to decipher the information in relation to his or hers cultural and educational context. Which in turn provokes greater lateral thinking?

In adults and adult learning often the "wheel is turning and the hamster is dead". A tutor who can apply and adapt positivism and constructivism to adult learning can bring the hamster back to life.

Bibliography

James.A.Holstein, Jober.F. Gubrium (inner lives and social worlds) Modern Thought? Alan Bulock, O Strallbrass, S.Trombely

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