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Finding Your Family in the U.S. Census

The Myers Family, Monroeville, Ohio

Special Collections Division Akron-Summit County Public Library 60 South High Street Akron, Ohio 44326 [email protected] 330.643.9030

Table of Contents

What is the U.S. Census?.............................................................................................................. 3 Slave Schedules.......................................................................................................................... 3 Mortality Schedules .................................................................................................................. 3 Agriculture and Manufacturing Schedules ............................................................................ 5 1890 Special Census of Union Civil War Veterans or their Widows ................................... 6 State Census............................................................................................................................... 6 What Does the Census Tell Us? ................................................................................................... 7 Limitations and Errors in the Census ......................................................................................... 9 Census Resources in Special Collections................................................................................... 10 Ancestry Library Edition ....................................................................................................... 10 Searching Ancestry ............................................................................................................. 11 Understanding the Results ................................................................................................. 12 Printing Census Images from Ancestry ............................................................................ 14 Saving and E-mailing Census Images from Ancestry ..................................................... 15 Tips for Searching Ancestry .............................................................................................. 16 Heritage Quest Online ............................................................................................................ 17 Searching the Census on Heritage Quest .......................................................................... 18 Understanding the Results ................................................................................................. 19 Printing from Heritage Quest ............................................................................................ 22 Saving and E-mailing from Heritage Quest ..................................................................... 23 Limitations of Heritage Quest............................................................................................ 23 Footnote.com ........................................................................................................................... 24 Searching the Census on Footnote..................................................................................... 24 Understanding the Results ................................................................................................. 25 Printing, Saving and E-mailing from Footnote ................................................................ 25 Limitations of Footnote ...................................................................................................... 25 FamilySearch Labs ................................................................................................................. 25 Searching the Census on FamilySearch Labs .................................................................. 26 Understanding the Results ................................................................................................. 26 Printing, Saving and E-mailing from FamilySearch Labs .............................................. 27 Limitations of FamilySearch Labs .................................................................................... 27 Microfilm and Print Indexes .................................................................................................. 28 Other Census Resources ............................................................................................................. 29 Additional Reading ..................................................................................................................... 30 Glossary of Terms ....................................................................................................................... 31 About this workbook This book is yours to keep, and there is space throughout it for your notes. Any word that appears in bold in the text of the workbook can be found in the glossary.

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What is the U.S. Census?

The first federal population census was taken in 1790, and one has been taken every ten years since then. It was originally designed to provide population information to determine the number of representatives each state would send to the House of Representatives. Over time, however, the census has evolved into a tool to gather statistical information about more than just the population. Today, in addition to taking a census of the population every 10 years, the Census Bureau conducts censuses of economic activity and conducts more than 100 other surveys every year. When genealogists refer to the U.S. census, they frequently mean the federal population schedules. These are the lists of families and individuals living in each state and territory. These records contain valuable biographical data such as birthplace, occupation, citizenship status or immigration information, as well as lists of family members. The questions asked at each census taking varied, so not all census records will contain the same information. These federal population schedules will be the focus of this workshop. Although the statistical summaries created from each census are published shortly after the census, the detailed information is held as private for 72 years after it is collected. This means that the most recent federal population schedule that is available to the public is 1930. The 1940 census will not be available until 2012. In addition to the population schedules, there are non-population schedules that may be helpful to the genealogist. Each type is described below.

Slave Schedules: In the censuses of 1850 and 1860, slave schedules were taken in the

southern states. These schedules listed slave owners, the number of slaves that they owned, the sex and age of the slaves, and whether they were black or mulatto. Names of slaves are rarely included.

Mortality Schedules: Because the census counted people who were alive during any portion

of the census year, the 1850-1880 U.S. federal censuses included mortality schedules. These schedules enumerated individuals who died during the 12 months prior to the census; between June 1 (of the previous year) and May 31 (of the census year). Mortality schedules are essentially nationwide, state-by-state death registers that predate the recording of vital statistics in most states. While deaths were under-reported, the mortality schedules remain an invaluable source of information. Information requested in the mortality schedules included: · · · · · · · Deceased's name Sex Age Color (White, black, mulatto) Whether widowed Place of birth (state, territory, or country) Month in which the death occurred · · · · · Profession, occupation, or trade Disease or cause of death Number of days ill Parents' birthplaces (added in 1870) Place where disease was contracted and how long the deceased was a resident of the area (added in 1880)

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The following table shows the years and states for which mortality schedules exist. Those in italics are ones that Ancestry either currently has or will soon have. The remaining states will be added as Ancestry can acquire the data.

1850 Alabama Arkansas California Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina Ohio Oregon Pennsylvania South Carolina Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington 1860 Alabama Arkansas California Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Nebraska New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oregon Pennsylvania South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Vermont 1870 Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Pennsylvania Rhode Island 1880 Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Pennsylvania Rhode Island

District of Columbia District of Columbia Connecticut

District of Columbia District of Columbia

1850 West Virginia Wisconsin

1860 Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin

1870 South Carolina South Dakota Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

1880 South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Agriculture and Manufacturing Schedules: These schedules can add "flesh" to the

bones of ancestors and provide information about the communities in which they lived. Special Collections has agricultural schedules for 1850 and 1870, and manufacturing schedules 18501880 for Summit and other, scattered Ohio counties. Schedules for remaining Ohio counties and other states may be obtained through interlibrary loan. · Agricultural schedules of 1850, 1860, and 1870 provide the following information for each farm: name of owner or manager, number of improved and unimproved acres, and the cash value of the farm, farming machinery, livestock, animals slaughtered during the past year, and "homemade manufactures." The schedules also indicate the number of horses, mules, "milch cows," working oxen, other cattle, sheep, and swine owned by the farmer. The amount of oats, rice, tobacco, cotton, wool, peas and beans, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, barley, buckwheat, orchard products, wine, butter, cheese, hay, clover seed, other grass seeds, hops, hemp, flax, flaxseed, silk cocoons, maple sugar, cane sugar, molasses, and beeswax and honey produced during the preceding year is also noted. The 1880 schedules provide additional details, such as the amount of acreage used for each kind of crop, the number of poultry, and the number of eggs produced. However, not every farm was included in these schedules. In 1850, for example, small farms that produced less than $100 worth of products annually were not included. By 1870, farms of less than three acres or which produced less than $500 worth of products were not included. For Summit County, Ohio; indexes to the 1850 and 1870 schedules are available online at http://www.akronlibrary.org/internetresources/sc/genealogy.html#summit. · Manufacturing schedules of 1820, 1850, and 1860 reported the name of the manufacturer; the type of business or product; the amount of capital invested; the quantities, kinds, and value of raw materials used; the quantities, kinds, and value of product produced annually; the kind of power or machinery used; the number of men and women employed; and the average monthly cost of male and female labor. The amount of detail reported in these schedules increased in 1870 and again in 1880. In 1880, supplemental schedules were also used for specific industries, such as for boot and shoemaking, lumber and saw mills, and flour and grist mills. However, small manufacturing operations that produced less than $500 worth of goods were not included.

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The agriculture and manufacturing schedules are not limited to persons who resided in a particular township or county. For example, Alfred B. Bridestone resided on the east side of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, according to the 1870 population census. However, he is listed as A.B. Bridston on the 1870 agricultural schedule as the proprietor of a 41 acre farm in rural Chester Township, Geauga County, some 12 miles from urban Cleveland. Was this fact important? For one researcher, finding Alfred on the agricultural schedule "solved" the mystery of how Alfred's stepson, Fred T. Brown, probably met his future wife, Sabra M. Hayford, whom he married in 1878. Subsequent research in Geauga County deeds revealed that Alfred's farm was just two miles from Sabra's father's farm. Until these discoveries, the researcher did not know of any pre-1878 connection between the Brown-Bridestone family and Geauga County, where the Hayford family had lived since 1833.

1890 Special Census of Union Civil War Veterans or their Widows: These special

veterans schedules report the following information: name of the veteran (or if he did not survive, the names of both the widow and her deceased husband); the veteran's rank, company, regiment or vessel, date of enlistment, date of discharge, and length of service in years, months, and days; post office address of each person listed; disability incurred by the veteran; and any additional remarks about the veteran's service. Although this census was intended to enumerate Union veterans and their widows, census takers often included Confederates and veterans of earlier wars. For example, the schedule for Windsor Twp., Ashtabula Co., Ohio, reports that Amos H. King, post office Windsor, Ohio, was a private in Co. K, 105th Ohio Infantry. He enlisted August 10, 1862, was discharged June 24, 1865, for a total of 2 years, 10 months, and 14 days service, and was a prisoner 32 days. This special census is very valuable because nearly the entire regular 1890 census was destroyed by a fire in 1921.

State Census: State censuses are almost as important as the federal census to family

historians, but their random availability makes them an often under-utilized resource by American genealogists. State censuses not only stand as substitutes for some of the missing federal census schedules (most notably the 1890 federal census), but also as valuable resources in their own right. Many state censuses, for example, asked different questions than the federal census, so they record information that cannot be found elsewhere in federal schedules. While not all states took their own censuses and some have not survived, state and local census records can be found in many locations. Most states which took censuses usually did so every ten years, on the five year mark (1855, 1865, etc.), to complement the U.S. federal census, and these records are most often found at the state archives or state library. Ohio did not conduct any state censuses. Quadrennial Enumerations of males over twenty-one years of age residing in Ohio counties were taken every four years from 1803 to 1911 for the purpose of determining voting districts, and some of these are available. For more information, see the book State Census Records by Ann S. Lainhart, or visit the Ohio Historical Society's "About Census Records in Ohio" web page at: http://www.ohiohistory.org/resource/archlib/census.html.

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What Does the Census Tell Us?

(New and/or noteworthy information in italics) 1790 Name of family head; number of free white males under 16; number of free white males 16 and older; number of free white females; number of slaves; number of other persons. 1800 and 1810 Name of family head; if white; approximate age, sex; race; slaves. 1820 Name of family head; approximate age; sex; race; foreigners not naturalized; slaves; industry. 1830 Name of family head; approximate age; sex; race; slaves; if deaf and dumb; blind; foreigners not naturalized. 1840 Name of family head; approximate age; sex; race; slaves; number of deaf and dumb; number of blind; number of insane or idiotic and whether in public or private charge; if convict or pauper; number of persons in each family employed in each of six classes of industry and one of occupation; literacy; pensioners for Revolutionary or other military service. 1850 Name; age; sex; race; whether deaf and dumb; blind; insane or idiotic; value of real estate; occupation; birthplace; whether married within the year; school attendance; literacy; whether a pauper or convict; supplemental schedules for slaves, and persons who died during the year. 1860 Name; age; sex; race; value of real estate; value of personal estate; occupation; birthplace; whether married within the year; school attendance; literacy; whether deaf and dumb; blind; insane or idiotic; pauper or convict; number of slave houses; supplemental schedules for slaves and persons who died during the year. 1870 Name; age; sex; race; occupation; value of real estate; value of personal estate; birthplace; whether parents foreign born; month of birth if born within the year; month of marriage if married within the year; school attendance; literacy; whether deaf and dumb; blind; insane or idiotic; male citizens 21 and over, and number of such persons denied the right to vote for other than rebellion; supplemental schedules for persons who died within the year. 1880 In cities, address; name; relationship to family head; sex; race; age; marital status; month of birth if born within the year; occupation; months unemployed during the year; sickness or temporary disability; whether blind; deaf and dumb; insane or idiotic; maimed, crippled, bedridden or otherwise disabled; school attendance; literacy; birthplace of person and parents; supplemental schedules for persons who died during the year. 1890 The general population schedules were destroyed by fire in 1921-only fragments exist; supplemental schedules for Union veterans of the Civil War and their widows.

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1900 In cities, address; name; relationship to family head; sex; race; age; month and year of birth; marital status; number of years married; for women, number of children born and number now living; birthplace and mother tongue of person and parents; if foreign born, year of immigration and whether naturalized; occupation; months not employed; school attendance; literacy; ability to speak English; whether on a farm; if home owned or rented; if owned, whether mortgaged. 1910 Address; name; relationship to family head; sex; race; age; marital status; number of years of present marriage; for women, number of children born, and number still living; birthplace and mother tongue of person and parents; if foreign born, year of immigration; whether naturalized; and ability to speak English, or language spoken; occupation, industry and class of worker; if employed, whether out of work in past year; literacy; school attendance; home owned or rented; if owned, whether mortgaged; whether farm or house; whether survivor of Union or Confederate Army or Navy; whether blind; whether deaf and dumb. 1920 Address; name; relationship to head of family; sex; race; age; marital status; if foreign born, year of immigration to U.S., whether naturalized, and year of naturalization; school attendance; literacy; birthplace of person and parents; mother tongue of foreign born; ability to speak English; occupation, industry and class of worker; home owned or rented; if owned, whether mortgaged. 1930 Address; name; relationship to head of family; home owned or rented; value or monthly rental; radio set; whether on a farm; sex; race; age; marital status; age at first marriage; school attendance; literacy; birthplace of person and parents; if foreign born, language spoken in home before coming to U.S., year of immigration, whether naturalized; ability to speak English; occupation, industry and class of worker; whether at work previous day, or last regular working day; veteran status; for Indians, whether of full or mixed blood, and tribal affiliation. NOTES ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

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Limitations and Errors in the Census

Though census records are the most valuable resources in genealogy research, there are a number of limitations that researchers should keep in mind when using them. 1. 2. 3. 4. The first census that included the names of all household members was the 1850 census. The first census after the Civil War that included former slaves was the 1870 census. Most of the 1890 census was destroyed by fire. Due to the 72-year retention schedule, the most recent federal population schedule that is available to the public is the 1930 census. 5. Misspellings of names are common. Surnames may be spelled in various ways from census to census. Census-takers often spelled names phonetically. 6. The handwriting styles of past centuries can be difficult to read and interpret correctly. This has caused transcription errors in indexing resources because names, letters, or numbers are misread. 7. Especially for African Americans, racial identity may be inaccurately recorded. 8. Fictional names and undercounts were tricks used to adjust the census for political reasons in the early years. 6. Census takers were not always thorough or accurate in performing their duties. 7. It is estimated that millions of people are missing from census records since the first in 1790 because they lived in remote areas or because they did not trust the government and refused to answer the census-takers' personal questions. 8. Pages of a census may be too worn, damaged, or faded to read. The original microfilming of census records took place when the process was new and created film of a lower quality than is created today. 9. The information on the census is only as accurate as the knowledge of the person who provided the information to the census-taker. 10. The ages reported on census records are frequently inaccurate. This could be due to ignorance, vanity, or a simple transcription error. NOTES ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

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Census Resources in Special Collections

Special Collections has a variety of census resources available, including microfilm of many U.S. federal census population schedules and Soundex/Miracode indexes for the states of Alabama, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (for a complete list of microfilm holdings, see page 24), census indexes in book form, and books and articles about the census and using it in your research. In addition, the Akron-Summit County Public Library subscribes to three databases that allow you to search the census online: Ancestry Library Edition, Heritage Quest Online, and Footnote.com All of these databases may be accessed from any ASCPL location, and Heritage Quest and Footnote may be accessed from home using your library card. Additionally, www.FamilySearchLabs.org by the Church of Latter Day Saints offers free access to some census records. These databases are generally the most efficient way to do a census search.

Ancestry Library Edition

Ancestry Library Edition is a collection of over 4,000 databases which can be searched all at once or individually. It contains each of the U.S. federal population schedules from 1790 through 1930, as well as the 1850 and 1860 U.S. federal census slave schedules, the U.S. federal census mortality schedules 1850-1880, the U.S. federal census mortality schedules index, and the 1890 veterans schedules. Other Ancestry databases include information on births, marriages, deaths (including the Social Security Death Index), immigration, and military service. Also included are digitized photographs, maps, yearbooks, and reference works, as well as Ancestry World Tree, a collection of family trees submitted by users. To access Ancestry Library Edition from a library, follow these steps: 1. Log in to the computer using your barcode and PIN number (the last four digits of your telephone number) 2. Double click on the Internet Explorer icon on the desktop. This should take you to the Library's home page. 3. Click on "Databases & Websites" on the left side of the screen to view the list of research databases available. 4. Click on the "Genealogy and Local History" category of databases. 5. Click on "Ancestry Library Edition." Note: In order to make use of the Library's subscription, you must enter Ancestry through the Library home page. Going to www.ancestry.com on a library computer will not provide access. You may view an Ancestry tutorial or browse the list of databases included in Ancestry by clicking on the "Search" tab at the top of the Ancestry home page. Click on the "Charts and Forms" tab at the top of the Ancestry home page to view a list of printable genealogy forms to help you organize your research and blank forms to help you read and interpret the original documents you find, such as the census pages.

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Searching Ancestry

Ancestry offers two search options; ranked searching and exact searching. Ranked searching evaluates each result by comparing the search criteria that you enter to the information found on a record and placing the most relevant matches at the top of your list of results. This is very similar to an Internet search engine like Google or Yahoo. Exact searching returns all results that match all of the search criteria that you enter, within the categories of databases provided by Ancestry. You may select which search method to use by either clicking or not clicking in the "Exact Matches Only" check box near the top of the page. The following information applies to the "Exact Matches Only" option. To perform a general search from the Ancestry home page, follow these steps: 1. Unless you are researching a very common name, begin by typing the person's first and last names in the name boxes. If you are searching a common name, you may follow the first name with a space and the middle initial, however this will exclude your ancestor if his or her middle initial or name was not recorded. 2. From the "Country" drop-down menu after the words "Lived in," select the United States. 3. From the "State" drop-down menu, select the state. If you know that the person lived in different states or you do not know where the person lived, you can skip this step, but again, if you are searching a common name, you may get too many results. 4. Leave the "year range" boxes blank for your first search. If you get too many results, you can go back and fill them in. Clicking on the "Advanced Search" link next to the "Search" button will allow you to narrow your search a bit further if needed. 5. Click on the orange "Search" button, and your search results will appear. To search the "US Census" collection only, which includes the population schedules as well as the veteran's, slave, mortality, and 1930 merchant seamen schedules, click on "All" from the "US Census" box at the bottom of the Ancestry home page. To search a specific census, click on that year in the "US Census" box.

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Understanding the Results

Your list of results will be grouped by record type (for example, "census records," "birth, marriage and death records," "military records," etc.), with census results appearing first. Each line is a different database, and the number of results, or "hits," on the name you searched will be indicated on the left. Ancestry only displays five databases per group. If there are hits in more than five databases within a group, there will be a link after the fifth listing that says "View all (#) results." Be sure to click on the link or you may miss a valuable piece of information.

Remember to look carefully at the year of the census databases and the information within the census records once you click on a database in order to determine if the record pertains to the correct person. · For example, if you are searching for someone born in 1925, anyone in a census before 1930 will not be that person. In you are looking for a woman whose married name is Elizabeth Smith and who was married in 1861, any Elizabeth Smith found in a census before 1870 will not be her, since she would still be listed under her maiden name before 1870. While the age, birthplace, and race of a person can help you narrow your search, do not rule someone out simply because one of these bits of information seems incorrect. It could be that either the information recorded in the census is incorrect, or that the family history about that person is inaccurate.

·

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Once you have clicked on a census database included in your list of results, you may conduct a more specific search of that particular census only by clicking on the "Refine your search" link just under the database title at the top of the page, or by scrolling down to the bottom of the page. Be sure to click the back button enough times to return you to the main Ancestry search page before you begin your next general search.

If the column headings at the top of a census page are missing or are difficult to read, you may want to print out a blank census form for that year. You may do so from either the census record screen or from the census image screen. · · To print a blank from the census record screen, click on the "view blank form" link near the center of the page, click on the printer icon in the upper left corner, and then click "OK." To print a blank from the census image screen, click on the "blank census form" link in the upper right corner, click on the "download now" link under the correct form, click on the printer icon in the upper left corner, and then click "OK."

A Note Regarding Census Images for 1810-1850: The page numbers listed in Ancestry's current indexes for the 1810-1850 Census Images are comprised of two census images. The current linking system will link to the first of the two images that comprise this page number. If you search for a name using the index for the 1810-1850 census images and do not find that name on the image you are linked to, simply go to the next image or the previous image. The name will most likely be located there.

Practice 1

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Printing Census Images from Ancestry

To get the best printout of a census record (the text summary of an individual's entry on a census page), follow these steps: 1. Click on the "View printer-friendly" link within the "Page Tools" box on the right side of the screen. 2. Click either on the printer icon in the standard buttons toolbar along the top of the screen, or on "File" in the upper left corner of your screen and then select "Print" from the menu. The steps for printing an image of an original census page vary slightly depending on whether or not Ancestry's image viewer is installed on the computer that you are using. The computers in the Special Collections Division have the image viewer installed. Others in Main Library and in the branch libraries may not have it. Another factor in the printing process is whether you print with the page orientation set to portrait (the default setting) or you change the page orientation to landscape. In general, census images from 1900 and earlier will fit best and be easier to read if printed with the default portrait page orientation, and census images from 1910-1930 will fit best if they are printed with the page orientation set to landscape. To print a census page on a computer with the Ancestry image viewer, follow these steps: 1. Click on the printer icon in the toolbar just above the census image, not in the standard buttons toolbar along the top of the screen above the address bar. If you are printing an image from a census before 1910 and you do not need to change the page orientation, skip to step 6. 2. Click "Properties" in the upper right corner of the dialog box. 3. Click the "Advanced" tab. 4. Under "Layout Options," click the word "portrait" to reveal the drop-down menu. 5. Select "landscape" from the menu. 6. Click the "OK" button on each of the two dialog boxes displayed. To print a census page on a computer without the Ancestry image viewer, follow these steps: 1. Click on the printer icon in the toolbar just above the census image, not in the standard buttons toolbar along the top of the screen above the address bar. You will be taken to a page with instructions for printing and saving at the top and the image underneath (the instructions will not print). 2. From the "File" menu in the upper left corner of your screen on your browser, select "Page Setup." If you are printing an image from a census before 1910 and you do not need to change the page orientation, skip to step 4. 3. In the lower left corner of the "Page Setup" dialog box, change the page orientation from portrait to landscape. 4. Change the margins to .5 for all--left, top, right and bottom. 5. Click "OK." 6. Click "Print" from the standard buttons toolbar along the top of the screen above the address bar, or select "Print" from the "File" menu and then click the "Print" button at the bottom of the dialog box.

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Saving and E-mailing Census Images from Ancestry

To save a census page image to a disk or other portable storage device, follow these steps: 1. Click on the "Save" icon (it looks like a disk) in the toolbar just above the census image, not in the standard buttons toolbar along the top of the screen above the address bar. 2. Select a name and location for the image. 3. Click "Save." Ancestry also gives you the option of e-mailing a census image through its "Share" button. You may use this option to e-mail a link to the census page to someone you know, or to e-mail it to yourself if you don't have a disk or portable storage device with you. The link to the census image is only available for a limited time, however, so be sure to save the image to your home computer if you want to be able to view it later. To e-mail a census image, follow these steps: 1. Click on the "Share" icon (it looks like envelope) in the toolbar just above the census image. 2. Enter the e-mail address in the "Friend's Email" box. 3. Enter a name in the "Your Name" box (required). 4. Customize the message (optional). 5. Click the "Send" button. NOTES ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

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Tips for Searching Ancestry

As mentioned earlier, there are various reasons why you may not find an individual in the census, especially when doing a name search. That doesn't mean that the person isn't there--it just means that you'll have to be a little more creative in looking for him or her. Following are some suggested searches you can try when your initial search does not work. · Broaden your search. If you specified a state and city and/or a year range using the Ancestry home page search screen, or additional information like birthplace, birth year, or race, etc. using the advanced search options for the individual census databases, try removing some of the search criteria. · Try a Soundex name search. Both the Ancestry home page and the individual census database search screens have a "Spelling" drop-down menu next to the "Last Name" box from which you may choose "Exact" or "Soundex." A Soundex search will return not only individuals with the last name you enter, but also individuals with last names that sound similar. For example, a Soundex search on the last name Smith will return that name as well as the names Schmidt, Schmitt, Schnit, and Smythe. Since a Soundex search broadens your search, you may want to combine it with a search using advanced fields such as birthplace, estimated birth year, relation to head of household, etc. so that you aren't overwhelmed with results. · Try a wildcard search (type at least three letters followed by an asterisk (*), or substitute a question mark for one letter) for the first and/or the last name. For example, typing "Wil*" will find the first name "William," as well as the nicknames "Willie" and "Will," and typing "Kow?lsk?" will retrieve the last names "Kowalski," "Kowolski," "Kowalske," and "Kowolsky." This can help you find the person if there are alternate spellings of a name or a misspelling or transcription error in the census database. · Remove either the first or last name from your search and fill in one or more of the advanced search options available in the individual census databases. Say, for example, that you knew that William and Adalissa Demaline had a son, James, in 1841 in Cuyahoga County, Ohio and you wanted to find them in the 1850 census. Exact and Soundex searches for the parents' names (even using "Dem*" for the last name), in Cuyahoga County do not return any results. You could try a search for the first name James, residing in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, born in Ohio in 1841 +/-1 year. This search yields 57 results, which can be browsed fairly quickly by looking at the last names. The surname, in this case, was recorded and indexed as Emeline. · Search for another individual in the same household. In the Demaline/Emeline example above, the family was found by searching for the son, James because a search for his father's name, William, yields too many results and his mother's name, Adalissa, was indexed as Andalina. · Search for neighbors of the individual(s) for whom you are looking. If you don't have the names of neighbors, you can get them from a city directory. Many public libraries have collections of city directories. Once you find a neighbor in the census, browse through nearby census pages by clicking the "next" or "previous" buttons.

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Heritage Quest Online

Heritage Quest Online provides access to several separate databases. Unlike Ancestry, which searches all of the databases at one time, Heritage Quest requires you to select the database you want to search before executing the search. Also unlike Ancestry, Heritage Quest may be accessed from home with your library card. To access Heritage Quest from a library, follow these steps: 1. Log in to the computer using your library card number and your PIN (usually the last four digits of your telephone number). 2. Double click on the Internet Explorer icon on the desktop. This should take you to the Library's home page. 3. Click on "Databases & Websites" on the left side of the screen to view the list of research databases available. 4. Click on the "Genealogy and Local History" category of databases. 5. Click on "Heritage Quest." To access Heritage Quest from home, follow these steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Go to: www.akronlibrary.org Click on "Databases & Websites" on the left side of the screen. Click on "OPLIN's OneSearch" at the bottom of the page You will need to enter the library barcode number on the back of your library card. Scroll down to the alphabetical list of databases and click on "Heritage Quest."

NOTES ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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Searching the Census on Heritage Quest

Once you click on a database, black navigation tabs will appear at the top of the screen that will allow you to move quickly from database to database. Above the black navigation tabs are links to four general features that may be useful to you: · · · · The "Results List" link allows you to return to your latest list of search results in the current database The "Notebook" link takes you to a list of search results that you have saved by clicking in the box next to the item. These can then be e-mailed, downloaded or printed. The "Search History" link shows the search history of your current session. The "Help" link automatically defaults to whichever database or feature you are using. Links to the help table of contents and FAQ appear at the top of each help screen.

The Search Census option allows you to search using either a basic form (above) or an advanced form (next page). Simply click on the tab for the type of search that you want to do. · The basic census search allows you to search by surname (last name), given name (first name), census year and/or state. You only need to enter information into one of these fields to begin a search, but obviously the more information that you enter, the fewer results you will have to browse. The advanced census search allows you to search all of the basic fields, as well as county, location (township, city or institution), age, sex, race, and birthplace. Note: Age, sex, race, and birthplace are available only for 1850 forward (with the exception of 1890) and entering values in these fields will return results for 1850 forward only.

·

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Understanding the Results

After you have performed your search, you will receive a summary of search results. The results screens are designed to allow you to narrow down your information in a stepwise manner until you reach a census index that lists your desired results. You may select to view your results at any time based on the options you've chosen so far. When you first access the census results, the screen will display the total number of hits (based on the number of index entries retrieved) in all the census years and breaks down the hits within each census year. If no hits are found in a census year, that year does not display.

You have the option of viewing the census index for all hits found in all censuses, all hits found within a census year, or all hits found within a census year by state or by county. To view the census index for all hits found in all censuses, click on the "US Federal Census" link at the top of the results. To view hits found within a particular census year, click on the linked census year. To expand your search within a census year by state or by county, click on the "Expand by State" link for the year that you wish to expand and then on the "Expand by County" link for the state that you wish to expand.

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Each census index displays census records in a table sorted by surname. The table includes detailed information about each individual matching your search criteria, such as name, age, sex, race, birthplace, state, county, location, census year. For a key to the abbreviations used for race and birthplace, click the "Help" link, select "Census Index" from the Table of Contents, and then click on the "See a key" link in the section on "Fields."

From this index page, you can click on any surname to view the corresponding census image or resort the list by any field using the "Sort By" drop-down box on the right side of the screen. In the upper left corner is a link that reads "Why didn't I find someone in the Census?" Clicking on this link will take you to a table of contents for a full-text version of The Census Book by William Dollarhide (1999). In order to view The Census Book, you need to have installed the free Adobe Acrobat Reader plug-in. All library computers have it installed. After clicking on a surname in your census index, the census image appears in your browser (there is no need for a plug-in to view the image). Use your browser's scroll bars to navigate the image. On the "Census Image" page you can: · · · · Make the image larger or smaller using the "Zoom" drop-down menu above the image. Use the "Print" button to the left to print the image to an 8½ x11 sheet of paper. Tip: For clearer printing, select "Download image" to view the image in Adobe Reader, then use Adobe to print (see the "Printing from Heritage Quest" section later in this workbook). Use the next/previous "Page" arrow buttons to scroll physically through the census series. Use the next/previous "Name" arrow buttons to scroll through the images in order of the names in your result list.

To browse a census, click the "Browse" link at the top of the page. Select a census year. The U.S. map on the left side of the screen changes to reflect the states available that year (maps are from the book Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920, by William Thorndale and William Dollarhide). Select a State. A link to "view state map" to the right brings up a detailed

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map of county boundaries for the state in that year. Select a county and locality to view all images for that area. On every results and image page, you will see a checkbox that will allow you to add results to a Notebook. You need to save results to the notebook in order to e-mail them to yourself, download them to your hard drive, or to use the advanced print options. You can select the result and add it to your Notebook by clicking in the checkbox. Whenever you view this result, the checkbox will be selected. You can remove it from your notebook by clicking in the checkbox again. This will delete any notes you have taken on the document. Once you have saved your search results to your Notebook, you may take notes on individual results or click the "Email," "Print," or "Download" buttons to use any of these options. You can access any of these screens from each of the other ones using the navigation tabs at the top of each screen. Below is an example of what a saved result will look like within the Notebook.

While the links to the image will allow you to view or download the census page, you cannot print census page images from the Notebook. (See the printing instructions section later in this workbook.) You do not need to save your results to the Notebook to print page images. The following elements are available at the bottom of each Notebook page to assist you with navigation throughout your saved listings: · · · "Go To Number... - Entering a number in this box takes you to that notebook listing. "Previous" button - If you have more than 25 items saved, clicking it will take you to the previous page of notebook listings. If you are on the first page, this button will not work. "Next" button - If you have more than 25 items saved, clicking it will take you to the next page of notebook listings. If you are on the last page, this button will not work.

Additionally, you can select how many listings you wish to display per page using the dropdown menu. The default setting is 10 listings per page. Below is an example of how a result with notes appears when you e-mail, print, or download it. GOLDNER, JOHN (1920 U.S. Census) OH, MAHONING, JACKSON, Age: 61, Race: W, Born: OH, My Notes: I think that this might be Stephen's dad.

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Printing from Heritage Quest

To print the search results and notes that you have saved to your Notebook, follow these steps: 1. Click on the "Notebook" link at the top of the screen. 2. Click on the "Print" tab above the list of results. 3. Enter Title (optional). If you enter text in this field, it will become the title of your printout. You do not have to enter anything in this field, but you may find it helpful to include some kind of description about what you are printing. 4. Enter Comment (optional) If you enter text in this field, it will be included in your printout. 5. Click the "Print" button at the bottom of the screen to display the printable list of results. 6. Either click on the printer icon in the standard buttons toolbar along the top of the screen above the address bar, or click on "File" in the upper left corner of your screen and then select "Print" from the menu. You may print a census page image from your browser by clicking the "Print" button just above the census image in the "Census Image" screen and then clicking the printer icon, but the resulting printout will likely be difficult to read. For better results, download the census image first and then print using Adobe Acrobat Reader. To print census page images using Adobe Acrobat Reader, follow these steps: 1. Click on the "Download" button just above the census image in the "Census Image" screen. 2. Click on the "View" link at the bottom of the screen to view in Adobe Acrobat. 3. Click on the printer icon either in the Adobe Acrobat toolbar just above the image or in the standard buttons toolbar along the top of the screen above the address bar. 4. Click "OK." If the resulting printout is still difficult to read, you may print a larger image of the entire page or a section of the page using Adobe Acrobat Reader by following these steps: 1. Click on the "Download" button just above the census image in the "Census Image" screen. 2. Click on the "View" link at the bottom of the screen to view in Adobe Acrobat. 3. Click on the camera icon in the Adobe Acrobat toolbar. 4. While holding down the left mouse button, drag the pointer to select the section that you want to print. 5. Release the left mouse button. 6. When the box appears with the phrase "The selected area has been copied to the Clipboard," click "OK." 7. Click on the printer icon either in the Adobe Acrobat toolbar just above the image or in the standard buttons toolbar along the top of the screen above the address bar. 8. When the Print dialog box appears, select "Fit to printer margins" from the "Page Scaling" drop-down menu. 9. Click "OK."

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Saving and E-mailing from Heritage Quest

To save your Notebook results and notes as a text file on your computer or to a disk or other portable storage device, follow these steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click on the "Notebook" link at the top of the screen. Click on the "Download" button. Enter a title and/or comment (optional). A checkbox appears at the bottom of the screen that, if left checked, will cause your Notebook to be emptied after downloading. Uncheck this box if you do not wish to lose your Notebook after downloading. Click the "Download" button at the bottom of the screen. Click "Save" in the "File Download" dialog box. Select a name and location for the image. Click "Save."

5. 6. 7. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

To e-mail your Notebook results and notes, follow these steps: Click on the "Notebook" link at the top of the screen. Click on the "Email" button. Enter your e-mail address. Enter a title and/or comment (optional). A checkbox appears at the bottom of the screen that, if left checked, will cause your Notebook to be emptied. Uncheck this box if you do not wish to lose your Notebook after e-mailing. 6. Click the "Email" button at the bottom of the screen. A message will appear at the top of the screen once your Notebook has been sent.

Limitations of Heritage Quest

As of this writing, the population schedules for 1830, 1840, and 1850 and portions of 1880 and 1930 cannot be searched, as Heritage Quest's indexing of them is not complete. You may, however, browse the images of these censuses that have not yet been indexed by using the "Browse Census" link just under the census navigation tab. For 1880, about half of the states and territories (including Ohio) can be searched. For 1930, the states of CT, DE, MD, TX, and VA can be searched. To view a list of which states have been indexed for 1880 and 1930, click on the "What's New" link in the lower left hand corner of the Search Census screen. A "Searching the Census" tip sheets and instructions for printing enlarged census images in Acrobat Reader are available toward the bottom of the "What's New" page. Heritage Quest indexes head of household names only. The census enumerator would list as head of household the person who was responsible for the home and/or family. This person could be the husband, mother with children, person living alone, etc. To find another member of the household, search for the surname and look at the image to find the name. A summary of who is listed as a head of household each year may be viewed by clicking on the Help link while in the census search and then clicking on the "learn more" link in the second paragraph. For many years, persons residing within the household who had a different surname and all individuals living in institutions were listed as a head of household.

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Footnote.com

Footnote.com's History and Genealogy Archives contains civil war records, newspapers and photographs in addition to the 1860 and 1930 Federal Census. Footnote like Heritage Quest is available from any ASCPL library and from home with a library card. To access Footnote from a library follow these steps: 1. Log in to the computer using your barcode and PIN number (the last four digits of your telephone number) 2. Double click on the Internet Explorer icon on the desktop. This should take you to the Library's home page. 3. Click on "Databases & Websites" on the left side of the screen to view the list of research databases available. 4. Click on the "Genealogy and Local History" category of databases. 5. Click on "Footnote.com." To access Footnote from home, follow these steps: 1. Go to: www.akronlibrary.org 2. Click on "Databases & Websites" on the left side of the screen to view the list of research databases available. 3. Click on the "Genealogy and Local History" category of databases. 4. Click on "Footnote.com." 5. You will be prompted to select your library and enter your library barcode number and/or pin.

Searching the Census on Footnote

Footnote allows you to do a very basic search and then refine your results or do a search by browsing the databases available. To do a basic search and then refine it, follow these steps: 1. In the dark grey box in the center of the screen, click on the word "Person" then on the word "Options." 2. Enter the first name and last name. Leave year range empty. You can specify a State or keyword and this will reduce the number of results. 3. In the left column of the results page, you can refine (reduce) your results by specifying a location, age, description (location), enumeration district, estimated birth year, family number, street number and state.

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Footnote, like Heritage Quest allows you to browse the census images. To do this click "Browse" from near the top of Footnote's home page. From the Category column, select "All Titles." From the Collection column, scroll down to select "Census." You can then select the specific year, state, county, and enumeration district from lists. Census images from the enumeration districts will be displayed as thumbnail images which you can click on to open in the viewer.

Understanding the Results

The results page is displayed in three columns. The left column shows you the number of items matching your criteria and allows you refine your search. You can specify Last Name, First Name, Place and Year. The number for items is updated as you add more criteria. The other two columns refer to each item. The right column displays the information transcribed from the original record. The middle column provides access to the image of the original record. You can click on the icon from the middle column or any of the linked names to open the viewer.

Printing, Saving and E-mailing from Footnote

From the image viewer frame you can print the image, save a digital copy (jpg), or send it through e-mail.

Limitations of Footnote

Footnote only contains the 1860 and the 1930 census records. NOTES ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

FamilySearch Labs

Created by the Church of Latter Day Saints, FamilySearch Labs showcases new family history technologies that aren't ready for prime time. Currently the Records Search provides free access to millions of records including census records. To access FamilySearch Labs from any computer with internet access follow these steps: 1. Open a browser such as Internet Explorer. 2. In the address bar type: http://familysearchlabs.org/ then press Enter. 3. Click on "Record Search."

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Searching the Census on FamilySearch Labs

FamilySearch Labs like Ancestry allows you to search all the records available at one time or to specify a record relating to a particular event like a death or marriage. · The basic census search allows you to search by first & middle name, last name, event, a range of years and location. You only need to enter information into one of these fields to begin a search, but obviously the more information that you enter, the fewer results you will have to browse. When you type a location, you will be prompted to select a specific location from a list. Simply click on the correct entry. By default this search will return records that are exact or close matches to your criteria. You can change that to Exact Only or to Exact, Close and Partial on the basic search. The Advanced Search allows you to search all of the basic fields, plus spouse and parents.

·

· ·

You can also browse the census records in FamilySearch Labs similar to the way you can in Heritage Quest. From the search page click on "Browse our record collections" then on Canada, USA and Mexico. A list of the available collections will be displayed. Click on the census you want to browse (this is only available for collections with images). A list of states will be displayed and after you select one, a list of counties will be displayed. Selecting a county will display the enumeration districts. Once you select an enumeration district, the number of images available will be displayed below it. Clicking on that text will open the viewer and display the first image. You can move through the images using the arrows near the top right of the viewer frame.

Understanding the Results

The top of the results page provides you with a summary of your search and links to refine the search (adding or changing the criteria), to start a new search, or to apply additional filters to your current results. When you click on one of the filters, a drop down list is displayed allowing you to select an entry. Selecting a filter will reduce the number of results. Filters include: Place, Date, Collection, Gender, Last Names, First Names, Record Type, Role and Event Type. A one row summary of each record matching your search criteria is displayed in the middle of the page. For each record, you will see the person's name and the name of the database containing the record, any details from the record, names of the Spouse and Children if listed and the names of the Parents if listed. If you place your mouse over the person's name, details of the record will be displayed. If an image of the original record is available, an icon will appear just

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before the name. You can click either the name to see the transcribed details or the icon to see the scanned original record. To see all of the records you may have to scroll down and page forward.

Printing, Saving and E-mailing from FamilySearch Labs

From the Record Details viewer you can Copy the information to the system clipboard, print it or share a link to it through e-mail, Facebook or instant messaging. Use the icons inside the viewer for each of the functions. From the Record Image viewer you can Save it as a jpg or Print it using the icons inside the viewer.

Limitations of FamilySearch Labs

Not all of the US Census Records are available. Of those that are available for searching, not all of them have image files of the original record. There are also some records that are not indexed for searching ­ they can only be browsed. A list of the census records that are available is below. Census Limitations Florida State Census 1885 Florida State Census 1935 Florida State Census 1945 Massachusetts State Census 1855 Massachusetts State Census 1865 Minnesota State Census 1885 No Images Minnesota State Census 1895 No Images New York State Census 1865 No Searching New York State Census 1892 New York State Census 1905 No Searching Rhode Island State Census 1915 No Images South Dakota State Census 1905 South Dakota State Census 1915 South Dakota State Census 1925 United State Census Mortality Schedule 1850 United State Census Slave Schedule 1850 United State Census 1850 United State Census 1860 United State Census 1870 United State Census 1880 No Images United State Census 1900 United State Census 1920 No Images Wisconsin State Census 1855 Wisconsin State Census 1875 Wisconsin State Census 1885 Wisconsin State Census 1895 Wisconsin State Census 1905 27

Search Tips: If you can't find someone in one database try the search in another one. Each of

these databases was indexed by different people, and the way a name was indexed in one may not be the way it was indexed in the other. The databases also offer different search and browse options. Also, if you can't find someone in either database between 1800-1880, try a print index. The indexing or transcription of the surname in a database may be so far from the original as to make it nearly impossible to find, but it may have been transcribed correctly or nearly so in the print indexes.

Microfilm and Print Indexes

Special Collections has microfilm copies of all of the U.S. federal census population schedules and Soundex/Miracode for the states of AL, KY, OH, PA, and WV and film of some censuses for select other states. Below is a complete list of our census holdings on microfilm. U.S. Federal Census

Alabama 1830-1880, 1900-1930 plus Soundex (1880, 1900-1930) and Slave Schedules (1850, 1860) Arkansas 1850 Connecticut 1790-1840 Delaware 1800 Iowa 1850 Kentucky 1810-1880, 1900-1930 plus Soundex (1880, 1900-1930), Slave Schedules (1850, 1860), and 1890 Special Schedules/Veterans and Windows of Veterans Maryland 1800, 1810, 1820 Michigan 1850 Michigan 1880, Detroit Only, Reels 610 ­ 614 Missouri 1850 New York 1790-1850 North Carolina 1820 Ohio 1800-1880, 1900-1930 plus Soundex/Miracode (1900-1920) and 1890 Special Schedules/Veterans and Widows of Veterans Pennsylvania 1800-1930 plus Soundex/Miracode (1880, 1900-1920) and 1890 Special Schedules/Veterans and Widows of Veterans Texas 1850 Virginia 1810-1860 plus Slave Schedules (1850/ 1860) West Virginia 1870-1880, 1900-1930 plus Soundex/Miracode (1880, 1900-1930) and Special Schedules/Veterans and Widows of Veterans

U.S. Federal Census Population Schedule-Related Microfilm

Enumeration District Descriptions, 1900-1930, various states Enumeration District Description Maps, 1930, Ohio Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts, 1930 1935 Census of Business: Schedules of Motor Trucking for Hire

In addition, we have an extensive collection of print census indexes for most states, including available mortality and slave schedule indexes. These are available in our reading room in aisle 9A. Please see Using the Soundex Code or Miracode Index handout for details on how to use the non-computerized resources.

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We also have books and articles about using the census in your research. See the "Additional Reading" section near the end of this workbook. You may search for additional book titles by using the library's online catalog at http://encore.akronlibrary.org/iii/encore/app and for articles by selecting the "How To's" database within Heritage Quest's periodicals index, PERSI.

Other Census Resources

Many of the sources that you will be using in your genealogy searches will be located in the Special Collections Division. However, you should also consider the sources found in our Business and Government Division at Main Library. This type of U.S. census data can be useful in completing the picture of how your ancestors lived. For example, the number of churches in the county where your ancestor lived could indicate how important religion was to the community and how diverse it was. Additionally, the number of foreign born persons and the countries from which they came can provide a view of the ethnicities that were represented. The number of libraries and newspapers can tell you about the level of literacy in the community and its involvement in world events. These are just some examples of what county or state-wide statistics can tell you. Many of these sources summarize statistics taken not only from the federal population censuses, but also from the Agricultural, Manufacturing (see again explanations on pages 3-5 for these non-population censuses), Business, and other special census reports. You can also find reference materials pertaining to vital statistics in the United States. There are many statistics available from census years after 1930, and some that are specific to Ohio. The information obtained for these census years is not always consistent. Quite often the questions asked and statistics accumulated varied each time a census was taken. There is no personal information contained in these sources, only community-wide statistical information. Some of the most popular titles are listed below. All are available in the Reference section of our Business, Labor, and Government Division: Population of the States and Counties of the U.S. 1790-1990 R317 P831 BLG Abstracts of the United States Census: Population and Statistics: (we have several years, titles and data vary) 1850, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 (The statistical information for the 2000 census is available online at www.census.gov .) R317 BLG Population information in twentieth century census volumes, 1900-1940 and 1950-1980 R304.6097 BLG 1850-1930 Farm real estate values in the New England States (from the Census of Agriculture) R317 UN3c BLG Abstracts and Statistics: U.S. Census of Agriculture: 1925, 1930,1935,1940,1945, 1950, 1954, 1974 (including some years specific to Ohio) R313-R317 BLG U.S. Census of Manufacturers: 1929, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1954 1967, 1972, 1977 (Statistics by industry and by state) R313-317 BLG U.S. Census of Business: 1933, 1935, 1937-1938, 1940, 1948, 1954, 1963, 1967 R313.65 BLG Census of hotels, places of amusement, 1935 R313.65

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Indian Population Statistics: 1910, 1920, 1930 R313.9701 BLG Census of Population and Housing (including reports on numbers of inhabitants in an area): 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 (includes sources specific to Ohio and Akron) R317 Un3 BLG

Additional Reading

About the U.S. Census Cyndi's List of Genealogical Sites on the Internet, "U.S. ­ Census" page at http://www.cyndislist.com/census.htm Bray, Byron C. 2002. Family History Online: #7 U.S. Census Resources. National Genealogical Society, September/October 2002, p. 291-300. Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Matthew Wright. 2002. Finding Answers in U.S. Census Records. Aisle 5B in Special Collections (SC) Thorndale, William and William Dollarhide. 1987. Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses 17901920. (provides historical county boundaries for all states) Aisle 5B in SC. Maps from this book are also available on Heritage Quest when browsing the census. Kemp, Thomas Jay, ed. 2002. The 1930 Census: A Reference and Research Guide. Aisles 5B and 6A in SC Dollarhide, William. 1999. The Census Book: A Genealogist's Guide to Federal Census Facts, Schedules and Indexes. Aisles 5B and 6A in SC. The full text of this book is also available on Heritage Quest. (Click on the Help link in the upper right corner of any Heritage Quest screen, click "Back to Table Of Contents," and then click "Learn More About the Census.") Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking. 1997. Research in Census Records. Chapter 5 in The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy, revised edition. Aisles 5B and 6A in Special Collections (SC), with other circulating copies available throughout the ASCPL system. The full text of this book is also available on Ancestry. (Click the search button at the top of the Ancestry home page, then click "Reference & Finding Aids" in the column on the right side.) U.S. National Archives and Records Administration's "Census Records" web page at http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/ Hinckley, Kathleen W. 2002. Your Guide to the Federal Census: For Genealogists, Researchers, and Family Historians. Aisles 5B and 6A in SC About U.S. Census Indexes Saldana, Richard H. 1982. A Practical Guide to the "Misteaks" Made in Census Indexes. Aisle 5B in SC Bardbury, Connie. 2005. An Index Is an Index...or Is It? NGS News Magazine, Jan/Feb/Mar 2005, p. 47-51. Kemp, Thomas Jay. 2001. The American Census Handbook. (a bibliography of published census indexes through 1920) Aisles 5B and 6A in SC, with other reference copies in the History and Humanities Division at Main Library and at the Richfield Branch Library. Else, Willis I. 2002. The Complete Soundex® Guide: Discovering the Rules Used by the Census Bureau and the Immigration and Naturalization Service When Those Organizations Indexed Federal Records. On top of cabinet in front of microfilm collection in SC

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About State Censuses Dubester, Henry J. 1948. State Censuses: An Annotated Bibliography of Censuses of Population Taken after the Year 1790 by States and Territories of the United States. Aisle 5B in SC Lainhart, Ann S. 1992. State Census Records. Aisle 5B in SC

Glossary of Terms

Agricultural Schedule This supplemental non-population census includes names of farm owners or managers, acreage, crops, products and livestock. Only farms producing above a set amount annually were included. Census A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). It can be contrasted with sampling in which information is only obtained from a subset of a population. Census Index An alphabetical list of heads-of-household that aids in locating a family or individual in the census population schedules. Citizenship Status This question was asked on several population schedules. Valid responses were "a" (alien), "pa" (papers, have applied for but not completed the naturalization process) and "na" (naturalized). Enumeration District (ED) Refers to the area assigned to a single census-taker to count persons and prepare schedules within one census period. It can be a town, township, ward, or precinct. Federal Population Schedule This is the census document created by the federal government to count the population to determine apportionment for government representation. Every ten years in the U.S. since 1790, a federal population schedule was created. Head of Household This is the person who bears financial responsibility for the home and its occupants. It is usually the husband or father but can be a woman with her children. Miracode Index This is a coded index to the federal census population schedules based on the sounds of consonants in surnames. Using this system, references to a person named John Smythe would be next to another person named John Smith, alleviating problems associated with the many spelling errors found in the census. This index provides the enumeration district and family number. Mortality Schedule Supplemental non-population census providing information about individuals whose deaths occurred in the twelve months preceding the census. Non-Population Schedule This is any supplemental census that does not count the entire population but provides additional information for government administrative decisions. Population Schedule A census document used to count the population and record names and information of families and individuals. This is the primary type of census record used by genealogists and may have been created by the federal government or a state or local government. 31

Race This was a question appearing on several population schedules. Many times, the question was not asked but an observation was made by the census taker. There were a variety of responses including; w (white), B (black), m (mulatto) c (Chinese) and I (Indian/Native American). Slave Schedule A supplemental non-population census in 1850 and 1860 that counted slaves in the U.S. In a majority of the cases, individual slaves are not named. Information does include name of slave owner and age, sex, and color of slaves. Soundex Index A coded index to the federal census population schedules based on the sounds of consonants in surnames. The coding system was developed in the 1930s because widespread misspellings of surnames caused problems. Using this system, references to a person named John Smythe would be next to another person named John Smith, alleviating problems associated with the many spelling errors found in the census. This index provides the enumeration district and the page number for the family name. Veterans Schedules A supplemental non-population census that provides information on military pensioners and/or their widows. Used by genealogists to verify military service and identify military units of ancestors. Vital Statistics This numerical data summarizes the important events in human life, such as births, deaths, marriages, and migrations usually for a geographic area.

NOTES ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

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