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Producing Tactile Sensation with Airborne Ultrasound Annular Array

Mari Tatezono, Takayuki Iwamoto and Hiroyuki Shinoda The University of Tokyo In this paper, we propose a tactile display that uses acoustic radiation pressure. We fabricated a prototype. The prototype display consists of an annular array, a 12 channel driving circuit, and a PC. The array has 91 pieces of 40 kHz ultrasound transducer. We measured the output force, the frequency characteristics and the spatial distribution of radiation pressure. We confirmed that the output force were 0.8 gf at the focal region and 2.9 gf just above the surface of the array. The frequency characteristics were fine up to 1 kHz. The spatial resolution was about 20 mm. Key Words: tactile display, airborne ultrasound, acoustic radiation pressure

1.

1 3 2 p [Pa]

=1 E [J/m3] [kg/m3]

=2 c [m/s]

mm 1 kHz [1] Immersion CyberTouch CyberTouch[2] 2.2 300 mm 40 kHz [3] z [m] b [m] W [W]

2

20 Pa 10 mm [m] p [Pa] rA

W

A

z2 p

2

2

cb 2

rA

(2)

[4]

b = 5×10-3 [m] = 8.5×10-3 [m] -3 r 1 z = 300×10 [m] |p| = 20 [Pa] [kg/m3] c = 340 [m/s] 1 W [W] W 0.0405 100

= 1.2

0 .041 100

S

4 .1 [W]

F

(3)

F

2.

2.1 P [Pa] (1)

PS

4.1 S cS 0.024 [N] 2.4 [gf]

2.4 gf

(4)

2.4 gf

P

E

p c2

2

(1) 2.3

[Mkg/m3 s] s]

1.52 [Mkg/m3

R2

E [J/m3] (5) 40 kHz cm2

2 az

0.9989

0.1 % 8.5 mm (3)

(9)

1

E

a

p0 e c2

E0 [J/m3]

2

E0 e

z

2 az

a

f

2

(5) z =0 f

4.1 0.001 0.0041 [W] 4.1 [mW]

4.1 [mW/cm2] 240 [mW/cm2] [6]

(10)

p [Pa]

[Hz]

40 kHz 200 mm [J/m3] (6)

a = 1.0 10-4 40 kHz

4

[5] E40k [4]

E 40 k

E0e

2 200 10

E0 e

0 .04

0.96 E 0

1 200 mm

(6)

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2 I/O ( CSI-291144) PC PC

Fig.1 Energy loss rate 160 kHz

E160k

200 mm

E0 e

2 200 4 2 10

4

0.53E0

50 %

(7) Fig.2 The driving circuit and the annular array.

40 kHz 1 cm

40 kHz 1

2.4 2 z1 z2

R2

1 1 91 (8) T4010A1 0.0004 3 40 kHz 10 mm (a) 12

R

2

z1 z1

z2 z2

2

(b)

(a) (b) Fig.3 Annular array: (a) front side (b) back side

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4 2 mm 0.1 mm XYZ 5 4.1 220 mm 220 mm 40 kHz 0.8 gf 2.4 gf 2.9 gf 4.3 1 dB

Fig.5 Frequency characteristics 20 Hz

20 Hz 1 kHz 6 1 kHz

x = 0 y = 0 z = 250 mm 2

(2.3) 200 mm

40 kHz

4.2 x = 0 y = 0 z = 200 mm 20 Hz 2 kHz 2500 5 20 Hz

(a)

(b) Fig.6 Spatial distribution of radiation pressure: (a) 1-D distribution (b) 2-D spatial distribution Fig.4 Radiation pressure 6 (a) y = 0 z = 250 mm

x x y

-44 mm x 44 mm 2 mm (b) z = 250 mm 2 mm 100 Hz 25 kHz 2500 (b) z

20 mm

(a)

CG 20 mm

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5.1 4 3

[1]

2

5.2 CG

[2] [3] [4]

7 Web (Logicool Qcam Pro 9000) 1 PC CG 2 1 1

3

[5] [6]

Sato, K., Kajimoto, H., Kawakami, N., Tachi, S., "Electrotactile Display for Integration with Kinesthetic Display," In Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2007), pp. 3-8, 2007. Immersion Corporation: CyberTouch. http://www.immersion.com/ Suzuki, Y., Kobayashi, M., "Air Jet Driven Force Feedback in Virtual Reality," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 25, pp. 44-47, Issue 1, 2005. , , " ," , Vol. 11, No.1, pp. 77-86, 2006. H.E. Bass, L.C. Sutherland, A.J. Zuckerwar, "Atmospheric absorption of sound:Update," Journal of the acoustical society of america, Vol. 88, No.4, pp. 2019-2021, 1990. ," ," , 2000.

Fig.7 Demonstration system

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91 220 mm 2.9 gf 0.8 gf 20 mm

1 kHz

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