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Water Supply Network Simulation using EPAnet

Dr. Haytham Mamdouh Awad Tuesday 21/4/2010

The average cost of purchasing software based on 7 major international software developing companies. In all companies, software cost depends upon the size of the required network to be analysed.

Number of Pipes 100 250 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 10,000 25,000 50,000 Average Cost in USD 700 1,700 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 7,000 14,000 27,000

Software Name AQUIS EPANET H2ONET InfoWorks WS MIKE NET Pipe2008 SynerGEE Water WaterCAD

Developed by 7-technologies U.S. EPA MWH Soft Wallingford Software DHI GROUP KY Pipe ADVANTICA Bentley

Developer Webpage

Country Denmark USA USA UK Denmark USA UK USA

What is EPANET?

· EPANET is a computer program that performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within pressurized pipe networks. · A network consists of pipes, nodes (pipe junctions), pumps, valves and storage tanks or reservoirs. · EPANET tracks the flow of water in each pipe, the pressure at each node, the height of water in each tank, and the concentration of a chemical species throughout the network during a simulation period comprised of multiple time steps. · In addition to chemical species, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. · EPANET is designed to be a research tool. It can be used for many different kinds of applications in distribution systems analysis. (Sampling program design, hydraulic model calibration, chlorine residual analysis, etc...)


· · · · · · · · · · · · · · Handle systems of any size Compute friction head loss using the Hazen-Williams, the Darcy Weisbach, or the Chezy-Manning head loss formula Include minor head losses for bends, fittings, etc. Model constant or variable speed pumps Compute pumping energy and cost Model various types of valves, including shutoff, check, pressure regulating, and flow control Allow storage tanks to have any shape (i.e., surface area can vary with height) Consider multiple demand categories at nodes, each with its own pattern of time variation Model pressure-dependent flow issuing from emitters (sprinkler heads) Base system operation on simple tank level or timer controls as well as on complex rule-based controls Model the movement of a non-reactive tracer material through the network over time Model the movement and fate of a reactive material as it grows (e.g., a disinfection by-product) or decays (e.g., chlorine residual) over time Model the age of water throughout a network Track the percent of flow from a given node reaching all other nodes over time

· Model reactions both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall · Allow growth or decay reactions to proceed up to a limiting concentration · Employ global reaction rate coefficients that can be modified on a pipe-by-pipe basis · Allow for time-varying concentration or mass inputs at any location in the network · Model storage tanks as being complete mix, plug flow, or twocompartment reactors

Units of measurement

Example Network

Nodes Properties

Network Layout Pipe Properties

Project Setup

1- File >> New 2- Project >> Defaults 3- View >> Options

Drawing the network

1- View >> Toolbars >> Map Select Object Select Region Pan Zoom In Full Extend Add Reservoir Add Tank Add Pipe Add Pump Add Valve Add Text

Select Vertex

Zoom Out

Add Junction

Network Map after adding nodes

Setting Object Properties

For the reservoir: elevation (700) in the Total Head field. For the tank: 830 (elevation), 4 (initial level), 20 (maximum level), and 60 (diameter.)

Property Editor

Saving and Opening Projects

· From the File menu select the "Save As" option · In the "Save As" dialog that appears, select a folder and file name

­ naming the file ""

· Click "OK" to save the project to file · File >> Export >> Network · Open command from the File menu

Running a Single Period Analysis

· Project >> Run Analysis · click the Run button · Report >> Table (or clicking the Table button)

Running an Extended Period Analysis

· by selecting Options-Times from the Data Browser · Select the Patterns category in the Browser and then click the "Add button" · The VCR-style buttons in the Browser can animate the map through time. Click the Forward button or the stop button

Pattern Editor

· Add flow direction arrows to the map (select View >> Options, select the Flow Arrows page from the Map Options dialog, and check a style of arrow that you wish to use) · Create a time series plot for any node or link. For example, to see how the water elevation in the tank changes with time:

­ Click on the tank. ­ Select Report >> Graph (or ) ­ Select the Time Series button on the dialog ­ Select Head as the parameter to plot ­ Click OK to accept your choice of graph.

Example Time Series Plot

Running a Water Quality Analysis

· Select Options-Quality from the Data page of the Browser

­ Run the analysis and select Age as the parameter to view on the map ­ Create a time series plot for Age in the tank

· Repeat the simulation using a 240-hour duration · Repeat the simulation using an initial age of 60 hours to the tank

· In the Property Editor's Parameter field type in the word Chlorine.

­ Switch to Options-Reactions in the Browser. For Global Bulk Coefficient enter a value of -1.0 ­ Click on the reservoir node and set its Initial Quality to 1.0 ­ Set the initial quality in the Tank to 0

· Report >> Reaction from the main menu

­ Shows on average how much chlorine loss occurs in the pipes as opposed to the tank ­ The term "bulk" refers to reactions occurring in the bulk fluid while "wall" refers to reactions with material on the pipe wall. ­ The wall reaction is zero because we did not specify any wall reaction coefficient in this example.

Submitting a Map Query

· View >> Query or click · For ""

Viewing Results with a Graph (

Time Series Plot

Profile Plot

Frequency Plot

System Flow

Contour Plot


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