Read Lesson9.Hamza_Review text version

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Rules of Tajweed The Rules of Hamza:

Hamza is of two types, both of which are found in the Qur'an. 1. Hamza al Qat'i - Also known as hamza al asl. Sign:

The hamza may appear anywhere in the word. The hamza would be pronounced with the harakah on top of it irrespective of what it is sitting on. e.g.

2. Hamza al Wasl - Sign:

The hamza al wasl is an extra hamza at the beginning of a word, which is pronounced when starting with the word, and dropped when continuing [i.e., joining the previous word with the word that has hamza al wasl]. e.g. When Starting When Continuing

How to Read Hamza al Wasl - Hamza al wasl can be found in verbs, nouns, and prepositions [letter]. 1. In Verbs - Apply the third letter rule: If harakah on the 3rd letter is fat'hah or kasrah, then hamza al wasl is read with a kasrah. Examples: Examples:

If harakah on the 3rd letter is dammah, then hamza al wasl is read with a dammah.

5 Exceptions: The third letter of the verb has a dammah [a presented dammah], but the hamza al wasl of these 5 words is read with a kasrah and not a dammah. e.g.

2. In Nouns - Hamza al wasl is always pronounced with a kasrah e.g.

a. Verbal noun (masdar) derived from a 5 or 6 letter verb.

b. Empirical Nouns - 7 words used in the Qur'an e.g. 3. In Letter [preposition] - If hamza al wasl is followed by a laam [of preposition], then the hamza al wasl will always be read with a Fathah. e.g. :

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The meeting of two hamza in one word. There are three instances of when this can occur. 1. When comes before

e.g.

a. When starting the word, the hamza al wasl is read with the appropriate vowel, depending on the vowel of the third letter of the verb. Then, the hamza al qat'i that immediately follows is changed in to a madd letter of the same category as the vowel used on the hamza al wasl. e.g.

tumina

dhan

b. When joining the word preceding the word starting with hamza al wasl, the hamza al wasl will be dropped in pronunciation, while the hamza al qat'i saakinah stays fixed, and is pronounced. e.g.

alladhi' tumina yaqlu' dhan

2. When

a. In verbs: Hamza al wasl is dropped in writing and pronunciation, while the hamza al qat'i of questioning remains. e.g.

comes before

+

Verb

Hamza Istifhaam

How is the word pronounced? Exactly as it is written. b. In nouns: When the questioning hamza al qat'i is present before a noun starting with , the hamza al wasl undergoes a change. e.g. + could be pronounced in 2 ways: a.

- Madd al Faraq (six counts)

b. - Tas'heel (no madd) - the hamza al wasl is pronounced but "eased" so that it is between a hamza and an alif, with absolutely no madd.

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3. When comes before Both hamza must be read clearly with tahqeeq, meaning the hamza al qat'i is pronounced from its place of articulation [makhraj]. e.g. Exception in the Qur'an [Surah Fussilat: 44]: The first hamza in this word is pronounced with , meaning it is pronounced from its articulation point,

.

The second hamza in this word is read with . a. : The pronunciation of the hamza is `eased' so that it is between a hamza and an alif. Therefore, the sounding of the second hamza will not resemble the first hamza nor will it sound like an alif. Rather, it should be pronounced in between the two.

Note: In the entire Qur'an, the hamza is read with al qat'i is read with

vv. The above word is the only example in which the hamza

.

When Tanween is followed by a Harf Saakinah When tanween is followed by a harf saakinah, a nn with a kasrah is pronounced to connect the two words. This is because in Arabic there is a rule that forbids the meeting of two saakin letters between two words, thus the nn in the sounding of the tanween will acquire a kasrah.

Tanween

e.g.1.

=

2 Sakin letters, therefore the nun of tanween will acquire a kasrah

Harf Saakinah

Dammatain becomes Dammah nhu nib nah

The nun with kasrah is pronounced but not written

Note: There is a hamza al wasl at the beginning of the second word. When joining the two words, the hamza al wasl will be dropped in pronunciation.

Tanween

e.g.2.

When a letter has tashdeed, it denotes that there are 2 of the same letter

Fat'hatain becomes Fat'hah fakhra nilladhna

= +

The nun with kasrah is pronounced but not written

First harf is sakin

Note: This rule is only applied when you are joining the two words.

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How would you pronounce the following words? a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o.

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