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saintereso faqtebi

narkotikebTan

dakavSirebiT

zianis Semcirebis saqarTvelos qseli 2007w

s a r C e v i

popularul narkotikebze wamaldamokidebulebis niSnebi mozardebi alkoholi da danaSauli sikvdilianobis wliuri maCveneblebi aSS-Si kokaini da kreki samarTaldamcav da Tanamdebobis pirTa korumpirebuloba danaSauli testi narkotikze da dasaqmeba narkotikebis moxmarebis Sefaseba ekonomika eqstazi: raze metyvelebs faqtebi garemo ze zemoqmedeba "Gateway" ­ "karibWis "Teoria heroini akrZalva saerTaSoriso faqtebi, samoqmedo kursebi da tendenciebi: monacemebi sxvadasxva qveynebidan marihuana mkurnaloba meTadonis, buprenorfinisa da heroinis daxmarebiT meTadoni metamfetamini narkotikebis momxmarebeli damnaSaveebi samarTaldamcav sistemaSi _ cixeebi, sapatimroebi da TavdebiT ganTavisuflebulebi 4 5 6 6 7 9 10 12 13 15 17 18 20 20 22 23 26 28 29 30 32

zianis Semcirebis saqarTvelos qseli da masSi Semavali organizaciebi madlobas uxdian: fond "Ria sazogadoeba saqarTvelos"

da ungreTis samoqalaqo Tavisuflebebis kavSirs dafinansebisa da xelSewyobisaTvis broSura "saintereso faqtebi narkotikebTan dakavSirebiT" gamocemulia zianis Semcirebis saqarTvelos qselis proeqtis _ "saadvokacio kompania"-s farglebSi.

narkotikebis moxmarebis kontrolirebadi da usafrTxo ineqciis dawesebulebebi 33 Spricebis/nemsebis gacvlis programebi 35 niderlandebi da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi 36 ZiriTadi narkotikebisa da Zaladobis maCveneblebis Sedarebis cxrili 37 mkurnaloba 39 CanacvlebiTi Terapia 40 faqtebi saqarTveloSi arsebuli narkoviTarebis Sesaxeb 40 narkotikebis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli danaxarjebi 40 Sidsi 42 saqarTveloSi aiv-infeqciis registrirebul SemTxvevaTa ricxvi 42 aiv infeqciis klinikuri speqtri 43 saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da samarTlebrivi praqtika 44 janmrTelobis mdgomareobis savaldebulo perioduli Semowmebis Sesaxeb 46

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popularul narkotikebis safrTxis maCveneblebi

mozardebi

aRkveTis mdgomareoba

popularul narkotikebze wamaldamokidebulebis niSnebi

marixuana

popularuli narkotikebis safrTxis maCveneblebi (dabali qula miuTiTebs nakleb safrTxeze)

damokidebuleba

tolerantoba

aRkveTis mdgomareoba: abstinenciisTvis damaxasiaTebeli simptomebi da misi simwvavis xarisxi. gamyareba: narkotikis raodenobrivi maCvenebeli, romelic aiZulebs momxmarebels kvlav da kvlav miiRos igi, Sedegad igi upiratesobas am nivTierebas aniWebs sxva narkotikebTan SedarebiT. tolerantoba: gviCvenebs Tu ra raodenobiT narkotikuli saSualeba aris saWiro imisaTvis, rom miRweul iqnas am nivTierebaze mzardi moTxovnileba, agreTve sabolood miRweuli stabiluri moTxovnilebis done. damokidebuleba: Tu ramdenad rTulia momxmareblisTvis Tavis danebeba, recidivebis sixSire, adamianebis procentuli maCvenebeli, romelic sabolood xdeba damokidebuli narkotikul nivTierebaze. ra zomiT aqvT maT moTxovnileba narkotikul saSualebebze da raodenoba, romelic sabolood maTTvis sazianoa. intoqsikacia: miuxedavad imisa, rom intoqsikacia ar iTvleba Tavad damokidebulebis sazomad, intoqsikaciis xarisxi kavSirSia damokidebulebasTan da aZlierebs im personalur da socialur zians, rasac narkotiki iwvevs.

wyaro: Jack E. Henningfield, PhD for NIDA, Reported by Philip J. Hilts, New York Times, Aug. 2, 1994 "Is Nicotine Addictive? It Depends on Whose Criteria You Use."

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intoqsikacia

gamyareba

kofeini

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2

2 4 6 3

alkoholi

kokaini

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heroini

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4

3

6

6

3

1

3

1

1

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Tambaqos moxmareba evropaSi 1493 wels daiwyo, mas Semdeg, rac kolumbma da misi xomaldis ekipaJma es nivTiereba amerikis kunZulebidan Semoitana.

nikotini

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mozardebi

wamaldamokidebulebisa da narkotikebis moxmarebis centris monacemebiT, "Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegebi aCvenebs, rom Tineijerebis 34%-is azriT, marihuana gacilebiT advili SesaZenia, vidre sigareti an ludi, xolo 35% amtkicebs, rom sigaretis yidva ufro xelmisawvdomia. Tineijerebi, romlebic acxadeben, rom marihuanas SeZena ufro advilia, xasiaTdebian wamaldamokidebulebis maRali riskiT (1.45), vidre isini, romlebic Tvlian, rom sigaretisa da ludis SeZena gacilebiT advilia (Sesabamisad, 0.81 da 0.78).

wyaro: Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E., Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2005: Volume I, Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 06-5883) (Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse), August 2006, p. 407.

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aRkveTis mdgomareoba

damokidebuleba

tolerantoba

4

intoqsikacia

gamyareba

nakleb saSiSi

metad saSiSi

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sikvdilianobis wliuri maCveneblebi SeerTebul StatebSi

kokaini da kreki "narkotikebis ukanono moxmarebasTan aris dakavSirebuli TviTmkvlelobebi, sqesobrivi Zaladoba, avtosatransporto avariebi, aiv infeqcia, pnevmonia, Zaladoba, fsiqikuri daavadebebi da hepatitebi. SeerTebul StatebSi daaxloebiT 3 milion adamians narkotikebis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebiT seriozuli problemebi gaaCnia. makginisisa da fegis monacemebze dayrdnobiT mocemul kategoriaSi gaerTianda sikvdilis is SemTxvevebi, romlebic arapirdapiri gziT gamowveulia narkotikebis ukanono moxmarebiT. narkotikebis ukanono moxmarebiT gamowveuli sikvdilianobis maCveneblis dadgenis mizniT gamoyenebul iqna Sesabamisi fardobiTi sidideebi. jamSi, gamoTvlebis mixedviT dadginda, rom 2000 wels narkotikebis ukanono gamoyenebis mizeziT adgili hqonda sikvdilianobis 17,000 SemTxvevas, rac 1990 wlis maCvenebelTan SedarebiT 3000 erTeuliT naklebia."

wyaro: Mokdad, Ali H., PhD, James S. Marks, MD, MPH, Donna F. Stroup, PhD, MSc, Julie L. Gerberding, MD, MPH, "Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000," Journal of the American Medical Association, March 10, 2004, Vol. 291, No. 10, p. 1242.

alkoholi da danaSauli

"saojaxo meurneobebis kvlevis" Sedegebis Tanaxmad, 48 milionze meti amerikeli mTeli wlis manZilze saSualod kviraSi erTxel an orjer moixmars alkohols. es raodenoba aRemateba amerikelebis im saerTo raodenobas, romelTac odesme gausinjavT kokaini, kreki da/an heroini (27.9 milioni) da 2.5-jer aRemateba im amerikelTa ricxvs, romlebmac erTxel moixmares marihuana ukanaskneli wlis ganmavlobaSi (18.7 milioni).

wyaro: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Population Estimates 1998 (Washington DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1999), pp. 19, 25, 31, 37, 85, 91, 105.

10 patimari, romelic mkvlelobisTvis ixdis sasjels, oTxi ambobs, rom danaSaulis Cadenisas mamoZravebeli Zala (xelSemwyobi piroba) alkoholi iyo. TavdasxmaSi braldebulTa da TavdebiT ganTavisuflebulTa daaxloebiT naxevari alkohols iRebda danaSaulis Cadenamde.

wyaro: Greenfield, Lawrence A., US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Alcohol and Crime: An Analysis of National Data on the Prevalence of Alcohol Involvement in Crime (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, April, 1998), p. 21.

kokaini da kreki

"kokainis moxmarebis Sedegad xdeba sisxlZarRvebis Seviwroeba, Tvalis gugebis gafarToeba, sxeulis temperaturis momateba, gaxSirebuli guliscema da maRali arteriuli wneva. kokainis miRebiT gamowveuli myisieri eiforiuli efeqtis xangrZlivoba (hi perstimulacia, moTenTilobis gaqroba da naTeli goneba) damokidebulia narkotikis miRebis meTodze. rac ufro swrafia Sewova, miT ufro Zlieria aRgzneba (narkotikuli Troba). meores mxriv, rac ufro swrafia Sewova, miT xanmoklea narkotikis zemoqmedebis efeqti. SesunTqviT gamowveuli narkotikuli Troba SeiZleba 15-30 wuTis manZilze gagrZeldes, xolo mowevis SemTxvevaSi _ 5-10 wuTi. xangrZlivi gamoyenebis Sedegad SeiZleba narkotikuli Trobis dro Semcirdes, xolo wamaldamokidebulebis riski gaizardos."

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Crack and Cocaine (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/ cocaine.html last accessed January 9, 2006.

sikvdilianobis wliuri maCveneblebi SeerTebul StatebSi

Tambaqo arasrulfasovani kveba da fizikuri inertuloba alkoholi mikrobuli agentebi momwamvleli nivTierebebi saavtomobilo avariebi eqimis mier daniSnul wamalze uaryofiTi reaqcia TviTmkvleloba incidentebi iaraRis gamoyenebiT mkvleloba seqsualuri Zaladoba akrZaluli narkotikebis gamoyeneba, pirdapiri da arapirdapiri gziT arasterioduli anTebis sawinaaRmdego wamlebi, rogoricaa aspirini marihuana 435,000 365,000 85,000 75,000 55,000 26,347 32,000 30,622 29,000 20,308 20,000 17,000 7,600 0

"sxva saxis garTulebebi, rac kokainis moxmarebas ukavSirdeba, moicavs ariTmias, stenokardiul tkivils mkerdis areSi, sunTqvis gaCerebas, insults, epilefsiur Setevasa da Tavis tkivils, kuWnawlavis sistemis problemebs, rogoricaa tkivili muclis areSi da gulisreva. kokaini aqveiTebs madas. 7

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kokaini da kreki kokainis qronikul momxmarebelTa umetesoba madisa da wonis problemebs uCivis. "kokainis miRebis meTodebisTvis sxvadasxva mavne efeqtia damaxasiaTebeli. magaliTad, regularulma ynosvam SeiZleba gamoiwvios ynosvis dakargva, cxviridan sisxldena, ylapvasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi, xmis CaxleCa da cxviridan qronikuli gamonadeni. ylapvis garTulebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios Sinagani organoebis gangrena, sisxlis mimoqcevis gauaresebis gamo. kokaini zogjer iwvevs mwvave alergiul reaqcias da yvela ineqciuri momxmareblebis msgavsad, kokainis momxmarebeli SeiZleba daavaddes aiv-infeqciiTa da sxva sisxliT gadamdebi infeqciebiT.

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Crack and Cocaine (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/ cocaine.html last accessed January 9, 2006.

Tanamdebobis pirTa korumpirebuloba

wyaro: "Cocaine Dependence", The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15.Psychiatric Disorders, Chapter 195.Drug Use and Dependence, Merck & Co. Inc., from the web at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section15/chapter195/195f.htm last accessed November 30, 2000.

"kokainis dozis gadaWarbebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios tremori (kidurebis kankali), konvulsia (krunCxvebi) da ukiduresi agzneba. sikvdili SeiZleba dadges ariTmiisa da gulis Setevis (gulsisxlZarRvTa sistemis ukmarisobis) Sedegad."

wyaro: "Cocaine Dependence", The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15.Psychiatric Disorders, Chapter 195.Drug Use and Dependence, Merck & Co. Inc., from the web at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section15/chapter195/195f.htm last accessed November 30, 2000.

"kokainis zogierTi momxmarebeli uCivis agznebadobas, gaRizianebasa da SfoTvas. momxmarebels SeiZleba gamoumuSavdes "kaifisadmi" tolerantoba. mravali wamaldamokidebuli ambobs, rom isini ver iReben siamovnebas imave doziT, rac kokainis pirveli miRebiT ganicades. eiforiuli efeqtis gasaZliereblad da gasaxangrZliveblad zogierTi momxmarebeli dozas zrdis. im dros, rodesac "kaifisadmi" tolerantoba miRweulia, momxmarebeli SeiZleba ufro sensitiuri (mgrZnobiare) gaxdes kokainis anesTeziuri da konvulsiuri (krunCxvebis gamomwvevi) moqmedebis mimarT (dozis gazrdis gareSec). swored aseTi mometebuli mgrZnobiarobis dros mcire dozis miRebis SemTxvevaSic ki izrdeba letaluri SemTxvevebis riski."

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Crack and Cocaine (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/ cocaine.html last accessed January 9, 2006.

"NIDA-s (National Institute on Drug Abuse) mkvlevarebma aRmoaCines, rom adamianis RviZli axdens kokainisa da alkoholis kombinirebas da warmoqmnis sruliad axal nivTierebas _ koka eTilens, romelic aZlierebs kokainiT gamowveul eiforiul efeqts da potenciurad zrdis uecari sikvdilis risks."

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Crack and Cocaine (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/ cocaine.html last accessed January 9, 2006.

1844 wels moxda kokainis sufTa saxiT gamoyofa.

samarTaldamcavebisa da Tanamdebobis pirTa korumpirebuloba

gfb-s 1993-1997 w.w. monacemebiT, saSualod, gasamarTlebuli policielebis daaxloebiT naxevars, narkotikebTan dakavSirebul danaSaulSi edeboda brali.

wyaro: General Accounting Office, Report to the Honorable Charles B. Rangel, House of Representatives, Law Enforcement: Information on Drug-Related Police Corruption (Washington, DC: USGPO, May 1998), p. 35.

"imis gamo, rom kokaini Zalzed xanmokle moqmedebiT xasiaTdeba, intensiuri momxmareblebi SeiZleba kokainis ineqcias ikeTebdnen intravenurad an eweodnen mas yovel 10-15 wuTSi erTxel. aseTi intensivobiT kokaini iwvevs iseT toqsikur efeqts, rogoricaa taqikardia, hi pertenzia (arteriuli wnevis momateba), midriazi (gugebis gafarToeba), kunTebis krunCxviTi SekumSva, uZiloba da ukiduresi aRgznebadoba. Tu momxmarebels ganuviTarda halucinaciebi, paranoiduli iluziebi da agresiuli qceva, igi SeiZleba saSiSi gaxdes." 8

monitoringis saerTaSoriso jgufis, "Transparency International"-is monacemebiT, "kolumbia sayuradReboa im tragikuli SedegebiT, rac qveyanam aTwleulebis manZilze politikosebisa da Tanamdebobis pirTa korufciis Sedegad miiRo. qveyanaSi Seqmnil viTarebas emateba akrZaluli narkotikebiT vaWroba, ramac qveyana savalalo Sedegamde miiyvana.

wyaro: Hodess, Robin (ed.), Transparency International, Global Corruption Report 2003 (Berlin, Germany: Transparency International, 2003), p. 108.

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danaSauli

danaSauli faqtobrivad, nacvlad narkotikebis moxmarebis Semcirebisa, moxda is, rom narkodilerebma vaWrobis adgili Secvales." "Cveni daskvnebi adasturebs im faqts, rom moTxovna akrZalul narkotikebze saSualebas aZlevs narkotikebis bazars, moaxdinos adaptireba da gadalaxos samarTaldamcavi RonisZiebebis gatarebiT gamowveuli dabrkolebebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom policiis adgilze yofnis gamo narkotikebis mopoveba unda garTulebuliyo, es problema Zalian martivad gadaiWra imiT, rom narkotikebis dilerebma vaWrobis adgili Secvales."

wyaro: Wood, Evan, Patricia M. Spittal, Will Small, Thomas Kerr, Kathy Li, Robert S. Hogg, Mark W. Tyndall, Julio S.G. Montaner, Martin T. Schechter, "Displacement of Canada's Largest Public Illicit Drug Market In Response To A Police Crackdown," Canadian Medical Association Journal, May 11, 2004: 170(10), p. 1554.

mkvlelobis faqti yovel 100,000 sul mosaxleze 1900-1997 w.w. ("Uniform Crime Reports" (gfb))

patimroba patimroba qonebasTan Zaladobis dakavSirebul danaSaulTa gamo gamo

mkvlelobis maCveneblebi amerikaSi

1,609,327

1,649,825

1,605,127 597,026 662,886 92,300

"narkotikebTan brZola" 1969 wlidan dRemde

590,258

alkoholis akrZalva 1919-1933 w.w.

dapatimrebebis maCvenebeli aSS-Si

patimroba marihuanas flobis (Senaxvis) gamo

696,074

684,319

0 1900 1915 1930 1945 1960 1975 1990

patimroba marihuanis kontrabandis an gayidvis gamo

87,286

narkotikebTan dakavSirebul patimrobaTa sruli raodenoba

1,745,712

1,678,192

1,846,351

wyaro: US Census Data and FBI Uniform Crime Reports.

"kanadis samedicino asociaciis Jurnalma" gamoaqveyna kvleva vankuveris samxreT nawilSi, daunTaun isT saidSi policiis mier narkotikebis ukanono bazrisadmi umkacresi zomebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb. mkvlevarebi Semdeg daskvnamde mividnen: "vankuverSi narkotikebis gamoyenebis Semcirebis faqti ar dadasturebula, miuxedavad, policiis mxridan narkotikebis momxmareblebisadmi ganxorcielebuli umkacresi zomebisa. 10

patimrobaTa weli sruli raodenoba

14,094,186

14,004,327

13,639,479

2004

2002

2005

2003

13,741,438

1,538,813

zemoT motanil grafikze mocemulia aSS-Si 1990-1998 wlebSi mkvlelobis muxliT Cadenil danaSaulTa faqtebis maCveneblebi. unda aRiniSnos, rom am qveyanaSi Cvens saukuneSi momxdari yvelaze sastiki danaSaulebi emTxveva alkoholis akrZalvisa da narkotikebis winaaRmdeg brZolis gaZlierebis periodebs. 1933 wels mkvlelobis maCvenebelma maqsimums miaRwia da 100,000 sul mosaxleze 9.7% Seadgina. amave wels alkoholze akrZalva moixsna. 1980 wels mkvlelobis maCvenebeli kvlav rekorduli iyo da Seadgina 10% 100,000 adamianze.

marihuanasTan dakavSirebul patimrobaTa sruli raodenoba

danaSauli

83,096 697,082

90,471

613,986

620,510

603,503

1,613,954

miuxedavad imisa, rom mavanma SeiZleba ifiqros, rom narkotikebTan omi narkokontrabandistebsa da narkobiznesis mesveurebze aqcentirdeba, 2005 wels 1,846,351 narkotikebiT borotad gamoyenebis mizeziT dapatimrebulTa 42.6% marihuanas moxmarebisTvis iyo dakavebuli ­ jamSi 786,545 adamiani. maTgan mxolod marihuanas SenaxvisaTvis 696,074 adamiani iyo dapatimrebuli. amis sapirispirod, 2000 wels marihuanasTan dakavSirebuli samarTaldarRvevebis gamo dapatimrebuli iqna 734,497 amerikeli, romelTagan 646,042 mxolod narkotikis flobisTvis daakaves. 11

786,545

771,605

755,186

testi narkotikze da dasaqmeba

wyaro: Crime in America: FBI Uniform Crime Reports 2005 (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, 2006), Table 29, from the web at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_29.html and Arrest Table: Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations, from the web http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/arrests/index.html last accessed Sept. 20, 2006; Crime in the United States: FBI Uniform Crime Reports 2004 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2005), p. 278, Table 4.1 & p. 280, Table 29; Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in America: FBI Uniform Crime Reports 2003 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2004), p. 269, Table 4.1 & and p. 270, Table 29; Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in America: FBI Uniform Crime Reports 2002 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2003), p. 234, Table 4.1 & and p. 234, Table 29; Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in America: FBI

narkotikebis moxmarebis Sefaseba

wyaro: Yamaguchi, Ryoko, Lloyd D. Johnston & Patrick M. O'Malley, Relationship Between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies," Journal of School Health, April 2003, Vol. 73, No. 4, p. 164.

narkotikze testis dadebiTi pasuxi ar iZleva informacias imis Sesaxeb, moixmara Tu ara TanamSromelma narkotiki an alkoholi muSaobis periodSi, aqvs Tu ara TanamSromels narkotikebTan dakavSirebuli problemebi an ramdenad xSirad moixmars igi narkotiks.

wyaro: Lewis Maltby, Vice President, Drexelbrook Controls, Horsham, PA, as cited in Report of the Maine Commission to Examine Chemical Testing of Employees, (December 31, 1986).

kolumbiis universitetis "wamaldamokidebulebisa da narkotikebis borotad gamoyenebis erovnuli centris" kvleva adasturebs faqts, romelic kargad aris cnobili mravali kriminologisaTvis: alkohols gacilebiT sastiki danaSaulebi ukavSirdeba, vidre akrZalul narkotikebs, maT Soris kreks, kokainsa da heroins. sisxlis samarTlis patimarTa 21% danaSauls alkoholis zemoqmedebis qveS Cadioda, maTgan mxolod 3% iyo krekis an kokainis fxvnilis zemoqmedebis qveS da mxolod 1% _ heroinis zemoqmedebis qveS.

wyaro: Califano, Joseph, Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population, Forward by Joseph Califano, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (1998).

aSS-Si narkotikebis testze yovelwliurad 1 miliardi dolari ixarjeba, romelic 20 milion TanamSromels utardeba.

wyaro: Shepard, Edward M., and Thomas J. Clifton, Drug Testing and Labor Productivity: Estimates Applying a Production Function Model, Institute of Industrial Relations, Research Paper No. 18, Le Moyne University, Syracuse, NY (1998), p. 8.

federaluri statistikis Tanaxmad, sisxlis samarTlis damnaSaveTa didi raodenoba danaSaulis Cadenis momentSi alkoholis zemoqmedebis qveS imyofeboda (36.3%, anu 1,919,251 damnaSave). federaluri gamoZieba aseve cxadyofs, rom sapyrobileSi an Statis cixeSi dakavebuli sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulSi braldebulTa 40%-ze met SemTxvevaSi danaSaulis Cadenis faqtori alkoholi iyo.

wyaro: Greenfield, Lawrence A., Alcohol and Crime: An Analysis of National Data on the Prevalence of Alcohol Involvement in Crime (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, April 1998), pp. 2021.

erT-erTi mizezi, ris gamoc zogierTi damsaqmebeli narkotikze tests ar iyenebs, misi maRali Rirebulebaa. eleqtronuli produqciis mwarmoebeli firmis gamoTvlebiT, narkotikze testis erTi dadebiTi pasuxis miReba 20,000 aSS dolari jdeba, xolo 10,000 TanamSromlis Semowmebis Semdeg man mxolod 49 dadebiTi pasuxi miiRo. mudmivmoqmedi komitetis SefasebiT samTavrobo sturqturebSi narkotikze Catarebuli testis yoveli dadebiTi pasuxi 77,000 dolari jdeba, dadebiTi pasuxebis procentuli maCvenebeli mxolod 0.5%-ia.

wyaro: "Workplace Substance Abuse Testing, Drug Testing: Cost and Effect," Cornell/Smithers Report, Utica, New York: Cornell University (January 1992).

narkotikebis moxmarebis Sefaseba

"15-64 wlis asakis daaxloebiT 200 milionma adamianma, anu msoflio mosaxleobis 5%-ma, moixmara narkotiki minimum erTxel bolo Tormeti Tvis manZilze. es wina wlis maCvenebelTan SedarebiT 15 milioni adamianiT metia, magram gacilebiT naklebia im adamianTa raodenobasTan SedarebiT, romlebic nebadarTul fsiqotropul medikamentebs moixmaren (mozardi mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 30% moixmars Tambaqos da daaxloebiT naxevari moixmars alkohols). dRes msoflioSi kanafis momxmarebelTa ricxvi daaxloebiT 160 milionia, rac 15-64 wlis asakis mosaxleobis 4%-s Seadgens. amfetaminis ti pis narkotikebis momxmarebelTa ricxvi, romelTa Soris 26 milioni moixmars amfetaminebs da 8 milioni moixmars eqstazs, odnav naklebia wina wlis monacemTan SedarebiT, romelic "msoflio narkotikebis angariSSia" dafiqsirebuli. igi asaxavs 13

testi narkotikze da dasaqmeba

aRiniSneba Tu ara narkotikebis moxmarebisagan Tavis Sekavebis faqtebi narkotikebze testirebis SemTxvevaSi?

uzenaesi sasamarTlos wevrebs miaCniaT, rom narkortikebze testireba amcirebs moxmarebis faqtebs. Tumca, mocemul kvlevaSi gamokvleuli me-8, me-10 da me-12 klasis moswavleebi acxadeben, rom skolaSi Catarebuli testi narkotikze ar asaxavda realurad maT mier narkotikis gamoyenebis sixSiris an narkotikis moxmarebis faqts. 12

narkotikebis moxmarebis Sefaseba metamfetaminis moxmarebis Semcirebas samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi (gansakuTrebiT, tailandSi) da esqtazis moxmarebis Semcirebas Crdilo amerikaSi (gansakuTrebiT StatebSi). opiatis momxmarebelTa raodenoba mcired gaizarda da miaRwia 16 milions (maTgan 11 milioni heroinis momxmarebelia), rac ZiriTadad gamowveulia opiatebis momxmarebelTa raodenobis zrdiT aziaSi. msoflios sxva qveynebSi raime mniSvnelovani cvlileba ar dafiqsirebula. kokainis momxmarebelTa raodenobam (daaxl. 14 milioni adamiani) umniSvnelod moimata.

wyaro: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), World Drug Report 2005 (Vienna, Austria: UNODC, June 2005), p. 5.

ekonomika

ekonomika

gaeros narkotikebisa da danaSaulebaTa samsaxuris monacemebiT ,,2003 wels akrZaluli narkotikebis bazris Rirebulebam Seadgina 13 miliardi aSS dolari warmoebis RirebulebiT, 94 miliardi aSS dolari ­ sabiTumo vaWrobis fasebiTa (konfiskaciis CaTvliT) da 322 miliardi aSS dolari ­ sacalo fasebiT, CamorTmeuli narkotikebisa da sxva danakargebis CaTvliT. aRniSnuli faqti cxadyofs, rom konfiskaciisa da zaralis miuxedavad narkotikebis Rirebuleba izrdeba misi mwarmoeblidan momxmarebelze miwodebis procesSi.

wyaro: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), World Drug Report 2005 (Vienna, Austria: UNODC, June 2005), p. 127.

gaeros narkotikebisa da danaSaulebaTa samsaxuris (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime - UNODC) gancxadebiT ,,sulac ar aris gasakviri, rom narkotikebis moxmarebis problema globaluri masStabiT ZiriTadad opiatebis (kerZod, heroinis) moxmarebas ukavSirdeba, rasac mosdevs kokainis moxmareba. evropisa da aziis umetes qveyanaSi opiatebi narkotikebTan dakavSirebul problemebs Soris upirveles adgils ikavebda. maTgan gankurnebaze moTxovna 2003 wels 62% iyo. samxreT amerikis qveynebSi narkotikebisgan gankurnebaze moTxovna ZiriTadad kokainis momxmareblebs Soris SeimCneoda (narkotikebis momxmarebelTa saerTo raodenobis 59%). afrikaSi mkurnalobaze yvelaze didi moTxovna tradiciulad kanafis momxmarebelTa mxridan SeimCneva (64%). dRes xelT arsebuli monacemebi cxadyofs, rom globaluri masStabiT narkotikebis saerTo moxmareba kvlavac zrdis tendenciiT xasiaTdeba."

wyaro: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), World Drug Report 2005 (Vienna, Austria: UNODC, June 2005), pp. 5-6.

igive monacemebiT, akrZaluli narkotikebisgan miRebuli mogeba imdenad didia, rom narkobiznesis mogebis sagrZnoblad Semcirebis mizniT transportirebuli narkotikebis 3/4 unda iyos aRmoCenili da CamorTmeuli. gatarebuli zomebis Sedegad transportirebuli heroinis mxolod 13%-isa da kokainis 28-40%-is amoReba xdeba (es maqsimaluri maCvenebelia, radgan, rogorc gaeros narkotikebisa da danaSaulebaTa samsaxuri aRniSnavs, narkotikebis warmoebisa da miwodebis moculoba imaze bevrad metia, rasac saxelmwifoebi asaxeleben.

wyaro: United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Global Illicit Drug Trends 1999 (New York, NY: UNODCCP, 1999), p. 51.

akrZaluli narkotikebis vaWrobidan miRebuli mogeba warmoudgenel cifrebs aRwevs. 2001 wels pakistanSi 1 kg heroini saSualod 610 aSS dolarad iyideboda. imave wels, gaeros gancxadebiT, 1 kg heroini saSualod 25 000 aSS dolari Rirda.

Source: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Global Illicit Drug Trends 2003 (New York, NY: UNODC, 2003), p. 243.

"miuxedavad imisa, rom qveynebis raodenoba, sadac narkotikebis moxmareba mzardi tendenciiT xasiaTdeba, bevrad aWarbebs im qveynebis raodenobas, sadac narkotikebis moxmarebis masStabi klebulobs. am Tanafardobam ukanasknel wlebSi pozitiuri mimarTulebiT gadainacvla. Tu 2000 wels qveynebis 53% SemTxvevaSi narkotikebis moxmarebis masStabi zrdis tendencias amJRavnebda, 2003 wels es maCvenebeli 44%-mde daeca. amis paralelurad, im qveynebis ricxvi, sadac narkotikebis moxmareba Semcirebis tendenciiT xasiaTdeboda, 21%-dan (2000 w.) 25%-mde gaizarda (2003 w.)."

Source: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), World Drug Report 2005 (Vienna, Austria: UNODC, June 2005), p. 6.

2001 wels 1 kg fuZe kokaini kolumbiaSi saSualod 940 aSS dolari Rirda, xolo Tavad kokaini imave wels _ 1 565 aSS dolari. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi 2001 wels 1 kg. kokaini Rirda 21 500 aSS dolari.

wyaro: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Global Illicit Drug Trends 2003 (New York, NY: UNODC, 2003), p. 260.

gaeros angariSebis Tanaxmad, "ukanaskneli dekadis ganmavlobaSi daregulirebuli fasebi dasavleT evropaSi daeca 45%-iT kokainze da 60%-iT heroinze (inflaciis done gaTvaliswinebulia), aSS-Si SedarebiTma vardnam daaxloebiT 50% Seadgina kokainze da 70% _ heroinze." 15

14

ekonomika

wyaro: United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Global Illicit Drug Trends 1999 (New York, NY: UNODCCP, 1999), p. 86.

eqstazi: raze metyvelebs faqtebi

wyaro: U.S. Congress, Hearings on Federal Drug Enforcement before the Senate Committee on Investigations, 1975 and 1976 (1976); Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy, 1992: Budget Summary (Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1992), p. 214; Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Budget Executive Summary, Fiscal Year 2002 (Washington DC: Executive Office of the President, April 9, 2001), p. 2, Table 1: Office of National Drug Control Policy, "National Drug Control Strategy: FY 2003 Budget Summary" (Washington, DC: Office of the President, February 2002), Table 2, p. 6.

gaeros angariSebis Tanaxmad, "aSS samTavrobo organoebis monacemebiT, heroinis saSualo sisufTavis xarisxi daaxloebiT 6% iyo 1987 wels da daaxloebiT 37% _ 1997 wels. amave wels niuiorkSi mocemuli maCvenebeli 60%-sac ki aRwevda."

wyaro: United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Global Illicit Drug Trends 1999 (New York, NY: UNODCCP, 1999), p. 86

sapatimroebSi narkotikebTan dakavSirebul samarTaldarRvevebis gamo gasamarTlebulTa Senaxva yovelwliurad daaxloebiT 8.6 miliardi aSS dolari jdeba.

wyaro: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Profile of Jail Inmates 1996 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, April 1996), pp. 1 & 4; Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 1996 (Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1997), pp. 10-11; Criminal Justice Institute, Inc., The Corrections Yearbook 1997 (South Salem, NY: Criminal Justice Institute, Inc., 1997) [estimating cost of a day in jail on average to be $55.41 a day, or $20,237 a year, and the cost of prison to be on average to be about $64.49 a day, or $23,554 a year].

1805 wels germanelma qimikosma, fridrix vilhelm adam serturnerma, moaxdina morfis cakleul nivTierebad gamoyofa da ganviTareba 1898 wels diacetilmorfini (heroini) sinTeTikuri saxiT iqna gamoyvanili germaniaSi. misi masiuri gamoSveba ganxorcielda Semdegi sababiT "usafrTxo momzadebisTvis", romelic SeCvevas ar iwvevsA

eqstazi: raze metyvelebs faqtebi

eqstazi (MDMA) naxevradsinTeturi narkotikia, romelic 1914 wels daapatenta "Merck Pharmaceutical Company"-m. 1970-iani wlebis miwuruls da 1980-iani wlebis dasawyisSi aSS fsiqoTerapevtebi da fsiqiatrebi eqstazs fsiqoTerapiaSi iyenebdnen.

wyaro: Greer G and Tolbert R. A Method of Conducting Therapeutic Sessions with MDMA. in Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 30 (1998) 4:371.379. For research on the therapeutic use of MDMA see: www.maps.org.

rogorc "RAND Corporation"-is kvlevebi cxadyofs, narkotikebis moxmarebisgan gankurnebaSi investirebuli yoveli 1 dolaris xarjze gadasaxadis gadamxdelebs sazogadoebrivi danaxarjebis 7.46 dolari ezogebaT.

wyaro: Rydell, C.P. & Everingham, S.S., Controlling Cocaine, Prepared for the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the United States Army (Santa Monica, CA: Drug Policy Research Center, RAND Corporation, 1994), p. xvi.

"RAND Corporation"-is kvlevebis Tanaxmad, sazogadoebrivi danaxarjebis igive moculobiT Sesamcireblad, damatebiTi Zalovani RonisZiebebisa da aqtebis amoqmedeba 15-jer ufro Zviri jdeba, vidre mkurnalobis dafinanseba.

wyaro: Rydell, C.P. & Everingham, S.S., Controlling Cocaine, Prepared for the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the United States Army (Santa Monica, CA: Drug Policy Research Center, RAND Corporation, 1994), p. xvi.

eqstazis moqmedeba 3-dan 6 saaTamde grZeldeba. igi adamians xaliss hmatebs da hgvris empaTiis (TanagrZnobis), gulRiaobisa da kargad yofnis SegrZnebas. eqstazis momxmareblebi aRniSnaven, rom narkotikis miRebis Semdeg uCndebaT sxva adamianebTan siaxlovis Zlieri survili. narkotiki ar uwyobs xels fizikur ltolvas an Zaladobas.

wyaro: Beck J and Rosenbaum M. Pursuit of Ecstasy: The MDMA Experience. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.

1969 wels niqsonis administraciam 65 milioni dolari daxarja narkotikebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. 1982 wels reiganis administraciam daxarja 1.65 miliardi dolari imave mizniT. 2000 wels klintonis administraciis danaxarjma narkotikebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi 17.9 miliard dolars gadaaWarba. 2002 wels buSis administraciam narkotikebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi 18.822 miliardi dolari daxarja. 16

eqstazis moqmedebiT sxeulis temperatura umniSvnelod matulobs, rac garemos maRali temperaturis dros saSiSia. am dros arsebobs sikvdilis riskic ki. aseT SemTxvevaSi pirveladi daxmareba Zalzed martivia da gulisxmobs Wiqa wylis miwodebas dazaralebulisTvis. kargi iqneba, Tu narkotikis zemoqmedebis qveS myof adamians calke, myudro oTaxSi movaTavsebT, sadac SeZlebs dasvenebasa da Zalebis aRdgenas.

wyaro: Laboratory Pill Analysis Program, DanceSafe. For results visit www.DanceSafe.org. See also, Byard RW et al., Amphetamine derivative fatalities in South Australia-is "Ecstasy" the culprit?, American Journal of Forensic Medical Pathology, 1998 (Sep) 19(3): 261-5.

17

garmoze zemoqmedeba eqstazTan dakavSirebuli yvelaze gavrcelebuli safrTxe falsificirebuli narkotikis miRebaa, romelic SeiZleba eqstazze ufro toqsiuri iyos. eqstaziT gamowveuli sikvdilianobis zogierTi SemTxveva swored falsificirebul da eqstazisTan SedarebiT saSiS narkotikis miRebas ukavSirdeba.

wyaro: Laboratory Pill Analysis Program, DanceSafe. For results visit www.DanceSafe.org. See also, Byard RW et al., Amphetamine derivative fatalities in South Australia-is "Ecstasy" the culprit?, American Journal of Forensic Medical Pathology, 1998 (Sep) 19(3): 261-5.

garemoze zemoqmedeba kolumbiis tropikul regionebSi niadagi mwiri da siliania. kokasa da yayaCos mwarmoebelTa mier gaCexili tyeebi da niadagis resursebis dacvis meTodebisa da aRWurvilobis uqonloba mraval Teoretikoss afiqrebinebs, rom regioni SeiZleba sul male Cavardes igive mdgomareobaSi, romelSic eTiopia da somali aRmoCndnen bolo 50 wlis manZilze _ mosaxleobis swrafma zrdam bevrad gadaaWarbos arsebuli resursebis moculobas da xalxis gamokvebis problema dadga."

Swyaro: Trade and Environment Database (TED), TED Case Studies: Columbia Coca Trade (Washington DC: American University, 1997), from the web at http://www.american.edu/TED/ colcoca.htm, last accessed March 23, 2005.

eqstazis moqmedebiT arteriuli wneva matulobs. gulsisxlZarRvTa sistemisa da gulis daavadebis mqone pirebi eqstazis miRebas unda moeridon.

wyaro: E. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank; J. Daumann; F. Tuchtenhagen; S. Pelz; S. Becker;H.J. Kunert; B. Fimm; H. Sass; Impaired cognitive performance in drug free users of recreational ecstasy (MDMA), by Journal Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry Vol 68, June 2000, 719-725; K.I. Bolla; U.D.; McCann; G.A. Ricaurte; Memory impairment in abstinent MDMA (`Ecstasy') users, by Neurology Vol 51, Dec 1998, 1532-1537.

ukanasknelma kvlevebma cxadyo, rom eqstazis momxmareblebs aramomxmareblebTan SedarebiT gonebrivi SesaZleblobebi (kerZod, mexsiereba) daqveiTebuli aqvT. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom dRes arsebuli kvlevebi am mosazrebas ver adasturebs, radgan eqstazis momxmareblebi, romlebic mocemul kvlevebSi monawileobden, sxva narkotikebsac iRebdnen.

wyaro: E. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank; J. Daumann; F. Tuchtenhagen; S. Pelz; S. Becker;H.J. Kunert; B. Fimm; H. Sass; Impaired cognitive performance in drug free users of recreational ecstasy (MDMA), by Journal Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry Vol 68, June 2000, 719-725; K.I. Bolla; U.D.; McCann; G.A. Ricaurte; Memory impairment in abstinent MDMA (`Ecstasy') users, by Neurology Vol 51, Dec 1998, 1532-1537.

"kokas foTlebisgan kokas pastisa da kokainis warmoeba garemoze uaryofiTad moqmedebs. aSS saxelmwifo departamentis kvlevebi cxadyofs, rom andebis regionSi da ZiriTadad, kolumbiaSi moRvawe kokainis mwarmoeblebis saqmianobis Sedegad, yovelwliurad niadagSi CaiJoneba 10 milioni litri gogirdmJava, 16 milioni litri eTilis spirti, 8 milioni litri acetoni da 400-770 milioni litri navTi. garemos aseTi seriozuli dabinZureba myisierad aisaxeba mcire zomis mdinareebze, sadac wylis flora da fauna sruliad ganadgurebulia. mdinare kakvetis auzi samxreT kolumbiaSi ukiduresad dabinZurebulia da arsebobs monacemebi, rom am teritoriaze macxovreblebsa da saqonels Soris, romlebic mdinaris wyals iyeneben, daavadebulTa ricxvma mkveTrad imata.

wyaro: Trade and Environment Database (TED), TED Case Studies: Columbia Coca Trade (Washington DC: American University, 1997), from the web at http://www.american.edu/TED/ colcoca.htm, last accessed March 23, 2005.

XVII saukuneSi germaniis mcire saxelmwifos _ valdekis princma aTi taleri daawesa jildod yavis smaSi SemCneuli adamianis gamxelisTvis.

garemoze zemoqmedeba

kolumbiis tyeebis 1/3 dRes gakafulia da arsebobs imis saSiSroeba, rom 5 wlis Semdeg tye saerTod gaqreba, xolo garkveul regionebSi ori-sami wlis Semdeg adamianebi aRar icxovreben, radgan mosav-lianoba praqtikulad nuls gautolda. dasaxlebuli ubnebis maxloblad mdebare mdinareebsa da tyeSi flora da fauna umniSvnelo raodenobiTaa SemorCenili, rac kidev ufro arTulebs adgilobrivi mosaxleobis cxovrebas, ufro sworad, mosaxleobis im nawilis cxovrebas, romelic narkotikebiT vaWrobaSi ar aris CarTuli. 18

"nitratebi, romlebsac kokasa da yayaCos momyvanebi sasuqad iyeneben, abinZurebs wylis arxebs, rac iwvevs Tevzis gawyvetasa da warmoudgenlad didi zomis wyalmcenareebis gazrdas. qimiuri nivTierebebi, romlebic nedli masalisgan narkotikis sawarmoeblad gamoiyeneba, SeiZleba sxvadasxvagvari iyos, dawyebuli gogirdmJavidan da gazoliniTa da seviniT damTavrebuli (romelic gamoyenebuli iyo eraySi momwamvleli gazis warmoebisas). arsebuli monacemebis Tanaxmad, niadagSi yovelwliurad 200,000 tonaze meti qimiuri narCenebis CaJonva xdeba.

wyaro: Trade and Environment Database (TED), TED Case Studies: Columbia Coca Trade (Washington DC: American University, 1997), from the web at http://www.american.edu/TED/ colcoca.htm, last accessed March 23, 2005.

19

"Gateway" ­ "karibWis" Teoria

heroini (gugebis Seviwroeba), TvlemiT, sunTqvis sixSiris daqveiTebiT, hi potoniiT (dabali arteriuli wneviT), bradikardiiT (gaiSviaTebuli guliscemiT) da sxeulis dabali temperaturiT.

wyaro: "Opioid Dependence", The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15.Psychiatric Disorders, Chapter 195.Drug Use and Dependence, Merck & Co. Inc., from the web at http:// www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section15/chapter195/195c.htm last accessed December 5, 2000.

" "karibWis" Teor "Gateway" ­ "karibWis" Teoria

1999 wlis martSi "samedicino institutma" gamosca angariSi marihuanas sxvadasxva aspeqtis Sesaxeb, sadac Sedioda e.w. "gateway" " Teoria (Teoria, romelic amtkicebs, rom marihuanas moxmarebis Sedegad adamianebi iwyeben ufro mZime narkotikebis moxmarebas, rogoricaa kokaini da heroini). "medicinis instituti" acxadebda, rom "ar arsebobs imis damadasturebeli faqti, rom marihuanas moqmedeba SeiZleba mizezobriv kavSirSi iyos sxva akrZaluli narkotikebiT borotad sargeblobasTan."

wyaro: Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A Benson, Jr., "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base," Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999).

72 milion amerikelze meti iyenebs marihuanas, magram yovel 120 adamianze, romelsac odesme mouxmaria marihuana, kokainis mxolod erTi aqtiuri, regularuli momxmarebeli modis.

wyaro: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Population Estimates 1998 (Washington DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1999), pp. 19, 25, 31.

heroindamokidebulebiT gamowveuli mravali garTuleba dakavSirebulia antisanitariul pirobebSi narkotikis miRebiT an Tavad narkotikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSan-TvisebebiT, dozis gadaWarbebiT an intoqsikaciuri qceviT, romelic Tan sdevs narkotikebis gamoyenebas. yvelaze gavrcelebul garTulebaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba sasunTqi gzebis daavadebebi _ hepatitebi, arTrituli darRvevebi (saxsrovani paTologia), imunuri sistemis cvlilebebi da nevrologiuri darRvevebi.

wyaro: "Opioid Dependence", The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15.Psychiatric Disorders, Chapter 195.Drug Use and Dependence, Merck & Co. Inc., from the web at http:// www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section15/chapter195/195c.htm last accessed December 5, 2000.

"msoflio jandacvis organizaci"-is kvleva marihuanas "karibWis efeqtis" (gateway effect) irgvliv acxadebda, rom Teoria, romlis mixedviTac marihuanas moxmareba mozard asakSi iwvevs heroinis moxmarebas, dRemde arsebuli mosazrebebidan yvelaze naklebad sarwmunoa.

wyaro: Hall, W., Room, R. & Bondy, S., WHO Project on Health Implications of Cannabis Use: A Comparative Appraisal of the Health and Psychological Consequences of Alcohol, Cannabis, Nicotine and Opiate Use, August 28, 1995 (Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, March 1998).

toqsikologiur monacemebTan dakavSirebiT yvelaze sayuradRebo iyo is, rom mowamlul pirTa Soris mxolod zogierTs aRmoaCnda organizmSi marto morfinis kvali. umetesi maTgani daiRupa ara mxolod heroiniT mowamvlis Sedegad, aramed 45%-s aRmoaCnda alkoholisa da benzodiazepinebis niSnebi. es orive nivTiereba moqmedebs, rogorc centraluri nervuli sistemis depresanti da SeuZlia gaaZlieros da gaaxangrZlivos heroinis depresantuli efeqti.

wyaro: Zador, Deborah, Sunjic, Sandra, and Darke, Shane, "Heroin-related deaths in New South Wales, 1992: toxicological findings and circumstances," The Medical Journal of Australia, published on the web at http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/feb19/zador/zador.html last accessed on November 17, 2000.

heroini

"heroini mzaddeba morfinidan, romelic Tavis mxriv aziuri yayaCos Teslisgan bunebrivad miRebul nivTierebas warmoadgens. heroini rogorc wesi, TeTri an yavisferi fxvnilia. heroinis mraval Jargonul saxelwodebebs Soris SeiZleba SexvdeT iseTsac, rogoricaa "Savi meqsikuri mazuTi".

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Heroin (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/heroin.html last accessed January 9, 2006.

opioidebisadmi (bunebrivi da sinTezuri) tolerantoba da maTze fizikuri damokidebuleba SeiZleba Zalzed mcire droSi ganviTardes. Terapiuli mizniT dReSi 2-3-jer erTjeradi dozis regularulad miRebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios garkveuli zomiT tolerantoba da damokidebuleba, narkotikis miRebis Sewyvetis Semdeg momxmarebels SeiZleba aReniSnebodes aRkveTis simptomebi, romlebic Zalzed sustad aris gamoxatuli da xSirad maT SecdomiT gri pTan aigiveben.

wyaro: "Opioid Dependence", The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15.Psychiatric Disorders, Chapter 195.Drug Use and Dependence, Merck & Co. Inc., from the web at http:// www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section15/chapter195/195c.htm last accessed December 5, 2000.

opioidebiT mwvave intoqsikacia (dozis gadaWarbeba) xasiaTdeba eiforiiT, kanis qaviliT (gansakuTrebiT, morfinis dros), mioziT, 20

21

akrZalva arsebobs heroindamokidebulebis mkurnalobis rigi meTodebi, dawyebuli medikamentebiTa da qceviTi TerapiiT damTavrebuli. am sakiTxisadmi mecnieruli midgoma aseTia: medikamentozuri mkurnalobisa da sxva damxmare momsaxureobis kombinaciis Sedegad pacients aqvs SesaZlebloba xSir SemTxvevaSi Sewyvitos heroinis (an sxva opiatis) moxmareba da daubrundes SedarebiT stabilur da produqtiul cxovrebas.

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Heroin (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/heroin.html last access

saerTaSoriso faqtebi, samoqmedo kursebi da tendenciebi

saerTaSoriso faqtebi, samoqmedo kursebi da tendenciebi: monacemebi sxvadasxva qveynebidan

narkotikebis erovnuli strategiebis, sakanonmdeblo literaturis, kanonebisa da samarTlebrivi praqtikis analizi cxadyofs, rom evrokavSiris umetes qveyanaSi sazogadoebrivi moqmedeba da azri mimarTulia:

meTadoni, sinTeturi opiaturi medikamenti, romelic blokavs heroinis moqmedebas daaxloebiT 24 saaTis manZilze, sakmaod warmatebuli moqmedebiT xasiaTdeba, Tu igi heroindamokidebuls sakmaod maRali doziT daeniSneba.

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Heroin (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/heroin.html last accessed January 9, 2006.

XVII saukuneSi ruseTis xelmwife, mixeil fiodoriviCi sikvdiliT sjida Tambaqos SenaxvaSi SemCneul adamians. xolo xelmwife, aleqsei mixailoviCis brZanebiT adamiani, romelsac Tambaqo aRmoaCndeboda iqamde unda ewamebinaT, sanam ar gasTqvamda mimwodeblis vinaobas.

1. ufro metad mkurnalobaze, vidre sisxlis samarTlebriv dasjaze; 2. akrZaluli narkotikebis gamoyenebisaTvis gamotanili ganaCenis araadekvaturobaze da 3. imaze, rom sxva narkotikebTan SedarebiT kanafi janmrTelobisaTvis naklebad saSiSia (65). sinamdvileSi, sazogadoebrivi keTildReobisa da mkurnalobis sistemis (iseTi narkotikebisaTvis, rogoricaa heroini, kokaini, amfetaminebi da ukanasknel periodSi ­ kanafic) resursebis gazrda da ara dapatimreba warmoadgens narkotikebis gamoyenebisadmi samarTlebrivi midgomis ganuyofel nawils.

wyaro: European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "EMCDDA Thematic Papers - Illicit Drug Use in the EU: Legislative Approaches" (Lisbon, Portugal: EMCDDA, 2005), p. 22.

akrZalva

narkotikebis mowodebis Semcirebis (narkotikis wyaros kontroli, akrZalva, ukanono brunvidan amoReba da adgilobrivi sakanonmdeblo aqtebis amoqmedeba) erT-erTi mTavari problema aris is, rom "mimwodeblebi awarmoeben narkotikis Cveul raodenobas, plus damatebiT raodenobas _ im SemTxvevaSi, Tu vinicobaa maT narkotiki CamoarTves."

wyaro: Drug Control Policy and the United States Army (Santa Monica, CA: Drug Policy Research Center, RAND, 1994), p. 6.

miuxedavad imisa, rom evropaSi narkotikebis moxmarebis ZiriTadi tendencia 1990-ian wlebidan gaizarda, zogierTi qveyana am maCvenebels stabilur doneze inarCunebs. Tumca gaerTianebul samefoSi kanafis moxmarebis maCvenebeli gansakuTrebiT maRalia, xolo 1990-ian wlebSi igi stabiluri iyo. garda amisa, kanafis moxmarebis maCvenebeli umniSvnelod Seicvala _ zogierT qveyanaSi narkotikebis gavrcelebis dabali donea, rogoricaa fineTi da SvedeTi, evropis CrdiloeTSi, da saberZneTi da malta ­ samxreTSi. kanafis moxmarebis maqsimaluri zrda 1999 wlidan ESPAD-is (European school survey project on alcohol and other drugs) monacemebiT dafiqsirda evrokavSiris axal wevr qveynebSi. saskolo monacemebis analizi da mosaxleobis saerTo Seswavla adasturebs, rom am qveyanaTa rigebSi, uwinares yovlisa, dgas CexeTis respublika, espaneTi da safrangeTi, romlebic gaerTianebul samefosTan erTad dRes kanafis maRali gavrcelebis zonebs warmoadgens.

wyaro: "Annual Report 2005: The State of the Drugs Problem in Europe," European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2005), p. 11.

kolumbiis maRalCinosnebma "1998 wels kokas rekorduli raodenoba amoiRes, _ TiTqmis 57 metruli tona da aseve gaanadgures kokainis 185 laboratoria. Tumca, kolumbiidan rafinirebuli kokainis damuSaveba an eqsporti ar Semcirebula da arc SeerTebul StatebSi gamxdara kokaini deficituri."

wyaro: US General Accounting Office, Drug Control: Narcotics Threat from Colombia Continues to Grow (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1999), pp. 12, 6.

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saerTaSoriso faqtebi, samoqmedo kursebi da tendenciebi narkotikebis moxmarebis gavrceleba sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mraval faqtorzea damokidebuli. imis gamo, rom narkotikebis gavrcelebis maCveneblebi iseT qveynebSi, sadac SedarebiT liberaluri narkotikuli politika moqmedebs (niderlandebi, magaliTad) da qveynebSi, sadac gansakuTrebulad mkacri reJimia narkotikebTan dakavSirebiT (mag., SvedeTi), didad ar gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan. saxelmwifo narkopolitikis (iqneba is liberaluri Tu restruqciuli) gavlena narkotikebis moxmarebaze, gaurkvevelia. Tumca, cxadia, rom kargad damuSavebuli saxelmwifo politika Zalian mniSvnelovania narkotikebis gamoyenebis mavne efeqtis Semcirebis mizniT. aseT mavne efeqtebs aiv infeqcia, B da C hepatiti da dozis gadaWarbebis Sedegad gamowveuli sikvdilianoba ganekuTvneba.

wyaro: European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "2001 Annual Report on the State of the Drugs Problem in the European Union" (Brussells, Belgium: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2001), p. 12.

saerTaSoriso faqtebi, samoqmedo kursebi da tendenciebi

wyaro: "Annual Report 2005: The State of the Drugs Problem in Europe," European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2005), p. 13.

opiatebi dRemde akrZaluli narkotikebis gamoyenebiT sikvdilianobis mTavari mizezia evropaSi. yovelwliurad 8,000-9,000 fataluri SemTxveva aRiricxeba narkotikis gadaWarbebuli dozis miRebis Sedegad, Tanac mocemuli cifrebi realur monacemebTan SedarebiT gacilebiT dabalia. msxverplTa umravlesobas 20-30 wlis mamakacebi warmoadgenen, Tumca ukanasknel periodSi miTiTebuli asaki aSkarad matulobs. narkotikebiT gamowveuli sikvdilianobis maCvenebeli evrokavSirSi 1980-1990-ian wlebSi ganuxrelad gaizarda. 2000-dan 2001 wlamde periodSi mravali qveynis monacemebiT, narkotikebis moxmarebiT gamowveuli sikvdilis SemTxvevebi mniSvnelovnad Semcirda da Sedegad evrokavSiris donezec igive maCvenebeli mcirediT, magram statistikurad mniSvnelovnad daeca 8838-dan 8306-mde. Tumca, sikvdilianobis SemTxvevebi jer kidev Zalzed maRalia.

wyaro: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "Annual Report 2004: The State of the Drugs Problem in the European Union and Norway" (Lisboa, Portugal: EMCDDA, 2004), p. 12.

mraval qveyanaSi fiqroben (SecdomiT), rom narkotikebis saerTaSoriso konvenciebi krZalavs heroinis samedicino miznebiT gamoyenebas. unda aRiniSnos, rom "narkotikebis kontrolis saerTaSoriso sabWom" (International Narcotics Control Board - INCB) mkacri kontroli daawesa qveynebze, raTa maT heroinis gacema samedicino miznebiT Sewyviton. miuxedavad amisa, ramdenime qveyana, maT Soris gaerTianebuli samefo, belgia, niderlandebi, germania espaneTi, islandia, malta, kanada da Sveicaria heroins (diamorfins) zogadsamedicino miznebiT iyeneben, ZiriTadad saavadmyofoebSi (rogorc wesi, Zlieri tkivilebis mosaxsnelad). ukanasknel dromde britaneTi erTaderTi qveyana iyo, romelmac eqimebs neba darTo wamaldamokidebulebis mkurnalobis mizniT gamoeweraT heroini.

wyaro: Stimson, Gerry V., and Nicky Metrebian, Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behavior, "Prescribing Heroin: What is the Evidence?" (London, England: Rowntree Foundation, 2003), p. 4.

evrokavSirSi meTadoni CanacvlebiT programaSi gamoyenebadi yvelaze gavrcelebuli nivTierebaa. buprenorfins, romelic yvelaze xSirad gamoyenebadi CanacvlebiTi narkotikia. safrangeTSi, portugaliisa da luqsemburgis kerZo praqtikis mqone eqimebi xSirad uniSnaven pacientebs. SvedeTi amzadebs akrZalvis aqtebs buprenorfinis daniSvnasTan dakavSirebiT, xolo fineTSi buprenorfinis araswori gamoyenebis Sedegad mkurnalobaze moTxovna gaizarda. amJamad, buprenorfini meTadonTan SedarebiT naklebad gamoiyeneba belgiaSi, daniaSi, germaniaSi, saberZneTSi, espaneTSi, avstriasa da gaerTianebul samefoSi."

wyaro: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "Annual Report 2003: The State of the Drugs Problem in the European Union and Norway" (Lisboa, Portugal: EMCDDA, 2003, p. 49.

momsaxurebis erT-erTi sfero, romlis sazRvrebic ukanaskneli aTi wlis manZilze sagrZnoblad gafarTovda, aris sinTeturi narkotikuli preparatebiT CanacvlebiTi mkurnaloba, gansakuTrebiT im qveynebSi, sadac heroinis ineqciuri moxmareba SedarebiT maRali maCvenebliT xasiaTdeba. CanacvlebiTi mkurnalobis 80% SemTxvevaSi evropaSi meTadoni gamoiyeneba, xolo danarCen SemTxvevebSi ki ­ buprenorfini. 24

niderlandebSi ukve mosinjes meTodi, romlis Tanaxmadac mkurnalobis kursSi heroinic gamoiyeneboda da romlis Sedegebi 2002 wlis TebervalSi gamoqveynda (http://www.ccbh.nl, "centraluri komiteti heroindamokidebulTa mkurnalobaze", 2002w.). cdaSi monawile klientebi iRebdnen heroins an meTadons. Sefasebebma cxadyves, rom eqsperimentuli jgufis klientebis janmrTelobis mdgomareoba mniSvnelovnad gaumjobesda sakontrolo jgufTan

25

marihuana SedarebiT, romelic mxolod meTadoniT mkurnalobis kurss gadioda. luqsemburgSi 2002 wlis 30 ianvris dadgenilebis ZaliT nebadarTulia heroinis sacdelad daniSvna piloturi (sacdeli) proeqtis farglebSi, romelsac marTavs jandacvis sabWo. espaneTSi narkotikis piradi moxmarebis mizniT Senaxva (floba) ar aris sisxlis samarTlis danaSauli, magram aris seriozuli administraciuli samarTaldarRveva. aseTi qmedeba nakleb savaraudoa daisajos, Tu pirma igi saxalxod ar Caidina.

wyaro: Johnston, Philip, The Daily Telegraph, "International Conventions: UK Regime Among the Most Severe in Europe" (London, England: The Daily Telegraph, March 31, 2000.).

marihuana

wyaro: Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence, Cannabis (London, England: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1969); Canadian Government Commission of Inquiry, The Non-Medical Use of Drugs (Ottawa, Canada: Information Canada, 1970); The National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding, (Nixon-Shafer Report) (Washington, DC: USGPO, 1972); Werkgroep Verdovende Middelen, Background and Risks of Drug Use (The Hague, The Netherlands: Staatsuigeverij, 1972); Senate Standing Committee on Social Welfare, Drug Problems in Australia-An Intoxicated Society (Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1977); Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, "The classification of cannabis under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971" (London, England, UK: Home Office, March 2002), available on the web from http://www.drugs.gov.uk/ReportsandPublications/Communities/1034155489/ Classific_Cannabis_MisuseDrugsAct1971.pdf ; House of Commons Home Affairs Committee Third Report, "The Government's Drugs Policy: Is It Working?" (London, England, UK: Parliament, May 9, 2002), from the web at http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200102/cmselect/cmhaff/ 318/31802.htm and "Cannabis: Our Position for a Canadian Public Policy," report of the Canadian Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs (Ottawa, Canada: Senate of Canada, September 2002).

SveicariaSi zianis Semcirebis politikis ganxorcielebam xeli Seuwyo axalgazrdebs Soris heroinis arasasurveli imijis damkvidrebas.

wyaro: Nordt, Carlos, and Rudolf Stohler, "Incidence of Heroin Use in Zurich, Switzerland: A Treatment Case Register Analysis," The Lancet, Vol. 367, June 3, 2006, p. 1830.

gaerTianebulma samefom 2004 wlis 29 ianvris oficialuri aqtiT kanafi B kategoriidan C kategoriamde "daaqveiTa". gazeTi "London Guardian" iuwyeboda, rom "aseTi RonisZiebis Sedegad kanafi axla " ukve miekuTvneba iseTi nivTierebebis kategorias, rogoricaa bodibildingis steroidebi da antidepresantebi."

1800 wels egviptidan dabrunebuli napoleonis jarma safrangeTSi Semoitana plani (haSiSi da marihuana). parizeli avangardi mxatvrebi da mwerlebi didad etanebodnen am nivTierebebs da maTi moxmarebis ritualic SemoiRes. Sedegad, 1844 wels daarsda `haSiSelTa klubi"

marihuana

gaeros monacemebiT, msoflioSi 141 milioni adamiani moixmars marihuanas, rac msoflio mosaxleobis 2.5%-s Seadgens.

wyaro: United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Global Illicit Drug Trends 1999 (New York, NY: UNODCCP, 1999), p. 91.

marihuanas akrZalva federalur doneze pirvelad 1937 wels moxda. dRes 83 milionze meti amerikeli aRiarebs, rom marihuana erTxel mainc aqvs gasinjuli.

wyaro: Marihuana Tax Act of 1937; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Summary of Findings from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, 2002), Table H.1, from the web at http::// www.samhsa.gov/oas/NHSDA/2k1NHSDA/vol2/appendixh_1.htm, last accessed Sept. 16, 2002.

kanafis mflobels patimroba ar emuqreba, Tumca policia itovebs uflebas momxmarebeli daapatimros garkveul damamZimebel viTarebaSi, magaliTad maSin, rodesac momxmarebeli narkotiks skolis Senobis siaxloves eweva. Sinagan saqmeTa ministris devid blanketis gancxadebiT, kanonSi aseTi cvlileba aucilebeli iyo, raTa policias hqondes dro ebrZolos kategoriis iseT narkotikebs, rogoricaa heroini da mosawevi kokaini (kreki), romelTac meti ziani moaqvT da gacilebiT meti danaSaulis Cadenis wyaroa."

wyaro: Tempest, Matthew, "MPs Vote To Downgrade Cannabis," The Guardian (London, England), Oct. 29, 2003.

1969 wlidan moyolebuli SeerTebuli Statebis, inglisis, avstraliisa da niderlandebis mTavrobebis mier daniSnuli komisiebis daskvniT, romelic mecnierul faqtebs efuZneba, safrTxe, romelsac marihuana adamianis sicocxlesa da janmrTelobas uqadis, Tavdapirvelad ramdenadme gazviadebuli iyo. Tavis daskvnebSi dasaxelebuli komisiebi mouwodebdnen kanonmdeblebs SeemcirebinaT an gaeuqmebinaT marihuanas flobaze dawesebuli jarimebi. 26

aSS sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis Tanaxmad, nebismier pirs marihuanas erTi sigaretis flobisaTvis SeiZleba erT wlamde Tavisuflebis aRkveTa miesajos da nebismier pirs marihuanas erTi mcenaris gazrdisaTvis SeiZleba xuT wlamde Tavisuflebis aRkveTa miesajos.

wyaro: The Controlled Substances Act of 1970, 21 U.S.C. §§ 801 et seq.

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mkurnaloba meTadonis, buprenorfinisa da heroinis daxmarebiT

meTadoni gaerTianebuli samefo saerTaSoriso masStabiT gamorCeuli qveyanaa im gagebiT, rom aq heroini kanonierad nebadarTulia sxva narkotikebs Soris, romlebic opiatdamokidebulebis mkurnalobis mizniT gamoiyeneba. mkurnalobis es meTodi iSviaTad gamoiyeneba da daaxloebiT 448 momxmarebeli iRebs heroins receptiT.

wyaro: Stimson, Gerry V., and Nicky Metrebian, Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behavior, "Prescribing Heroin: What is the Evidence?" (London, England: Rowntree Foundation, 2003), p. 1.

mkurnaloba meTadonis, buprenorfinisa da heroinis daxmarebiT

mkurnalobis sxvadasxva meTodebs Soris meTadoniT mkurnaloba, romelSic gaerTianebulia rogorc samedicino, fsiqiatriuli da socialur-ekonomikuri sakiTxebi, aseve narkotikebTan dakavSirebuli konsultaciebi _ warmatebis yvelaze maRali efeqturobiT xasiaTdeba.

wyaro: Effective Medical Treatment of Opiate Addiction. NIH Consensus Statement 1997 Nov. 1719; 15(6): 7.

narkotikebis ineqciuri momxmareblebi, romlebic CanacvlebiTi mkurnalobis kurss gadian _ eqvsjer ufro iSviaTad avaddebian aiv-infeqciiT. meTadonis CanacvlebiT mkurnalobaSi myof wamaldamokidebulTa sikvdilianobis maCvenebeli _ oTxjer ufro dabalia, vidre maTi, vinc ar gadis CanacvlebiTi mkurnalobis kurss. CanacvlebiT mkurnalobaSi Cadebuli yoveli dolari _ Svid dolars zogavs sisxlis samarTlis damnaSavisa da sasjelaRsrulebis sistemaSi. Tu amas jandacvis sistemaSi dazogil saxsrebsac davumatebT, maSin proporcia 12/1 Seadgens.

wyaro: Substitution maintenance therapy in the management of opioid dependence and HIV/AIDS prevention : position paper / WHO, UNODC, UNAIDS)

imis gamo, rom buprenorfini nawilobriv opioidur agonists warmoadgens, fiqroben, rom mas meTadonTan da levometadil acetatTan SedarebiT garkveuli upiratesoba gaaCnia, maT Soris abstinenciis SedarebiT naklebi simptomebi da dozis gadaWarbebis naklebi riski. saWiro doziT gamoyenebuli buprenorfini iseTive efeqturia, rogorc meTadoni. levometadil acetatis msgavsad, buprenorfinic xangrZlivi moqmedebiT xasiaTdeba. misi miReba kviraSi samjerac aris SesaZlebeli.

wyaro: O'Connor, Patrick G., MD, MPH, "Treating Opioid Dependence -- New Data and New Opportunities," New England Journal of Medicine, Nov. 2, 2000 (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Medical Society, 2000), Vol. 343, No. 18, from the web at http://www.nejm.org/content/2000/0343/ 0018/1332.asp, last accessed Feb. 12, 2001, citing Schottenfeld RS, Pakes JR, Oliveto A, Ziedonis D, Kosten TR, "Buprenorphine vs methadone maintenance treatment for concurrent opioid dependence and cocaine abuse," Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997;54:713-20; and Schottenfeld RS, Pakes J, O'Connor P, Chawarski M, Oliveto A, Kosten TR, "Thrice-weekly versus daily buprenorphine maintenance," Biol Psychiatry 2000;47:1072-9.

erTi wamaldamokidebulis Senaxva wlis ganmavlobaSi mkurnalobis gareSe quCaSi cixe "narkotebisgan Tavisufali" stacionaruli mkurnaloba meTadonis CanacvlebiTi mkurnaloba

aSS $ $43,000 $43,000 $11,000 $2,400

meTadoni xarjTefeqturia da weliwadSi daaxloebiT 4,000 dolari jdeba maSin, rodesac erTi patimris Senaxva saxelmwifos weliwadSi 20,000-23,500 dolari ujdeba.

wyaro: Institute of Medicine, Treating Drug Problems (Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1990), Vol. 1, pp. 151-52; Rosenbaum, M., Washburn, A., Knight, K., Kelley, M., & Irwin, J., "Treatment as Harm Reduction, Defunding as Harm Maximization: The Case of Methadone Maintenance," Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 28: 241-249 (1996); Criminal Justice Institute, Inc., The Corrections Yearbook 1997 (South Salem, NY: Criminal Justice Institute, Inc., 1997) [estimating cost of a day in jail on average to be $55.41 a day, or $20,237 a year, and the cost of prison to be on average to be about $64.49 a day, or $23,554 a year].

meTadoni

dResdReobiT meTadonis miRebiT gamowveuli sikvdilis sami mizezi SeiZleba arsebobdes: 1. pacientTa mkurnalobis dros meTadonma moaxdina saSiS donemde akumulireba, wamaldamokidebulebisa da tkivilis moxsnis mizniT mkurnalobis pirvel dReebSi (induqtiuri periodi meTadonis stabilizaciis mdgomareobis miRwevamde anu tolerantobis gamomuSavebamde).

meTadoni ar iwvevs narkotikul Trobasa da adamianis biologiuri funqciebis moSlas.

wyaro: Lowinson, J.H., et al., (1997), "Methadone Maintenance," Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook, (3rd Ed.) (Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1997), pp. 405-15.

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metamfetamini 2. moxda ukanono gzebiT mopovebuli meTadonis moxmareba piris mier, romelsac aqvs daqveiTebuli an saerTod ar aqvs opioidebisadmi tolerantoba da romelmac SeiZleba moixmaros Warbi da/an ganmeorebiTi doza eiforuli efeqtis misaRwevad. 3. moxda meTadonis gamoyeneba (kanonieri Tu ukanono gziT) sxva cns (centraluri nervuli sistema) depresantebTan erTad (rogoricaa benzodiazepinebi, alkoholi da sxva opioidebi).

wyaro: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Methadone-Associated Mortality: Report of a National Assessment, May 8-9, 2003, CSAT Publication No. 28-03 (Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2004), p. 24.

metamfetamini centraluri nervuli sistemis CNS (Central Nervous System) gamovlinebebi, romlebsac iwvevs metamfetaminis mcire dozac ki, aris _ energiis mozRvaveba da gazrdili fizikuri aqtivoba, madis daqveiTeba, gaxSirebuli sunTqva, hipoTermia da eiforia, aseve, gaRizianeba, uZiloba, SfoTva, tremori, konvulsia, seqsualuri agznebadoba, paranoia da agresiuloba. hi poTermiam da konvulsiam SeiZleba letaluri Sedegi gamoiwvios.

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Methamphetamine (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/ methamphetamine.html last accessed January 9, 2006.

1792 wels CineTSi pirveli amkrZalveli kanonebi gamoica opiumis winaaRmdeg. dasjadi iyo am nivTierebis gasaReba - opiumis maRaziebis mepatroneebs CamoxCoba emuqreboda.

metamfetamini

metamfetamini warmoadgens stimulants. es aris narkotiki, romelic miCvevasa da nervuli sistemis gaaqtiurebas iwvevs. metamfetamini qimiurad amfetamins ukavSirdeba, magram metamfetaminis gavlena centralur nervul sistemaze ufro Zlieria. Terapiuli mizniT orive narkotiki garkveuli miznebiT gamoiyeneba (ZiriTadad, simsuqnis winaaRmdeg). "metamfetamini mzaddeba araoficialuri laboratoriebis mier da xasiaTdeba masze damokidebulebisa da borotad moxmarebis didi riskiT.

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Methamphetamine (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/ methamphetamine.html last accessed January 9, 2006.

amfetaminis borotad gamoyenebisas momxmarebeli midrekilia konfliqturi incidentebisadmi, radgan narkotiki iwvevs ukidures agznebas, romelsac mosdevs daRlilobisa da Zilis SegrZneba. intravenuri moxmarebis SemTxvevaSi amfetamini SeiZleba seriozuli antisocialuri qcevis mizezi gaxdes da SeiZleba Sizofreniis magvari epizodis provocirebac ki gamoiwvios.

wyaro: "Amphetamine Dependence", The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 15.Psychiatric Disorders, Chapter 195.Drug Use and Dependence, Merck & Co. Inc., from the web at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section15/chapter195/195g.htm last accessed November 30, 2000.

metamfetaminis miReba iwvevs gulis aCqarebasa da arteriuli wnevis momatebas, SeiZleba gamousworebeli ziani miayenos tvinis sisxlZarRvebsa da ganviTardes Soki. metamfetaminiT gamowveul sxva problemaTa ricxvs ganekuTvneba sasunTqi gzebis darRveva, ariTmia da madis ukiduresi daqveiTeba. misma moxmarebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios gulsisxlZarRvTa sistemis kolafsi da sikvdili.

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Methamphetamine (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/ methamphetamine.html last accessed January 9, 2006.

metamfetamini moixmareba oralurad an intranazalurad (misi fxvnilis SeynosviT), intravenuri ineqciiT da moweviT. moweva da intravenuri ineqcia momxmarebelSi maSinve Zlier agznebas (grZnobas, gancdas) iwvevs, anu "kaifs" da grZeldeba mxolod ramdenime wuTis manZilze. momxmareblebi am grZnobas aRweren, rogorc Zalian sasiamovnos. oraluri an intranazaluri miRebis SemTxvevaSi viTardeba eiforia, magram ara "kaifi". momxmarebels SeiZleba damokidebuleba gamoumuSavdes mokle droSi da narkotikis doza da moxmarebis sixSire sul ufro da ufro gaizardos.

wyaro: National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts: Methamphetamine (Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services), from the web at http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/ methamphetamine.html last accessed January 9, 2006.

1839-1842 wlebSi gaCaRda pirveli opiumis omi. britanelebi CineTs opiumiT vaWrobas aiZulebdnen. Cinelebs am nivTierebiT vaWroba akrZaluli hqondaT. 1856 wels gaCaRda meore opiumis omi. britanelebi, axla ukve frangebis daxmarebiT, axdendnen opiumis gavrcelebas CineTis savaWro qselSi

30

31

momxmarebeli damnaSaveebi samarTaldamcav sistemaSi narkotikebis momxmarebeli damnaSaveebi samarTaldamcav sistemaSi ­ cixeebi, sapatimroebi da TavdebiT ganTavisuflebulebi

qveyana weli daxasiaTeba narkotikis momxmarebelTa raodenoba patimrebs Soris nebismieri akrZaluli narkotiki nebismieri akrZaluli narkotiki %

usafrTxo ineqciis dawesebulebebi SeerTebul StatebSi yvelaze meti patimaria msoflioSi da maTi ricxvi Seadgens 714 pirs 100,000 mosaxleze. mas mohyveba belorusi, bermudis kunZulebi da ruseTi (532), palau (523), aSS virjiniis kunZulebi (490), Turqmenistani (489), kuba (487), surinami (437), kaimanis kunZulebi (429), belizi (420), ukraina (417), maldivis kunZulebi (416), sent-kitsi da nevisi (415), samxreT afrika (413) da bahamis kunZulebi (410). Tumca, qveyanaTa TiTqmis sam meoTxedSi (58%) es maCvenebeli ufro dabalia, vidre 150 piri 100,00 sul mosaxleze (maCvenebeli inglissa da uelsSi aris 142 piri 100,00 sul mosaxleze da msoflio qveynebis siaSi saSualo maCvenebelia).

wyaro: Walmsley, Roy, "World Prison Population List (Sixth Edition)" (London, England: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2006), p. 1.

58%

belgia

1999

1999

fineTi

2001

2001

germania

1997

1996

saberZneTi

2000

2000

portugalia

2001

2001

pirebi acxadeben, rom dapatimrebis wina TveSi moixmares narkotiki pirebi acxadeben, rom narkotiks moixmardnen regularulad wina da axlandeli patimrobis periodSi pirebi acxadeben, rom moxmarebuli aqvT narkotiki pirebi acxadeben, rom cixeSi moixmaren akrZalul narkotiks pirebi acxadeben, rom moixmardnen narkotikebs intravenurad (cxovrebis manZilze) dapatimrebamde narkotikebis momxmareblebi cixeSi (mTavari personalis mier mowodebul informaciaze dayrdnobiT) pirebi acxadeben, rom mudmivad moixmardnen narkotikebs dapatimrebamde pirebi acxadeben, rom mudmivad moixmaren narkotikebs patimrobis periodSi pirebi acxadeben, rom mudmivad moixmardnen narkotikebs dapatimrebamde pirebi acxadeben, rom moixmardnen narkotikebs patimrobis bolo wels

50%

42%

nebismieri akrZaluli narkotiki

16.50%

33%

msoflios cixeebSi 9 milionze meti patimari ixdis sasjels. maTi umetesoba winaswari ganxilvis procesSi dakavebul pirebs warmoadgenen (pirebi winaswari dakavebis saknebSi) an ukve gasamarTlebulebi da msjavrdebulebi arian. TiTqmis maTi naxevari warmoadgens patimrebs iseT qveynebSi, rogoricaa aSS (2.09 milioni), CineTi (1.55 milioni, plus winaswari dakavebis saknebSi patimrebi da administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis gamo dakavebuli patimrebi) da ruseTi (0.76 milioni).

wyaro: Walmsley, Roy, "World Prison Population List (Sixth Edition)" (London, England: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2006), p. 1.; US Census Bureau, Population Division, from the web at http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html last accessed July 8, 2003.

60%

nebismieri akrZaluli narkotiki nebismieri akrZaluli narkotiki nebismieri akrZaluli narkotiki nebismieri akrZaluli narkotiki

47%

narkotikebis moxmarebis kontrolirebadi dawesebulebebi da usafrTxo ineqciis dawesebulebebi

mTavrobis mier nebadarTuli "narkotikebis usafrTxo ineqciis dawesebulebebi" warmoadgens jandacvis dawesebulebebs, romlebic arsebobs msoflios zogierT qveyanaSi, rogorc jandacvis sistemis Semadgeneli nawili. am qveyanaTa ricxvSi Sedis: kanada, sadac federalurma mTavrobam mosaxleobis jandacvis federalur, teritoriul da adgilobriv komitetTan erTad Seqmna specialuri komisia, romelsac daekisra usafrTxo ineqciis dawesebulebebis praqtikulobis Seswavla (keri da palepu, 2001 w.); vankuveri ­ aq usafrTxo ineqciis dawesebulebebi qalaqis meriis "narkotikebis oTxi ZiriTadi strategiis" Semadge-

47%

61%

52%

32

33

usafrTxo ineqciis dawesebulebebi neli nawilia da ori aseTi dawesebulebis Seqmnisa da funqcionirebis winadadeba dRis wesrigSi ukve dadga (keri, 2000 w. makfersoni, 2001 w.); germania, sadac 4 qalaqSi moqmedebs usafrTxo ineqciis 13 dawesebuleba; niderlandebi, romlis 19 qalaqSi moqmedebs usafrTxo ineqciis 16 dawesebuleba; Sveicaria, romlis 12 qalaqSi moqmedebs usafrTxo ineqciis 17 dawesebuleba; espaneTi, sadac moqmedebs usafrTxo ineqciis 1 dawesebuleba madridSi; avstralia, sadac usafrTxo ineqciis dawesebulebam funqcionireba 2001 wlis maisSi daiwyo sidneisa da kanberaSi, sadac kanonmdeblobiT oficialurad iqna aseTi dawesebulebebi damtkicebuli. rigSi dgas melburni" ("niu-iork Taimsi", 2001 w. dolani, 2000 w.).

wyaro: Broadhead, Robert S., Thomas Kerr, Jean-Paul C. Grund, and Frederick L. Altice, "Safer Injection Facilities in North America: Their Place in Public Policy and Health Initiatives," Journal of Drug Issues (Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University, Winter 2002), Vol. 32, No. 1, p. 331, citing Kerr, T and Palepu, A, "Safe Injection Facilities: Is It Time?" Canadian Medical Association journal, 165(4), 436-437; Kerr, T., "Safe Injection Facilities: A Proposal for a Vancouver Pilot Project," Harm Reduction Action Society, retrieved on November 13, 2001 from http://www.cfdp.ca/ safei.pdf; MacPherson, D., "A Framework for Action: A Four-Pillar Approach to Drug Problems in Vancouver," Vancouver, BC: City of Vancouver; "Australia Allows Addicts' Center to be Opened in Sydney," New York Times, May 10, 2001, p. 3; Dolan, K., et al., "Drug Consumption Facilities in Europe and the Establishment of Supervised Injection Centres in Australia," Drug and Alcohol Review, 19, 337-46.

Spricebis/nemsebis gacvlis programebi saxe erTi da igivea. monacemebi gviCvenebs, rom am dawesebulebebSi narkotikis momxmarebelTaTvis specialurad gamoyofili oTaxebi 100%-iT asrulebs dakisrebul funqcias. aq ikribebian staJiani wamaldamokidebuli, quCis ineqciuri, usaxlkaro momxmareblebi, rac aadvilebs kontaqtis damyarebas narkotikebis yvelaze problematur da marginalizebul (gamijnul, sazogadoebisgan izolirebul) jgufebTan. demografiuli monacemebic aseve gviCvenebs, rom am dawesebulebebis saSualebiT SeiZleba davukavSirdeT pirebs, romelTac narkotikis moxmarebis xangrZlivi staJi gaaCniaT, magram jer ar aqvT kavSiri amgvar samkurnalo dawesebulebebTan."

wyaro: Hedrich, Dagmar, "European Report on Drug Consumption Rooms" (Lisbon, Portugal: European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction, February 2004), p. 42.

usafrTxo moxmarebis oTaxebis uSualo daniSnulebaa narkotikebis momxmarebels Seuqmnas usafrTxo da dabali riskis moxmarebis saSualeba, sadac momxmarebeli narkotiks moixmars higienur pirobebSi, dozis gadauWarbeblad da sadac yuradReba eqceva imas, rom ar moxdes narkotikis sarisko gziT moxmareba. usafrTxo moxmarebis dawesebulebebis wyalobiT ineqciasTan dakavSirebuli zogierTi risk-qceva mcirdeba, momxmarebeli narkotiks moixmars steriluri iaraRebiT da ar gamoiyeneba saziaro Sprici. garda amisa, momxmarebels saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi aRmouCenen gadaudebel samedicino daxmarebas. naxmari mowyobiloba dauyovnebliv nadgurdeba. kvlevam cxadyo, rom narkotikis momxmareblebi narkotikuli nivTierebebis moxmarebisas iseT dawesebulebas aniWeben upiratesobas, sadac higienuri pirobebi, usafrTxoeba da myudro garemoa.

wyaro: Hedrich, Dagmar, "European Report on Drug Consumption Rooms" (Lisbon, Portugal: European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction, February 2004), p. 48.

narkotikebis usafrTxo ineqciis dawesebulebis efeqturobis Seswavlis Semdeg vankuverSi mkvlevarebma daaskvnes, rom "rogorc vankuveris narkotikebis usafrTxo ineqciis dawesebulebis Sefasebam cxadyo, sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris adgilebSi Semcirda narkotikebis moxmareba, Spricebis dayris SemTxvevebi da Spricis gaziarebis faqtebi narkotikis adgilobriv ineqciur momxmareblebs Soris. kvlevam aCvena, rom miRebuli sargebeli uzomod didia."

wyaro: Kerr, Thomas, Jo-Anne Stoltz, Mark Tyndall, Kathy Li, Ruth Zhang, Julio Montaner, Evan Wood, "Impact of a medically supervised safer injection facility on community drug use patterns: a before and after study," British Medical Journal, Vol. 332, Jan. 28, 2006, p. 222.

Spricebis/nemsebis gacvlis programebi

Spricebis gacvlis programebi iTvaliswinebs momxmareblisaTvis axali Spricis micemas naxmaris sanacvlod, risi mizanic aiv infeqciisa da sxva sisxliT gadamdebi daavadebebis gadadebis albaTobis Semcirebaa, romlebic narkotikebis ineqciur momxmareblebs Soris advilad vrceldeba saziaro Spricis gamoyenebis gamo. Spricebis gacvlis programebi sisxliT gadamdebi infeqciebis gavrcelebas abrkolebs, uzrunvelyofs ra ineqciuri momxmareblebisaTvis sterilur iaraRebze xelmisawvdomlobas. garda amisa,

evrokavSiris narkotikebis monitoringis samsaxuris mkvlevarebma aseTi dawesebulebebis Sefasebis procesSi daadgines, rom "sxvadasxva qveynebSi ganTavsebuli aseTi dawesebulebebis momxmarebelTa socialur-demografiuli statusi da narkotikis moxmarebis 34

35

Spricebis/nemsebis gacvlis programebi naxmari Spricebi, romlebsac momxmareblebi abareben, dauyovnebliv nadgurdeba. aseTi programebi xSirad iTvaliswineben jandacvis sxva saxis momsaxureobis gawevasac, rogoricaa aiv-testireba, momxmarebelTa informirebulobis amaRleba riskis Semcirebis sferoSi da momxmarebelTa gadagzavna wamaldamokidebulebis samkurnalod.

wyaro: "Update: Syringe Exchange Programs -- United States, 2002," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, July 15, 2005, Vol. 54, No. 27 (Atlanta, GA: US Centers for Disease Control), p. 673.

Zaladobis maCveneblebis Sedarebis cxrili amgvarad, niderlandebSi gamoiyofa msubuqi narkotikis bazari Zliermoqmedi narkotikebis bazrisagan da amiT xdeba ,,dasaSvebi riskis" narkotikis momxmareblisa da ,,dauSvebeli riskis" narkotikis momxmareblebs Soris gamijvna.

wyaro: Source: Abraham, Manja D., University of Amsterdam, Centre for Drug Research, Places of Drug Purchase in The Netherlands (Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam, September 1999), pp. 1-5.

2004 wels evrokavSiris narkotikebis da wamaldamokidebulebis monitoringis centris (European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction - EMCDDA) samsaxuris mier literaturuli wyaroebis mimoxilvis Sedegad dadginda, rom "farTomasStabiani kvleva adasturebs, rom Spricebisa da nemsebis programebma (NSP) SeiZleba ) Seamciros aiv-i da hepatitebis gavrceleba erTi mesamediT an metiT da amasTan, aranair uaryofiT gverdiT efeqtebs ineqciuri momxmareblebisaTvis adgili ar eqneba."

wyaro: de Wit, Ardine and Jasper Bos, "Cost-Effectiveness of Needle and Syringe Programmes: A Review of the Literature," in Hepatitis C and Injecting Drug Use: Impact, Costs and Policy Options, Johannes Jager, Wien Limburg, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Maarten Postma, Lucas Wiessing (eds.), European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2004.

1920-1933 wlebSi alkoholis moxmareba aSS-Si akrZaluli iyo. mxolod 1932 wels daaxloebiT 45000 adamiani daapatimres kanonis am moTxovnis darRvevisTvis. volstedis saxelwodebiT cnobili kanonis moqmedebis pirveli TerTmeti wlis ganmavlobaSi 17971 adamiani dainiSna aRmkveT biuroSi samuSaod. 11982 adamiani konkretuli mizezis miTiTebis gareSe iqna gaTavisuflebuli dakavebuli Tanamdebobebidan, 1604 adamiani daiTxoves qrTamis aRebisTvis, gamoZalvisTvis, qurdobisTvis, oficialuri informaciis gayalbebisTvis, konspiraciuli saqmianobisTvis, falsifikaciisa da cru ficis dadebisTvis.

avstraliaSi Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegad dadginda, rom 19912000 ww. im qalaqebSi, sadac Spricebis gacvlis programebi funqcionirebda, moxda aiv-infeqciis 25 000 SemTxvevis, C hepatitis infeqciis 21 000 axali SemTxvevis prevencia da SidsiT sikvdilianobis 4 500 SemTxvevis prevencia, aiv/Sids-is infeqciis gavrceleba Semcirda 18.6%-iT, xolo im qalaqebSi, sadac ar ganxorcilebula Spricebis gacvlis programa 8.1 %-iT gaizarda. am programebis Sedegad Sids-is mkurnalobaze dazogilma Tanxam Seadgina 7,025 milioni aSS dolari. xolo C hepatitis mkurnalobaze dazogilma Tanxam Seadgina 783 mln. aSS dolari.

wyaro: (Return on Investment in Needle & Syringe Programs ­ Report Commonwealth

Department of Health and Ageing, Australia 2002)

ZiriTadi narkotikebisa da Zaladobis maCveneblebis Sedarebis cxrili

socialuri maCvenebeli marihuanas mudmivi gamoyeneba (asaki 12+) marihuanas gamoyeneba gasul TveSi (asaki 12+) Sedarebis weli 2001 2001 aSS 36.9% 1 5.4% 1 1.4% 1 701 3 379 5 5.56

6

niderlandebi 17.0% 2 3.0% 2 0.4% 2 100 4 223 5 1.51 6

heroinis mudmivi gamoyeneba 2001 (asaki 12+) dapatimrebis maCvenebeli 100,000 sul mosaxleze sisxlis samarTlis iusticiis danaxarji sul mosaxleze (evro) mkvlelobis maCvenebeli 100,000 sul mosaxleze 2002 1998 1999-2001 w.w. saSualo

niderlandebi da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi

niderlandebSi xorcieldeba akrZaluli bazris gamijvnis politika. kanafis SeZena ZiriTadad kafeebSi xdeba, sadac akrZaluli narkotikebis SeZenis saSualeba Zalzed mcirea an sul ar aris, garda kanafisa. 36

wyaro: 1: US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume I. Summary of National Findings (Washington, DC: HHS, August 2002), p. 109, Table H.1.

37

Zaladobis maCveneblebis Sedarebis cxrili

wyaro 2: Trimbos Institute, "Report to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point, The Netherlands Drug Situation 2002" (Lisboa, Portugal: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Nov. 2002), p. 28, Table 2.1. wyaro 3: Walmsley, Roy, "World Prison Population List (fifth edition) (London, England: Research, Development and Statistics Directorate of the Home Office), Dec. 2003, p. 3, Table 2. wyaro 4: Walmsley, Roy, "World Prison Population List (fifth edition) (London, England: Research, Development and Statistics Directorate of the Home Office), Dec. 2003, p. 5, Table 4. wyaro: 5: van Dijk, Frans & Jaap de Waard, "Legal infrastructure of the Netherlands in international perspective: Crime control" (Netherlands: Ministry of Justice, June 2000), p. 9, Table S.13. wyaro 6: Barclay, Gordon, Cynthia Tavares, Sally Kenny, Arsalaan Siddique & Emma Wilby, "International comparisons of criminal justice statistics 2001," Issue 12/03 (London, England: Home Office Research, Development & Statistics Directorate, October 2003), p. 10, Table 1.1.

mkurnaloba

mkurnaloba

RAND Corporation-is monacemebiT, kokainis momxmarebelTa ricxvis 1%-iT Sesamcireblad saWiroa damatebiTi danaxarjebi, romelsac gansazRvravs programis saxeoba. aseT SemTxvevaSi upiratesoba eniWeba samkurnalo programebis ganxorcielebas, romelic amavdroulad yvelaze xarjTefeqturia.

wyaro: Rydell, C.P. & Everingham, S.S., Controlling Cocaine, Prepared for the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the United States Army (Santa Monica, CA: Drug Policy Research Center, RAND Corporation, 1994), p. 36.

mosaxleobis sxvadasxva fenebis mier gamoyenebuli kanafis Sesaxeb monacemebic igive suraTs iZleva. niderlandebi didad ar gansxvavdeba evropis sxva qveynebisgan. rac Seexeba gansxvavebas niderlandebsa da aSS-s Soris, igi sakmaod didia: 12 welze meti asakis amerikelebis 32.9%-s kanafi gasinjuli aqvs, xolo 5.1%-ma moixmara kanafi uaxloes warsulSi. es cifrebi orjer metia niderlandebis maCvenebelTan SedarebiT.

wyaro: Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, Drug Policy in the Netherlands: Progress Report September 1997-September 1999, (The Hague: Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, November 1999), pp. 7-8.

heroiniT mkurnalobis kvlevam SveicariaSi, msoflio jandacvis organizacias misca safuZveli, gaekeTebina Semdegi daskvnebi:

· monawileTa janmrTelobis mdgomareoba gaumjobesda; · kokainisa da heroinis ukanono gamoyeneba mkveTrad Semcirda; · sacxovrebeli pirobebi gaumjobesda da stabiluri gaxda, da · programis beneficiarebi samuSaosTvis gacilebiT ufro moti· · · ·

virebulebi gaxdnen, maT Soris mudmivad dasaqmebulTa ricxvi 14%-dan 32%-mde gaizarda; dausaqmebelTa raodenoba Semcirda (44%-dan 20%-mde); damnaSaveTa da danaSaulTa ricxvi mkurnalobis pirveli 6 Tvis manZilze daaxloebiT 60%-iT Semcirda; pacientebis programaSi yofnis maCvenebeli iyo: 89% _ 6 Tvis manZilze da 69% - 18 Tvis manZilze; programis datovebis mizezi umetes SemTxvevaSi mkurnalobis sxva formaze gadasvla iyo. 83 SemTxvevaSi programis datovebis mizezi abstinenciaze orientirebul samkurnalo programaze gadasvla iyo; programiT daniSnuli narkotikebis gadaWarbebuli doziT miRebis faqtebs adgili ar hqonia.

wyaro: Robert Ali, et al, Report of the External Panel on the Evaluation of the Swiss Scientific Studies of Medically Prescribed Narcotics to Drug Addicts (New York, NY: The World Health Organization, April 1999).quontity

rac mTavaria, Semcirda programis usaxlkaro beneficiarebi;

kokainis gavrcelebis amsaxveli cifrebi niderlandebSi didad ar gansxvavdeba evropis sxva qveynebis maCveneblebisagan, Tumca sakmaod gansxvavdeba aSS maCveneblisgan. aSS-s mosaxleobis 10.5%-s gasinjuli aqvs kokaini cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi erTxel mainc, rac 5-jer aRemateba niderlandebis maCvenebels.

wyaro: Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, Drug Policy in the Netherlands: Progress Report September 1997-September 1999, (The Hague: Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, November 1999), p. 6. The report notes "*The figures quoted in this paragraph for drug use in the US are taken from the National Household Survey 1997, SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, Washington, DC".

·

kontrolis programa

kokainis momxmarebelTa ricxvis 1%iT Sesamcireblad saWiro damatebiTi danaxarji $2,062,000,000 $964,000,000 $675,000,000 $155,000,000

momwodebli qveynis kontroli akrZalva adgilobrivi aqtebis miReba mkurnaloba

1938 wels Sveicariis q. bazelSi arsebuli sandozis laboratoriis qimikosma, doqtor albert hofmanma moadxina LSD-is sinTetizacia. xuTi wlis Semdeg is SemTxveviT ikeTebs am nivTierebis intravenul ineqcias da sakuTar Tavze gakeTebul dakvirvebas aRwers Sesabamis angariSSi.

38

39

CanacvlebiTi Terapia

saqarTveloSi arsebuli narkoviTareba saqarTveloSi yoveli meore narkotikebis ineqciuri momxmarebeli C hepatitis virusis matarebelia2. Tu monacemebis Sesabamisobis mizniT daveyrdnobiT ekonomikuri kvlevis 2003 wlis statistikur monacemebs, sadac gaTvlebi gakeTebulia 50 000 momxmarebelze, gamodis, rom saqarTveloSi 25 000 C hepatitiT daavadebuli narkotikebis momxmarebelia. TiTqmis yvela C hepatitiT daavadebuls esaWiroeba mkurnaloba, romlis Rirebulebac damokidebulia virusis genoti pze. pirveli genoti pis mkurnalobis xarji weliwadSi 21 000 laria, xolo meore da mesame genoti pisTvis naxevarwliani mkurnalobis kursi 10 500 lari3. CrdiloeT amerikasa da evropaSi, maT Soris ruseTSi gavrcelebulia C hepatitis pirveli genoti pi (60-80 %), xolo meore-mesame genoti pis gavrceleba 15-35%-is farglebSi meryeobs. am infeqciis mkurnalobas saqarTveloSi wliurad, narkotikebis ineqciur momxmarebelTa Soris, esaWiroeba daaxloebiT 370 mln. lari4. es aris mkurnaloba, romelic normaluri dafinansebis pirobebSi unda xorcieldebodes.

wyaro 1.: gardamavali periodis safinanso-ekonomikuri problemebi, saqarTvelos finansTa saministro, finansebis samecniero-kvleviTi instituti. tomi VIII, 2005, gv. 361-385. es Sedegi miRebul iqna iseTi maCveneblebis gamoTvlis safuZvelze, rogoricaa mwarmoeblurobis dakargva, samarTalaRsrulebiTi sistemis xarjebi, jandacvis fasebi, Sav bazarze narkotikebis brunva da a.S. gayiduli narkotikebi wyaro 2: narkosituacia samxreT kavkasiaSi, 2004 wlis wliuri angariSi. wyaro 3: mkurnalobis fasebi moyvanilia infeqciuri paTologiis, Sidsisa da klinikuri imunologiis samecniero-praqtikuli centris informaciis mixedviT. wyaro 4: monacemebi daTvlilia pirveli genoti pis gavrcelebis 60%-iani da meore-mesame genoti pis 20%-iani gavrcelebis mixedviT.

CanacvlebiTi Terapia

evrokavSiris wamaldamokidebulebis da narkotikebis monitoringis centris gancxadebiT, 28 qveynis minimum 530,000 klienti gadis CanacvlebiTi mkurnalobis kurss (evrokavSiris 25 qveyana, norvegia, bulgareTi da rumineTi). savaraudod, evropaSi opiatdamokidebulTa 1/4-1/2 nawili gadis CanacvlebiTi mkurnalobis kurss.Tumca, rogorc angariSSia miTiTebuli, mkurnalobaze xelmisawvdomobis xarisxi sxvadasxva qveyanaSi gansxvavebulia, gansakuTrebiT evrokavSiris Zvel 15 qveyanasa da axal da perspeqtiul wevr qveynebs Soris.

wyaro: EMCDDA.

1903 wels koka-kolas damzadebis wesebSi cvlileba iqna Setanili, saxeldobr manamde farTod gamoyenebuli kokaini Caanacvla kofeinma

faqtebi saqarTveloSi arsebuli narkoviTarebis Sesaxeb

saqarTveloSi 2004 wlis bolos narkologiis samecniero institutis monacemTa bazaSi registrirebuli iyo 24 000 piri, maT Soris 14 400 opioidebis ineqciuri momxmarebeli, anu problemuri momxmarebeli. Tumca eqspertuli monacemebiT qveyanaSi momxmareblebi da narkomanebis raodenoba ufro metia. saeqsperto SefasebiT saubaria 200-240 aTas narkomomxmarebelze, romelTa Soris 80 aTasi problemuri momxmarebelia. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom aSS-s saxelmwifo departamentis cnobiT, saqarTveloSi 2004 wels 275 aTasi momxmarebeli iyo. momxmarebelTa aseTi mkveTri zrda wina welTan SedarebiT ganapiroba subuteqsis bazarze Semosvlam.

wyaro: narkosituacia samxreT kavkasiaSi, 2004 wlis wliuri angariSi.

narkotikebis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli danaxarjebi

2004-2005 wlebSi Catarebuli kvlevis Sedegad dadginda, rom ekonomikurma zianma, romelic Tan axlavs narkotikebis gamoyenebas, 2003 wlisTvis Seadgina 123 mln. lari. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom saqarTveloSi narkotikebis momxmarebelTa saerTo raodenoba iyo 150 aTasi, maT Soris ineqciuri momxmarebeli ­ 50 aTasi1. saqarTvelos infeqciuri paTologiis, Sidsisa da klinikuri imunologiis samecniero praqtikuli centris monacemebis Tanaxmad, 40

saxelmwifo dafinanseba, romelic prevenciis, mkurnalobis, reabilitaciis, zianis Semcirebisa da kvlevisaTvis iyo gamoyofili, 430 000 laridan 1997w. 2006 w. 50 000 laramde Semcirda. ilustraciisaTvis, Semcirebuli TanxiT mxolod 35 wamaldamokidebuli adamianis detoqsikaciaa SesaZlebeli (Semdgomi mkurnalobis gauTvaliswineblad).

wyaro: j. javaxiSvili, j. kariauli, d. leJava, m. cincaZe da sxvebi. 2006w.

qveyanaSi narkotikebis xelmisawvdomoba Zalian maRalia, xolo axalgazrdebis 75% narkotikebis Sovnas advilad miiCnevs.

wyaro: saqarTvelos narkopolitikis samoqmedo gegma, radimecki, oTiaSvili, cercvaZe 2006 w.

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Sidsi

aiv infeqciis klinikuri speqtri saqarTveloSi 2007 wlis 20 maisis monacemebiT infeqciuri paTologiis, Sidsisa da klinikuri imunologiis samecniero-praqtikul centrSi dafiqsirda Sidsis virusiT inficirebis 1268 SemTxveva _ 974 mamakaci, 294 ­ qali. Sidsi ganuviTarda 552 pacients, 269 gardaicvala.

wyaro: infeqciuri paTologiis, Sidsisa da klinikuri imunologiis samecnieropraqtikuli centri http://www.aidscenter.ge/epidsituation_geo.html

Sidsi

ramdenime wlis win ucxoeli eqspertebi qveyanaSi arsebuli faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT gvafrTxilebdnen, rom saqarTvelos Sidsis farTomasStabiani epidemia emuqreboda. es gangaSi gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda ukrainasa da ruseTSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis Semdeg, sadac faqtiurad erT weliwadSi aiv infeqcia/Sidsis SemTxvevebis raodenobam orjer da metad moimata. ucxoeli eqspertebis prognozi ar efuZneboda mxolod mezobel qveynebSi Seqmnil viTarebas an saqarTvelosa da zogadad kavkasiis qveynebze SesaZlo gavlenis analizs. aseTi gancxadebis safuZvels qveynis SigniT moqmedi mTeli rigi faqtorebic iZleoda, kerZod: · narkomaniis farTo gavrceleba; · saqarTvelos mezobel qveynebSi Sidsis TvalsazrisiT arasaxarbielo mdgomareoba; · sggd-s (sqesobrivi gziT gadamdebi daavadebebi) maRali prevalentoba; · mosaxleobis mzardi migracia da saerTaSoriso kontaqtebi; · erTjeradi samedicino instrumentebis, sadezinfeqcio da sasterilizacio saSualebaTa nakleboba; · samedicino personalis arasakamrisi unar-Cvevebi infeqciebis gadacemis profilaqtikis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT; · prezervativebze tradiciulad dabali moxovnileba; · Sidsis Sesaxeb mosaxleobis codnis dabali done. saqarTveloSi aiv infeqcia/Sidsis pirveli SemTxveva gamovlinda 1989 wels.

wyaro: infeqciuri paTologiis, Sidsisa da klinikuri imunologiis samecnieropraqtikuli centri http://www.aidscenter.ge/epidsituation_geo.html

aiv infeqciis klinikuri speqtri

Sidsis klinikuri gamovlinebani metad mravalferovania. SidsiT daavadebuls Rrma imunodeficitis fonze SeiZleba ganuviTardes praqtikulad nebismieri infeqcia da simsivne, magram maTi ganviTarebis sixSire erTnairi ar aris. yvelaze xSirad uviTardebaT e.w. oportunistuli infeqciebi da is simsivneebi, romlebic savaraudod, asocirebulia virusebTan. oportunistuli ewodeba infeqcias, romlis gamomwvevi (baqteria, virusi, paraziti da soko) Cveulebriv SeiZleba janmrTeli adamianis organizmSic binadrobdes da ar iwvevdes paTologias da mxolod imunokomprometirebul pirobebSi gamoiwvios daavadeba. SidsiT avadmyofebSi oportunistuli infeqciebi, rogorc wesi, Zalian mZimed mimdinareobs, cudad eqvemdebareba mkurnalobas da xSirad sikvdiliT mTavrdeba.

wyaro: infeqciuri paTologiis, Sidsisa da klinikuri imunologiis samecnieropraqtikuli centri http://www.aidscenter.ge/epidsituation_geo.html

1650 w. Tambaqos moxmareba akrZaluli iyo bavariaSi, saqsoniasa da ciurixSi, magram amaod _ akrZalvam ar imuSava. osmalebis imperiis sulTan murad VI brZanebiT, Tambaqos moweva sikvdiliT isjeboda: "sadac ar unda wasuliyo sulTani, samogzaurod Tu samxedro eqspediciaSi, yvelgan adgili hqonda masiur egzekuciebs. sabrZolo velzec ki Tambaqos mwevelis naxvis SemTxvevaSi sulTani sjida meomrebs Tavis mokveTiT, CamoxrCobiT, sxeulis danawevrebiT, kidurebis damsxvreviT. miu xedavad aseTi saSineli sadamsjelo zomebisa, Tambaqos gasinjvis survili ar cxreboda" (eduard m. breCeri da avtorebi., "legeluri da aralegaluri narkotikebi", gv. 212]

saqarTveloSi aiv infeqciis registrirebul SemTxvevaTa ricxvi

saqarTveloSi saqarTveloSi 2007 wlis 10 ianvris monacemebiT, infeqciuri paTologiis, Sidsisa da klinikuri imunologiis samecniero-praqtikul centrSi registrirebulia Sidsis virusiT inficirebis 1214 SemTxveva _ 936 mamakaci, 278 qali. pacientTa umravlesoba 29dan 40 wlamdea. Sidsi ganuviTarda 527 pacients, 253 gardaicvala.

wyaro: infeqciuri paTologiis, Sidsisa da klinikuri imunologiis samecnieropraqtikuli centri http://www.aidscenter.ge/epidsituation_geo.html

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43

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da samarTlebrivi praqtika

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da samarTlebrivi praqtika genis mizniT wardgenil iqna 837 piri, aqedan 761 pirze gaica dadebiTi daskvna, 76 pirze uaryofiTi. 2007 wlis pirveli 3 Tvis ganmavlobaSi saeqsperto-kriminologiis ganyofilebaSi policiis TanamSromelTa mier narkotikuli saSualebis miRebis faqtis dadgenis mizniT wardgenil iqna 12 801 piri, romelTagan dadebiTi aRmoCnda _ 4 978 SemTxevva, uaryofiTi _ 7539, xolo uari ganacxada Semowmebaze 284 pirma.

saeqspertoganyofilebaSi wardgenil pirTa raodenoba administraciuli jarimis daekisra 114 1508 dadebiTi daskvna uari ganacxada Semowmebaze _ 284

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da samarTlebrivi praqtika

2006 wlis 15 agvistodan ZalaSi Sevida cvlileba administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis 45-e muxlSi. am cvlilebiT narkotikis moxmarebisaTvis dawesebuli jarimebi mkveTrad gaizarda. amJamad, administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsSi (muxli 45) aRniSnulia: narkotikul saSualebaTa mcire odenobiT ukanono SeZena an Senaxva gasaRebis miznis gareSe, an narkotikul saSualebaTa moxmareba eqimis daniSnulebis gareSe gamoiwvevs dajarimebas laris 500 laris odenobiT, an gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi (Tu saqmis garemoebisa da damrRvevis pirovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT am zomebis gamoyeneba arasakmarisad CaiTvleba) ­ administraciul patimrobas ocdaaT dRemde vadiT. Tu pirs ganmeorebiT daudasturdeba narkotikis moxmareba (an SeZena, Senaxva), maSin mis winaaRmdeg amoqmeddeba sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 273-e muxli: "piradi moxmarebisTvis narkotikuli saSualebis, misi analogis an prekursoris mcire odenobiT ukanonod damzadeba, SeZena, Senaxva an eqimis daniSnulebis gareSe ukanonod moxmareba, aseTi qmedebisTvis administraciuli saxdelis dadebis Semdeg - isjeba jarimiT an sazogadoebisTvis sasargeblo SromiT, vadiT as ocidan as oTxmoc saaTamde, an tusaRobiT vadiT sam Tvemde, anda Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT, vadiT erT wlamde". sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis safuZvelze dakisrebuli jarima gacilebiT didia. igi SeiZleba iyos 2000 lari an ufro meti. jarimis lari odenoba ganisazRvreba bralmdeblis da mosamarTlis SexedulebiT.

wyaro: saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa ministrisa da saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis ministris erToblivi brZaneba "narkotikuli da fsiqotropuli saSualebebis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebuli administraciuli samarTaldarRvevebis dadgenis wesis damtkicebisSesaxeb".

2006 wlis 1 ianvridan 15 ivnisamde 2007 wlis 1 ianvridan 1 aprilamde

837 12 801

761 4 978

wyaro: saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros monacemebi.

eqspertizaze miyvanil pirTa raodenoba

2006 wlis 1 ianvridan 15 ivnisamde 2007 wlis 1 ianvridan 1 aprilamde

uaryofiTi daskvna 76 7 539

1508

1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 saeqspertoganyofilebaSi wardgenil pirTa raodenoba dadebiTi daskvna

837

761

284 0 0 76 0 0 114

2006 wlis noembridan, kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad Sss aRiWurva narkotikuli saSualebis moxmarebis faqtis dadgenis uflebamosilebiT, pirTa miyvana narkotikuli saSualebis faqtis dadgenis mizniT mTlianad xorcieldeba Sss-s daqvemdebarebul eqspertizis erovnuli biuros narkologiur ganyofilebaSi 2006 wlis pirveli sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos iusticiis saministros levan samxaraulis saxelobis sasamarTlo eqspertizis erovnuli biuros narkologiur ganyofilebaSi, policiis TanamSromelTa mier narkotikuli saSualebis miRebis faqtis dad44

uari ganacxada Semowmebaze

administraciuli jarimis daekisra

uaryofiTi daskvna

45

saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da samarTlebrivi praqtika 2006 wlis 7 Tvesa da 15 dReSi miRebul iqna 114 dadgenileba, jarimebis saxiT gadaxdilma Tanxam Seadgina 90 941 lari. 2007 wlis mxolod sam TveSi miRebul iqna 1508 dadgenileba, jarimebis saxiT gadaxdilma Tanxam Seadgina 754 00 lari.

wyaro: Tbilisis saqalaqo sasamarTlos administarciul saqmeTa kolegia

janmrTelobis mdgomareobis savaldebulo Semowmeba

danarTi 2 im pirTa da saqmianobebis nusxa, romelTa Semsruleblebi eqvemdebarebian janmrTelobis mdgomareobis savaldebulo periodul Semowmebas 1. navTobisa da airis mopoveba-gadamuSavebasTan dakavSirebuli saqmianoba. 2. maRali Zabvis eleqtroxazebisa da eleqtrodanadgarebis momsaxurebasTan dakavSirebuli saqmianoba. 3. maRlivi da simaRleze asvlasTan dakavSirebuli samuSaoebi, amwe mowyobilobebis momsaxureoba. 4. saaviacio, mcurav, sarkinigzo da metropolitenis transportTan dakavSirebuli saqmianoba, romelic uSualod aris dakavSirebuli transportis marTvasTan da moZraobis usafrTxoebasTan. 5. satransporto saSualebaTa (A, B, C, D, E) marTvis uflebis maZiebeli an/da mflobeli piri. 6. yvela saxis miwisqveSa samuSaoTa warmoeba. 7. yvela saxis wyalqveSa saqmianobis warmoeba. 8. saqarTvelos kanoniT "iaraRis Sesaxeb" gansazRvruli nebismieri saxis iaraRis tarebis da Senaxvis maZiebeli an/da mflobeli piri. 9. yvela saxis samaSvelo saqmianoba. 10. radiaqtiur nivTierebebTan, agresiul siTxeebTan, maionizirebeli gamosxivebisa da eleqtromagnituri velis wyaroebTan dakavSirebuli saqmianobebi. 11. III da IV risk-jgufis paTogenur biologiur agentebTan momuSave personali. 12. yvela saxis damoukidebeli saeqimo saqmianoba. alkoholizmiT da narkomaniiT daavadebul pirebze vrceldeba am nusxis yvela punqti da CamonaTvalSi miniSnebuli yvela saqmianoba aris akrZaluli.

sasjelaRsrulebiT daweseulebaSi myofi patimrebisadmi da msjavrdebulebisadmi samedicino momsaxureobaze 2006 wels medikamentebze daxarjuli Tanxa Seadgens 246 314, 12 lars, xolo patimarTa mkurnalobaze gaweuli xarji Seadgens ­ 32 22, 64 lars. xolo im patimrebisadmi da msjavrdebulebisadmi, romlebic dawesebulebaSi imyofebian sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 260-e, 273-e muxlebis safuZvelze, xorciledeba sxvadasxva saxis samkurnalo RonisZiebebi sxvadasxva arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mier.

wyaro: sasjelaRsrulebis socialuri departamenti

amonaweri saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis ministris brZanebulebidan # 307/6 (30.11.2006w). "janmrTelobis mdgomareobis savaldebulo perioduli Semowmebis Sesaxeb" ...saqarTvelos Sromis kodeqsis 54-e muxlis pirveli "b" qvepunqtis Sesabamisad vbrZaneb: 1 damtkicdes janmrTelobis mdgomareobis savaldebulo perioduli Semowmebis wesi (danarTi 1). 2. damtkicdes im pirTa da im saqmianobaTa nusxa, romelTa Semsruleblebi eqvemdebarebian janmrTelobis mdgomareobis savaldebulo periodul Semowmebas (danarTi 2). 3. damtkicdes daavadebaTa da fizikur anomaliaTa CamonaTvali, romelTa arsebobac ukunaCvenebis am brZanebis me-2 danarTiT gansazRvruli saqmianobis dros (danarTi 3).

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