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MEAT TECH ­ NATURAL MEAT CURING

AGENDA

I ­ NATURAL MEAT CURING CONCEPT

II ­ HOW/WHERE USE IT?

III ­ HOW TO PROMOTE IT ?

IV ­ FEEDBACK FROM EUROPEAN MARKET

V ­ TECHNICAL PART

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Natural Meat Curing Concept

No Preservatives Claims: A Trend Meat Curing: Main Actives Meat Curing-Nitrate Source: Your Options

NO PRESERVATIVES CLAIMS: A TREND

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Launched Products

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No Preservatives: Claim n°3

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40

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0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Microwaveable Claim

No Additives/Preservatives Claim

Ease of Use Claim

Premium Claim

4 Source: GNPD

Research criteria: Period: Less than a year; Market: Meat Products; Area: USA

MEAT CURING: MAIN ACTIVES

STANDARD MEAT CURING

· Salt

­ Flavor ­ Antimicrobial ­ Enhances cure transport through meat

NATURAL MEAT CURING

· Salt

­ Flavor ­ Antimicrobial ­ Enhances cure transport through meat

· Sugar

­ Flavor ­ Counteracts harshness of salt ­ Energy for bacteria that change NO3 --> NO2 Flavor Prevents warmed-over flavor Retards rancidity Cured-pink color Anti-botulinal effect

· Sugar

­ Flavor ­ Counteracts harshness of salt ­ Energy for bacteria that change NO3 ---> NO2

· Nitrite or nitrate

­ ­ ­ ­ ­

· Vegetable (Natural Nitrite Source)

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Flavor Prevents warmed-over flavor Retards rancidity Cured-pink color Anti-botulinal effect Solutions for clean labeling

· Erythorbate

­ Reduce residual nitrite ­ Enhance cured-pink color stability ­ Antioxidant

· Acerola

­ ­ ­ ­

Reduce residual nitrite Enhance cured-pink color stability Antioxidant Solution for clean labeling

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MEAT CURING-NITRITE SOURCE: YOUR OPTIONS

NITRITES SALT

(Nitrite Sodium, Nitrite Potassium, ...)

NITRATES INCUBATION

(from vegetable concentrate/Powder)

MEAT PREPARATION

STARTER CULTURE

(microorganisms)

COOKING PRE CONVERTED NITRATES

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PROCESSED MEAT PRODUCT

Where/How Use It ?

Process Steps

WHERE/HOW TO USE IT?

Emulsified Meat Process Ham Process

Selection of Meat

ACEROLA NITRATE SOURCE

Selection of Meat

Grinding

Boning and trimming

Mixing

Salting, brine injection Add it in the brine Add it with the spices after Maceration and vacuum the protein extraction tumbling Vacuum moulding

Blending

Emulsification Cooking and cooling Stuffing Taken out from the mould

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How to promote it?

Natural Meat Curing Labeling No Preservatives ­ Premium Claims Consumer Perception Price Increase

HOW TO PROMOTE IT ?

· Uncured Labeling brings No Preservatives + Premium Claims · No Preservatives Claim is N°3 in the USA · Consumer Perception:

­ Premium Label ­ Study:

· · Consumers will assume they taste better (healthy meat = better taste) Consumers will be influenced on the price treshold

­ Concept of Value ­ new trend: consumers take in factor quality, convenience, nutrition, health and service as well as price

· Average price increase of 12.4 % (realized on EU market products)

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Feedback from European Market

Labeling EU/ USA EU Regulation / Trends

LABELING - GERMANY

Ingredients: pork meat, cooking salt, sugar, liquid condiment (water, spices), spice extracts (celery), fruit extract (acerola), stabilising agents (diphosphates, triphosphate), maturing cultures

Labeling: "Pleasure of Natural" Nitrate Source: Celery as a spice extract

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LABELING - USA

Ingredients: Pork, Waters, Brown Sugar, Salt, Vinegar, Celery Powder (Powdered), Cherry Powder (Powdered), Green Tea Extract (Extract), Lactic Acid Starter Culture

Labeling: Uncured. No Nitrite or Nitrate added (except for naturally occuring Nitrates in Celery and Cherry Powder) Nitrate Source: Celery Powder

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LABELING - USA

Ingredients: Ham, Water, Honey, Salt, Turbinado Sugar, Natural Flavor, Lactic Acid Starter Culture (not from milk).

Labeling: Uncured. No Nitrates or Nitrites added (except for those naturally occuring in natural flavor) Nitrate Source: Celery as a Natural Flavor

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EU REGULATORY CONTEXT: towards a restriction in the utilization of nitrites

·

Danish situation

Approved decision for Denmark to maintain their more stringent national maximum limit of nitrites authorized in meat products (as low as 60 mg/kg for several meat products)

·

Strong debate around the case of organic meat products

Intention to re-examine the use of sodium nitrite and potassium nitrate in organic meat products with a view to withdrawing them (EC n° 889/2008). Issue to be reconsidered e.g. in 3 years, technical progress being expected in the meantime to find safe alternatives (SCOF meeting, 24-25 January 2011).

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TECHNICAL PART

Diana Naturals Trial n°1 Diana Naturals Trial n°2 Other Scientific Work

Trial n°1

Whole Muscle Ham Experiment

Objectives

To evaluate the feasibility of:

"Traditional versus natural meat curing"

1. sodium nitrite replacement by vegetable juice concentrate

2. sodium erythorbate replacement by acerola juice powder

MATERIAL & METHODS

Obj 1: vegetable as an alternative to nitrites

Trial n°1

Obj 2: acerola as an alternative to erythorbate

Variables Control Sodium nitrite (ppm) Celery juice conc. (%) Swiss chard juice conc. (%) Acerola juice powder (%) Sodium erythorbate (ppm) Starter culture (%)

a

Test 1 0.25b 450e 0.02

Test 2 0.25c 450e 0.02

Test 3 156 0.25d

Test 4a 0.25b 0.25d 0.02

156 450e

Test 4 does not contain sodium Tripolyphosphate, contrary to all of the other conditions b Approximately 70 ppm nitrate ion delivered c Approximately 37.5 ppm nitrate ion delivered Nitrite quantity required to develop adequate... d Approximately 425 ppm ascorbic acid delivered ... cured color: 4050 ppm (even if pink coloration e Approximately 400 ppm erythorbate delivered occurs with 214 ppm) ... cured flavor: 4050 ppm ... antioxidant protection: 50 ppm ( 200 ppm) 18 (Sebranek & Bacus, 2007)

RESULTS - NITRATE

Trial n°1

The nitrite column could be added as well (provided we get more information on the protocol). But not necessarily indispensible as we already study the residual nitrite topic in the second part.

Nitrate ion analyses (postincubation) Nitrate ion (ppm) Control Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 10.80 35.00 10.90 10.60 41.90

Warning: in spite of the last precision of J. Bacus ("The values are initial values as indicated; as soon as we could get them to lab and analyzed"), it is not more clear for me concerning the time when the measurement was taken... (I suppose it is post incubation, but pre or post thermal processing? From a publication I found, it is not the same regarding residual nitrate level). Unless you consider this slide indispensible (cf proposed ccl), I would take it out...

Conclusions: · Residual nitrates may be detected in ham even when no vegetal source of nitrates is used in the formulation · Nitrates introduced through celery or swiss chard are effectively consumed · Considering nitrate analyses acerola displays the same effect as erythorbate (Control vs Test 3)

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RESULTS ­ MICROBIOLOGICAL

Trial n°1

Total plate count (CFU/g) (duplicate) Day 0 Control Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4

<10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10

Day 28

<10 <10 >2.50x105 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10

Day 42

<10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10

Day 56

4.80x103 6.80x103 <10 3.00x10 3.72x103 <10 <10 <10 1.00x101 <10

Day 84

<10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10 <10

Conclusion: · Regarding total flora, no significant difference between tests 14 and control during the 84day shelf life study.

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RESULTS - COLOR

Trial n°1

Control Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4

Conclusion: · Except in the first stage of the storage period, same kinetics of a* decrease in each of the conditions tested.

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RESULTS ­ SENSORY EVALUATION ­ day 0*

*

Trial n°1

Same observations throughout storage period

Evaluated as the best color

CONTROL Nitrite, erythorbate

TEST 1 Celery, erythorbate

TEST 3 Nitrite, acerola

Color: typical pink cured color Color: good pink cured Color: very good pink cured Texture: typical of ham color color Flavor: typical of ham with Texture: plum and firm Texture: better than control smoky, salty and cured Flavor: smoky, salty and Flavor: smoky, salty and attributes with fresh acidic cured attributes cured attributes. bite Conclusion: · Cured attributes may be found even without using typical ingredients of cured meat

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CONCLUSIONS & PERSPECTIVES

Trial n°1

CONCLUSIONS:

· Sensory attributes typical of cured meat are reached with the natural solutions... and results are even sometimes better than with the traditional formula (cf Test 3 with acerola) · 1st positive results regarding microbial quality compared to conventional products Encouraging results in this search for natural solutions for cured meat products

PERSPECTIVES:

· Color stability (Lab) to be improved (even if no change was perceived visually) · Veg/acerola dosages to be optimized and new natural solutions to be screened · Safety to be evaluated after exposition to foodborne pathogens (e.g. meat inoculated with L. monocytogenes or C. botulinum) · Impact of natural solutions on residual nitrite levels to be studied (Trial n°2)

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PERSPECTIVES: way to improve color stability

Diana Naturals ­ other trial

Conclusion: · From this experiment in cured ground pork, it can be shown that the cured color stability can be enhanced in a dosedependent manner by adding acerola juice powder.

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PERSPECTIVES: other efficient natural candidates for the meat industry What about other scientific works? Conventionallike products (sensory properties incl. color and flavor, shelflife incl. oxidative status, microbiological safety ...) Reduced residual nitrite levels... ... and minimization of related health concerns concerning cured meats

· · · · · · · · Citrus coproducts (ViudaMartos et al., 2009) Tomato paste/powder (Deda et al., 2007; Eyiler & Oztan, 2011) Garlicderived ingredients (Sallam et al., 2004; Yin & Cheng, 2003) Onionderived ingredients (Tang & Cronin, 2007; Park & Chin, 2010) Grape seed extracts (Mielnik et al., 2006) Pomegranate juice (Naveena et al., 2008) Plum and prune juice concentrates (Nuñez de Gonzalez et al., 2008) ...

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PERSPECTIVES: food safety & natural solutions

What about other scientific works?

Conclusion: · Adding natural antimicrobials can lead to similar results as traditional products in terms of safety level

Adapted from Glass & Sindelar (2010)

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Trial n°2

Cured Ground Meat Experiment

"Natural meat curing and safety"

Objective

To evaluate the impact of: A natural alternative to erythorbate (acerola juice powder) on residual nitrite levels

MATERIAL & METHODS

Trial n°2

Variables Ingredients Sodium nitrite (ppm) Acerola juice powd. (%)

a b

Control 156

Test 1 156 0.1a

Test 2 156 0.3b

170 ppm ascorbic acid delivered 510 ppm ascorbic acid delivered

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RESULTS

Trial n°2

Conclusion: · Acerola juice powder is able to reduce up to 80% of the initial nitrite content · Dosedependant efficacy

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CONCLUSION

Trial n°2

· Acerola juice powder has the ability to reduce residual nitrite levels · Less residual nitrite reduced risk of in vivo nitrosamine formation and resulting health concerns

Moreover: acerola also provides other compounds potentially useful to prolong meat shelf life (antioxidant effect), to reduce residual nitrites in meat products (reaction of polyphenols with nitrites; Viuda-Martos et al., 2009) and to prevent endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (role of ascorbic acid and phenolics; Nagarjan & Hotchkiss, 1999)

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Residual nitrites in meat products found on the market

Commercial hams

What about other scientific works?

Uncured no nitrate/nitrite added manufactured with the intention of simulating typical curing (sodium nitrite replacement without the direct addition of nitrite)

Extracted from Sindelar et al. (2007) Nitriteadded

Higher residual nitrite and nitrate levels in nitriteadded meat products

Uncured no nitrate/nitrite added manufactured with the intention of simulating typical curing (A, C, D) or with no intention of replacing sodium nitrate or nitrite (B)

Commercial bacon

Nitriteadded

Extracted from Sindelar et al. (2007) 31

CONCLUSION

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GENERAL CONCLUSION: THE "ALL-NATURAL CONCEPT"

Diana Naturals contributes to the development of complete natural solutions for meat curing Key-role of the right combinations between:

­ Natural source of nitrates ­ Natural substitute of erythorbate ­ As well as: natural antimicrobials, antioxidants, colors, flavor enhancers... All of them being developed in a way to minimize changes in usual practices of meat processors

But also: the advantage of using ingredients developed from whole fruits and vegetables, thus bringing the power of others active compounds

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