Read Vol I Cover.pub text version

Hidrocarbonetos, EP de Moçambique

Anadarko Moçambique Área 1, Lda and Empresa Nacional de Hidrocarbonetos EP Proposed Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT

Volume I Non-Technical Summary

For a Proposed Offshore Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

September 2007

ANADARKO MOÇAMBIQUE ÁREA 1, LDA AND EMPRESA NACIONAL DE HIDROCARBONETOS, EP PROPOSED DEEPWATER SEISMIC SURVEY IN ROVUMA OFFSHORE AREA 1

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT

VOLUME I NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY For a Proposed Offshore Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 September 2007

Public Participation Office and Return Address for Comments: Carlota Quilambo Impacto Lda Av. Martires da Machava, 968 Maputo, Moçambique Tel: (Direct) +258 21 497802 Tel: (Office) +258 21 499 636/7 Fax: +258 21 493019 Cell: + 258 82 306 9340 E-mail: [email protected] Prepared for: Mr. Mike Pace Anadarko Moçambique Área 1, Lda Rua Antonio Jose de Almeida, 227 Zona da Sommerschield Maputo, Moçambique Tel: (Direct) +258 21 21 487 050 Fax: +258 21 487 054 [email protected] Technical Inquires: M. John Thompson CSA International, Inc. 759 Parkway Street Jupiter, Florida 33477 U.S.A. Tel: 001 561 746 7946 Fax: 001 561 747 2954 Cell: 001 772 971 8137 E-mail: [email protected]

This document is also available in Portuguese at http://www.anadarko.com/mozambique

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................... iv LIST OF FIGURES ...........................................................................................................v 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................NTS-1 PURPOSE ........................................................................................................NTS-2 PROPOSED PROJECT .................................................................................NTS-2 KEY ISSUES FOR INVESTIGATION ........................................................NTS-6 SPECIALIST STUDIES .................................................................................NTS-8 5.1 MARINE MAMMAL AND SEA TURTLE SURVEY ..........................NTS-8 5.2 REPRESENTATIVE MARINE HABITATS SURVEY ........................NTS-9 5.3 ACOUSTICAL MODELING STUDY .................................................NTS-11 5.4 FISHERIES BASELINE STUDY.........................................................NTS-13 5.5 SOCIOECONOMIC AND ECOTOURISM STUDY ...........................NTS-13 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION ........................................................................NTS-15 IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY ...........................................NTS-17 BIOPHYSICAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATON.......................................NTS-19 8.1 POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON MARINE MAMMALS .........................NTS-19 8.2 POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON SEA TURTLES .....................................NTS-21 8.3 POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON FISHES..................................................NTS-22 8.4 POTENTIAL SAFETY IMPACTS ON HUMAN DIVERS.................NTS-22 8.5 POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON AIR AND WATER QUALITY.............NTS-24 SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS AND MITIGATION .............................NTS-25 9.1 POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON TOURISM .............................................NTS-25 9.1.1 Effects on Recreational Diving and Snorkeling Activities .........NTS-25 9.1.2 Effects on Recreational Fishing Activities .................................NTS-26 9.1.3 Effects on Cetacean (whale and dolphin) Sightseeing Excursions...................................................................................NTS-26 9.1.4 Visual/Aesthetic Effects on Tourists (especially on the islands) ........................................................................................NTS-27 9.1.5 Economic Effects on the Tourism Industry in the Study Area ...NTS-27 9.1.6 Effects on the Image of the Quirimbas Archipelago as a Tourism Destination ...................................................................NTS-27 9.1.7 Effects on Planned and Future Tourism Developments .............NTS-28

6.0 7.0 8.0

9.0

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-ii

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

9.2 POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON ARTISANAL FISHERIES....................NTS-28 9.2.1 Effects of the Safety Zones on Artisanal Fishing .......................NTS-28 9.2.2 Effects of Changes in Fish Behavior and Movement on Artisanal Fishing.........................................................................NTS-30 9.2.3 Effects on the Safety of Artisanal Divers ...................................NTS-30 9.2.4 Effects on the Livelihoods of Artisanal Fishers..........................NTS-30 9.2.5 Temporary Reduction in Fish Volumes Available for Purchase and Resale ...................................................................NTS-31 POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON SHIPPING .............................................NTS-31

9.3

10.0 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..............................................NTS-32

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-iii

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Page Daily average income per fishing unit of primary producers in Palma and Mocímboa da Praia (collected from focus groups) .........NTS-15 Daily average income per fishing unit of primary producers in Palma and Mocímboa da Praia (collected from individual interviews).........................................................................................NTS-15 Definitions of impact consequence...................................................NTS-18 Matrix combining impact consequence and probability to determine overall impact significance ..............................................NTS-19 Summary of potential biophysical impacts and mitigation...............NTS-33 Summary of potential socioeconomic impacts and mitigation .........NTS-37

2

3 4

5 6

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-iv

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Page Proposed seismic survey area offshore Mozambique in water depths greater than 50 m .....................................................................NTS-2 A compressed air sound source being deployed .................................NTS-3 Schematic diagram of a 2-D marine seismic survey...........................NTS-3 Tail buoy (in red) at the end of a 6,000-m streamer being deployed..............................................................................................NTS-3 Seismic vessel towing four streamers, 100 m apart............................NTS-4 Revised primary and optional extension areas of the 3-D survey area ..........................................................................................NTS-5 Towed seismic array plus 200-m safety zone .....................................NTS-7 Representative areas selected for ground level site visits within the Quirimbas Archipelago....................................................NTS-10 Location of Mozambican acoustical modeling points ......................NTS-11 Example of a source directivity plot for sound energy released from a seismic sound source...............................................NTS-12 Predicted sound exposure levels arising from operation of the 30-source array at Site 3 ...................................................................NTS-12 Public participation opportunities within the Environmental Impact Assessment process...............................................................NTS-16 Adjustment of survey area to the east to ensure a minimum of 2.5 km between the survey area and the Vamizi and Metundo Islands' outer reef line ......................................................................NTS-23

2 3 4

5 6

7 8

9 10

11

12

13

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-v

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This non-technical summary is part of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process for a deepwater seismic survey proposed by Anadarko Moçambique Área 1, Lda (AMA1) and Empresa Nacional de Hidrocarbonetos, EP (ENH) in Rovuma Offshore Area 1. The non-technical summary is part of a larger Environmental Impact Report (EIR), which consists of four volumes:

· · · ·

Volume I ­ Non-Technical Summary (this document); Volume II ­ Part A: Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA); and Part B: Environmental Management Plan (EMP); Volume III ­ Specialist Studies Reports; and Volume IV ­ Public Participation.

AMA1 and ENH have selected Projectos e Estudos de Impacto Ambiental Limitada (IMPACTO) and CSA International, Inc. (CSA) to conduct this EIA. Neither of these firms, nor any of the individuals working on this project, has any financial interest in AMA1 or ENH. The personnel involved in this project are listed below. Lead Consultants

· · · ·

Mr. Mario Jorge Rassul ­ Project Manager for Public Consultation and IMPACTO Team Leader Ms. Carlota Quilambo ­ Project Manager Dr. John Hatton ­ IMPACTO Technical Coordinator Mr. M. John Thompson ­ CSA Technical Coordinator

Project Scientists ­ IMPACTO

· · · · · ·

Dr. John Hatton ­ IMPACTO Technical Director, Environmental Scientist Dr. Almeida Tomas Guissamulo ­ Marine Mammal Specialist Ms. Paula Santana Afonso ­ Fisheries Biologist Mr. Johan Van Der Walt ­ Coordinator, Social Impacts Assessment Mr. Horacio Francisco Gervásio ­ Social Economist Ms. Alda Isabel Anibal Salomão ­ Legal Expert

Project Scientists ­ CSA

· · · · · ·

Mr. M. John Thompson ­ Habitat Characterization Surveys Mr. Stephen Viada ­ Marine Mammal Surveys Mr. Brian Balcom ­ Impact Assessment, Marine Mammals Dr. Neal Phillips ­ Impact Assessment, Seismic Surveys Dr. Alan Hart ­ Oceanography and Currents Mr. Robert Cady ­ Marine Biology

All volumes of the EIR are available in English and Portuguese. Electronic copies can be downloaded from the AMA1 website (http://www.anadarko.com/mozambique).

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-1

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Printed copies are available through the EIA team's Public Participation Office: Public Participation Office Impacto Lda Av. Martires da Machava, 968 Maputo, Mozambique Tel: (Direct) +258 21 497802 Tel: (Office) +258 21 499 636/7 Tel: (Cell) +258 82 306 9340 Fax: +258 21 493019 E-mail: [email protected] Contact: Ms. Carlota Quilambo. 2.0 PURPOSE

The purpose of the EIA is to evaluate potential impacts to the biological and social environments of northern Mozambique resulting from the proposed seismic survey. In Mozambique, the EIA process is a legal requirement under Environmental Law 20/97 and defined and governed by the Regulation on the Environmental Impact Assessment Process (Decree No. 45/2004). Under these regulations, the Ministry for Coordination of Environmental Affairs Mozambique (MICOA) has classified the proposed seismic survey as a Category A activity, which is subject to the EIA process. 3.0 PROPOSED PROJECT

AMA1 and ENH propose to conduct two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys in the offshore portion of Rovuma Concession Block (Figure 1). The proposed surveys will occur in water depths greater than 50 m. The 3-D survey will begin in January 2008; the 2-D survey has yet to be scheduled. AMA1 is obligated to acquire these seismic data as part of the work commitment under the Exploration and Production Concession contract granted by the Republic of Mozambique. Seismic surveying is the main technique used by geophysicists to map subsurface geology. This type surveying is a necessary part of oil and gas exploration. Seismic data are required to define a prospect and select the optimum

Figure 1. Proposed seismic survey area offshore Mozambique in water depths greater than 50 m.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-2

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

well location to test for, and hopefully find, oil and gas. Ultimately, a well must be drilled to test whether the prospect contains oil and gas. Seismic survey equipment consists of a compressed air source of seismic sound (Figure 2), up to 12 cables containing many hydrophones (underwater microphones) that serve as receivers of the seismic sound, a recording system, and related equipment to place the seismic source and hydrophones in their appropriate positions and monitor them once in position. Sound waves from the seismic source are directed downward into the seafloor and subsurface geology below and are reflected Figure 2. A compressed air sound back to the surface where they are detected by source being deployed. hydrophones in long streamers towed behind the vessel. Data recorded by the hydrophones and positioning information are transmitted through the streamer to computers aboard the survey vessel. Once the data are compiled, a computer-generated map of the subsurface geology is produced. The proposed surveys include both 2-D and 3-D seismic acquisition, which involve somewhat different methodologies and objectives. 2-D seismic surveys involve the use of a single streamer of hydrophones (Figures 3 and 4) towed along a grid of widely-spaced lines (e.g., approximately 3 km apart). These surveys are a reconnaissance tool to help determine whether an area is a hydrocarbons prospect.

Figure 3. Schematic diagram of a 2-D marine seismic survey.

Figure 4. Tail buoy (in red) at the end of a 6,000-m streamer being deployed.

Unfortunately, 2-D data provide no information about the subsurface geology between the survey lines. In most cases, a successful 2-D program is followed by a 3-D program, during which an array of streamers is towed in parallel formation behind the seismic vessel (Figure 5), while the vessel navigates along closely-spaced lines.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-3

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Figure 5. Seismic vessel towing four streamers, 100 m apart. Two source arrays are deployed between the two middle streamers (photograph courtesy of WesternGeco). Interpretation of the 3-D data provides a detailed image of subsurface features rather than a large grid of discrete lines, resulting in better definition of the subsurface structure. Simply put, 3-D seismic data fill the gaps between the widely-spaced 2-D data, providing a much more accurate representation of the subsurface geology. The additional data acquired during a 3-D survey allow interpreters to select the optimum locations for drilling exploration wells. Although both 2-D and 3-D surveys will be conducted, most of the data will be acquired using the 3-D technique. The area of 3-D seismic operations extends approximately 140 km north-south and 32 km east-west (Figure 1), in an area where 2-D seismic data have already been collected. New 3-D data will be acquired over this area in a series of swaths oriented in a north-south direction. First, the seismic vessel will acquire data along one swath in a north-south direction. Upon completing this swath, the vessel will turn in a large semicircle, still towing the streamers. The vessel will then acquire data over the next swath, moving in the opposite direction (south-north). Data acquisition will continue in this manner until the survey area has been completely covered. AMA1 has made some adjustments to the originally planned 3-D survey pattern, as explained in Section 6.0 of the EIA (Volume II, Part A). Specifically, the 3-D survey area has been divided into "primary" and "optional extension" areas (Figure 6). This change was necessary due to the possible length of time required to survey the entire area as originally proposed; the change ensures that the most critical portion of Area 1 can be surveyed between January and the end of June 2008.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-4

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Figure 6. Revised primary and optional extension areas of the 3-D survey area. The 2-D survey area remains unchanged. New 2-D lines will be surveyed in an area that currently lacks seismic data and is not covered by the proposed 3-D survey (Figures 1 and 6). These new lines will serve as a reconnaissance tool to determine the hydrocarbons potential north of the 3-D survey area. The schedule for the 2-D surveys has not been determined. The 3-D surveys will be conducted using the M/V GEO CHALLENGER, a dedicated seismic survey vessel owned and operated by CGGVeritas. The ship has an overall length of 90.3 m (296 ft). The hydrophones (receivers) will be deployed in streamers towed behind the vessel at a depth of 6 to 8 m. For the 3-D survey, there will be up to 12 streamers, each 6 km long and separated by 75 m. The maximum area covered by the streamers will, therefore, be 825 m wide by 6 km long. Because of the large streamer arrays towed by the seismic survey vessel, its maneuverability is very limited during data acquisition. The source vessel will be accompanied by an escort vessel that will be used to investigate the route ahead of the seismic vessel, identify hazards such as shallow water or fishing equipment, and ensure other vessels do not cross over or interfere with the equipment being towed. For this survey, no seismic acquisition will take place in water depths shallower than 50 m.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-5

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

However, the seismic survey vessel may maneuver in shallower depths when seismic acquisition is not underway. Figure 7 illustrates the size of the safety/exclusion zone that will be maintained around the source vessel and arrays during the surveys. In all, the streamer vessel, seismic areas, and safety zone will be approximately 8,500 m long and 1,225 m wide, covering a total of 1,041 ha (4.02 mi2) of the sea surface. The source vessel will be moving at speeds between 4 and 5 kts. Therefore, the length of time that any particular point would be within the exclusion zone would be about 55 minutes. 4.0 KEY ISSUES FOR INVESTIGATION

In Mozambique, the EIA process is a legal requirement under Environmental Law 20/97 and defined and governed by the Regulation on the Environmental Impact Assessment Process (Decree No. 45/2004). Critical factors in the Category A activity classification include the following: · · · Activity taking place close to or possibly in a sensitive ecosystem (in this case, the Quirimbas Archipelago); Potential for socioeconomic impacts to local communities and businesses; and Activity related to petroleum exploration. Specific regulations in Decree No. 45/2004 for petroleum-related operations require the identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental impacts from exploration activities associated with petroleum operations.

In accordance with Decree No. 45/2004, a Pre-Viability Report Scope Definition Study (EPRSDS) and Terms of Reference (TOR) document was submitted to MICOA on 4 June 2007 and approved on 13 July 2007 (see Volume II, Appendix B). The EPRSDS and TOR focused on six key issues: · · · · · · Impacts of underwater noise from seismic sound sources on marine mammals and sea turtles; Impacts to the benthic habitats in the Quirimbas Archipelago, including coral reefs and seagrass beds; Interruption of nearshore fishing due to fish movements away from underwater noise from seismic sound sources and the safety zone around the seismic survey vessel and ocean-towed cables; Interference with shipping due to the safety zone around the seismic survey vessel and ocean-towed cables; Impacts on ecotourism due to underwater noise from seismic sound sources and exclusion from safety zones around seismic vessels; and Air and water quality impacts due to air pollutant emissions and waste discharges from survey vessels.

These issues emerged from the initial stakeholder engagement and the EIA team's preliminary assessments.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-6

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Figure 7. Towed seismic array plus 200-m safety zone. (Note: The 8.5-km estimated length of this complete system includes 200 m before the survey vessel and 200 m behind the tail buoy as part of the safety zone.)

NTS-7

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

5.0 SPECIALIST STUDIES

In accordance with Decree 45/2004, Article 11(1)a, the EPRSDS and TOR identified five special studies to be conducted: · · · · · Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Survey; Representative Marine Habitats Survey; Acoustical Modeling Study; Fisheries Baseline Study; and Socioeconomic and Ecotourism Study.

The purpose of the special studies was to supplement available environmental data for the potentially affected area inshore of the project and provide acoustical calculations to support the impact analysis. Details are presented in Volume III. Brief summaries of the results are provided below. 5.1 MARINE MAMMAL AND SEA TURTLE SURVEY

A census survey of marine mammals (with emphasis on dugongs) and sea turtles was conducted within waters inshore of the proposed seismic survey (Rovuma Offshore Area 1) and the Parque Nacional Quirimbas (PNQ) (Volume III, Part A). Two aerial surveys were conducted in the inshore waters of the Rovuma concession block. During the first survey, 268 marine mammals were sighted. These included 24 hump-backed dolphins, 44 bottlenose dolphins, and 200 spinner dolphins; 49 unidentified sea turtles also were sighted. During the second survey covering a smaller area, 25 marine mammals were sighted, including 18 hump-backed dolphins and 7 bottlenose dolphins. A total of 51 unidentified sea turtles were seen. Within the PNQ survey area, 1 marine mammal (a hump-backed dolphin) and 114 unidentified sea turtles were sighted. Dugongs were not seen within the Rovuma concession block, the PNQ survey area, or during the daily transit flights to and from these areas. Dugongs also were not sighted within areas selected for the secondary survey of the Rovuma concession block where historic sightings of this species had been reported. While these surveys do not account for potential temporal movements of dugongs into the Rovuma or PNQ survey areas, it may be assumed that dugongs are rare within these areas. Generally, bottlenose and hump-backed dolphins were observed in relatively small groups. Bottlenose dolphins were sighted in groups of 1 to 25 individuals, generally near the eastern ends of the survey transects, offshore of the barrier islands. In contrast, hump-backed dolphins were sighted in groups of 1 to 10 individuals, generally between the shoreline and the barrier islands. One large group (estimated at 200 individuals) of spinner dolphins was sighted off the continental shelf break, east of the town of Palma. Only one dolphin (hump-backed dolphin) was sighted during the survey of the PNQ.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-8

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Sea turtles were generally scattered throughout the Rovuma survey area, although some aggregations of individual turtles were observed near the shelf break between the islands of Macaloé and Medjumbe. Sea turtles were much more abundant in the PNQ survey area (114 individuals) than in the Rovuma area (49 sighted during the initial survey of the entire Rovuma area and 51 sighted during the secondary survey). 5.2 REPRESENTATIVE MARINE HABITATS SURVEY

The Quirimbas Archipelago consists of a chain of 32 islands and several reef complexes that stretch for approximately 200 km along the coast line of Cabo Delgado Province. The Archipelago and its adjacent nearshore water represent a mosaic of highly productive marine habitats, including mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and several types of coral reefs. Based on observations made during the aerial survey of marine mammals and sea turtles, three representative areas within the Quirimbas Archipelago were selected for a marine habitats survey (see Volume III, Part B). There were 5 days allotted for the representative marine habitats survey. Characteristic nearshore seafloor habitats were tentatively identified during the preceding aerial survey. The three areas selected for ground survey possessed all the major distinct nearshore habitat features observed during the aerial survey (Figure 8). Within each area selected for ground-level surveying, the following habitat types were identified and visited: · · · · Outer or fringing reef community; "Back reef" community from the edge of the reef drop to the exposed shallow water bank; Collections of isolated coral heads and/or patch reefs (coral boomies) seen growing in sand flats around the islands; and Nearshore seagrass, patch reefs, and mangrove communities seen along the shoreline and inner side of the channel between the mainland and the islands of the Archipelago.

A comparison of seafloor habitats at stations visited during the survey shows some similarities in the biological communities inhabiting forereef and fringing reef areas between all study sites. The forereef features on the seaward sides of the platforms vary in structure, such as vertical wall, spur-and-groove formation, and solid rocky slopes. The dominant epibenthic constituents were predominantly stony corals and soft corals of similar species at all stations surveyed. Fringing reef areas were exposed carbonate features (i.e., topographically complex hard bottom areas or discreet hard bottom features surrounded by sandy substrate, such as coral boomies). Again, dominant epibenthic communities at these stations were similar between sites. A total of 33 prominent coral species were identified from forereef and fringing reef stations, with most species appearing in all similar habitats sampled.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-9

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Figure 8. Representative areas selected for ground level site visits within the Quirimbas Archipelago.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-10

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Inshore stations, though positioned on mostly sandy substrate, supported diverse soft bottom communities. Seagrass species and densities varied greatly in the areas visited. This was, in part, a function of distance from shore, seaward exposure, and depth. Many seagrass species on eastern African shores show characterization zonation based on specific depths and distances from shore. Observations made during this survey agree with previous reports in that these coral and nearshore seagrass habitats support biodiversity of both commercial and conservational significance. The reefs and nearshore habitats visited during this survey effort were minimally disturbed, showing very little natural or man-made damage. During the aerial survey, gill nets and larger pull nets were observed in use in the Quirimbas Archipelago, but no nets were observed during the ground level habit survey. One area offshore Tambuzi Island showed some reef damage that may have been attributable to net drag, but that was impossible to confirm. 5.3 ACOUSTICAL MODELING STUDY

Although the proposed seismic surveys will take place in water depths greater than 50 m, seismic survey sounds will carry beyond these boundaries north, south, and inshore of the survey area. An acoustical modeling study was conducted in May and June 2007 to determine the range and spread of the underwater sound created by the type of seismic sound sources AMA1 is proposing for this survey. Sound propagation from nine potential points within the seismic survey was modeled (Figure 9). The modeling was intended to show the distance and intensity of sound that may be detected beyond the actual survey area. Results of this modeling were used in both the impact analysis and the development of mitigation measures (see Volume III, Part C).

Figure 9. Location of Mozambican acoustical modeling points.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-11

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Seismic sound sources use a burst of compressed air to create an acoustic pulse. Most of the sound energy propagates downward toward the seafloor (Figure 10); however, some of the sound does propagate laterally (Figure 11).

Figure 10. Example of a source directivity plot for sound energy released from a seismic sound source.

Figure 11. Predicted sound exposure levels arising from operation of the 30-source array at Site 3. Tow depth is 5 m; array heading is due north.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-12

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

5.4

FISHERIES BASELINE STUDY

The areas where artisanal fishers are most likely to be affected include the districts of Palma, Mocímboa da Praia, and Macomia in Cabo Delgado Province. Some socioeconomic data are available from the Instituto Nacional de Investigacao de Pesqueria (IIP) database concerning fishing activities within the Archipelago; however, this information does not provide the level of detail needed to assess potential impacts on the many local communities. Therefore, collection of community-level data on fishing activities and markets was the focus of one of the special studies (see Volume III, Part D). The critical conclusions reached from these studies were as follows: 1. In the study area, artisanal fishing is an important source of animal protein and income generation, especially for the poorer people living in coastal areas of Macomia, Mocímboa da Praia, and Palma. 2. Artisanal fishery diving is an important activity, and it involves Mozambican and Tanzanian fishers. According to the IDPPE census (2004), there are 1,399 divers in Cabo Delgado, 49% of whom are operating in the study area. No data is available about the number of Tanzanian divers, but they may enter Mozambique via sea routes for fishing in Mozambique. 3. Fishers from the study area do not often emigrate to other areas outside Macomia, Mocímboa da Praia, and Palma because productivity in this area seems to be relatively high. All mainlanders fish around the islands. Also, at the moment, no one fishes further than 6 mi from the islands. A survey of littoral waters done in Palma indicated Sao Lazaro Bank as the most faraway area reached by local fishers from Vamizi and other islands. Divers from Palma and Mocímboa da Praia do not dive in waters more than 40 m deep. Hand line fishers do not fish in areas more than 400 m deep. The sailing boats used by almost all fishers do not allow them to venture far from shallow waters. These findings suggest that impacts of the seismic project on artisanal fisheries will be at a low level. 4. The technology currently used for seaweed farming and harvesting is basically at a very low level. Because of their location, these activities should not be affected by offshore seismic surveys. 5.5 SOCIOECONOMIC AND ECOTOURISM STUDY

Mozambique is in the early stages of its development as a recognized international tourism destination, and its potential product base remains largely underdeveloped. However, the Government of Mozambique, through its Ministry of Tourism, has been taking great strides towards the development of tourism in the country. In 2003, a National Tourism Policy and Implementation Strategy was compiled that identifies

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-13

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

17 Priority Areas for Tourism Investment (PATIs), divided into short-, medium- and long-term. The Pemba-Quirimbas Zone is classified as a short-term PATI. Available information on tourism in the Quirimbas Archipelago is predominantly at the provincial level (rather than the district level) and not sufficiently detailed to allow accurate assessment of potential impacts to the socioeconomics of tourism and ecotourism. Therefore, in situ field surveys were conducted to collect further critical information. Methods and results are presented in Volume III, Part E. The study area is located in the northern part of Cabo Delgado. Tourism operators in the study area can be divided into two main categories: · Accommodation Only Operators (AO Operators) ­ those who provide accommodation facilities only. These operators are predominantly based on the mainland; and Leisure and Accommodation Operators (L&A Operators) ­ those who provide tourism leisure activities, such as diving and sport fishing, as well as accommodation. These operators are predominantly island-based lodge operators.

·

AO Operators are very limited in the study area. They are all located either in Mocímboa da Praia or Pangane and provide bed only, bed and breakfast, or full board. There are three L&A Operators within the study area: the Rani Group, Guludo Lodge, and the Maluane Group. The Rani Group currently operates the Medjumbe and Matemo Island Resorts. Guludo is a single lodge operated by Bespoke Experience, located south of Pangane on the mainland. The Maluane Group currently has one operational lodge on Vamizi Island, but is in the process of establishing new lodges on Macaloe and Rongui Islands. According to the operators, peak occupancy seasons are predominantly December to January and again during March and/or April, depending on when Easter weekend falls. June to November is often less busy than during these two periods, but there is still a fair number of guests. During the peak seasons, lodges have historically been between 60% and 70% full. It is estimated that the tourism operators in the study area altogether employ around 1,012 people, directly and indirectly. When estimated dependency ratios are taken into account, these operators potentially support between 5,380 and 12,880 people. It is, however, important to note that these figures should be seen as indicative only and not as definitive, as they are based on assumptions and extrapolations. L&A Operators spend approximately US $402,894 in the study area on annual local wages and purchases. There is very little existing information, and few previous baseline studies have been conducted regarding mean annual household and per capita income in fishing communities in the study area. In order to get an indicative estimate of average income

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-14

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

per type fishing gear, the Fishery Baseline Study (see Volume III, Part D) adopted a specific methodology during focus group discussions and individual interviews. First, the volume of daily catch was calculated. Second, the gross value of the catch was calculated based on the price received by the primary producers on "good" as well as "bad" fishing days. The main reason for using the primary producer price was to get an estimate of the income of those fishers who may be the subjects of compensation if any negative impact on the catch occurs as a result of the seismic operation. The average daily income per fishing unit has been estimated based on focus group discussions (Table 1) and individual interviews (Table 2). Table 1. Daily average income per fishing unit of primary producers in Palma and Mocímboa da Praia (collected from focus groups).

Gear Type Beach seine Pursing net Gillnet Hand line Divers Average catch/day(kg) Good day 100 90 80 70 70 Bad day 30 40 30 20 15 Average price (Mtn/kg) 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 11.50 Average gross value/day (Mtn) Good day Bad day 1,000 900 800 700 805 300 400 300 200 173

Table 2. Daily average income per fishing unit of primary producers in Palma and Mocímboa da Praia (collected from individual interviews).

Gear Type Beach seine Pursing net Gillnet Hand line Divers Average catch/day(kg) Good day 300 150 80 100 80 Bad day 100 76 30 40 30 Average price (Mtn/kg) 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 11.50 Average gross value/day (Mtn) Good day Bad day 3,000 1,500 800 1,00 902 1,000 760 300 400 345

6.0

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION

The EIA process includes both a technical environmental process and a public participation process, which are interlinked and interact at different stages. Figure 12 illustrates the links between these processes. Details of the public participation process are presented in Section 4.0 of the EIA (Volume II, Part A) and the results are presented in Volume IV. Public participation provides an opportunity for stakeholders and affected parties (S&AP) to comment on and express concerns about the project.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-15

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Schedule Technical Process

Prepare and submit Preliminary Environmental Sheet to the Ministry for Coordination of Environmental Affairs Mozambique (MICOA)

Public Participation Process

October 2006

Prepare project maps and database

1 February to 12 March 2007

Prepare Background Information Document (BID) and Scoping Plan

Announce Scoping Process BID + Newspapers + Radio

5 March 2007

Initiate baseline studies

Meet with focus groups in Maputo, Pemba, Mocimboa da Praia, and Palma

8 April to 7 May 2007

Prepare Environmental Pre-Viability Report and Scope Definition Study (EPRSDS) and Terms of Reference (TOR)

Prepare initial Issues and Responses Report (IRR)

7 to 25 May 2007

Stakeholders review EPRSDS

Prepare revised IRR 28 May to 1 June 2007 Revise EPRSDS based on IRR

5 March to 6 August 2007

Initiate Special Studies

Submit EPRSDS and TOR to MICOA for consideration

5 March to 6 August 2007

Prepare draft Environmental Impact Report (EIR) and Environmental Management Plan (EMP)

Stakeholder and public review of draft EIR and EMP

20 August to 19 September 2007

Finalize Environmental Impact Assessment Process and EMP

19 September 2007

Submit to MICOA for decision

Figure 12. Public participation opportunities within the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Green box indicates current step.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-16

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

7.0 IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY

The study team based the impact assessment on a critical review of available published and unpublished data concerning the oceanographic conditions, marine habitats, and species seen within the Quirimbas Archipelago that is supplemented by data collected during the five special studies discussed previously. Potential impacts were evaluated based on published evidence from seismic data acquisition in similar habitats throughout the world. The consequences of potential impacts were evaluated, taking into account the nature of the impact, including extent and duration. The following categories were used, as defined in Table 3: · · · · · Beneficial; Negligible; Minor; Moderate; and Severe.

The probability of impact occurrence also was rated, using the following categories: · · · · · Certain (100% probability); Likely (50% to 99% probability); Unlikely (10% to 49% probability); Rare (1% to 9% probability); and Remote (<1% probability).

The degree of confidence in the evaluation of each impact was rated as high, medium, or low. To summarize the overall significance of each impact, impact consequence and probability were combined using professional judgment and a risk matrix, as shown in Table 4. The end result is a significance value ranging from 1 to 4 (lowest to highest). For example, impacts of negligible consequence were assigned the lowest significance value (1), regardless of impact probability. Severe impacts were assigned the highest significance value (4) if the impacts were certain, likely, or unlikely and assigned lower values (2 or 3) if the probability was rare or remote. The most significant impacts (those rated as 3 or 4) require mitigation to reduce the impact to an acceptable level. Mitigation may also be considered for significance Levels 1 and 2 to further reduce the probability or consequence of impacts.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-17

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Table 3. Definitions of impact consequence.

Resource Category Consequence Physical Environment Beneficial Negligible Minor Biological Environment Socioeconomic Environment

· Likely to cause some enhancement to the environment or social/economic benefits · No changes, or small adverse changes unlikely to be noticed or measurable against background activities · Adverse changes that can be monitored and/or noticed, but are within the scope of existing variability and do not meet any of the "severe" or "moderate" impact definitions (below) Likely to result in one or Likely to result in one or Likely to result in one or more more of the following: more of the following: of the following: · Localized, occasional · Localized damage to coral · Localized, temporary violations of air or water reefs, mangroves, displacement from preferred quality standards or marshes, seagrass beds, or fishing sites and/or other negative interactions with guidelines other sensitive habitats fishers (e.g., nets or traps · Localized contamination · A few deaths or injuries damaged) of sediments with of protected species; hydrocarbons, toxic occasional, temporary · A localized, short-term metals, or other toxic disruption of their critical decline in fishery harvest substances activities (e.g., breeding, · Short-term interruption of, or nesting, nursing); and/or interference with, tourism localized damage to their activities critical habitat · Localized damage to, or contamination of, beaches, parks, tourism areas, or other recreational resources Likely to result in one or Likely to result in one or Likely to result in one or more more of the following: more of the following: of the following: · Extensive, continual · Extensive damage to coral · Extensive, permanent violation of air or water reefs, mangroves, displacement from preferred quality standards or marshes, seagrass beds, or fishing sites and/or continual guidelines other sensitive habitats negative interactions with fishers · Widespread · Extensive damage to contamination of non-sensitive habitats to · An extensive, the extent that ecosystem sediments with persistent decline in fishery hydrocarbons, toxic function and ecological harvest or tourism metals, or other toxic relationships would be · Persistent damage to, or substances altered contamination of, important · Numerous deaths or cultural, historical, or injuries of a protected religious sites or tourism species, continual areas disruption of their critical · A threat to public health or activities (e.g., breeding, public safety nesting, nursing), and/or · Substantial public destruction of their critical controversy or social unrest habitat

Moderate

Severe

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-18

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Table 4. Matrix combining impact consequence and probability to determine overall impact significance. Impact consequence categories are defined in Table 3. Based on professional judgment, each combination of consequence and probability is assigned a significance value ranging from 1 to 4 (lowest to highest).

Legend Beneficial Certain

(100%)

Decreasing Impact Consequence

Negligible 1 1

Beneficial

(not rated)

Minor 2 2 1 1 1

Moderate 3 3 2 2 1

Severe 4 4 4 3 2

Decreasing Probability

Likely

(50% to 99%)

Unlikely

(10% to 49%)

1 1 1

Rare

(1% to 9%)

Remote

(< 1%)

8.0 8.1

BIOPHYSICAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON MARINE MAMMALS

Potential impacts of seismic surveys on marine mammals have been reviewed extensively. The key findings are as follows:

· ·

·

There have been no documented instances of deaths or physical injuries to marine mammals from seismic surveys; While death or serious injury is unlikely, marine mammals may experience temporary or permanent auditory trauma if they are very close to a seismic sound source operating at full power. The risk is greatest within a few hundred meters of a typical seismic sound source; and Behavioral responses have been observed in many instances, primarily in mysticetes (baleen whales, including the humpback whale). However, the biological importance of such behavioral responses to underwater noise has not been determined.

Without mitigation, seismic surveys could produce temporary or permanent auditory trauma to marine mammals. Although humpback whales are the main concern, several other endangered or vulnerable whales can occur in the area (i.e., sperm whales, blue whales, fin whales, and sei whales). However, the risk is limited mainly to within a few hundred meters around the sound sources and can be minimized through mitigation

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-19

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

measures. The dugong, a vulnerable species, is found mostly in near-coastal waters south of the project area and is unlikely to be affected. Behavioral responses, such as avoidance (or, in some cases, approaching operating sound sources), can be expected to occur within many kilometers of an operating array. While the biological importance of behavioral changes is not well understood, the consequences probably are not significant under most circumstances. However, if surveys were conducted during the humpback whale calving/nursing season, avoidance behavior could have a greater potential for disrupting normal activities during a critical life stage. In addition to underwater noise, vessel movements are a source of potential impacts on marine mammals, including dugongs. Dugongs are very slow-moving and generally more susceptible to vessel strikes than whales or dolphins. However, dugongs are rare in and near the survey area, with their distribution limited mainly to the coast well south of the project area. Most vessel strikes on marine mammals are caused by ships traveling 13 to 15 kts or faster. The seismic survey vessel normally travels at about 5 kts and would have a much lower risk of striking a marine mammal. The chance of a vessel striking a whale or dugong is considered negligible because of the vessel's slow speed, the use of trained observers monitoring for marine mammals before and during surveys, and the mammals' likely avoidance of the waters near the survey vessel due to seismic noise. The chance of a vessel strike for a support vessel traveling to Pemba for supplies would be somewhat greater, but similar to the risk from other vessel traffic in the region.

Mitigation

The following mitigation measures are recommended to avoid and reduce impacts of seismic surveys on marine mammals: · Scheduling ­ The surveys have been planned to avoid the humpback whale season (July to December). Surveys would begin in January 2008 and are expected to be completed in 5 to 6 months. This scheduling is expected to avoid nearly all exposure of humpback whales to survey noise. Other whales that exhibit similar seasonal migrations would also be avoided. Soft start ­ Every time the use of the seismic array is initiated, "soft-start" procedures will be used to allow time for marine mammals and turtles to move away before the array reaches full power. The process begins with the smallest source in an array and builds up slowly over 20 to 40 minutes. Visual monitoring ­ Beginning at least 30 minutes before startup during daylight hours, visual observers will monitor a safety (exclusion) zone of a 1-km radius around the source vessel. Startup of the array cannot begin until the safety zone is clear of marine mammals for at least 30 minutes. Shutdown of the array ­ The array will be shut down if a whale or dugong enters the 1-km safety zone during visual monitoring.

·

·

·

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-20

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

·

Dugong watch ­ Support vessel(s) traveling to Pemba for supplies will maintain a watch for dugongs and travel at slow speeds while operating in coastal areas. POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON SEA TURTLES

8.2

In contrast to marine mammals, relatively little is known about sea turtle auditory ability or their dependency on sound (passive or active) for survival cues. Auditory testing and behavioral studies show that turtles can detect low-frequency sounds. It is likely that sea turtles would be able to hear seismic survey noise for a considerable distance from the source and possibly experience some disturbance. All sea turtle species are assumed to be at some risk for auditory trauma, although hearing data are only available for loggerhead and green turtles. Without mitigation, seismic surveys could produce temporary or permanent auditory trauma to sea turtles, all of which are endangered or critically endangered. However, the risk is limited mainly to within a few hundred meters around a sound source array and can be minimized through mitigation measures. The seismic surveys will be conducted during the sea turtle nesting season and could also affect the behavior of nesting females or emerging hatchlings. Both noise and lights could be a factor. Green, hawksbill, and olive ridley turtles nest on beaches of northern Mozambique, inshore of the survey area. Reported nesting seasons are from November through July for green turtles and December through March for hawksbills. Olive ridley nesting season is not reported, but is assumed similar to that of the hawksbills. Nesting beaches for loggerhead and leatherback turtles are in southern Mozambique and are not near the survey area. The shallowest part of the survey area is along the 50-m isobath. The minimum distance to a turtle nesting beach is approximately 2.5 km at Vamizi Island. The distance would be greater for other nesting beaches, and the exposure to noise and lights would be brief as the survey vessel passed by (e.g., about 1 hour to pass a particular point). Hatchling sea turtles are probably at minimal risk for noise impacts. These animals inhabit seaweed mats and debris floating on the sea surface. Due to the attenuation pattern of seismic arrays, seismic noise levels would be lowest in near-surface waters.

Mitigation

The following mitigation measures are recommended to protect sea turtles during the seismic surveys:

·

Buffer zone ­ A geo-referenced map of shorelines, including identified turtle nesting beaches, will be prepared and updated as needed. Using this map, the final survey plan will be reviewed to verify all survey lines are at a minimum depth of 50 m and have at least a 500-m horizontal range from all such areas.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-21

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

·

Soft start ­ Every time the use of the seismic array is initiated, "soft-start" procedures will be used to allow time for marine mammals and turtles to move away before the array reaches full power. The process should begin with the smallest source in an array and build up slowly over 20 to 40 minutes. Visual monitoring ­ Beginning at least 30 minutes before startup during daylight hours, visual observers should monitor a safety (exclusion) zone of a 1-km radius around the source vessel. Startup of the array cannot begin until the safety zone is clear of turtles for at least 30 minutes. Shutdown of the array ­ The array will be shut down if a sea turtle enters the 500-m safety zone during visual monitoring. POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON FISHES

·

·

8.3

There is no evidence of fish mortality resulting from seismic surveys, and there are no data available on the noise intensity that would result in mortality or other pathological effects. Except at close range, the effects of seismic sound sources on fishes are thought to be transitory, mainly evoking a startle response (i.e., movement away from the source of the noise) and changes in schooling behavior. Habituation of fishes to the noise is suggested because behavioral changes are observed to cease during the exposure period, sometimes within minutes of commencement of surveying. Seismic surveys may produce temporary or permanent hearing impairment in some fishes, but would be unlikely to cause serious injury except at a very close range. Most of the fishes that may be affected by the surveys are common and widely distributed, and this would be considered a minor impact. No mitigation measures are recommended specifically for direct impacts of seismic sound sources on fishes. The use of "soft-start" procedures under the recommended guidelines for marine mammals and turtles is considered sufficient to provide an opportunity for fishes to leave the area before the seismic array reaches full power. 8.4 POTENTIAL SAFETY IMPACTS ON HUMAN DIVERS

The Diving Medical Advisory Committee (DMAC), an independent committee formed in 1974 to provide advice about medical and certain safety aspects of commercial diving in Europe, considers a safe distance between seismic sound sources and divers to be 1,500 m, when the compressed air sound source does not exceed 4,400 cubic inches. In this survey, each source array will be 3,460 cubic inches. The safe distance adopted by DMAC is based on annoyance thresholds rather than physical harm and has been validated by acoustic measurements during various surveys. The duration of exposure to seismic survey noise would be brief. The westernmost survey line in the 3-D survey area is at least 2.5 km offshore from the nearest reef areas where recreational divers may be present and, therefore, exceeds the minimum safe range for divers (Figure 13). The EMP includes measures to ensure that a 2.5-km safety zone is in effect where recreational or artisanal diving takes place.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-22

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Figure 13. Adjustment of survey area to the east to ensure a minimum of 2.5 km between the survey area and the Vamizi and Metundo Islands' outer reef line.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-23

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Mitigation

The following mitigation measures will prevent any injury to divers operating near the survey area. Additional mitigation for socioeconomic impacts on dive operations is discussed in Section 9.1.1. · · Buffer zone ­ The final survey plan will implement a 2,500-km safety zone for dives. This provides an additional 1,000-m buffer to the DMAC-recommended safe range of 1,500 m. Coordination with dive operators and artisanal fishers ­ Through the Stakeholder Communications Plan (SCP), AMA1 will coordinate with dive operators and the artisanal fishing community to ensure they are aware of survey locations and timing. Daily notifications will be sent via e-mail, SMS, or telephone to inform operators of planned events, diving restrictions, and the location of the seismic vessel on any particular day as well as the following day. Diving should only be permitted when specific arrangements are made between AMA1 and the dive operator on the same day as the dive is planned in order to ascertain the exact position of the seismic vessel in relation to the dive site. Diving should not be permitted under any circumstances when the seismic vessel will be operating within less than 2,500 m of the intended dive site. POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON AIR AND WATER QUALITY

8.5

Air pollutant emissions from seismic survey vessels will have a minor impact on air quality due to the release of combustion gases. Onshore air quality is not expected to be significantly affected. All air pollutant emissions will comply with Mozambican laws and international guidelines, and no further mitigation is recommended. Effluent discharges from vessels, including treated sanitary waste, domestic waste, deck drainage, and bilge and ballast water, will have minor, transient impacts on water quality. All effluent discharges will comply with Mozambican laws and international standards (e.g., MARPOL), and no further mitigation is recommended. Potential accidents during the project could include a small volume spill due to collision or fueling operation accident associated with all types of vessel traffic (fuel oil). The vessel will be initially fueled from the point of mobilization; further refueling will be by offshore vessel-to-vessel transfer ("bunkering"). Spills, if they occurred, would most likely be small, and potential negative impacts would have a short duration.

Mitigation

The following management measures are recommended to minimize potential impacts on water quality from routine operations and accidents: · Vessel discharges ­ Ensure that all vessel discharges comply with MARPOL 73/78 requirements.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-24

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

· Oil spill prevention and response measures: · The survey vessel will have a Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) and maintain an Oil Record Book as required under MARPOL 73/78. · Oils, greases, and streamer fluids will be stored in designated containment areas on board the survey vessel. · Sorbent materials will be used to clean up any minor spill on board the survey vessel. Stocks of absorbent materials will be checked and replenished as needed prior to the survey. · Strict fuel transfer procedures will be implemented to prevent spills during loading of fuel at the port of Pemba and during transfers between supply vessels and the survey vessel. · In the event of a spill of oil or other products, the incident will be promptly reported through the contractor chain-of-command to AMA1. SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS AND MITIGATION POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON TOURISM

Effects on Recreational Diving and Snorkeling Activities

9.0 9.1

9.1.1

According to the information provided by dive operators, no diving takes place within the proposed survey area. No diving takes place in waters deeper than 50 m, and since the survey is only to be conducted in water deeper than this, access to dive sites will not be affected due to the enforcement of the safety zone around the vessel during the actual seismic acquisition. Dive sites are typically fairly close to the islands or in a north-south line along the ridges and reefs between the islands. The westernmost survey line in the 3-D survey area is at least 2.5 km offshore from the nearest reef areas, and, therefore, access to these reefs will not be affected by the safety zone around the seismic vessel. The expected potential effect on diving operations due to the safety zone around the seismic vessel is very limited, as it is highly unlikely that the vessel will be required to maneuver in close proximity to regular dive sites. The first three measures listed below outline overarching management recommendations for potential effects on tourism in the study area and are relevant to the majority of tourism related effects.

Mitigation

·

Coordination and communication with tourism operators ­ Compile an SCP, through which AMA1 could coordinate with dive operators to ensure they are aware of survey locations and timing.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-25

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

· Exploration Tourism Forum ­ Establish an "Exploration Tourism Forum" well before the advent of the actual seismic acquisition. This Forum should comprise representatives of inter alia, the Proponent (at a level where decisions can be made), PNQ, MICOA, CDTUR, and all tourism operators in the study area. Grievance procedure ­ A grievance procedure through which valid grievances regarding the project could be raised. Although this should be a function of the Forum and could potentially be included in the SCP, it should be structured in such a manner that the grievances could be raised and addressed quickly, before escalating. Plan vessel maneuvers away from dive site ­ Plan any east-west maneuvers of the seismic vessel to take place away from dive sites where possible. Surveying at night ­ Investigate the possibility of surveying the transects furthest west, thus, closest to the islands and dive sites, at night, thereby eliminating effects on divers.

Effects on Recreational Fishing Activities

·

· ·

9.1.2

Recreational offshore sport fishing activities also take place largely among the islands or a short distance east of them. However, L&A Operators indicated that they do conduct fishing excursions as far as 22 km out to sea. Fishing excursions are also taken out to the São Lázaro Bank, but these very seldom occur. Fishing activities may be temporarily affected by the safety zone in force while the seismic survey vessel is operating. However, the seismic vessel will be traveling at approximately 5 kts, and delays would be short (lasting approximately 30 minutes) while the fishing boats either wait for the seismic vessel to pass or go around it. The avoidance behavior and changes in feeding patterns of fish may potentially lead to decreased catches by offshore sports fishers in areas where seismic acquisition has taken place recently. Thus, if an assumption is made that offshore sport fishing access to specific fishing areas will be disrupted for 1 day due to the safety zone (again the conservative principle is applied) and that changes in fish movement and behavior will last for 1 day further, the potential exists that disruption of these activities in specific areas may have an effective duration of 2 days.

9.1.3 Effects on Cetacean (whale and dolphin) Sightseeing Excursions

According to L&A Operators, cetacean sightseeing excursions predominantly take place between July and November. Although dolphins are spotted all year round, no specific dolphin excursions usually take place within the survey time period. The seismic survey will take place between January and the end of June so this will not be an issue.

9.1.4 Visual/Aesthetic Effects on Tourists (especially on the islands)

The seismic vessel will be visible from the islands during the westernmost portion of the survey, but details of the ship should be indistinguishable. The vessel will be moving

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-26

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

north/south or south/north at a speed of around 5 kts, and, therefore the vessel will not be visible after approximately 2 hours. Therefore, the potential visual intrusion or disturbance created by the seismic vessel will be limited to short periods and would be at a sufficient distance away from the islands not to have a significant impact.

9.1.5 Economic Effects on the Tourism Industry in the Study Area

The majority of visitors to the islands do so to dive, and the majority of the L&A Operators' packages include a specified number of dives. These operators, therefore, run the risk of either potential patrons cancelling bookings if they are informed that their diving experience could be affected or patrons arriving on existing bookings and demanding part of their money back because of the effects of seismic survey activities. The number of days that diving could potentially be disrupted, for safety or comfort reasons, will be limited. Therefore, the potential loss of revenue to tourism operators would also be of short duration and limited. A Compensation Plan will be compiled and implemented that will compensate L&A Operators for any proven losses due to effects of the seismic exploration.

9.1.6 Effects on the Image of the Quirimbas Archipelago as a Tourism Destination

Although the tourism industry in the Quirimbas Archipelago is in its infancy, it is growing rapidly and is already a sought-after international destination in the high-end tourism market. Tourists visiting the resorts in the study area are predominantly from the UK and Europe. Lodges in the Quirimbas capitalize on the theme of unspoilt wilderness and luxury holidays in a tropical island paradise. Diving, recreational fishing, and whale watching are integral parts of their branding, which is very important when targeting a high-end market with consumers who believe they are visiting a unique area for a unique experience. If the "unique experience" is not sustained, this patronage could easily go elsewhere. The potential effect of the proposed seismic exploration on the image of the Quirimbas depends strongly on how activities associated with the survey are managed and how the lodges deal with the issues around diving. The intensity of the impact can be kept low if the following procedures are employed: 1) The survey is scheduled outside of the whale migration/breeding and watching season; 2) The survey does not significantly affect recreational fishing; 3) Visibility of the survey is limited, and does not become disruptive to daily activities at lodges; and 4) Issues surrounding diving are carefully managed. Because image is strongly based on perception, it is impossible to quantify impacts associated with a declining image. It should be noted that this study only deals with the seismic exploration. Tourism trends in general are influenced by a variety of variables and international factors, such as the 9/11 attacks and terrorism, the war in Iraq, and weather conditions like the recent cyclones.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-27

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Mitigation

Measures to manage and minimize negative impacts to the image of the Quirimbas Archipelago can be summarized as follows: · · Emphasize the temporary nature of the project ­ Communication is crucial in actively ensuring all stakeholders of the temporary or short-term nature of the project. Investigate the benefits of promoting Quirimbas as a destination ­ Consider promoting the Quirimbas as a destination by contributing to marketing campaigns proposed by professional trade groups. Prepare media fact sheet ­ A media fact sheet should be prepared which can be used to assist the L&A Operators to brief members of staff as to how to convey information relating to the seismic survey, where this is necessary.

Effects on Planned and Future Tourism Developments

·

9.1.7

There is substantial new investment planned in the Quirimbas Archipelago, with a number of existing tourism operators also planning extensions to their current facilities. Some tourism operators indicated that, in view of their uncertainty regarding the development of potential offshore oil or gas resources, they have halted planned expansions to their facilities. There may be a similar effect on new investors, as they could become apprehensive regarding the tourism future of the area and choose to put new investments on hold or invest elsewhere. However, it is almost impossible to quantify the extent to which investments may be affected by the proposed exploration. This is not an effect of the proposed seismic exploration, per se, but rather of the future potential of oil or gas resources being extracted off the coast, and cannot, therefore, be mitigated by the AMA1 alone. Implementation of the "image management" efforts described above will help minimize this potential impact. 9.2

9.2.1

POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON ARTISANAL FISHERIES

Effects of the Safety Zones on Artisanal Fishing

Artisanal fishers traveling to fishing grounds within the actual seismic survey area may be affected by the safety zone that will be maintained around the seismic vessel. This effect will be temporary (less than 1 day at a time) and, in all likelihood, will only potentially affect a small number of fishers (i.e., those using fishing boats capable of going this far out to sea). Through proper communication between the Proponent and fishing communities, access issues can be relatively easily avoided. This type of communication is important since the same fishers can potentially be affected more than once at their different fishing grounds.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-28

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Mitigation

The following mitigation measures are recommended for minimizing and dealing with any potential impacts to the artisanal fishing community: · Coordination and communication with fishers ­ It is important to establish a similar communication structure as was outlined for the tourism industry to liaise with the artisanal fishing industry. It will be advantageous to link with existing structures where possible. Daily notifications should be sent to inform fishers of the planned events and the location of the seismic vessel on any particular day, as well as the following day. If fishers are aware of areas where there vessel will be or where reduced catches may be experienced, these areas could be avoided and the effects minimized. It is also important that the communication with fishing communities be initiated at least 2 months prior to the start of the surveys. This should be done to ensure that artisanal fishers are aware of the proposed survey understand the communication process and the safety zones around the seismic vessel, as well as the means of enforcement thereof. · Strengthening of local radio signal ­ Radio Moçambique has a transmitter in Pemba, but its signal seldom reaches places as far north as Palma. In order to increase the ability of Radio Moçambique as a communication tool, AMA1 could, as part of local social investment, contribute to and assist with the upgrade of the Pemba transmitter. Grievance procedure ­ A grievance procedure through which valid grievances regarding the project could be raised should be implemented. Surveying at night ­ Investigate the possibility of surveying the transects furthest west (i.e., closest to the islands and fishing areas) at night, thereby decreasing the effect on artisanal fishers. Appropriate chase boat crew members ­ At least one of the crew members on the chase boat should be fluent in local languages and have knowledge of local fishing practices. This could avoid misunderstandings and minimize the potential for conflict between the chase boat crew and fishers they meet out to sea. Compensation Plan ­ Although proper communication is vital, this alone cannot guarantee that the livelihoods of vulnerable fishing communities would not be affected. Therefore, a Compensation Plan should be compiled that outlines strategies for and means of compensation in the event of loss of catch by artisanal fishers.

Effects of Changes in Fish Behavior and Movement on Artisanal Fishing

· ·

·

·

9.2.2

Artisanal fishing in the Quirimbas Archipelago occurs mainly in and around the island reefs, extending into the deep water up to 11 km east. Artisanal fishers catch reef fishes

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-29

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

and, in the cases where boats venture into the deeper waters east of the reefs, pelagic fishes, squid, and demersal fishes. Most artisanal fishers are poorly equipped to catch deepwater fishes, and the condition of their boats does not allow them to venture far offshore. Seismic acquisition along the western transects could expose the outer fringing reefs on the seaward side of the islands to seismic sound pulses. Because they are territorial, reef fishes are more tolerant of seismic sound than pelagic and other deepwater fishes and, at the sound levels that will be received along the outer reef, are unlikely to experience injury or exhibit any significant behavioral response. It is possible that feeding patterns could change temporarily. It is, therefore, possible artisanal fishers who fish around reefs, as well as in deeper waters, could experience reduced fish catches for a conservative period of up to 2 days after the passing of the seismic vessel.

9.2.3 Effects on the Safety of Artisanal Divers

The effect on artisanal divers would be similar to the effect on recreational divers, in that a safety zone of 2.5 km would need to be maintained around the seismic vessel. Since diving for catch forms a part of the livelihoods of artisanal fishing communities, the emphasis is on the safety of the divers rather than the nuisance effect as in the case of recreational divers. This exclusion for specific areas will be temporary (less than 1 day at a time), in all likelihood, and will only potentially affect a small number of divers at a time. Through proper communication between the Proponent and fishing communities, safety issues can be avoided relatively easily.

9.2.4 Effects on the Livelihoods of Artisanal Fishers

The income generated from fishing activities by artisanal fishers is limited, and they work on very small profit margins. The potential disruption of catches and catch volumes may, therefore, lead to a temporary loss of income, not only for the owners of the boats or fishing gear, but also for their workers who are paid in fish (their income is, thus, directly related to the volume caught). A very small percentage (approximately 7%) of fish caught by artisanal fishers in the study area is used for household consumption; the majority is sold. Decreased catch volumes may particularly affect the artisanal fishing workers, in that they may not only experience a loss of income, as outlined above, but an important part of their diet and food security may also be affected. Due to the unpredictability of weather conditions that can sometimes make diving virtually impossible for days, artisanal divers typically have other sources of livelihoods, such as informal trading. This effect will be temporary (i.e., a number of days) and, if appropriately managed, will not significantly affect artisanal fishing communities. The recommended mitigation measures (i.e., coordination with the fishing communities, establishing a grievance

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-30

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

procedure, and developing a compensation plan for lost income) could reduce the probability and consequence of these effects.

9.2.5 Temporary Reduction in Fish Volumes Available for Purchase and Resale

A temporary reduction in catch for fishers implies that there may be a temporary reduction in fish stocks available for traders to buy and sell. This effect, though temporary, may lead to a temporary loss of income for first order fish traders. If all the relevant mitigation measures with regard to artisanal fishers are implemented, there should be a minimal effect on these traders. 9.3 POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON LICENCED COMMERCIAL FISHING AND SHIPPING

Commercial fishing and shipping activities in the seismic exploration area will be allowed to continue as normal, except in and near the safety zone. If there is no effective liaison between the Proponent and the commercial fishing and shipping sectors, commercial fishing entities may have to retrieve nets or lines early to avoid the seismic vessel and shipping vessels may have to alter course in order to avoid the safety zone or stand-off until the seismic vessel and its associated safety zone have moved past. In turn, this may lead to losses of catch for commercial fishing vessels and delays in the arrival of shipping vessels at their respective destination ports.

Mitigation

The following mitigation measures are proposed to reduce or eliminate impacts on shipping: · Provide Notices to Mariners ­ Provide adequate warning to licensed commercial fishing interest and shipping vessels regarding the seismic vessel's activities in the form of direct contact with fishing licensees and Notices to Mariners, via the Port Captains in the Ports of Maputo, Beira, Nacala, and Dar es Salaam, as well as other notification procedures. Perform radio broadcasts ­ Broadcast the activity and position of the seismic vessel on appropriate shipping channels, such as Rádio Naval. This will ensure that other vessels have adequate notification to alter their intended course and prevent delays in having to stand-off until the seismic vessel is out of their path. Equip vessel with radar and detection equipment ­ Ensure that the seismic vessel is equipped with adequate and continuously manned radar equipment to detect any other vessels that may threaten safety and potentially interfere with the survey process. Protect integrity of the safety zone ­ Ensure that the chase vessel protects the integrity of the safety zone around the seismic vessel at all times.

·

·

·

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-31

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

10.0 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Tables 5 and 6 summarize the potential biophysical and socioeconomic impacts and mitigation measures. As explained in Section 7.0, the overall significance of each potential impact, both before and after implementation of the recommended mitigation measures, has been rated with a significance value ranging from 1 to 4 (lowest to highest). The impact summary tables show that, if proper mitigation is applied, all potential impacts can be reduced to minor or low significance. However, it is important that these suggested measures are implemented for the project to be environmentally sound.

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1

NTS-32

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-33

Table 5. Summary of potential biophysical impacts and mitigation.

Resource Affected Underwater Noise · Scheduling: The surveys have been planned to avoid the humpback whale season (July to December) · Buffer zone: The final survey plan should be reviewed to verify that all survey lines are a minimum of 500 m from known turtle nesting beaches · Soft start: Every time the use of the seismic array is initiated, "soft-start" procedures should be used to allow time for marine mammals and turtles to move away before the array reaches full power · Visual monitoring: Beginning at least 30 minutes before startup during daylight hours, visual observers should monitor a safety (exclusion) zone of a 1-km radius around the source vessel. Startup of the array cannot begin until the safety zone is clear of marine mammals and turtles for at least 30 minutes · Shutdown of the array: Visual monitoring of the sea surface should continue while the seismic array is operating during daylight hours, and the array should be shut down if a whale or dugong enters the 1-km safety zone. The array will also be shut down if a sea turtle enters the 500-m safety zone during visual monitoring · Dugong watch: Support vessel(s) traveling to Pemba for supplies will maintain a watch for dugongs and travel at slow speeds while operating in coastal areas Impact Description Degree of Confidence Significance (without mitigation) Mitigation Significance (with mitigation)

Marine mammals and sea turtles

· Potential temporary or permanent auditory trauma if animals swim below seismic array operating at full power · Altered behavior (e.g., temporary avoidance) could occur up to several kilometers from seismic array · Potential disturbance of whale calves in humpback whale nursery area

Medium

Probability: Likely (behavioral changes) to unlikely (auditory trauma) Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

Probability: Likely (behavioral changes) to rare (auditory trauma) Consequence: Minor Significance: 2

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Table 5. (Continued).

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-34 Resource Affected Impact Description · Potential temporary or permanent auditory trauma if fishes swim below seismic array operating at full power · Altered behavior (e.g., temporary avoidance) could occur up to several kilometers from seismic array · No impacts expected · Little or no chance of physical injury or behavioral disruption · Physical injury and mortality of plankton within a few meters of the seismic source; similar to impacts of a large ship's propellers Degree of Confidence Significance (without mitigation) Probability: Likely (behavioral changes) to unlikely (auditory trauma) Consequence: Minor Significance: 2 Probability: Rare Consequence: Negligible Significance: 1 Probability: Rare Consequence: Negligible Significance: 1 Probability: Likely Consequence: Negligible Significance: 1 Mitigation · No additional mitigation recommended. The use of a "soft start" under the guidelines for marine mammals offers some protection from auditory trauma · None recommended · None recommended Significance (with mitigation) Probability: Likely (behavioral changes) to rare (auditory trauma) Consequence: Minor Significance: 1 Probability: Rare Consequence: Negligible Significance: 1 Probability: Rare Consequence: Negligible Significance: 1 Probability: Likely Consequence: Negligible Significance: 1

Fishes

Medium

Seabirds Benthic invertebrates

High

High

Plankton

High

· None recommended

Humans (divers)

· Potential auditory trauma or physical discomfort to divers

High

Probability: Rare Consequence: Severe Significance: 3

· Buffer zone: The EMP includes measures to ensure that a 2.5 km safety zone is in effect where recreational or artisanal diving takes place. This provides an additional 1,000 m buffer to the DMACrecommended safe range of 1,500 m · Coordination with dive operators: Through the Stakeholder Communications Plan, AMA1 should coordinate with dive Probability: Remote operators to ensure they are aware of Consequence: Moderate survey locations and timing. Diving Significance: 1 should only be permitted when specific arrangements are made between AMA1 and the dive operator on the day of the dive to ascertain the exact position of the seismic vessel in relation to the dive site. Diving should not be permitted under any circumstances when the seismic vessel will be operating within 2,500 m of the intended dive site

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Table 5. (Continued).

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-35 Resource Affected Impact Description Degree of Confidence Significance (without mitigation) Mitigation Significance (with mitigation)

Vessel Movements and Safety Zones · Visual monitoring: Monitoring during the surveys will ensure there are no marine Probability: Remote mammals near vessels Consequence: Moderate · Dugong watch: Support vessels will maintain watch for dugongs and travel at Significance: 1 slow speeds during transit in nearshore waters

Marine mammals and sea turtles

· Potential for a survey or support vessel striking a marine mammal or turtle

High

Probability: Rare Consequence: Moderate Significance: 2

Effluents and Emissions · Air pollutant emissions from survey vessels will have a minor impact on air quality due to release of combustion gases. Onshore air quality is not expected to be noticeably affected · Effluent discharges from vessels, including treated sanitary and domestic waste, deck drainage, and bilge and ballast water, will have minor, transient impacts on water quality Probability: Certain Consequence: Negligible Significance: 1 · All emissions and discharges will comply Probability: Certain with Mozambican laws and regulations and Consequence: Negligible be consistent with international standards. Significance: 1 No additional measures are recommended · All emissions and discharges will comply Probability: Certain with Mozambican laws and regulations and Consequence: Negligible be consistent with international standards. Significance: 1 No additional measures are recommended

Air quality

High

Water quality

High

Probability: Certain Consequence: Negligible Significance: 1

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Table 5. (Continued).

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-36 Resource Affected Accidental Spills · The survey vessel has a Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP) and maintain an Oil Record Book as required under MARPOL 73/78 · Oils, greases, and streamer fluid will be stored in designated containment areas on board the survey vessel · Sorbent materials will be used to clean up any minor spill on board the survey vessel. Probability: Remote Stocks of absorbent materials will be checked for adequacy and replenished as Consequence: Minor Significance: 1 needed prior to the survey · Strict fuel transfer procedures will be implemented to prevent spills during the loading of fuel at the Port of Pemba and during transfers between supply vessels and the survey vessel · In the event of a spill of oil or other products, the incident will be promptly reported through the contractor chain-ofcommand to AMA1 Impact Description Degree of Confidence Significance (without mitigation) Mitigation Significance (with mitigation)

Marine · Impacts of a minor spill of oil, grease, mammals, sea or streamer fluid (contamination of turtles, birds, habitats, toxicity, smothering of biota, fishes, and etc.) coastal habitats

High

Probability: Rare to remote Consequence: Minor to moderate Significance: 2

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Table 6. Summary of potential socioeconomic impacts and mitigation.

Resource Impact Description Affected Effects on Recreational Diving and Snorkeling Activities Degree of Confidence Significance (without mitigation) Mitigation Significance (with mitigation)

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-37

L&A Operators, divers

Temporary loss of access to dive sites due to safety zones around the seismic vessel

High

Probability: Remote Consequence: Low Significance: 1

· Plan vessel maneuvers away from dive site: Plan any east/west maneuvers of the seismic vessel to take place away from dive site, if possible and practical · Coordination and communication with dive operators: Compile a Stakeholder Communications Plan (SCP), through which AMA1 should coordinate with dive operators to ensure they are aware of survey locations and timing · Exploration Tourism Forum: Establish an "Exploration Tourism" well before the advent of the actual Probability: Remote seismic acquisition. It will serve as a Consequence: Low vehicle for communication, grievance Significance: 1 procedures, and discussion between the key stakeholders · Grievance procedure: Establish a procedure through which valid grievances regarding the project could be raised. Although this should be a function of the Forum, it should, again, be structured in such a manner that the grievances could be raised and addressed quickly, before escalating · Surveying at night: Investigate the possibility of surveying the transects furthest west at night, thereby eliminating effects on divers

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Table 6. (Continued).

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-38 Resource Affected Impact Description Degree of Confidence Significance (without mitigation) Mitigation · Extended buffer: Review final survey plan to verify that all survey lines are a minimum of 2,500 m from reefs, shorelines, and known dive sites when divers are present · Coordination and communication with dive operators: See above · Exploration Tourism Forum: See above · Grievance procedure: See above · Surveying at night: See above · Coordination and communication with dive operators: See above · Exploration Tourism Forum: See above · Grievance procedure: See above · Surveying at night: See above · Coordination and communication with dive operators: See above · Exploration Tourism Forum: See above · Grievance procedure: See above · Surveying at night: See above · Coordination and communication with dive operators: See above · Exploration Tourism Forum: See above · Grievance procedure: See above · Surveying at night: See above Significance (with mitigation)

Divers, L&A Operators

Physical safety and health of divers due to sound source pulses

High

Probability: Remote Consequence: Severe Significance: 3

Probability: Unlikely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 1

Divers, L&A Operators

Discomfort of divers and reduced diving experience

High

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

Probability: Rare Consequence: Moderate Significance: 1

Effects on Recreational Fishing Activities L&A Operators, recreational fishermen Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3 Probability: Unlikely Consequence: Minor Significance: 1

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Temporary delays/loss of access to recreational offshore fishing grounds

High

L&A Operators, recreational fishermen

Reduced offshore sports fishing experience due to changes in fish behavior and movement, potentially leading to decreased catches

Medium

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

Probability: Unlikely Consequence: Minor Significance: 1

Table 6. (Continued).

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-39 Resource Degree of Impact Description Affected Confidence Effects on Cetacean (whale and dolphins) Sightseeing Excursions Significance (without mitigation) Mitigation Significance (with mitigation)

L&A Operators, whale watchers, cetaceans

Reduced quality of sightseeing due to mammal movement away from exploration activities

High

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

· Limit the seismic acquisition window: Limit seismic acquisition to the window already indicated by the Proponent · Coordination and communication with dive operators: See above Probability: Unlikely · Exploration Tourism Forum: See Consequence: Minor above Significance: 1 · Grievance procedure: See above · Surveying at night: See above · Marine mammal observer: Information of marine mammal sightings can be shared with L&A Tour Operators · Limit distance of stoppages: Any stops for weather or any other reason Probability: Unlikely that do not require an immediate halt Consequence: Minor should be undertaken at least 10 km Significance: 1 east of the closest island · Coordination and communication with dive operators: See above · Exploration Tourism Forum: See above · Grievance procedure: See above · Surveying at night: See above · Compensation Plan: Compile and implement a Compensation Plan · Coordination and communication with dive operators: See above · Exploration Tourism Forum: See above · Grievance procedure: See above · Surveying at night: See above · Compensation Plan: See above

Visual Effects on Tourists (especially on the islands) L&A Operators, tourists Probability: Likely Consequence: Minor Significance: 1

Visual disturbance of seismic vessel

High

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Economic Effects on the Tourism Industry in the Study Area

L&A Operators

Potential loss of revenue to tourism operators

Medium

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

Probability: Likely Consequence: Minor Significance: 2

L&A Operators Potential loss of income (in terms of employees and wages and purchases) dependants

High

Probability: Unlikely Consequence: Negligible Significance: 1

Probability: Unlikely Consequence: Minor Significance: 1

Table 6. (Continued).

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-40 Resource Degree of Significance Impact Description Affected Confidence (without mitigation) Effects on the Image of the Quirimbas Archipelago as a Tourism Destination Mitigation Significance (with mitigation)

Quirimbas Archipelago

Effects on the "island paradise" image

Medium

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

· Emphasize the temporary and short-term nature of the project: Explain the short-term nature of the project and emphasize its temporary nature · Investigate promoting the Quirimbas as a destination: Consider contributing to marketing Probability: Likely campaigns proposed by established Consequence: Minor tourism promotion agencies through Significance: 2 which the area is marketed and promoted · Prepare media fact sheet: Prepare a media fact sheet to assist the L&A Operators to brief members of staff as to how to convey information relating to the seismic survey, where necessary

Effects on Planned and Future Tourism Developments

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Mozambique Suspension of planned and future tourism industries, local investment economy

Medium

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

· Downplay the industrial nature of the project: See above · Assist in promoting the Quirimbas Probability: Likely Consequence: Minor as a destination: See above · Prepare media fact sheet: See above Significance: 2 · Consider strategic assessment: See above

Table 6. (Continued).

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-41 Resource Impact Description Affected Effects of the Safety Zones on Artisanal Fishing Degree of Confidence Significance (without mitigation) Mitigation · Coordination and communication with fishers: Establish a similar communication structure as outlined for the tourism industry to liaise with the artisanal fishing industry · Strengthen local radio signal: Radio Moçambique's transmitter in Pemba may need to be upgraded to reach the whole study area. In order to increase the ability of RM as a communication tool, AMA1 could, as part of local social investment, contribute to and assist with the upgrade of the Pemba transmitter · Grievance procedure: A grievance procedure through which valid grievances regarding the project could be raised should be implemented · Surveying at night: Investigate the possibility of surveying the transects furthest west (i.e., closest to the islands and fishing areas) at night, thereby decreasing the effect on artisanal fishers · Appropriate chase boat crew members: At least one of the crew members on the chase boat should be fluent in local languages and have knowledge of local fishing practices · Compensation Plan: See above · Coordination and communication with fishers: See above · Strengthen local radio signal: See above · Grievance procedure: See above · Surveying at night: See above · Appropriate chase boat crew members: See above · Compensation Plan: See above Significance (with mitigation)

Artisanal fishers

Temporary loss of access to fishing grounds and associated loss of catch

High

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

Probability: Unlikely Consequence: Minor Significance: 1

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Artisanal fishers

Temporary decreased catch volumes in certain areas

Medium

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

Probability: Unlikely Consequence: Minor Significance: 1

Table 6. (Continued).

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-42 Resource Impact Description Affected Effects on the Safety of Artisanal Divers Degree of Confidence Significance (without mitigation) Mitigation · Coordination and communication with fishers: See above · Strengthen local radio signal: See above · Grievance procedure: See above · Surveying at night: See above · Appropriate chase boat crew members: See above · Compensation Plan: See above

· Coordination and communication

Significance (with mitigation)

Artisanal divers

Effects on physical safety and health of divers due to sound source pulses

High

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

Probability: Unlikely Consequence: Minor Significance: 1

Effects on the Livelihoods of Artisanal Fishers with fishers: See above

· Strengthen local radio signal: See

Artisanal fishers and dependants

Temporary loss of income and effects on food security

High

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

above.

· Grievance procedure: See above · Surveying at night: See above · Appropriate chase boat crew

Probability: Likely Consequence: Minor Significance: 2

members: See above

· Compensation Plan: See above

Fish traders

Temporary reduction in fish volumes available for purchase and resale

High

Probability: Likely Consequence: Moderate Significance: 3

· If all the relevant mitigation measures Probability: Likely with regard to artisanal fishers are Consequence: Minor implemented, there should be a Significance: 2 minimal effect on first order traders

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Table 6. (Continued).

Non-Technical Summary for a Deepwater Seismic Survey in Rovuma Offshore Area 1 NTS-43 Resource Degree of Impact Description Affected Confidence Effects on Licensed Commercial Fishing, Shipping, and Ship Movements Significance (without mitigation) Mitigation Significance (with mitigation)

Commercial Fishing and Shipping vessels

Disruption of fishing activities and shipping movements

High

Probability: Likely Consequence: Minor Significance: 1

· Initiate direct contacts with licensed commercial fishing interest and inform them of the seismic survey plan and schedule. · Provide Notices to Mariners: Provide adequate warning to shipping vessels regarding the seismic vessel's activities, in the form of Notices to Mariners, via the Port Captains in the Ports of Maputo, Beira, Nacala, and Dar es Salaam, as well as other notification procedures · Perform radio broadcasts: Broadcast the activity and position of the seismic vessel on appropriate Probability: Unlikely shipping channels, such as Rádio Consequence: Minor Naval. This will ensure that other vessels have adequate notification to Significance: 1 alter their intended course and prevent delays from having to stand-off until the seismic vessel is out of their path · Equip vessel with radar and detection equipment: Ensure that the seismic vessel is equipped with adequate and continuously manned radar equipment to detect any other vessels that may threaten safety and potentially interfere with the survey process · Protect integrity of the safety zone: Ensure that the chase vessel protects the integrity of the safety zone around the seismic vessel at all times

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Information

Vol I Cover.pub

49 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

545306