Read C_M6_MADRID_INGLES:C_M6_MADRID_INGLES text version

Science

PRIMARY EDUCATION

ENGLISH

6

MADRID

CLOSE UP

The natural environment of Madrid

The relief

In Madrid, there are two different regions: a mountainous one, and a lowland one. The mountains of the Sistema Central are located in the north and west of the community. Its most important mountain ranges are: · The Sierra de Somosierra to the north. The Peña Cebollera peak, (2 129m) is the highest in the community. · The Sierra de Guadarrama, in the centre of the mountainous area. Its highest peaks are Peñalara (2 430m), Cabeza de Hierro (2 383m) and Siete Picos (2 138m). · The Sierra de Gredos, in the south-west of the community. The lowlands occupy the centre and south-east. There are different regions: · The region close to the mountain ranges, which is not completely flat, has a hilly landscape and low mountain ranges. · The lowlands of the south and east are flat and fertile, with an altitude of around 600 metres. · The high plateaus of the east are flat but higher (around 900 metres) and less fertile.

Sierra de Guadarrama.

The Hydrography

The rivers in the community are generally short, with little water and with variable water flow. The river Tajo is the most important. It crosses the south of our community. Almost all the rivers that flow through Madrid are tributaries of it or other rivers that flow into it. The most important are: the Guadarrama, the Alberche, the Jarama, the Lozoya, the Manzanares, the Guadalix, the Henares and the Tajuña.

Questions

1

Name the main mountain ranges in Madrid. What large mountain range do they belong to? Name five important rivers in the community. What type of climate is found in the lowlands of Madrid? Look at the map and write the names of three reservoirs of the river Lozoya and two of the Manzanares. Look at the map and locate the Cabrera mountain range, the Cuerda Larga and the Hoyo del Manzanares.

The climate and the vegetation

The community has two kinds of climate: a continental and a mountain climate. · The continental climate is found in the lowlands. It is characterized by extreme temperatures: hot in summer and cold in winter, with scarce and sporadic rainfall. · The mountain climate is found in the higher regions of the mountain ranges. It is characterized by very cold temperatures in winter and cool temperatures in summer, with abundant rainfall almost all the year, although there is less in summer. The vegetation in the community is composed of holm oaks, willows, black poplars, ash, pine, beech and oak trees.

2 3 4

5

11

Altitude of the community of Madrid (metres above sea level)

2 000 1 000 500 200 2000

L

1000 500

Peña Cebollera 2129

Peak River Lake, reservoir Autonomous community border Province border

A

R

Som

i os

er

ra

T

200

Emb. de Riosequillo

L

N

ya zo Emb. de o Puentes Viejas

Emb. de El Villar

CASTILLAJa ra m

Ma E c U Peñ izo A D A al de R R ara

CASTILLA Y LEÓN

A

A

a

M

A

e

l

d

e

C

Emb. de Pinilla

ll

Lo

zo

ya

Peñalara 2 430

Siete Picos 2 138

C La

da L ue r

Cabeza de Hierro 2 383

a e S d rera Cab la

Emb. de El Vellón

a

Emb. de El Atazar

LA

V

G

arga

Emb. de Santillana

MANCHA

Jara

M

D

y Ho a del ana S nz de Ma

E

T

S

R I E Emb. de S Valmayor

R

A

re o s

Emb. de Navacerrada

Cerro de San Pedro 1423

Emb. de El Pardo

I

S

s

Alberche

Guadarrama

de

Peña de Cenicientos 1 253

l J a

S

a

d

Cerro de l os Ángel es 669

ram

e

G

a

re Emb. de

d

o

Almenara 1262 Emb. de San Juan

ma

es ar en H

E

s M are an anz el M ed Vall

MADRID

Picadas

le ra Pe

s

mo Pára sa umo la H de

ga

CASTILLA-LA MANCHA

Ve ga

Ve

Alb

he erc

Jarama

re s na za an

a Tajuñ

Páramo de Chinchón

d el

TAJO

Ta j o

JO TA

CASTILLA-LA MANCHA

0 10 20 30 40 km

The three sectors in Madrid

Primary sector

In our region, only 1% of the active population works in the primary sector. The most important activities are: · Agriculture, which can be dry (cereals, vines and olive trees) or irrigated (vegetables, maize). · Stock farming takes place in farms: bovine, ovine, porcine and poultry. · Mining: there are some granite and gypsum quarries.

Secondary sector

21% of the active population work in the secondary sector. The main industries are: · Energy in order supply energy to the large population of the region. · Consumer products: foods, chemicals, metals, paper, textiles, etc. · Construction: the building of houses and offices, etc. The most important industrial areas are: Madrid, Getafe, Torrejón de Ardoz, Alcalá de Henares, Arganda del Rey, Alcobendas and Tres Cantos.

The three sectors:

Primary sector: Vineyard in Navalcarnero Secondary sector: Building under construction in Madrid

13

Tertiary sector

The tertiary sector is the most important in the region: 78% of the active population work in the tertiary sector. All the following areas are important in the region: · Public and private administration, business and banking are all extremely important because Madrid is the capital city of Spain. · Transport. Madrid is the centre, or hub, of the Spanish road and rail networks. Madrid-Barajas airport is one of the busiest in Europe. · Education (schools, universities, etc.) and health are important because of the large population of the region. · Tourism is another of the important activities and many people work in it. This is because Madrid is the capital of Spain and contains many important museums like the Prado, the Reina Sofía and the Thyssen. · Most of the important media companies (publishers, newspapers, radio and television stations, etc.) have their head offices in the region.

Questions

1 2 3 4

What types of stock farming are there in the region? Name the most important industrial areas of the region. Which is the most important sector in the region? Make a list of all the adults you know and indicate in which sector they work.

Tertiary sector: Terminal T4 of Madrid-Barajas airport

Madrid in the Modern Age

Madrid in the 16th century

During the reigns of the Catholic Kings and Carlos I, Madrid was a small city which the monarchs only visited occasionally. But in 1561, Felipe II decided that Madrid would be the capital of Spain and from that moment the city grew very quickly. During his reign he constructed the Monasterio de El Escorial.

Madrid in the 17th century

During the 17th century, there was a big economic crisis in Spain that also affected Madrid. Despite the crisis the 17th century was an era of great artists, which is why it is known as the Golden Age. Many of these artists were born or lived in the region: · The writers Lope de Vega and Quevedo were born and lived in Madrid and Miguel de Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares and lived in Madrid for some years. · The artists Velázquez, Zurbarán and Murillo all lived for some time in Madrid. During the reign of Felipe IV, the Palacio del Buen Retiro was built in Madrid. Modern Age in Madrid:

17th century: Palacio del Buen Retiro by Jusepe Leonardo

14

Madrid in the 18th century

During the war of Spanish Succession, Carlos de Austria controlled Madrid for some months, but the people of Madrid did not accept the situation and he had to abandon the city. Finally, Felipe de Borbón won the war and reigned as Felipe V. After the end of the war, the economy improved and Madrid continued to grow. In the region, Felipe V began building the Palacio Real of Madrid (work of the Italians Filippo Juvarra and Giovanni Battista Sacchetti) and extended the Aranjuez Palace. During the middle of the century, the first ideas from the Enlightenment arrived. During the reign of Carlos III, Madrid began to transform itself into a big city, thanks to the enlightened ideas of the king and his ministers. During these years great avenues lined with trees were opened, like Recoletos, Delicias and the Castellana; and the Retiro (garden of the former Palacio del Buen Retiro) became a public park. This helped convert Madrid into one of the great European capitals. Among the great artists of the end of the century, Francisco de Goya is one of the most important. He lived nearly all his life in Madrid and was painter to various kings of Spain.

Questions

1

Which king decided that Madrid would be the capital of Spain? Name two writers and two painters who were born or lived in Madrid during the 17th century. What works were carried out in Madrid during the 18th century?

2

3

18th century: La pradera de San Isidro by Francisco de Goya

Madrid in the contemporary age

Madrid in the 19th century

On the 2 of May 1808, the Madrilenians attacked Napoleon's troops who had occupied Madrid. In the confrontation, more than 400 Madrilenians died. With this popular uprising the Spanish War of Independence began against the Napoleonic invasion and lasted until 1814.

nd

Contemporary Age in Madrid

19th century: Atocha station

During the rest of the 19th century Madrid was at the centre of Spanish politics. The city saw political parties appear and clash with each other constantly. From the mid-century on, innovations from the Industrial Revolution began to arrive in Madrid. In 1851, the second railway line in Spain opened: it linked Madrid and Aranjuez.

Madrid in the 20th century

During the twentieth century, the population in the community grew considerably: from 700 000 at the beginning of the century, to more than 5 000 000 by 2000. In 1931, the Madrilenians were the first to proclaim the beginning of the Second Republic in Spain. Between 1936 and 1939, Madrid was a besieged city and suffered intensely the effects of the Spanish Civil War. During the Transition the Madrilenian population played a decisive role in the birth of democracy. In 1983, the Statute of Autonomy of the Autonomous Community of Madrid was approved.

19th century: Congreso de los Diputados

Madrid today

In the 21st century, the Community is experiencing a profound process of transformation and improvements in many aspects. For example: · Important urban development in most of the municipalities has taken place. · Transport networks have improved, with the building of new motorways; the extension of the metro to different municipalities; the new terminal, T4, at Barajas airport; the construction of a new railway tunnel between Atocha and Charmartin stations; the remodelation of the M30, etc. · Sports facilities have been modernized in the capital.

15

20th century: Palacio de Comunicaciones

21st century: Extension of the Centro de Arte Reina Sofía

Questions

1 2 3 4

What happened in Madrid on the 2nd of May, 1808? When did the first railway in Madrid become operational? Name three important events in our Community during the 20th century. Since when has Madrid been an Autonomous Community?

ENGLISH

Information

C_M6_MADRID_INGLES:C_M6_MADRID_INGLES

10 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

487663