Read UltraHigh Speed Motor and Engine Cranking System text version
UltraHigh Speed Motor and Engine Cranking System
VHDLAMS Applications
K
Outline
1. Background
Process "V" Multi Domain Simulation
2. UltraHigh Speed motor
Nagasaki University DSP, FPGA, Inverter, Motor
3. Engine Cranking System
TOYOTA motor corporation Engine, Battery, Starter
4. Conclusion
The sum ofProcess "V" the optimal components is not equal to the optimal system.
Requirements & Specifications
System Design
System Acceptance
System Topology & Layout
Circuit Design
SubSystem Integ. & Verification
SubSystem Options & Design
EM
Component Integration & Verification
Component Optimization
Automotive System
Circuits Electrical Electro Magnetic
Thermal Mechanical Chemical
Hydrodynamic
VHDLAMS
Merits of Common Modeling Language
1. Standardization Standardization Safety and steadiness of software language is very important for the accumulation of intellectual property in Automotive Engineering. IEEE standards will give you the steadiness 2. Affinity Modeling should  be easy for engineer.  not be technical and complex for modeling.  be employed to analog and digital mixed signal for system simulation.
Small and Ultra High Speed motor system simulation by using VHDLAMS
Jyun Oyama, Tsuyoshi Higuchi, Takashi Abe, Ryutaro Moriguchi Nagasaki University
6
Back Ground
Ultra High Speed Motor...
High Speed Motor : Small and High Power
Application (Size)
Assist Motor for Turbo charger Cogeneration system
Application (Speed)
compressor
Prototype :
Rated Speed : 240krpm Rated Output Power : 5kW
Power Electronics System
Digital System : DSP,FPGA Electronics Circuits Mechanical System : Load, Fan Temperature effects : Friction, Iron Loss Multi Domain Complex System
The VHDLAMS (IEEE 1076.1)is one of the best modeling language for Multi Domain simulation.
Ultra High Speed Motor
Unit mm
Fan Motor
This motor is (1)Surface type permanent magnet synchronous motor (2 Poles) (2)Rotor surface is covered by the inconel material for shatterproof of the magnet (3)Protection from oil infiltration (4)In order to reduce the space for end windings, the concentrated winding is employed.
Rotor
Inconel Permanent magnet 10 3 40 48 16 20
3 Unitmm
Rotor Rotor
Magnetizing radial magnetized Material Neodymium alloy
Rotor Rotor
Specification
Rated Output Rated Voltage Rated Speed Number of Poles Stator Length
5 kW 200 V 240,000 rpm 2 40 mm
Cooling System
UltraHigh Speed Operation Temp. from friction and loss deGauss Winding melting Oil Cooling Oil also plays as rotor bearing
Oil Tank
Cooling Pump
Cooling System Cooling System
Experiment System
Controller : DSP Model
DSP Model
C/C++ Interface of SIMPLORER Same Program as Experiment Interrupt Freq. : 20kHz
Controller : FPGA Model
FPGA Model
Digital model in VHDLAMS Same Program as Experiment Clock and Bit length are also considered
Controller : FPGA+DSP Model
DSP output signal:Analog FPGA input signal:Ditigal Digital I/O Port
1. The same CCode can be used in both Experimental and Simulation. 2. No need to translate from Experimental to Simulation model and Simulation to Experimental DSP code. 3. This capability allows you to be reliability and reduce the time.
Inverter Model
PWM inverter Model
Three Blocks : Power Supply, Converter and Inverter IGBT, Diode : Modeled by VHDLAMS equations Switching delay dose not considered
Main Circuits : VHDLAMS VHDLAMS
VHDLAMS
Across and Through Variable Equations is used to define the model ElectroAcross Through
: :
Voltage [V] Current [A]
Resistance Inductance R+L
v = Ri di v = L dt di v = Ri + L dt
IGBT Elements
v(t) e V t  1 for v(t) 0 i(t)= Is
Terminal
i(t)=
350
v(t) Rr
for v(t) < 0
350 300 250
Voltage Is Saturation Current Vt Fitting Parameter Rr Reverse Resistance
Collecter Current Ic [A]
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 50 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Current [A]
200 150 100 50 0 50 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Applied Boltage Vce [V]
Applied Voltage [V]
IGBT on Voltage 1.7V
Diode on Voltage 0.8V
Motor Model
UHS Motor Model
Modeled by VHDLAMS with Equivalent Circuits Benefit : Easy to define model for Fan as Load and take into account of Losses and Temperature effects. Model : Temperature dependent resistance and Load characteristics had been considered.
Motor Model (Equivalent Circuits)
dq Axis model is considered
dq Voltage Equation dd v d = R s id0 +  q dt dq v q = R s iq0 + + d dt dq Flux d = Equation Ld id0 + d
q = Lq iq0
Torque Equationd iq  q id mi =
RsWinding R RcEqv. Iron Loss Ld,Lqd,q Inductance
d d
Motor Model (Load)
Load : Fan model by VHDLAMS
VoltageCurrent Electrical Angular Velocity, Torque Mechanical Torque Equation for Fan
T = a 2 + b
Motor Kinetic Equation
Motor
Load
=
1 j
(mi
 T )dt
a,b parameter
Inertia Eqv. Circuits for Mech. Eqv. Circuits for Mech.
System Simulation Model
VHDLAMS VHDLAMS
(Digital
PWM inverter Model UHS Motor Model
FPGA Model
Simulation Parameters
Link Voltage Motor Inductance Winding Resistance External Inductance Carrier Freq. Time Step Simulator 200 V Ld = 0.093mH Lq = 0.093mH R = 0.1 L = 0.12mH / R = 0.16 20 kHz 0.5sec SIMPLORER ver7.0
Results
Terminal Voltage @60,000rpm
I
Experimental
50V/div
Simulation
50V/div
Results II
Terminal Voltage @120,000rpm
Experimental
50/div
Simulation
50V/div
Motor Model from ECE
Because the UHS Motor has special structure and materials, it is important to consider the Motor characteristics precisely. Motor model should be modeled by using FEA and Equivalent Circuits Extraction from Maxwell.
Motor Model II
FEA Model
Motor shape, dimension, Materials can be considered. Long Simulation time
Good for Motor on Design stage
Equivalent Circuits Model
Fast calculation speed constant will help to Motor represent an actual behavior Difficult to examine motor shape, dimension and materials
Good for conventional Motor
Motor Model by FEA
1. Lookup Table from Maxwell (FEA)
I
·Motor Model : Linkage Flux and Torque ·Lookup Table : Parametric Analysis for Currents, Phase and Rotor Position
Fa, Fb, Fca,b,c
Motor Model by FEA
2. Create a Motor Model
·Motor Model Lookup Table ·Equations VHDLAMS
II
Equations
Motor Model (Validation)
Test Circuits by using SIMPLORER Input : Three phase voltage source
Motor Model (Validation)
@60,000rpm
Voltage 25V/divCurrent
25A/div
Torque 0.02Nm/div
Results
@60,000rpm
Vab
50V/div
Current
12.5A/div
Summary(1)
· In this presentation, the ultrahigh speed drive system and the ultrahigh speed motor modeled by using VHDLAMS and the lookup table from FEM analysis. · The drive system model did almost the same operation as the experiment system.
Engine Cranking System
Analysis of the Battery Voltage Behavior
·How much is the rest of battery voltage in the engine cranking ? ·The guarantee for the lowest battery voltage is the primary criteria for an engine cranking system operation. ·How much is the engine cranking speed? ·The engine cranking speed gives the quasi combustion criteria. This analysis uses Mechanical, Electrical, Thermodynamics, Hydrodynamics and Electrochemical models.
Engine Cranking System
Electrochemical
Mechanical Electrical
Mechanical Thermodynamics
Hydrodynamics
Wire Harness
AVE
Engine (3UZFE)
Starter 1.4Kw
DENSO
Battery 105D
Panasonic
T/M (A761E)
All subModels are represented by VHDLAMS and Circuits components in SIMPLORER
Subsystem (1) : Engine
AVE
Compression Model
Cam/piston Friction Model
Detail Engine model
Subsystem (2) : Battery
+
A
+
Res I1 E_EQ E_chkorr I_Self
+
V
IFloat
A_ICD I_gas
+
V
R_mid C_Plate
R_in C_in
C_mid

Electrical Part
Acid diffusion
T T0
I self
sdpd cap = e sd _ t 100 24hrs
V  gass _ th'  1 I gass = r _ curr exp cell gass _ sl
4 2 RT H + SO4 [Ed ] = ln 2 F [H 2O ]2
Automotive Lib.
[ ][
]
2
AVE
[H ] [SO ]
+ 4 2 0 4
[H 2O]0 2
2 0
Polarisation Effects
SIMPLORER Automotive Lib + polarisation effects
Subsystem (3) : Starter
AVE
Mechanical and Electrical behavior
Battery Voltage (V) vs. Time
Battery Voltage
14 12 10 8 6 4 (1) Peak Voltage(V) 0 0 100m 200m (2) Mean Voltage0.3s0.5s 300m 400m 500m Measurement Simulation
[V]
Time (S)
Temp. & SOC 20.0 SOC 65.6 (1) Peak (2) Mean 20.0 SOC 2.5 (1) Peak (2) Mean 25.0 SOC 77.2 (1) Peak (2) Mean 25.0 SOC 34.6 (1) Peak (2) Mean
Measurement 7.9 11.5 7.3 10.9 6.7 9.7 6.5 9.3
Simulation 8.1 11.6 7.2 10.9 6.9 10.1 6.5 9.6
Error(%) 2.8 0.5 0.9 0.1 3.1 3.9 0.2 3.6
Battery Current (A) vs. Time
1000
Battery current [A]
(1)Peak Current (2)Mean Current0.3s0.5s Actual Measurement Simulation
800 600 400 200 0 0
*
*Due to starter gear bouncing
100m 200m
Time (S)
300m
400m
500m
Temp. & SOC 20.0 SOC 65.6 (1) Peak (2) Mean 20.0 SOC 2.5 (1) Peak (2) Mean 25.0 SOC 77.2 (1) Peak (2) Mean 25.0 SOC 34.6 (1) Peak (2) Mean
Measurement 855 164 808 157 840 290 819 315
Simulation 880 160 786 158 867 255 821 252
Error(%) 2.9 2.9 2.7 0.2 3.2 12 * 0.2 20.2 *
*Due to phase difference
Summary (2)
· Multi domain simulation using modeling language VHDLAMS was applied to the system verifications. · Battery Voltage Behavior in Conventional Engine Cranking were examined.
The results attained sufficient accuracy (within 5%) in practical use (25deg to ambient temperature ).
Conclusion
V
·Process "V" ·"V"HDLAMS ·"V"ictory!
V
Requirements & Specifications
V
System Design
System Acceptance
System Topology & Layout
Circuit Design
SubSystem Integ. & Verification
SubSystem Options & Design
EM
Component Integration & Verification
Electrochemical
Mechanical Electrical Component Optimization
Wire Harness
Mechanical Thermodynamics Hydrodynamics
Engine (3UZFE)
AVE
Starter 1.4Kw DENSO Battery 105D Panasonic T/M (A761E)
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