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Ultra-High Speed Motor and Engine Cranking System

VHDL-AMS Applications


[email protected]


1. Background

­ ­ Process "V" Multi Domain Simulation

2. Ultra-High Speed motor

­ ­ Nagasaki University DSP, FPGA, Inverter, Motor

3. Engine Cranking System

­ ­ TOYOTA motor corporation Engine, Battery, Starter

4. Conclusion

The sum ofProcess "V" the optimal components is not equal to the optimal system.

Requirements & Specifications

System Design

System Acceptance

System Topology & Layout

Circuit Design

Sub-System Integ. & Verification

Sub-System Options & Design


Component Integration & Verification

Component Optimization

Automotive System

Circuits Electrical Electro Magnetic

Thermal Mechanical Chemical



Merits of Common Modeling Language

1. Standardization Standardization Safety and steadiness of software language is very important for the accumulation of intellectual property in Automotive Engineering. IEEE standards will give you the steadiness 2. Affinity Modeling should - be easy for engineer. - not be technical and complex for modeling. - be employed to analog and digital mixed signal for system simulation.

Small and Ultra High Speed motor system simulation by using VHDL-AMS

Jyun Oyama, Tsuyoshi Higuchi, Takashi Abe, Ryutaro Moriguchi Nagasaki University


Back Ground

Ultra High Speed Motor...

High Speed Motor : Small and High Power

Application (Size)

Assist Motor for Turbo charger Co-generation system

Application (Speed)


Prototype :

Rated Speed : 240krpm Rated Output Power : 5kW

Power Electronics System

Digital System : DSP,FPGA Electronics Circuits Mechanical System : Load, Fan Temperature effects : Friction, Iron Loss Multi Domain Complex System

The VHDL-AMS (IEEE 1076.1)is one of the best modeling language for Multi Domain simulation.

Ultra High Speed Motor

Unit mm

Fan Motor

This motor is (1)Surface type permanent magnet synchronous motor (2 Poles) (2)Rotor surface is covered by the inconel material for shatterproof of the magnet (3)Protection from oil infiltration (4)In order to reduce the space for end windings, the concentrated winding is employed.


Inconel Permanent magnet 10 3 40 48 16 20

3 Unitmm

Rotor Rotor

Magnetizing radial magnetized Material Neodymium alloy

Rotor Rotor


Rated Output Rated Voltage Rated Speed Number of Poles Stator Length

5 kW 200 V 240,000 rpm 2 40 mm

Cooling System

Ultra-High Speed Operation Temp. from friction and loss deGauss Winding melting Oil Cooling Oil also plays as rotor bearing

Oil Tank

Cooling Pump

Cooling System Cooling System

Experiment System

Controller : DSP Model

DSP Model

C/C++ Interface of SIMPLORER Same Program as Experiment Interrupt Freq. : 20kHz

Controller : FPGA Model

FPGA Model

Digital model in VHDL-AMS Same Program as Experiment Clock and Bit length are also considered

Controller : FPGA+DSP Model

DSP output signal:Analog FPGA input signal:Ditigal Digital I/O Port

1. The same C-Code can be used in both Experimental and Simulation. 2. No need to translate from Experimental to Simulation model and Simulation to Experimental DSP code. 3. This capability allows you to be reliability and reduce the time.

Inverter Model

PWM inverter Model

Three Blocks : Power Supply, Converter and Inverter IGBT, Diode : Modeled by VHDL-AMS equations Switching delay dose not considered

Main Circuits : VHDL-AMS VHDL-AMS


Across and Through Variable Equations is used to define the model ElectroAcross Through

: :

Voltage [V] Current [A]

Resistance Inductance R+L

v = Ri di v = L dt di v = Ri + L dt

IGBT Elements

v(t) e V t - 1 for v(t) 0 i(t)= Is




v(t) Rr

for v(t) < 0

350 300 250

Voltage Is Saturation Current Vt Fitting Parameter Rr Reverse Resistance

Collecter Current Ic [A]

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Current [A]

200 150 100 50 0 -50 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Applied Boltage Vce [V]

Applied Voltage [V]

IGBT on Voltage 1.7V

Diode on Voltage 0.8V

Motor Model

UHS Motor Model

Modeled by VHDL-AMS with Equivalent Circuits Benefit : Easy to define model for Fan as Load and take into account of Losses and Temperature effects. Model : Temperature dependent resistance and Load characteristics had been considered.

Motor Model (Equivalent Circuits)

dq Axis model is considered

dq Voltage Equation dd v d = R s id0 + - q dt dq v q = R s iq0 + + d dt dq Flux d = Equation Ld id0 + d

q = Lq iq0

Torque Equationd iq - q id mi =

RsWinding R RcEqv. Iron Loss Ld,Lqd,q Inductance

d d

Motor Model (Load)

Load : Fan model by VHDL-AMS

Voltage-Current Electrical Angular Velocity, Torque Mechanical Torque Equation for Fan

T = a 2 + b

Motor Kinetic Equation




1 j


- T )dt

a,b parameter

Inertia Eqv. Circuits for Mech. Eqv. Circuits for Mech.

System Simulation Model



PWM inverter Model UHS Motor Model

FPGA Model

Simulation Parameters

Link Voltage Motor Inductance Winding Resistance External Inductance Carrier Freq. Time Step Simulator 200 V Ld = 0.093mH Lq = 0.093mH R = 0.1 L = 0.12mH / R = 0.16 20 kHz 0.5sec SIMPLORER ver7.0


Terminal Voltage @60,000rpm






Results II

Terminal Voltage @120,000rpm





Motor Model from ECE

Because the UHS Motor has special structure and materials, it is important to consider the Motor characteristics precisely. Motor model should be modeled by using FEA and Equivalent Circuits Extraction from Maxwell.

Motor Model II

FEA Model

Motor shape, dimension, Materials can be considered. Long Simulation time

Good for Motor on Design stage

Equivalent Circuits Model

Fast calculation speed constant will help to Motor represent an actual behavior Difficult to examine motor shape, dimension and materials

Good for conventional Motor

Motor Model by FEA

1. Lookup Table from Maxwell (FEA)


·Motor Model : Linkage Flux and Torque ·Lookup Table : Parametric Analysis for Currents, Phase and Rotor Position

Fa, Fb, Fca,b,c

Motor Model by FEA

2. Create a Motor Model

·Motor Model Lookup Table ·Equations VHDL-AMS



Motor Model (Validation)

Test Circuits by using SIMPLORER Input : Three phase voltage source

Motor Model (Validation)


Voltage 25V/divCurrent


Torque 0.02Nm/div








· In this presentation, the ultra-high speed drive system and the ultra-high speed motor modeled by using VHDL-AMS and the lookup table from FEM analysis. · The drive system model did almost the same operation as the experiment system.

Engine Cranking System

Analysis of the Battery Voltage Behavior

·How much is the rest of battery voltage in the engine cranking ? ·The guarantee for the lowest battery voltage is the primary criteria for an engine cranking system operation. ·How much is the engine cranking speed? ·The engine cranking speed gives the quasi combustion criteria. This analysis uses Mechanical, Electrical, Thermodynamics, Hydrodynamics and Electrochemical models.

Engine Cranking System


Mechanical Electrical

Mechanical Thermodynamics


Wire Harness


Engine (3UZ-FE)

Starter 1.4Kw


Battery 105D


T/M (A761E)

All sub-Models are represented by VHDL-AMS and Circuits components in SIMPLORER

Subsystem (1) : Engine


Compression Model

Cam/piston Friction Model

Detail Engine model

Subsystem (2) : Battery




Res I1 E_EQ E_chkorr I_Self




A_ICD I_gas



R_mid C_Plate

R_in C_in



Electrical Part

Acid diffusion

T -T0

I self

sdpd cap = e sd _ t 100 24hrs

V - gass _ th' - 1 I gass = r _ curr exp cell gass _ sl

4 2- RT H + SO4 [Ed ] = ln 2 F [H 2O ]2

Automotive Lib.

[ ][




[H ] [SO ]

+ 4 2- 0 4

[H 2O]0 2

2 0

Polarisation Effects

SIMPLORER Automotive Lib + polarisation effects

Subsystem (3) : Starter


Mechanical and Electrical behavior

Battery Voltage (V) vs. Time

Battery Voltage

14 12 10 8 6 4 (1) Peak Voltage(V) 0 0 100m 200m (2) Mean Voltage0.3s0.5s 300m 400m 500m Measurement Simulation


Time (S)

Temp. & SOC 20.0 SOC 65.6 (1) Peak (2) Mean 20.0 SOC 2.5 (1) Peak (2) Mean -25.0 SOC 77.2 (1) Peak (2) Mean -25.0 SOC 34.6 (1) Peak (2) Mean

Measurement 7.9 11.5 7.3 10.9 6.7 9.7 6.5 9.3

Simulation 8.1 11.6 7.2 10.9 6.9 10.1 6.5 9.6

Error(%) 2.8 0.5 0.9 0.1 3.1 3.9 0.2 3.6

Battery Current (A) vs. Time


Battery current [A]

(1)Peak Current (2)Mean Current0.3s0.5s Actual Measurement Simulation

800 600 400 200 0 0


*Due to starter gear bouncing

100m 200m

Time (S)




Temp. & SOC 20.0 SOC 65.6 (1) Peak (2) Mean 20.0 SOC 2.5 (1) Peak (2) Mean -25.0 SOC 77.2 (1) Peak (2) Mean -25.0 SOC 34.6 (1) Peak (2) Mean

Measurement 855 164 808 157 840 290 819 315

Simulation 880 160 786 158 867 255 821 252

Error(%) 2.9 2.9 2.7 0.2 3.2 12 * 0.2 20.2 *

*Due to phase difference

Summary (2)

· Multi domain simulation using modeling language VHDL-AMS was applied to the system verifications. · Battery Voltage Behavior in Conventional Engine Cranking were examined.

­ The results attained sufficient accuracy (within 5%) in practical use (-25deg to ambient temperature ).



·Process "V" ·"V"HDL-AMS ·"V"ictory!


Requirements & Specifications


System Design

System Acceptance

System Topology & Layout

Circuit Design

Sub-System Integ. & Verification

Sub-System Options & Design


Component Integration & Verification


Mechanical Electrical Component Optimization

Wire Harness

Mechanical Thermodynamics Hydrodynamics

Engine (3UZ-FE)


Starter 1.4Kw DENSO Battery 105D Panasonic T/M (A761E)


Ultra-High Speed Motor and Engine Cranking System

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