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Australian Association for Research in Music Education

Indexed Abstracts 1978 - 2007

2nd Edition

AARME 2008

Contents

Aesthetics......................................................................................................................................................................1 Assessment and Evaluation.........................................................................................................................................2 Creativity, Composing and Improvisation ................................................................................................................4 Curriculum Development: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary.....................................................................................10 Early Childhood.........................................................................................................................................................24 Ethnomusicology and Multi-Cultural Practices .....................................................................................................30 Gifted, Special Needs, Therapy ................................................................................................................................36 Historical and Biographical Studies.........................................................................................................................38 Instrumental Practice and Performance .................................................................................................................49 Interrelated Music Education...................................................................................................................................56 Listening .....................................................................................................................................................................57 Music Literacy, Aural Perception, Harmony..........................................................................................................58 Music Psychology.......................................................................................................................................................61 Music Technology ......................................................................................................................................................66 Philosophy, Sociology and Musicology ....................................................................................................................73 Popular Music............................................................................................................................................................79 Rationale, Policy, Research, Methodologies ............................................................................................................80 Teacher Education.....................................................................................................................................................86 Vocal and Choral .....................................................................................................................................................102 Index .........................................................................................................................................................................107

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Aesthetics 1981. pp. 30-33 Guest Speaker Mr. K. Siddell, Director of Cultural Activities Queensland

Bernard Ostry in his book, The Cultural Connection argues that National integrity requires a cultural policy. Ostry argues, ''Culture, however we define it, is central to everything we do and think". He goes on to say, it is ''the essential element in any nation and ought to be seen as such by democratic governments and the citizens who elect them.'' The governments of Communist and many Socialist republics perceive it all too well; for them it is to be manipulated and controlled. But the absence of policy in parliamentary democracies can also lead to manipulation or orchestration. What is needed is a wise husbandry and the will to give culture freedom and room to grow without directing it.

1990. pp. 50-56 Musical Appreciation and the Emotions W. G. S. Smith, University of Melbourne

To appreciate music is to know its value: that is a truism. But like many truisms, such a statement is not as clear as we would like it to be. What do we mean when we speak of the value of music? In an educational context we should have in mind the value, if there is one, that only music can provide. For some this unique value of music-its aesthetic value-comes from its ability to express emotions. Perhaps one of the most influential writers here is Deryck Cooke. For him, music is 'a language of the emotions' and 'the supreme expression of universal emotions'. (Cooke,1959, p 33)

1995. pp. 15-20 Music: Love, wonder and the nature connection Christian Heim, University of Wollongong

In a very real sense, we can only do that which we love. The presenting of a love and genuine fascination for music is at least as important as the passing on of factual information. This paper presents historic and other glimpses of the love and wonder of music and its capabilities, It then presents a view of music as analogy of universal processes, objective and subjective. This is to be related to the role of educator.

1995. pp. 131-139 Aesthetics and Music Education J. D. Williamson Edith Cowan University

With the trialing of the recently introduced Student Outcomes Statements Draft issued by the Education Department of Western Australia (1994), one of the organisers is Arts Criticism and Aesthetics. I welcome, at long last, a requirement in Arts education in WA and elsewhere, for teachers to teach and to evaluate students' skill in this important area of the curriculum. I shall endeavour to show that arts criticism is inextricably linked to aesthetics, and set out some of the challenges for teachers in this sphere of education.

1999. pp. 259-262 Aesthetic Music Education and the Praxis Model: Their relevance and place in today's classrooms Graham Parsons

Since the late 1970's, the view of music education as aesthetic education has influenced music programs in school. Central to the philosophy is the requirement that pupils engage in the musical activities of Performing, Creating, and Listening as a means of developing aesthetic perception and aesthetic response. Criticisms of the approach refer to the small body of world music on which aesthetic theories are based, and argue that music experience may involve more that just listening. This paper will consider a praxis model as an alternative to the purely aesthetic approach in an attempt to establish a theory and practice for music education compatible with the way in which music is experienced and valued across world cultures.

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Assessment and Evaluation 1980. pp. 57-63 The Use of Diagnostic Testing vs. Evaluative Testing in the Core Curriculum Dr F. J. Rees, Lecturer in Music Education University of Queensland

In teachers' efforts to apply curriculum development principles, a problem persists in the educational community-the misuse of testing instruments for the evaluation of learning. The problem is international in scope and universal in discipline. It plagues the best educational institutions and the most reliable services that package standardised tests for individual assessment of large groups. In the case of music teaching, where evaluation of aesthetic, affective and creative responses are generally considered as important as assessment of psychomotor and cognitive skills, the problem of designing reliable evaluational tools becomes even greater. For the classroom music teacher, skill at design of testing instruments has probably been self-taught or inherited from other teachers.

1981. pp. 13-19 A Practical Approach to the Evaluation of Tertiary Level Courses J. Bryce, Lincoln Institute of Health Sciences, Victoria

In this paper, evaluation is seen as a process which helps educators to make decisions. It involves both the gathering and interpretation of information and the use of judgement in making decisions in the light of the information gathered. The paper will consider three broad questions: Why evaluate? What evaluation methods may be used? and who should evaluate? These questions will be applied to the context of tertiary level institutions.

1982. pp. 49-55 Assessment: Accentuate the objective, illuminate the subjective Graham Terry

This article discusses the work of B. S. Bloom (1956) and the benefits of analytic and evaluation of students work. The six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy are outlined. The author notes the need for objective assessments in the cognitive domain, rather than the use of subjective assessments. Terry gives guidelines and suggestions for designing multi-choice and matching­item questions for music students. The author also notes the importance of analyzing and evaluating the answers students have given to the multi-choice or matched-item tests, as this process will help to improve and design more effective tests for the future.

1983. pp. 40-45 Evaluation: Providing an instructional and non-threatening situation in testing Leonard Burtenshaw, Senior Lecturer N.S.W. State Conservation of Music

The purpose of the paper is to outline the ways in which a music test may be devised in order to provide a nonthreatening situation for the pupils as well as availing the class teacher and their pupils the opportunity for learning experiences. The research is described in the context of Kodaly teaching at the elementary school level in the United States.

1985. pp. 72-84 Teaching Objective Measurement for Evaluating Music Learning in the Classroom Dr Brian Chalmers, Deakin University, Victoria

This paper outlines a method of evaluating music teaching and learning for use in the classroom and how this is taught to students preparing for teaching in the creative arts at Deakin University, Victoria

1989. pp. 39-46 Assessment: The tail wagging the dog? or, does it serve the learner? Belle Farmer 2

In this paper the author argues for an assessment framework that supports and encourages learning for preservice generalist primary school students. Findings from a research project involving attitudes and values of different styles of assessment held by staff and students at a large campus of an Australian College of Advanced Education are outlined. Issues raised include the attempts to find ways to overcome the gaps between perceptions held by students and teachers. Results from the project indicate that there was little agreement between the aims and objectives outlined by the staff of the college and the perceptions students held regarding the stated aims printed in the handbook.

1997. pp. 59-66 Getting the Results: Teacher-student interaction in a music classroom Kathy Roulston, University of Queensland

There are few studies of music classrooms which would allow us to observe how music education is carried out through teacher-student interaction. This paper examines one example of teacher-student interaction of handing back a test in a year three music lesson. The analysis reveals what information a teacher provides to students in relation to test results received. Students are given clear messages as to what a "good" result is and how the music class consists of "good" and "not-so-good" students. An analysis of teacher-student interaction may provide a new method of looking at data gathered in music classrooms, and an alternative means by which to understand how music education takes place in schools.

1998. pp. 56-69 Student outcome Statements: Can we use them as a reliable measure of classroom music? Beverley Pascoe, Curriculum Council of Western Australia

The need to gather information about the effectiveness of education in The Arts has been emphasised by the current push for accountability in education and recognition of The Arts as one of the eight compulsory learning areas in the Western Australian K-10 curriculum. The generic title, The Arts, subsumes the disciplines of dance, drama. media, music and the visual arts. It is intended that, during the primary school years. students have the opportunity to experience several art forms and develop broadly-based achievements in each discipline with a view to specialisation in particular art forms at secondary school (Education Department of Western Australia 1994, p.2). This study focuses on the measurement of achievement in one aspect of The Arts namely, music education.

1998. pp. 183-189 Responsive Evaluation of a Musical Play for Pre-Schoolers Peter de Vries and Barbara Poston-Anderson, University of Technology, Sydney

This paper focuses on a musical play, The Peter Piper Pickled Pepper Mystery, written by a drama educator and music educator for pre-school children. The paper provides the rationale for the play's development, an overview of the musical and dramatic content of the script, and a report on the performance evaluations and their implications for further development. Responsive evaluation, with its emphasis on activity assessment and usefulness o of findings provides the means for judging the perceived impact o f the play's performance on its intended target audience. The evaluation process involved a number of evaluators, including arts educators, pre-school teachers and carers, final year teacher education students who were the performers, and the two writers of the play.

2003. pp. 51-64 Digital Media Assessment Portfolios (D-MAP) in Music Learning Dr. Steve Dillon, Queensland University of Technology Dr. Glenda Nalder, Griffith University Dr Andrew Brown, Queensland University of Technology Ms. Jude Smith, Queensland University of Technology

This paper draws on a large ARC Discovery research project that sought to; identify the qualities of artistic knowing across arts disciplines, identify gaps in the present approaches to the assessment and evaluation of arts learning and teaching and discover ways that digital technologies might be used to improve the scope, depth, relevance and frequency of feedback in arts assessment. Through a series of multiple-arts case studies, digital portfolio systems were developed and observed as part of a system of storage and management of artistic artefacts and processes for

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assessment. The research outcomes suggest that using digital tools does enable a more rigorous and accountable means of assessment, but that there are issues which need to be examined.

2006. pp. 28-38 Closing the feedback loop: an investigation and analysis of student evaluations of peer and staff assessments in music performance Dr Ryan J. Daniel, James Cook University

This paper offers a window on an ongoing project in evaluation and assessment in higher education. Early research evidence identified the benefits for students participating in peer assessment in the area of music performance, which supports the significant body of literature that refers to the advantages of applying peer assessment mechanisms. The most recent phase in the research project involved the establishment of a methodology to explore in detail the perceived value of feedback provided to students by both staff and peers. The findings propose a number of insights into the validity of assessment received by both staff and students.

Creativity, Composing and Improvisation 1979. pp. 57-72 Composition in Schools: An imaginatively-revised transcription of a talk given to the Conference Dr. Richard David Hames, Victorian College of the Arts

I shall be talking about my own experiences as a composer, albeit in a somewhat disguised fashion. Everything I say here this morning should perhaps be prefaced with the words, 'I believe' as I am talking very much on the basis of personal opinion. I have always taught 'provisionally' and I am not prepared to defend my position as the only means of achieving the most rewarding or valid educational results. I sincerely hope that what I have to say to you will not cause a rebellion, although I do hope that it will at least cause a few ripples and perhaps a personal re-assessment of our aims and objectives as educators.

1984. pp. 63-74 Mental Activity in 9-11 Year olds in the Music Making role Barbara van Ernst, Victoria College

The aim of this study was to observe the mental activity of 9-11 year olds when engaged in the music making process. The term 'music making' is defined as 'the composing of short pieces of music" using available resources'. These resources included vocal and body sounds, percussion and other instrumental sounds, and also, from time to time included a group of senior students who accompanied the teacher, and brought a range of orchestral instruments, played at an advanced level. When engaged in the music making role, the children's task was to organise these sounds into short compositions.

1984. pp. 108-109 An Approach to Improvisation for Students in Colleges and Schools James Lade, Centre for music, Tasmania College of Advanced Education

There are basically two approaches to improvisation in Western music. Non-Tonal is usually adopted by classical improvisers as well as a large percentage of what are termed 'free' Jazz performers. Tonal/Modal approach, adopts the above mentioned constraints. The majority of Jazz performers and all Rock players can be classified as Tonal/Modal improvisors. This second approach was adopted for an improvisation course with Bachelor of Education students at the T.C.A.E. An investigation of Tonal/Modal improvisation will show that analytical skills are extremely important.

1985. pp. 20-29 Play Script as Score: The neglected concept Martyn Croft, Tasmania College of Advanced Education 4

At first sight there would seem to be little visual similarity between the dialogue of play text (the script) and either traditional or experimental musical notation (the score). The one, (the script) apparently utilising the words and turns of phrase of more or less current spoken language and the other, (the score) set out on staves, commonly with bar lines and all of the other signs and symbols peculiar to musical notation. Similarly, on first consideration, it might seem that the purposes, the objectives and the resultant performances-of the musician/composer would be quite different from those of the actor/director.

1990. pp. 1-10 Composing-the Ultimate Music Learning Experience? Barbara van Ernst, Principal Lecturer Head of Department Victoria College

I was caught up early in my teaching career in the so-called "creative movement". The principal idea was that students learned more effectively through using their developing musical concepts and skills in their own compositions, rather than through the more conventional instructional models. Educators such as John Paynter and Murray Schafer provided the springboard from which to try new activities, and Geoff D'Ombrain was a leader in the changes here in Melbourne. The learning outcomes in the new music were different from those which music teachers were used to, but there was no doubt that the students displayed great enthusiasm for what they were doing.

1991. pp. 25-46 To Compose Music is to Learn Barbara van Ernst, Associate Professor, Victoria College

The theme of this conference, Reflective Practitioners, caused me to revisit an area which has fascinated me throughout my teaching career. I have found that students given the opportunity to compose, learn and understand more about music than if they are simply "taught". The way of knowing music as a composer is unique, and music teachers need an understanding of the process in order to facilitate the learning most effectively. This paper addresses the question from two perspectives, the internal processes of composition followed by each student, and the external processes which are the arrangements made by the teacher for effective learning to occur.

1991. pp. 155-170 The Creatively Gifted and Talented in Music: Are they part of the clever country? M. Reeder

This paper will introduce the nature of musical creativity in ,the gifted and talented student, and will attempt to identify and measure its salient characteristics. Renzulli's Case Study approach to this identification procedure will be applied to both potential and known musically ,talented and creative students, with passing reference to the Arts domain. Finally, a brief examination will be sketched of the appropriate educational programs, teaching strategies and resources which could be implemented by and for parents, the community and all levels of schooling within the context of prevailing attitudes towards the gifted and talented in Australia.

1992. pp. 214-227 Assessing Creativity Through Improvisation: A study of high school instrumentalists ability to improvise Gary McPherson, University of New South Wales

This paper outlines the development of a test to measure the improvisational ability of high school instrumentalists. In the study 101 high school clarinet and trumpet students completed a researcher designed Test of Ability to Improvise (TAI). The test consisted of seven items in which subjects were asked to improvise in a variety of 'stylistically conceived' and `freely conceived' idioms. The assessment criteria used to evaluate the improvised responses expand the work of previous research and identify four evaluative criteria useful in determining the quality of an improvised performance. The study aimed to clarify relationships between improvisational ability and other variables which included performance proficiency, gender and instrument. Performance proficiency was determined by results in an Australian Music Examinations Board (AMEB) examination.

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1992. pp. 228-237 The Comparative Influence of Informant and Formal Environments on the Creative Processes and Products of Young Children Max Reeder, Senior Lecturer, Music Education Charles Sturt University Bathurst NSW

A review of research in music and the young child reveals that some studies focus on what Carol. R Scott termed music productive behaviours such as singing, rhythmic movement or playing of instruments, while other studies addressed issues of a cognitive-developmental nature and the affective component (Scott, 1989: 75). Though this research of young children's development is mainly descriptive using observational techniques, some of the fruits of these studies have led to a greater refinement of theories which illuminate the nature of that growth and development. One of the major research questions is the relation of musical responses to influential factors such as environment, parenting, intelligence, social class and race. In elaborating on the aspect of environment, Peter Webster for example draws attention to the non-musical variables that contribute to an environment in which creative thinking may occur.

1992. pp. 303-327 A Study of the Learning and Teaching Processes of Non-Naive Music Students Engaged in Composition Dr Barbara van Ernst, Associate Professor in Music Education Deakin University

The inclusion of composition as an important aspect of the music curriculum can be supported on the grounds that it is a unique way of knowing music, and that through participation in the process of composing, students are required to use their musical knowledge in a creative way. It is argued that current theory on the teaching and learning of composition is insufficient in that it does not clarify the conditions most appropriate for student initiative or control in learning, nor the possible importance of prior knowledge. This paper describes a study which involved a search for a model for the teaching of composition to students with some prior musical experience.

1993. pp.105-111 Young Children's Creative Music Thinking: Developmental, random or interactive? Max Reeder, Charles Sturt University

Given the proliferation of research this century of the phenomenon of creativity, the practical implementation of teaching to facilitate music improvising and composing by young children would seem to be a natural outcome. Though some educators are convinced that a 'display' of creative products becomes its 'raison d'etre'; other psychologists and researchers have investigated the more elusive area of the creative process, to provide theoretical models and measurements of creative thinking. While the recent application of this experimental work is gaining momentum, understanding the continuum of creative thinking among younger children becomes essential in the structuring of any music curriculum.

1994. pp. 36-38 Composition: A student's perspective Wendy Dobb, Tasmanian Conservatorium of Music, Hobart

As an undergraduate student just completing my first year in a B. Music-Composition degree, I find myself reflecting with some interest upon the points raised during the Composition Forum at AMEL's recent conference. The concerns related to the teaching of composition encouraged me to assess my own learning experiences as a student, which I hope will be of benefit to the general discussion.

1995. pp. 43-45 Celebrating 100 Years of Orff's Schulwerk, both Internationally and Nationally Margaret Moore, University of NSW, St. George Campus

Carl Orff has left a wonderful legacy to the children of the world in his Schulwerk. Many countries have now developed collectives of music educators who are not only trained in, but feel passionate about, the style of teaching music that Orff's Schulwerk encourages. It is also true that each of these collectives brings to the Orff process its

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own nuance, flavour and mode of interpretation. And yet, the essence of this elementary approach, creative music education, is still prevalent within each countries "style".

1996. pp. 75-81 The Nature of Children's Song making Robbie Grieg, Monash University

In analysing numerous recordings of the original songs of children aged between three and eleven, the results leave little doubt that composing is (a) a natural part of children's lives, (b) developmental over time, and (c) rich in musical and expressive meaning. While findings generally corroborate research in the field of music development psychology-in particular the work of Moog, McKernon and Dowling-they also offer additional insights that impact directly on pedagogical theory and practice. Observations will be made in relation to three significant areas of children's song-making, the sources of ideas used, the forms of expressiveness demonstrated, and the use of rhythm, pitch and form.

1996. pp. 97-100 Imagery in the Eighth Wonder and its Impact on the Composition Process Anne Power, University of Western Sydney Nepean

Current syllabus documents in NSW encourage the study of Australian music. The senior secondary curriculum mandates an Australian focus to the study of Music from 1970 onwards. In the last decade, some composers have chosen the genre of opera to tell Australian stories in a new way. It has been said that a nation needs histories, stories which relate its present to a past that is owned by its people. (Carter in Headon 1995: 61) Alan John in his opera, The Eighth Wonder linked the present to the past in the character of the young singer, Alex.

1999. pp. 57-66 Enactive and Reflective Thinking During the Compositional Process by Seventh-Grade Korean Students Myung-sook Auh

The purpose of the study was to examine students' enactive and reflective thinking during the compositional process. Subjects were 20 seventh-grade Korean students. Students were asked to describe how they composed music. Students tended to think enactively and/or reflectively in the beginning stages of the compositional process; however, when developing their musical ideas students tended to think more reflectively than enactively. Enactive thinkers tended to sing, hum, and/or play on their instrument, whereas reflective thinkers tended to make detailed musical-analytical strategies. Implications of these findings suggest that students' descriptions of how they compose can give music teachers insight into how their students might think when composing and lead to better instruction in composition.

1999. pp. 163-167 A Survey of the Application of Creative Music-Making in Hong Kong Secondary Schools with Implications for Music Teacher Education Bo-wah Leung

The inclusion of creative activities in general music education has become a common practice since the late 1960's in various developed countries such as the UK, USA and Australia. However, creative activities have not received a similar emphasis in Hong Kong, either with curriculum planners or with teachers in schools. In order to assess the current situation of applying creative music-making activities in Hong Kong secondary schools, a structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to all secondary schools. This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire plus some of the most important implications.

1999. pp. 278-282 The Role of Playing By Ear and Improvisation in Music Learning Jennifer Rosevear

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The purposes of this study were to explore the role of playing by ear and improvisation in music learning processes, and to explore any relationship between demonstrated musicianship abilities and experiences involving playing by ear and improvisation. The research incorporated a field study in which a researcher-designed musicianship survey was administered to 85 students in the first year of elective music in six secondary schools in metropolitan Adelaide. Research findings indicated that although playing by ear and improvisation did not feature prominently in school music programmes, a relatively large proportion of students indicated prior experiences with these two aspects. Descriptive and qualitative analysis of data revealed that students with prior experiences involving playing by ear and improvisation consistently achieved higher scores in the various aspects of musicianship measured by the surveys.

1999. pp. 294-298 Social and Cultural Cues in the Compositions of Children and Adolescents Sandra L. Stauffer

Cultural and social influences in composition of children and adolescents were investigated within the context of a longitudinal study of children as composers. Participants attended after-school lab sessions once a week and worked at individual computer stations to compose their own pieces. Students ranged in age from five to fourteen years old. Participants' works reflect both their musical and non-musical experiences at home and in school, as well as influences from the broader cultural and social contexts in which they live. Sources of experiential, social, and cultural effect in students' compositions fall into several broad categories and seems to vary with age.

2000. pp.16-22 An Investigation and Analysis of Music Teachers' Training in Composition, Composition teaching and composition assessment Pauline Beston

The research in this paper reports and describes secondary music teachers' sources of training in composition, teaching composition and assessing composition. The question of training in these three categories was included in a 1998 survey of secondary schools in New South Wales. Clear differences emerged in numbers of respondents who identified specific sources of training in each category. Music training institutions were identified as the major source of training in composition. In contrast, training identified by most respondents in composition teaching and assessing categories was associated with other sources that were not music training institutions. Descriptive data provided evidence of: the value placed on composers' advice: the power of assessment and the influence of the Board of Studies in guiding change.

2000. pp. 31-38 A Multi-Arts Creative Approach to Music Education: Its impact on generalist primary teacher education students' confidence and competence to teach music Jan Bolton, Wellington College of Education, New Zealand

Several reviews of music education have lamented the poor standard of music curriculum delivery in many primary schools. Among the reasons cited is the low confidence and competence levels o teachers to deliver music. This is often attributed to both the content and teaching styles of generalist primary teacher education courses in music. This paper reports on a qualitative study which investigated how participation in a multi-disciplinary performing arts group creative project impacted on generalist primary teacher education students' perceptions of their own ability in music and their ability to teach music. Student responses suggested it is possible to significantly enhance confidence and competence in one arts discipline (in this case music) through a multi-arts approach.

2001. pp. 177-184 Children's Intuitive and Learned Styles of Musical Composition using a Synthesiser Susan Wright, Queensland University of Technology

This paper reports research that was part of a larger, three-year project examining the relationship between children's meter recognition, their ability to notate rhythm using unconventional symbols, and their styles of information processing and musical decision-making while improvising/composing (Wright & Ashman, 1997). Results indicate significant differences between age groups on each of the seven dimensions, with improvements across groups, but only where there was more than a one-year difference in grade levels. The data revealed two different styles of

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improvising/composing: intuitive and ordered. Descriptions of these two styles of musical composition are provided and implications are drawn for the field of music education.

2003. pp. 102-123 Individual Difference in Strategic Control in Music Composition Ian J. Irvine, University of Newcastle Robert H. Cantwell, University of Newcastle Neryl Jeanneret, University of Newcastle

The paper reports on a study of attentional focus in music composition. Fourteen tertiary music composition students were interviewed twice over a fourteen-week period. The interview included completing a composition over thirty minutes. During the process of composing, participants verbalised their thoughts. These were audio-recorded and transcribed. Verbal protocols were analysed over seven categories:. Attentional focus was mapped over real time and graphically represented to provide evidence of patterns in strategic behaviour during composition. Responses to the SFQ, SPQ and Efficacy questionnaire were linked to the clustering of these graphs in order to determine whether individual differences could discriminate between different qualities of attentional focus and composition outcome.

2004. pp. 40 -49 Secondary Music Teachers' Assessments of Student Compositions: Do Music Teachers Think Alike? Dr Pauline M. Beston, Conservatorium of Music, University of Sydney

Teaching original composition and assessing are mandated responsibilities for secondary music teachers in NSW. The purpose of this paper is to compare how a sample of NSW secondary music teachers graded three compositions that were written by senior music students. Methodology used to conduct this research was a simulated judging session. Three different senior secondary students compositions were recorded onto a CD. Teachers were asked to rate the achievement of each piece on a scale of 1 to 5. The primary conclusion to be drawn from this study is that inter-judge reliability can be achieved by secondary music teachers.

2004. pp. 191-197 Creative Arts Practice as Research: A case study of `The Flood' Associate Professor Michael Hannan, Southern Cross University

In tertiary music education there have been debates for a decade or more about the equivalences (or not) of creative arts practice with research (Shand 1998). These debates mostly revolve around research funding. Currently creative work is not recognised in the National Research Data Collection conducted by DEST; and the Australian Research Council will not directly fund composition or performance. Ironically, however, for research training degrees, a position has been reached in most Universities whereby creative work and performance are accepted as research. The catch is that invariably the creative submission or performance must be accompanied by a written component, sometimes referred to as an `exegesis' (Krauth, 2002).

2006. pp. 37-43 Composing in Schools: Tertiary Composers Meet Secondary Students Dr Scott Harrison, Griffith University

Student composers are frequently confronted with the reality of writing works that are never performed by live ensembles. This paper reports on the Composers in School project conducted with students from Queensland Conservatorium. The aim of the project was to enable composition students to write for school ensembles. Student composers were surveyed prior to their school experience in relation to how the exercise might benefit the overall approach to composing. Following the engagement with students, composers were again questioned. The findings reported here are wide-ranging in relation to both parties involved in the project and provide a template for further work in this field.

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2007. pp. 1-8 A Systems View of Creativity and its Implication for Classroom Music Education Harry Burke, Monash University

Creative music education has been controversial since it was introduced to schools in the early 1960s. Two distinct models have been developed. In the UK, charismatic composer-educators developed a practical approach. In the USA music teachers incorporated creativity tests that had first been developed by psychologists researching creativity. By the 1970s however, it had become evident that creativity tests had not in fact increased the number of creative workers. Cognitive and social psychologists argued that creativity is multifaceted. In 1988, Csikszentmihályi published his systems view of creativity. This has important implications for classroom music. This paper discusses Csikszentmihályi's approach and its significance for classroom music education.

Curriculum Development: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary 1978. pp. 55-65 Preaching the Practice Ruth D. Buxton, Principal Education Officer Music Education Department, S.A.

A rationale for South Australian music education is being develop and in a manner which we hope will be immediately acceptable, logical and more importantly, understandable. Before addressing the 'why? which at this stage can only be transmitted as a personal view of the one responsible for the development of school music curriculum (R-12), the employing authority stance can be assumed and an attempt made to say 'what' we are doing. First, the Department is working on a blueprint for South Australian music education to give direction to schools and communities. The music curriculum in its broadest sense of those music-learning experiences effected by the school operates on Kerr's view of curriculum.

1978. pp. 66-67 Primary Curriculum Development: N.S.W. Pam Calver, Curriculum and Research, Education Department, N.S.W.

Content prescribed syllabuses, written by select committees handed down to teachers with implementation supervised and supported by school principal and inspectors was the pattern of curriculum administration in New South Wales until the end of the 1960s. Responsibility for curriculum development now rests with the Centre, the Region and the School. It is recognised that fundamental to effective operation are personal and group interaction. Curriculum planning at all levels leads to implementation in the school and to evaluation by the Region and the Centre.

1978. pp. 91-93 Relationship between Music Education in the Schools and the Music Industry James Smith

Music teachers in secondary schools are not required to produce musicians. Students do not have to pass but are encouraged to. The main function appears to be participation without results. Students are taught generalisations about the music industry. Students are often given instruments that are available at the school rather than the one desired. The results? Frustration on the part of the student through not being able to achieve a very high standard and the teacher is obviously frustrated because too much is expected of him on too many different instruments.

1978. pp. 94-95 Music Education and the Music Industry Margaret Schofield, Musicians' Guild

I believe live music and concert making has a far greater impact than records on people. If artists (and local ones are important as well as imports) cease to exist, except on records, then it will adversely affect the Music Education of the whole community. Critics need to take the excitement of live-music into account and not just compare concert performances with records.

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1978. p. 101 Industrial Experience: Another dimension in teacher preparation Jan Stockigt, Music Method Lecturer State College of Victoria at Hawthorn

This is a brief statement to follow the points made by Patricia Holmes. I wish to draw your attention to the value of industrial experience as a strengthening agent for those musicians who become teachers in Victorian Secondary Technical Schools. (It should be noted that "Industrial Experience" refers to a period spent, not in schools, but in "Industry" and is a requirement for all teachers employed in the Technical Schools Division who are not degree holders. The required period of time spent in industry ranges from two to five years.)

1980. pp. 1-16 The Core Curriculum: Social cohesion and personal development Professor Glen Evans, Faculty of Education, University of Queensland

Eighteen years ago Hilda Taba in her book on curriculum development listed some six different program designs which could be termed core curriculum. Many of them already had a very long history, yet the idea of core curriculum still represents something of a will-o'-the-wisp, more easily advocated than put into practice. The reasons for the renewed interest in core curriculum are not difficult to find. One reason is the concern in an increasingly mobile society that children who change schools, particularly across states, will be disadvantaged in their academic progress. A second is the reaction to the supposed deficiencies of many school leavers in reading, writing, and arithmetical skills.

1980. pp. 34-41 Music in the School Curriculum of the 1980s: Perceptions of three different interest groups Jennifer Bryce, Lecturer, Department of Educational Resources, Lincoln Institute of Health Sciences.

This paper describes work in progress on a research project which aims to gather together information from a number of sources directed toward expressing a rationale and guidelines for secondary school music curriculum development in the 1980s. As data gathering has not been completed, the outcomes described must be seen as tentative although they do reflect the views of three important interest groups: students at the beginning of secondary education, students near the completion of secondary education and professional musicians.

1980. pp. 73-77 Music and Back-to-Basics Ian McKinley, Senior Lecturer in Music Mt. Gravatt C.A.E.

The purpose of this short paper is to share some thoughts on how music is faring in the battle with those other morebasic basics, especially literacy and numeracy. Back-to-Basics is a general term which connotes public alarm about the effectiveness of the education system in equipping the young for adult life. Standards, the critics say, have slipped since the old days, giving a generation of ignorant, illiterate and largely unemployable youth. Teachers and teacher-training institutions are usually blamed for state of affairs. In the face of pressures imposed by enlargement of the scope of basic subjects, there is a discernible tendency for the arts to be regarded as unimportant in the curriculum.

1980. pp. 93-97 The Ethnomusicologist Music Educator and the Core Curriculum Cheryl L. Romet, Deakin University

This paper examines recent trends in core curriculum theory, and its implications for music education in the 1980's. The traditional notion of a core curriculum in Australia has been based largely on the classical humanist ideology. Skilbeck (1976:87) argues that students need a different curriculum consisting of processes and activities to be engaged in. There is a need however to focus on the processes by which these skills are attained, and the values and attitudes that need to be inculcated into children through the selection experiences which are educative to all students. The central tenet of current core curriculum ideology is the notion of preparing the child to be part of

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contemporary society, but what is the nature of contemporary society, and what are the values to be transmitted to students?

1981. pp. 64-76 Problems of Compartmentalisation: Report of research in progress Helen Stowasser, University of Queensland

For several generations now, music seems to have acquired the reputation being an elitist subject at the secondary level, particularly in the senior grades. Class sizes in senior school music still tend to be pitifully small, and many schools in England and Australia have to combine year II-12 classes in order to raise a viable class size of six or more students. When one considers the importance of music in the lives of most teenage today, the situation seems difficult to justify and in these days or economic setbacks the problem needs urgent solution before education authorities are forced to cut music out of the senior school curriculum altogether.

1981. pp. 77-87 Curriculum Research and Development Processes Leon Burton, University of Hawaii

The theme, `processes' in curriculum research and development is a very broad one. I will be speaking from my own set of biases. These biases have been formulated from experience as a classroom teacher assigned to serve on committees to develop curriculum materials for one school; they also are based on my background and experience for the past fifteen years in full-time, large scale curriculum development work to produce materials for many schools. Some comments I shall make, therefore, will suggest advantages and disadvantages of school-level and large-scale institutional research and development activity. My intent today is to present suggestions and ideas that have a theoretical base, but which are completely practical from the point of view of implementation.

1983. pp. 1-5 Re-Building the Pyramids, or, St. Cecilia, get back in your Bath-Tub Elizabeth Silsbury, Senior Lecturer in Music, S.A.C.A.E, Sturt Campus

There may not appear to be any connection between the pyramid shaped tombs built by Egyptian monarchs and the personal empire built by a Sicilian woman. The twin themes could well serve as the double subjects of a symphonic choral work. Mere words are pathetically inadequate for the simultaneous presentation of two such diverse things the point is made merely as an illustration of the superiority of music over all other artistic and expressive modes, a view which colours this paper and will be constantly referred to.

1983. pp. 6-10 Problems of Integrity, Integration and Eclecticism in the Early Stages of a Developmental Music Program Dr. Doreen Bridges Music Educator, N.S.W.

Although there is general acknowledgement that the arts must be included in the core curriculum there is an increasing tendency to lump them together under one heading, such as "Creative and Expressive Arts". This may reflect recognition of the fact that all of the arts have a role in aesthetic education, and that therefore they have much in common, or it may be seen as a way of giving the arts as a whole added status. However, assumptions that integrated arts activities provide a more satisfactory form of aesthetic experience and give greater opportunities for self-expression than do the arts taught singly-all these assumptions need very careful examination.

1984. pp. 122-125 Music Education: Where are w e go i n g? A co m m en t on the current Tasmanian scene G. Haward, Dean of education. Tasmanian, College of Advanced Education

I am concerned about the comparatively small numbers of students in our Tasmanian Secondary Schools who complete a sequential program of music education for 2, 3, or 4 years. In 1978, there were some 7ooo students enrolled in Grade 10 in Tasmanian schools. Only about 10% of these were enrolled in any of the 'music, subjects. In that same year, a little over 100 students out of nearly 5000 were successful in satisfying the requirements of HSC

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Music. Another 200 approximately, gained comparable levels in the higher grades of AMEB subjects. Why are there not more students undertaking both S.C. and H.S.C. programs in our Tasmanian schools?

1985. pp. 190-205 Primary music: Who should teach it? Julie Allen Tasmanian Education Department, of Curriculum Development Amanda Wojtowicz Hobart University and Tasmanian Conservatorium

Primary Music Guidelines are being developed in Tasmania with a draft document is being researched in eleven schools. In order for the Guidelines to be effective and provide the impetus for a balanced primary music programme, we are seeking to clarify present attitudes and perceptions of primary music teaching.

1985. pp. 221-228 Developing a Secondary Music Curriculum Guide Jennifer Rosevear, South Australian College of Advanced Education

In February 1983, I took up the position of 8-12 Music Curriculum Writer with the Education Department of South Australia, based at Wattle Park Teachers Centre. My specific task was to write a secondary music guide which was to fo1low on from the Victorian Guide to Music in the primary School, this document having been adopted. in South Australian prima-schools in mid 1983. The final draft is awaiting approval to be published by the Education Department.

1989. pp. 31-38 Music Education in a Climate of Change Dr. David Symington, Barbara van Ernst, Victoria College

This presentation is made at a time of unprecedented change in education. There are increasing demands on teachers who are facing a much greater responsibility in decision making. There us been a proliferation of Government policy and curriculum documents, and much greater autonomy for the school community. There is also an expectation of professional development in initial degree qualification. These changes are part of a wider changing political climate. Politicians are demanding accountability. Federal and State Governments are becoming more actively involved in educational decision making. In return for very large expenditure on education, government are expecting benefits through avenues such as vocational training and higher retention rates in post compulsory schooling.

1989. pp. 68-78 Music Education Research: Fact or fantasy? An overview of current trends in music education research Deirdre Russell-Bowie, Wollongong University

As mentioned in my previous paper, at the beginning of 1988, a local Primary School asked me to assist the staff in the implementation of the (K-6) Music Syllabus in their school. In order to see the study of the implementation of the syllabus in its research context, this paper will seek to present the current trends in Music Education research generally, then examine Primary School Music Education Research in Australia and New Zealand specifically, and conclude with relevant suggestions for research in the area. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive list of all categories and research undertaken in Australia and New Zealand; rather, it seeks to indicate current trends, and suggest other areas for possible research.

1991. pp. 89-96 Creating a Creative Arts Association: Reflecting on a vision Deirdre Russell-Bowie, Lecturer in Music Education, Macarthur

What is the future of music education in the primary School? Some say specialist teachers are needed for each school. Others strongly disagree with this notion, and advocate the philosophy that each classroom teacher should be

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responsible for teaching music to her or his pupils. Still others push the idea that for music to be taught at all, amongst the plethora of subjects required to be covered in the primary curriculum, it needs to be integrated with other arts subjects. Recent changes to the curriculum structure have given greater emphasis on integrating and the teaching of the arts subjects as a whole Key Learning Area

1992. pp. 10-23 Music Learning Centres in the K-6 Generalist Classroom M. Barrett, Lecturer in Music Education University of Tasmania

Incorporating music learning experiences into the generalist classroom program may be considered a daunting prospect for the classroom teacher. Too often extra-musical factors contribute to the decision to avoid music learning experiences within the classroom. It should be remembered that as adults, much of our engagement with music is of a private and individual nature. We tend to listen to music alone or in small groups. Composing music is essentially an individual activity and much of our practising time is spent in isolation. This paper contains a description of music learning centres in operation in the K-6 classroom setting and provides some discussion of the benefits of such an approach to classroom music education.

1992. pp. 117-140 Frills, Skills or dills for Australia: Developments in post-compulsory education and training Edward Gifford

For the past five years, the Commonwealth government has been advocating and vigorously implementing competency-based training. The background to and concept of these ideas are briefly outlined together with a summary and an examination of the Finn Report, the Carmichael and the Mayer Committee. The paper will also briefly examine the role and power of discourse in the Government's current attempts to restructure education in Australia. While some of the implications of these reports are currently being extensively felt in education and training sector, there are implications for education in schools and universities.

1992. pp. 238-254 Given the Cuts, What Now? Deirdre Russell-Bowie, University Western Sydney, Macarthur

In 1963, a new music syllabus was developed for NSW primary schools. Prepared by musical experts it included the expectation that every primary school teacher was musically literate and so could implement the highly prescriptive musical syllabus. It had also been created in a climate of highly centralised policy formation and administration before the development of the child-centred curriculum. However, for various reasons, it was perceived to be ineffective. During the 1960s-1970s a growing awareness about music education lead to a series of reports indicating that the situation for music education in the primary school was far from satisfactory. One of the key reasons for this was perceived to be the lack of satisfactory teacher training in this area.

1992. pp. 255-267 Music Education in Japanese Schools: Aims and practice Rosalynd Smith

Music educators in this country are familiar with the Yamaha or Suzuki methods, but less so with classrooms music in Japanese schools. Japan's high literacy rate and high ranking in mathematics are seen by some as an indication that the West would do well to imitate the Japanese education system. Much less attention is paid to education in music or the other arts. I was therefore interested to see where primary school music education fitted into this picture. Earlier this year I had the chance to visit several Japanese schools and universities, with the intention of making a preliminary investigation of the place of music education in the curriculum, and the aims and achievements of school music programmes.

1993. pp. 69-79 Top Notes in the Country Megan Cavanagh-Russell 14

Much of the stimulation in a small isolated community in regional Tasmania comes from the school. It is recognised that Education gives a hope for the children of the community. It is an expectation that the school teachers will make a significant contribution to the community. Some years ago there was an enlightened principal appointed to the school. He was an amateur musician, who understood from a personal experience the value of music to our lives. Because of his belief and his skills, he was able to initiate and develop a community band programme.

1993. pp. 136-139 The National Arts Curriculum: The next three years Joan Livermore, Faculty of Education, University of Canberra

The Arts Statements and Profiles are now in the hands of the states and territories for development and refinement. Plans are underway for a National Professional Development Program to support the implementation of the national education agenda and DEET is encouraging the major stakeholders to form strategic partnerships to deliver the program. The current state of negotiations between teacher associations, universities and departments of education will be discussed and the perceived professional needs of music teachers will be considered.

1993. pp. 147-152 Maths and Music: A creative partnership. A partnership approach to the teaching of the key learning areas Deirdre Russell-Bowie and Noel Geoghegan, University of Western Sydney, Macarthur

The new Bachelor of Teaching Course combines two Key Learning Areas, e.g. Maths and the Creative Arts. In Curriculum Studies, students undertake integrated learning experiences involving Mathematics, Visual Arts, Drama and Music. In planning the subject, staff have identified six Big Ideas. At the same time students are preparing an integrated drama production which they present to children at the end of the semester. This paper reports on the development of this subject and the student outcomes and responses in relation to the subject in general and to the music strand in particular.

1995. pp. 29-34 Perspectives on Music Teaching Competencies: Viewpoints from music teachers, principals and music education undergraduates Sam Leong, University of Western Australia

Recent educational developments in Key Competencies and Student Outcome Statements have put firm emphasis on a student-centred approach to teaching and learning as well as on workplace expectations. An Australian study on perceptions of music teaching competencies by practising music teachers, school principals and final year music education undergraduates (in five states) has revealed differing, often widely contrasting valuing of selected competencies by the three groups. This paper presents the differing viewpoints of these three groups, focusing particularly on the differences in opinion between (1) music teachers and their principals, and (2) music teachers and undergraduates. The data presented have important implications for both music teachers and teacher educators.

1995. pp. 46-51 Introducing Early Music into the Primary and Secondary Classroom: The experiments of Brian Sargent twenty-five years on Frank Murphy, University of New South Wales

In 1970, a series of four articles by Brian Sargent entitled, "Medieval Music for Schools" was published in the British Journal Music in Education. The articles contained reports of experiments designed to introduce music of the middle ages into British primary and secondary schools. Some twenty-five years on, it may be instructive to re-visit at least one of these articles, the one on primary education, to assess the cogency of Sargent's experiment in the light of our experience since then.

1995. pp. 100-109 The Victorian Arts Course Advice Units: First impressions Amanda Watson 15

This paper is an initial response to the publication of The Arts Course Advice music draft consultation, published by the Victorian Directorate of School Education in August 1995. The paper will address the following areas of discussion. The scope and sequence of the units; the clarity and usefulness of the units; the relationship of the units to present curriculum material; the integration of the units between key learning areas; transition issues between primary and secondary levels of schooling and the degree to which the draft Course Advice music units assist with implementing the music strand of The Arts Curriculum and Standards Framework.

1996. pp. 26-32 Is there a Place for Generic Competencies in Music Programs? Ms Jennifer Bryce, ACER Ms Joan Livermore, University of Canberra

This paper reports on an aspect of a research project undertaken by the National Affiliation of Arts Educators and the Australian Council for Educational Research funded by DEETYA. The overall aim of the research was to evaluate the role of these generic competencies in Arts education. This involved examining the role of the Mayer Key Competencies in Arts programs in some schools, tertiary education institutions and industry training. In schools, the investigation was confined to the post compulsory years - Years Il and 12. This paper will consider the findings from schools and one tertiary key site case study relating to Music education.

1996. pp. 39-45 Are our Music Teachers Overworked? Sam Leong, University of Western Australia

With recent educational developments in Australia such as the push for `Key Competencies' and a national curriculum, music teachers seem to be under greater pressure to accept and cope with these changes. The Arts Statement (1994) and Arts Profile (1994) clearly indicate that music teachers will increasingly function in a crossarts and multi-arts context. They will also be required to address current educational issues and concerns in a climate of economic rationalisation, and to justify the existence of their music programs. This paper presents findings of an Australian study that examined the principal responsibilities undertaken by high school music teachers in four states. Music teachers' professional concerns and satisfaction with aspects of music teaching are discussed.

1996. pp. 46-50 Assessing the Effects of Teacher Attitudes Towards the Design and Implementation Processes of New Curricula Ms Denise Paterson, Newcastle University

Attempts to nationalise curricula have become a major educational issue in many countries this decade. Almost without exception, the implementation of any form of nationalised curriculum has been troubled and countries that have attempted to introduce such a common curriculum report encountering many of the same problems. It would seem timely that reflection upon some of the problems that are being encountered might assist others who have embarked, or are contemplating embarking, on similar ventures. This article gives an overview of the manner of implementation of the music strand of the British National Curriculum and identifies the area of teacher attitude as one that needs very careful consideration in the design and implementation of curricula.

1996. pp. 51-59 Curriculum Stasis: Gratton in South Australia Jane Southcott, Monash University

In this paper it is intended to use a theory from the natural sciences in the field of evolution as an illuminating analogy for the processes of change or no change in the development of curriculum in schools. Stephen J. Gould, with Niles Eldredge, proposed the now widely accepted theory of punctuated equilibrium in which stasis is identified as the norm in the evolutionary growth of species. If the theory of punctuated equilibrium is used as an analogy for the development of curriculum, stasis may well be identified as the prevailing norm. It is intended to explore this idea through a consideration of the development of the music curriculum in South Australia with Gratton as the particular personification of stasis.

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1996. pp. 117-119 The Different Faces of a Music National Curriculum Amanda Watson, Directorate of School Education, Victoria

This presentation is derived from a detailed literature review of "national curriculum" or "national curriculum guidelines" in a number of countries. Discussion surrounding the Australian Arts Statement and Profile often divides between the restrictions placed on the arts disciplines and the opportunity for teaching diversity in the arts. The focus on Western classical music and the number of attainment targets are two points of concern in the English National Curriculum. Comments about the establishment of standards and the introduction of national assessment in music dominate the discussion of the American National Standards for the Arts. Information on "the arts" in other countries is included to highlight the commonality of approach to delivering music and "the arts" in the curriculum.

1996. pp. 125-129 Redefining the Music Curriculum Ms Bettina Lean

This paper reports the findings of ethnographic style accounts that were collected over two years in three Melbourne State schools. Attention was given to the socio-economic and academic backgrounds of the schools, the development at local level of their music programs and the over-arching effect of recent government policy changes. The paper relates these factors to the redefinition of music in a comprehensive curriculum and to the perceived increase in participation and retention rates among students and the music program. The paper discusses strategies aimed at overcoming concerns with music in the curriculum, especially, contemporary music, practical teaching strategies, and the changing self-image of music teachers.

1996. pp. 130-139 Cutting Up the Curriculum Cake: Is there Room for Music? Anne Lierse, Monash University

Victorian Government Secondary Schools have experienced unprecedented changes since new policy changes were introduced by the Coalition government. These include the move to school-based management as part of the `Schools of the Future' philosophy, and the development and implementation of the Curriculum Standards Framework with its eight key learning areas. These policy changes were implemented during a period of substantial cuts to the education budget. The introduction of these changes have resulted in serious cut backs to the provision of music education in a large number of schools. This paper explores a number of key issues relating to the effects of these policy changes on the provision of music education programs in Victorian Government Secondary Schools.

1997. pp. 76-91 An Exploration of the Potential for Integration of Instrumental and General Music Curriculum in Queensland Primary Schools Damien Hoey, Education Queensland

Music education in Queensland primary schools is divided into classroom and instrumental music. Each area is organised independently and there is little correlation between the two curricula. It was believed that co-operation between the two areas could enhance student learning. Ten teachers of classroom or instrumental music were interviewed to discover their beliefs about the possibility of integrating curriculum in their area. The interviews indicated that it was possible to integrate or to more closely plan curriculum in music education and that there would be benefits for students and for teachers of music.

1999. pp. 53-56 Music Curriculum in Primary Schools: A, comparison between Hong Kong and Xiamen, China So Ming-Chuen Allison

Western style of music learning has long been the focus of the music curriculum in Hong Kong, whereas Chinese music was undermined. With the return of sovereignty to China in 1997, Hong Kong became the Special Administrative Region (SAR). Education reform is a top priority. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the similarities and differences of the music curriculum in Hong Kong and Xiamen (city in Fujian Province, China).

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The main foci will be 1) the proportion of Western and Chinese music in the curriculum; 2) to what extent does the teacher follow the curriculum; 3) the difference in teaching method in conducting the curriculum.

1999, pp. 136-139 Strategies for Enlargement of the usefulness of Resource Materials with Diverse Musical Aspects in Teacher Education Programs Hongsoo Lee

This paper describes the recent developments in the Korean elementary and secondary music curriculum. These developments have necessitated a re-examination of the resource materials provided to teachers. Currently one of several obstacles to overcome in music teacher education is the lack of diverse materials. Strategies for the enlargement and usefulness of resource materials for music education are provided.

1999. pp. 168-173 Under Threat Again Anne Lierse

This paper reports on some of the major findings from a statewide study of the effectiveness of music programs in Victorian government secondary schools in 1995/6. Two major issues emerged from the study.

1999. pp. 333-338 The Changing Music Curriculum for Hong Kong Primary Schools Ruth Yu Wu Yuet-Wah

There are many definitions to a music curriculum. The present paper attempts to find out some changes in the music curriculum for Hong Kong primary schools since the 1960s. The discussion focuses on two aspects of the music curriculum for Hong Kong primary schools, namely the `formal curriculum' and the 'operational curriculum'. The scope of study is mainly on the analysis of documents available. The 'formal curriculum' is represented by the official music syllabuses issued by the Education Department in Hong Kong. The 'operational curriculum' is reflected by a sample of music songbooks and textbooks for Hong Kong primary schools.

2000. pp. 23-30 Constructing the Australian Musical Child Andrew Blyth

This paper makes use of Foucauldian discourse analysis to examine some of 'the current directions in Arts education and Music Education, in particular; that are being promoted by education authorities in Australia. This paper will introduce some of the basic concepts and demonstrate how application of these concepts can identify, explain or elucidate basic misconceptions that are currently being promoted as the way forward in arts education. Curriculum development and implementation has become an important focus for educational policy. Many states have adopted a model of centralized curriculum development. The resulting curriculum documents are complex, difficult to understand and use. It will be suggested that a more realistic assessment of our practices needs to form the basis of the curriculum.

2000. pp. 46-53 School-based Music Education and the Experienced Young Musician Felicia Chadwick, The University of Newcastle

Parents of experienced young Australian musicians maintain that placement of their children in advantaged school settings is more likely to ensure the provision of appropriately challenging musical experiences. Expressions of a policy of separatism for musically able and experienced secondary school students were particularly evident in the extensive qualitative data provided. Parents assert, for example, that the needs and interests of their children would perhaps best be served by school-based music programs differentiated ,from the mandatory courses undertaken by all students. The evidence presented in this paper has been obtained from a recently completed Australia-wide study

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concerning itself with an examination of talent development in music. Australian parents indicate there is a crisis of' confidence in public education.

2000. pp. 65-74 An investigation of the Queensland Year 8 Music Program: Developing a program that engages the teacher and student Kay A. Hartwig, Griffith University

Year 8 (the first year of High School in Queensland) is a very important year of study as it lays the foundations for the five years of high school. However, it is sometimes a neglected area as more energy is often channeled into the senior part of the school. Interviews revealed that both teachers and students have negative attitudes towards the subject music in year 8. This action research project involved a District Music Coordinator and a class room music teacher collaborating in a year 8 music class. The project sought to improve the curriculum: its content and delivery in this area. This paper presents the findings of the action research project.

2001. pp. 43-52 Teacher Attitudes and Perceptions of Primary School Music Education at Independent Schools in South Africa Dawn Joseph, Deakin University

As South Africa enters the new millennium, the question remains regarding the efficacy of outcomes-based education. The new education system recognises the importance of arts education and specifically music education at the primary school level. This article focuses on the authors doctoral thesis, "Outcomes-based music education in the foundation phase at independent schools in Gauteng, South Africa". A three-part questionnaire was sent to the Independent Schools Council primary schools music teacher regarding their perceptions, attitudes and opinions on outcomes-based education. Results yielded ambivalent views about the change of the education system as well as the inclusion of music as an area of learning within "Arts and Culture". It also identified current teaching trends and exposed areas of weakness.

2001. pp. 81-88 Does an Outcome-based Education Curriculum Model Promote or Hinder Creativity? Denise Paterson, University of Newcastle

Changes to the curriculum that have been occurring throughout the education systems highlight the move towards an outcome-based model and standardised assessment procedures as part of an accountability process. There has been criticism of the problematic area of assessment of this type of model. In a recent cross-national study educators indicated that they were not confident of the assessment requirements or with the appropriateness of some of the assessment proposals to meet the needs of music education. This paper outlines some of the concerns about Outcomes-based education and its adequacy to promote and support the notion of creativity. It examines issues such as the right to assess another creative efforts and the means by which we attempt to do so.

2001. pp. 111-117 Internationalising Curriculum for Student Learning Anna Reid, Macquarie University

For students, the idea of internationalisation can mean many things. Students in Australia are already part of an international community. These experiences are a component of their Total Learning Environment (Petocz & Reid, 2001), which integrates the distinctive nature of the discipline and perceptions of work as a musician (Reid, 2001a; Prosser & Trigwell, 1999) with the personal and educational experiences of students and teachers. Clearly, curriculum needs to change in order to enhance the quality of learning experienced by all students, and needs to be oriented towards enabling students to take an active part in the international music world. This paper discusses the implications for curriculum development in music education.

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2001. pp. 169-176 Writing the Instrumental Music Curriculum for a Secondary School Amanda Watson

In February 2001, 1 was asked to write the Instrumental Music curriculum for The University High School. The completed curriculum was required to reflect the Curriculum and Standards Framework II (CSF II). The major difficulty stemmed from the lack of specific material that addressed the teaching of Instrumental Music in the Arts CSF 11. The linking of CSF II Levels to AMEB Grades and the teaching of only one Learning outcome, the remaining being the included in the classroom curriculum, decided the structure. The paper reports on the concerns, the various arts assessment formulae used with the CSF II. It concludes with a description of the results and a discussion of the benefits of the project.

2002. pp. 17-25 Government Initiated Reforms to Music Education in America, the UK and Victoria, 1989-2000 Mr. Harry Burke, Monash University

This paper outlines the effects of introducing government-initiated reforms to classroom music education in state maintained schools in America, the UK, and Victoria, 1989-2000. The introduction of standards-based education with its focus on subjects of economic importance has affected the teaching of classroom music in many state schools. Unfortunately the Arts were not considered important. Although Australia developed procedures for a national curriculum, difficulties inherent in the Australian constitution, resulted in Victoria establishing its own standards curriculum. Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are fewer students in state schools in Victoria participating in classroom music today than in the recent past. A review of the UK, and USA literature also reveals that state maintained schools are experiencing similar problems to schools in Victoria.

2002. pp. 67-77 Australian Music: A unique approach in the NSW curriculum Dr Neryl Jeanneret, University of Newcastle Associate Professor David Forrest, RMIT Jay McPherson, Office of the Board of Studies, NSW

This paper examines the emphasis on Australian Music in the music curriculum developed by the Board of Studies, NSW over a number of years. It investigates the historical roots of the search for an "Australian" identity in music and examines possible links between this development and the inclusion of Australian music in the State's music curricula throughout the period 1954 to 2002. The NSW Board of Studies has also provided the rationale and climate for the promotion of Australian music by the Australian Music Centre, the Sydney Symphony Orchestra, the Hunter Singers. This Board is the only educational administration that has a stated emphasis on the study of Australian Music, mandating this at a number of levels.

2002. pp. 107-117 Queensland's Music outcomes: Building pedagogical bridges Linda M. Mackay, University of Queensland

This paper discusses the challenges surrounding the implementation of the Music strand of the new syllabus for secondary teachers within the context of emerging trends in pedagogical reform in Queensland, and identifies several areas where research is needed to inform classroom music teaching practice and to guide teacher training programs. Secondary music teachers (Years 8-10) have not had the same systemic, school-based curriculum guidance that was given to teachers in years 1-7. This has resulted in a plethora of teaching and learning practices in lower secondary classrooms, many of which may be more experiential than developmental in approach and which may have little reference to the types of music programs common in primary classrooms.

2003. pp. 95-101 The Implementation of the New P-10 Arts Syllabus: The teachers' voices Dr Kay A Hartwig, Griffith University Dr Georgina Barton, Griffith University 20

How do music teachers cope when faced with implementing a new syllabus? In Queensland a new Arts syllabus years 1-10 has been introduced with compulsory implementation and reporting processes to be in place by 2006. This paper is the continuation of a research project that has raised the issues confronting music teachers in this situation. Interviews have been conducted with eight secondary music teachers in State high schools where syllabus implementation is mandatory. The teachers were questioned in regard to their philosophy on music education and how it relates to the new syllabus, inservice and resources, implementation processes, and assessment and reporting. Their `voices" will be detailed and discussed in this paper.

2003. pp. 155-169 Creative Arts Education and the Key Competencies: Comparing teaching and learning within Creative Arts education with practical experiences in the other Key Learning Areas in relation to the Mayer Competencies Associate Professor Deirdre E. Russell-Bowie, University of Western Sydney

This project reports on the findings from a survey of 100 preservice second year teacher education students who were asked to rate each of the Key Learning Areas they had covered in the Bachelor of Education (Primary) course, and indicate how much they had learned and practiced. Students' indicated they had learned the most in the Creative Arts KLA. The results of this study provide interesting documentation of the tangential outcomes of teaching music, dance, drama and visual arts education in relation to students' overall education in their University degree course and in their preparation for the workforce whether it be in teaching or in another vocation.

2003. pp. 230-239 Student Voices Professor Nita Temmerman, Deakin University

This paper is premised on two broad interrelated assumptions. First, that the student voice is worth listening to; and second, that students' perceptions about what they learn in classroom music sessions are valuable sources of information. Three groups of primary aged students aged between seven and nine, were asked to share what they learnt in their classroom music program. The purpose was twofold to determine the extent to which students described their learning in musical and non-musical ways; and to gauge the match between student perceptions and teacher expectations. This paper focuses on the former. Students invariably describe their musical learning in terms of activities they engaged in each week, rather than in terms of the musical concepts being covered.

2003. pp. 264-275 Teachers Managing Secondary School Performing Arts Productions Elizabeth E. Wheeley, Griffith University

This paper presents research on the skills required by Performing Arts teachers to manage large-scale performances in secondary schools such as musicals. Through these performances, students engage in "real-life" artistic enterprises, that represent the full complexity of such productions in broader society. Performing Arts teachers are often required to manage these performances. The study explored the management skill requirements by these teachers through questionnaire and follow-up interviews. Performing Arts teachers surveyed believed that management tasks were important. Respondents however reported lower levels of confidence in performing these tasks. Experience, rather than formal teacher training, professional development, or mentoring was identified as the main source of skill development for all tasks. This indicates a need for further research.

2004. pp. 13-24 To Do Or Not To Do? Dr Georgina M. Barton, Griffith University Dr Kay A. Hartwig, Griffith University

In Queensland a new Arts Syllabus for Years 1-10 is being implemented. Teachers in the state system are expected to have implemented it by 2006. In the private sector, however, it is optional. This paper explores the third stage of a continued research study involving how teachers in the creative arts cope with curriculum change. Teachers from private secondary schools were interviewed regarding the new syllabus, and whether they will adopt the new curriculum. The results of these interviews are discussed. A comparison is then made between the data collected from the early stage of the research project to the data collected from this next stage of the research.

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2004. pp. 152-162 Alternative Mixes: A Comparative Discussion of the Contemporary Music Programs at Macquarie and Southern Cross Universities Dr Jon Fitzgerald, Southern Cross University Dr Philip Hayward, Macquarie University

This paper analyses and compares two successful New South Wales tertiary popular music programs. The Bachelor of Contemporary Music degree at Southern Cross University offers a practical studies double major together with studies in contemporary music theory, history, technology and business. Students can also create a music major within the university's generic Bachelor of Arts. Macquarie University's Department of Contemporary Music Studies offers a popular music major within the Bachelor of Arts. This paper briefly traces the history of both programs and explores the general aims and philosophies which have informed their creation, then goes on to discuss general issues.

2004. pp. 358-372 The Role of Secondary School Extracurricular Music Activities as a Learning Context Elizabeth E. Wheeley, Griffith University

Music education in secondary schools often incorporates an extracurricular dimension. In general, participation in extracurricular activities has been linked to improved academic performance, personal and interpersonal skills. The meanings participants make of their learning, however, is not yet fully understood. Given the difficulty in attributing particular learning to participants' involvement in school extracurricular music activities, their meanings also offer a useful lens through which to view the nature of this learning. This paper outlines current research into participants' meanings of learning in the extracurriculum including initial data from a Music Head of Department involved in extracurricular music activities.

2005. pp. 1-8 Keynote Address Reflections on the Developmental Music Program Through the Lens of Change Dr Deanna Hoermann

My reflections on the Developmental Music Program through the lens of change management may provide some insights for those seeking to introduce a change in school music education. This Program (1970 ­ 1985) spanned a sufficient period of time to trace and explain its initiation and implementation and make some assessment of its impact. My reflections as a change process at the school and system level clearly highlight the complexity that such a change generates. The process has allowed me to identify some of the issues and dilemmas that face anyone who is seeking to put a music education reform into practice.

2005. pp. 67-72 Towards the Development of a Curriculum for Contemporary Musicianship Associate Professor Michael Hannan, Southern Cross University

Traditional musicianship skills such as sight-reading and listening skills tied to notation seem inappropriate when training musicians in oral traditions such as blues, rock, pop, country, rhythm and blues, hip hop and electronic dance music. This paper examines the literature of contemporary and future musicianship training and proposes a new approach to designing a musicianship curriculum for popular musicians. The focus of this curriculum is listening and aural recognition skills enacted in the recording and live performance studio. The issue of whether music notation should be or could be effectively by-passed in the professional training of popular musicians is examined.

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2005. pp.142-149 States of Change: A Comparison of School Music Curricula Initiatives in Queensland and Victoria. 2006 Dr Jane Southcott Monash University Dr Kay Hartwig, Griffith University

Education systems in all Australian states are currently in a state of upheaval. This paper is a consideration and comparison of the recent developments in Queensland and Victoria. In Queensland a new mandatory Year 1 ­ 10 Arts syllabus of which music is one of five strands is being implemented in all state schools. Victoria is in a year of validation of the new curriculum framework, the Essential Learning Standards, which covers the compulsory years of schooling (Years 1 ­ 10). This paper will compare the recent curriculum changes and identify the similarities and/or differences between the new curricula and how we have reached these respective positions.

2005. pp. 168-177 Thinking through (the Essentials of) Music Education Dr Amanda R. Watson , Department of Education & Training, Victoria Associate Professor David L. Forrest, RMIT University

The introduction of a Thinking Curriculum and a thinking culture, are elements associated with the implementation of Essential Learning across a number of educational authorities. Knowledge, skills and behaviours that have been deemed by curriculum planners as Essential Learning, are featured in current Australian curricula models, either embedded within the traditional Key Learning Areas or as a major structural tool. In this paper the authors will consider a review of literature with a focus on a Thinking Curriculum followed by a discussion of the various definitions of the essential element of thinking as offered in each of the current Australian curriculum documents.

2006. pp. 1-7 The New Soundscape: The Introduction of Integrated Arts in Victorian State Secondary Schools Harry Burke, Monash University

Integrated studies have again become an important issue in education. Victoria first introduced integrated studies during the education reforms of the late 1960s. Unfortunately, the Victorian education department was unprepared for the amount of work that would be required to introduce this curriculum in schools. Many Victorian music teachers however introduced innovative programs. The introduction of integrated Arts as part of standards-based education in 1995 and the Victorian Essential Learning Standards in 2006 has restricted classroom music teachers ability to develop new programs. Many educators are calling for the introduction of an Arts curriculum that takes into account recent developments in psychology and creativity research.

2006. pp. 19-22 Are We Losing Music Education to Essential Learnings? Associate Professor David L. Forrest, RMIT University Dr Amanda R. Watson, Department of Education & Training, Victoria

There has been a significant policy shift in Australia towards introducing and implementing Essential Learnings in education. The policy change has been influenced by a clear focus to achieve reform of teaching and learning practices. This has potentially diminished the opportunities for teachers to deliver a program that addresses disciplined-based music education. The language used to describe outcomes provides another barrier for teachers to focus on the fundamentals of music. The paper maps the Essential Learnings and assessment measures sourced from the published school curricula and identifies the specific music (or arts) discipline-based and competing cross learning area elements that teachers need to accommodate in their lesson plans.

2006. pp. 44-49 Now That the Dust Has Settled ­ What is Happening? Dr Kay Hartwig, Griffith University

For the last four years, music teachers in Queensland have been dealing with the phasing in of a new Arts Syllabus for Years 1-10. 2006 marks the official date for the reporting of this document. Changes in curriculum documents

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can add stress and tensions. A research project was commenced to investigate the changes. Issues that confront music teachers were raised and discussed. Interviews were then conducted with secondary music teachers on their view of the changes. This paper details the commencement of the ethnographic phase of the research. The researcher has been participating in the year 8 music classroom in three high schools which are detailed in this paper.

2006. pp. 50-56 Music Education for the Pre-service Generalist Primary Teacher: The Question of Assessment Dr Kay Hartwig, Griffith University Dr Peter de Vries, Monash University

This paper discusses assessment tasks in music education subjects in two undergraduate teacher education courses, in Queensland, and New South Wales. The aim is to begin discussion amongst tertiary educators about assessment tasks in music courses in teacher education programs. This dialogue is more vital than ever with the impact of so much `change' affecting university courses, such as revised and changing courses, which ultimately impact on music education subjects and assessment. In this paper, a number of assessment tasks are outlined and discussed, indicating the rationale behind the tasks, and how and why these tasks have been modified over time.

2007. pp. 56-64 Missing in Action: The Place of Australian Music in School Curricula in Australia Associate Professor David L. Forrest, RMIT University

The paper explores the designated place of Australian music in school curricula in Australia. With the development of non-specific curriculum frameworks the place of Australian music as a specific area of study has been diminished. The development of Australian studies in various key learning areas has not been complemented by an articulated statement/directive on Australian music and its study.

2007. pp. 124-129 What approaches to music education are sympathetic to Muslim cultures and values: Some findings from an ongoing case study Dr. Anne Power, University of Western Sydney

During 2006 a group of academics from the University of Western Sydney began to work alongside teachers in a cluster of five schools, three of them Department of Education and Training (DET) and two Islamic schools. This paper presents the initial findings of an ongoing case study in which my involvement is as a participant-researcher. The scope of this study looks at ways in which one school is adapting approaches to engage with state curriculum documents. The data has been gathered since October 2006 and encompasses classroom observations, focus groups with students from Middle Years classes and with members of the Student Council, and detailed discussions with the music teacher.

2007. pp. 166-176 Three decades of curriculum initiatives in Australian schools (1977-2007) Dr Amanda R. Watson, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Victoria

Significant curriculum trends and developments identified in a series of collated reports titled Recent Developments in Music Education, written by state and territory Chapter Council members of the Australian Society for Music Education (ASME), together with previous research by Watson (1998) have been brought together in this paper to document curriculum initiatives 1977-2007. The paper takes as its starting point the year 1977 when important national reports about arts (including music) education were researched and published. It tracks the developments and changes in music (arts) curriculum documents for the compulsory years of schooling in each state and territory.

Early Childhood 1978. pp. 49-54 Music as the Source of Learning Dr Audrey S. Wisbey, Consultant and Research Fellow London 24

Surgery has shown that a human foetus has a fully grown hearing apparatus at about six months. Many have argued that although this may be the case there is no neural connection crossing the placenta barrier to make the transmission of learning possible. Sound however can be conducted via human tissue and fluid so what is there to prevent the direct conduction of sound to the foetal hearing apparatus?

1981. pp. 132-139 Kindergarten Pupils' Recognition of Affect in Music Varying in Tempo, Mode, and Register Daniele Burkhardt-Byrne, Music Department, University of New England, New South Wales

The research reported here is based on three experiments conducted with children of about five years of age. The aim was to test their ability to systematically attribute emotional meaning to musical pieces which were specially composed for this study and varied in tempo, mode, and register. The emotions chosen were happiness and sadness. In the writings of musicologists there are some unquestioned assumptions about some musical elements and their supposed affective content. In Western culture, for example, the minor keys are very frequently associated with sadness, melancholy, and distress.

1981. pp. 140-141 Spontaneous Music-Making of Pre-School Children: Research report Janelle Shepherd, Post-Graduate Student, University of Adelaide, South Australia

The general area of my work is the spontaneous music-making of pre-school children, and I am interested in relating the structures of this spontaneous singing to the children's psychological development and their interaction with their environment. In 1980 I collected data consisting of recordings and written observations of my two children who were then aged 4 years and 41/2 years. These recordings were each 45 minutes long, and were made at Kindergarten, Sunday school, Dalcroze eurhythmic classes, and at home and the car.

1983. pp. 30-37 Understanding Developmental Stages and Children's Music Learning Phyllis E. Wilkin, Lecturer in Music and Music Education Western Australian College of Advanced Education, Churchlands Campus

Many parents are totally unequipped to do anything about music education. This became evident in a course offered for mothers and babies at Churchlands. The response from mothers who are genuinely anxious to do something for their baby's music education is overwhelming and the enthusiasm has increased with each succeeding series of classes. My intention in first offering a course was to teach mothers the games. It had not been my intention to have babies present as participants, however in order to capture mothers of young babies it became necessary to also allow babies to come. I would not now contemplate the course in any other form.

1985. pp. 1-19 Theories of Early Childhood Musical Development with Implications for Future Research Dr. Barbara J. Alvarez, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, U.S.A.

Developments in preschool music education in the United States have paralleled trends in the field of early childhood education. Likewise, research investigating musical development is closely linked to the child study movement and its body of knowledge about child development. In the first half of this century in the United States, progressive educators viewed the schools as a social force in the fabric of American culture. During this period, early childhood education received much attention. Child study institutes were established to bring a "science" of education to the classroom.

1985. pp. 187-189 The Emperor's new clothes: Some thoughts on music education Olive Anderson Frame Buderim, Queensland

Ideally music education should start during pregnancy; so with good publicity young couples would attend sessions for the benefit of their child. School buildings could be used with fledgling performers gaining experience and

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teachers donating lessons in voluntary roster. The infant should be exposed to music and participate at the earliest age.

1991. pp. 125-130 Current Issues in Early Childhood Music Education and Related Teacher Education Janet McDowall

This paper will be concerned with a range of matters which are influencing the music curriculum choices and decisions of teachers and caregivers who work with children from birth to eight years, the age range known as 'early childhood'. It will also look briefly at some ways in which a teacher education course is responding to these matters. Music in early childhood education has a rich history including input from various sources, such as, Off, Kodaly and Jaques-Dalcroze. Despite considerable diversity between these methods and approaches, they do include some common ground.

1993. pp. 99-104 Nurturing Creativity: Music play for children under two Louie Suthers, Macquarie University, Institute of Early Childhood

This paper presents the findings of a research project with a group of fifteen one-year old children in long daycare centre. The researcher set up a music play mat that contained various instruments for a session once a week over four months. The toddler's play with the sound sources was entirely of their own choosing. They were able to use the sound sources in any way they liked. Some of the children found quite unexpected and novel ways of using the instruments. The preliminary finding of this research appear to indicate that music play is not only developmentally appropriate for toddlers, but that it supports and nurtures creative thinking and behaviour.

1994. pp. 59-69 Snapshot: Considering the dilemmas of music teaching in an early childhood context Noela Hogg, Deakin University Louie Suthers, Macquarie University

At the 1993 conference of the Association of Music Education Lecturers, Hogg and Suthers each presented a paper, the former outlining a framework within which music teachers might question their values and plan their programs, and the latter presenting research in progress on the music play of very young children in long day-care. The chosen location for the project was a toddler room in a large 90-place child-care centre in Sydney where Suthers had been working for the previous four months.

1994. pp. 92-99 Variation and Transmission Practices in Australian Children's Playground Singing Games: A perspective Kathryn Marsh, Lecturer, Faculty of Education, University of Western Sydney, Macarthur

Several major contemporary approaches to classroom music education are based on assumptions regarding the nature of children's playlore, which includes games, chants, insults, jokes and riddles. This paper addresses issues relating to children's playlore in Australia. This paper examines the processes in relation to Australian children's playground singing games with specific reference to clapping games and to compare the performance of these games in the playground with classroom practice.

1995. pp. 91-93 Providing arts experiences for young children: Helping early childhood personnel develop appropriate skills and strategies Louie Suthers, Institute of Early Childhood Macquarie University

Arts experiences-music, movement and drama-are central to quality programs for young children aged from 0 to 5 years. These arts areas, however, are often ones in which early childhood workers lack confidence and skills. A study of appropriate arts experiences for young children in daycare settings in 1994 highlighted some keys factors related to playing games based on music, movement and drama with young children.

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1995. pp. 123-130 The expressive arts in early childhood as an integrated curriculum within the four-year degree Phyllis E. Wilkin, Edith Cowan University

This paper describes the integrated expressive arts component of the new four year Bachelor of Arts degree in Early Childhood Studies at Edith Cowan University. Young children see the expressive arts as a whole experience rather than as separate or even inter related happenings. By tertiary level, the notion of integration has been overshadowed and often completely lost in the pursuit of studies in the discrete curriculum areas. Arts educators are faced with the dilemma of preserving and maintaining the teaching of concepts and skills for each branch of the arts.

1998. pp. 70-81 Confidence in Singing: A profile of early childhood preservice teacher's attitudes Dr. Carol Richards, Faculty of Education University of Newcastle

In early childhood settings, singing plays a vital role, not only in the development of musical skills, but also in the development of physical, social and language skills (Feierabend, 1990). it is important that teachers in early childhood settings are both confident about singing with children and willing to sing with children. The quality of musical activities offered to children depends largely on teachers' own attitudes towards these activities and their own musical achievement, and their confidence in their own ability (Gifford, 1993). Lack of confidence has been cited in other studies as a major reason for not teaching the arts (Cleave & Sharp, 1986) and as a major obstacle preventing the teaching of music in primary schools (Mills, 1989).

1998. pp. 101-108 A Comparison of the Responses of four year-old Children to Music and Movement Experiences in two different contexts: A specialised music program and as part of a daycare curriculum Louie Suthers, Institute of Early Childhood Macquarie University Veronicah Larkin, Institute of Early Childhood Music Program for Children

The rapid increase in specialist programs, for young children and daycare centres invites closer scrutiny of the efficacy of alternative models. This study compares the music and movement experiences provided for four olds in a specialised music program with those of a daycare centre. By contrasting the responses to the music/movement activities in these two programs, differences and similarities were made evident. Implications for practice in the provision of music and movement experiences for young children in these contexts and more generally, are also considered.

1999. pp. 50-52 "Ayram" A Mexican Music Method for Children Maria de Leon Arcila

"Ayram" is a Mexican music method based on the idea of learning while playing. It was developed by Maria de Leon and Jorge Jara. The method is intended to assist children in their whole psycho-social development. This paper provides a description of the method.

1999. pp. 84-67 From the Personal to the Professional: Teachers' own experiences of music and how they influence their classroom practices Sally Bodkin

This paper examines the musical identity of the teachers. It raises the following questions: How do they feel about teaching music in an Early Childhood environment? Do they see themselves as musical'? How have negative feelings about music been overcome?

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1999. pp. 179-183 Variation and Transmission Processes in Australian Children's Playground Singing Games: Implications for music education theory and practice Kathryn Marsh

Several major contemporary approaches (Kodaly and Orff) to classroom music education are based on assumptions regarding the nature of children's playground singing games and chants. Musical materials and pedagogical processes associated with observed play behaviours and underlying paradigms of musical evolutionism and universalism continue to influence current music education practices, despite profound changes to the auditory environment in which children now play and learn. This paper reports the findings of an ethnomusicological study which involved the audiovisual recording of more than 600 performances of playground singing games and concurrent interviews with their performers in a multiethnic Sydney primary school over a six year period.

1999. pp. 269-272 Mother and Baby: The positive benefits of active music making to a child's musical development and learning Beth Rankin

New mothers who participate in active music making with their babies are more likely to recognise music as an important part of their lives. This encourages their child's musical development and learning.

1999. pp. 306-310 Louie Suthers

"I Sang Games": An investigation of the labels used by young children to describe music experiences

Teachers in daycare centres and preschools plan music experiences for young children as part of the curriculum they offer. The labels children use however may be quite different. In this investigation, children aged 3 and 4 years were given the opportunity to engage in 10 music experiences and were later interviewed about them. In the interviews children used three types of descriptors to label the music experiences: they named specific activities or resources that had been used; they tried to classify the entire music experience using labels like 'playing' or 'games'; and a few used the label 'music'. The practical implications for teachers planning music experiences with 3 and 4 year-old children are considered.

1999. pp. 317-322 Development of a Music and Movement Program for First-Time Mothers of Young Infants Wendy Vlismas Jennifer Bowes Louie Suthers

This paper reports the use of music and movement to enhance the mother-infant relationship through a music education program designed for mothers with infants under the age of six months. The program aimed to assist firsttime mothers with the building of a repertoire of music and movement activities for their developing infant, and to provide a stimulus for the gaining of mutually rewarding interplay. Thirty-nine first-time mothers and their infants (including a non-participant control group of twenty-two) participated in the study. Data were obtained using pretest and post test questionnaires. The results indicate that the program was successful in extending the repertoire of music and movement activities and developing mutually rewarding interplay between mothers and infants.

1999. pp. 323-327 A Study of the Spontaneous Instrumental Music-making of three and four year olds in a Nursery Setting: A developmental perspective Susan Young

This paper reports on a study of the spontaneous instrumental music-making of children aged three and four in a nursery setting. A qualitative research methodology was applied. The theoretical framework which underpins the study has been adopted from models from infant and caregiver interaction. These are described and then related to children's music play. Definitions of what counts as valuable in children's music learning may, in prior studies, have

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hidden rather than illuminated what young children are able to do musically. Some of these definitions are challenged in the ongoing discussion.

2001. pp. 27-34 Considering Music for Children (from a Russian Perspective) David Forrest, RMIT

The paper presents a discussion on music for children from a framework presented by the Russian writer L B. Aliev. The components of the framework include works written to be performed by children, as well as songs being performed by professional musicians. This framework will be discussed from the perspective of the contribution of Kabalevsky who made significant contributions to music for children. Kabalevsky's A Story of Three Whales and Many Other Things (1970) was written as a guide for children. This work demonstrates his philosophy of music education. His writings focus particularly on how children can access 'the world of music' through listening and performing. Some of the central ideas of Kabalevsky's writing are placed against Aliev's framework.

2001. pp. 61-72 Evaluation of a Community-Based Integrated Music Program Julie Logan, University of Newcastle

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a variety of musical instruments could be successfully integrated into an early childhood music program The Newcastle Conservatorium Early Childhood program involves groups of six children in a thirty minute lesson (Kodaly based) followed by a thirty minute lessons for nine weeks on keyboard, fife and orchestral percussion. Twenty-seven parents were surveyed with children in the one year integrated instrumental section. It was found that the majority of children enjoyed the integrated program Keyboard and violin were the most popular instruments, with fife found to be difficult for this age group. A small number of children had a negative response to group instrumental tuition.

2001. pp.97-104 Music Education with Purpose Beth Rankin, La Trobe University

There is a growing view that the value of the arts is in fostering emotional literacy. The arts provide a meaningful way of expressing needs, frustration or feelings that would otherwise remain unexpressed. Our primary objectives in arts education should be the quality of both the process and the outcomes as well as social and cultural capital and lifelong earning. This paper will look at the relationship of the Arts to health and wellbeing and the experience of first time mothers in making social and cultural connections through participation in music classes while helping their infants in informal music learning.

2004. pp. 107-115 Exploring the Piano From the Age of Eight To Thirty Six Months: Implications For Infant and Toddler Musical Development Dr Peter A. de Vries, University of Technology, Sydney

This paper reports on a longitudinal study of a young child's exploration of music on the piano from 8 months to 36 months. This study reports on the child's natural exploration of music on the instrument, as opposed to formally taught skill acquisition directly related to the instrument being learnt. This case study suggests that it is the process of musical exploration, not a final musical product that is of importance at this age in relation to musical development. A number of themes in the child's musical development emerged in relation to musical activities revolving around the piano:

2005. pp. 52-60 Music-making in a Childcare Centre: A Case Study Dr Peter de Vries, University of Technology, Sydney

A case study of one teacher's music teaching with her class of 3-4-year-olds was conducted, focusing on what music she chose to teach and the impact of professional development in music on her teaching. Four themes emerged throughout the case study: This case suggested that even when an early childhood teacher working in an

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environment where music is valued, there is still no guarantee that comprehensive music instruction and musicmaking opportunities for children, with clear goals or outcomes, will occur. It is suggested that one of the reasons for this is there is little guidance for early childhood teachers in terms of state or national standards, unlike America.

2006. pp. 104-110 Bright and Breezy: Past and Present Practices in Pre-school Music Education Dr Jane Southcott, Monash University Dr Peter de Vries, Monash University

Since the inception of early childhood education, music, usually in the form of singing, has always been included. This has been and continues to be predominantly for extrinsic purposes, such as language acquisition. Although play has always been valued by early childhood educators, this has, for the most part, not been extended to include vocal and instrumental play. These problems have been inherent in the provision of music in early childhood from the first days of the kindergarten. This paper will consider past and present practices in pre-school music education to exemplify this ongoing dilemma.

2007. pp. 39-46 "I do music with my children because ..." Dr Peter de Vries, Monash University

This article focuses on why adults in three different settings - a pre-school, a childcare centre, and the home environment ­ engage in music activities with children under the age of 5. In particular perceived benefits of engagement with music activities are highlighted, with many similarities across the three groups. These benefits are predominantly extrinsic, including music enhancing young children's listening skills, promoting physical coordination, music supporting literacy and numeracy learning, and enhancing children's socialisation. Intrinsic benefits of music for young children were rarely mentioned, although parents articulated this more than the preschool teacher or childcare teachers.

2007. pp. 154-165 Music as a Language of Childhood: A Snapshot of Three Children Aleksandra Vuckovic, RMIT University Dr Berenice Nyland, RMIT University

The early childhood programs of Reggio Emilia actively promote the image of children as powerful protagonists in their own learning. A poem of Malaguzzi's refers to the hundred languages of children. In this paper preschool children were invited to participate in collaborative music sessions with an emphasis on singing. Three children with two different language backgrounds enjoyed playing with words in other languages during the singing games. We present snapshots of three children actively engaged in music, expressing thoughts, verbalising ideas about music and language. In one sequence, two children spontaneously started a non-verbal music conversation using drums.

Ethnomusicology and Multi-Cultural Practices 1980. pp. 98-101 The Value and the Implementation of Folk Songs in the Primary School Music Program G. Yuen, Lecturer in Music, Kelvin Grove College of Advanced Education, Brisbane

In April 1978, an education portfolio group was asked by the Commonwealth Government to prepare a discussion paper on the topic of Multicultural Education. This group had representatives from the Commonwealth Department of Education, the Schools Commission, the Curriculum Development Centre, the Education Research and Development Committee, and the Australian Capital Territory School Authority. This group issued a thirty-three page paper, ''Education in a Multicultural Australia'' (1979). They recommended a program based on the principle of cross-cultural understanding that regarded the study of history, geography, social organisation, music and customs of ethnic groups represented in school populations, as an imminent step towards the implementation of Government policy.

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1982. pp. 14-18 Music Education within a Cross-Cultural Environment Catherine Ellis, Senior Lecturer, Elder Conservatorium of Music, University of Adelaide

Music is both experience and message. Music in a cross-cultural environment therefore has at least two possibilities of being misunderstood: the message may be misinterpreted, or the experience may be something other than that intended. The performance of a Scottish piobaircachd may be heard by non-Scots not as the message of a highly evolved musical form requiring the greatest technical skills from the knowledgeable bagpiper, but as an unintelligent squawking from an unskilled player. In this case, both message and experience have been misinterpreted. This occurrence is so common in cross-cultural musical environments that we, in our work at the Centre for Aboriginal Studies in Music, have found it important to identify common elements of experience in the learning of music in different cultures.

1982. pp. 26-29 Multicultural Perspective in Music Education: One South Australian Model William Shaw, Woodville High School

Students are interested and curious about the music of cultures other than their own. Students who have no Greek affiliations are proud of the Woodville High School Bouzouki Ensemble. Guitarists and bouzouki players compare notes about performance techniques. Students learning banjo and mandolin see relationships between their instruments. The challenge of mastering a piece of Albanian folk music in 7/8 is pleasing to our ensemble classes. This is where ethnic music becomes multicultural allowing students to learn of the abilities of others, to appreciate the music of others, and not to create walls of division between groups.

1982. pp. 31-33 Wrong Side of the Road: New Australian feature film Review by Catherine Peake, The National Times, November 15-21, 1981

One of the chief triumphs of this film about two days in the life of two black Australian bands is its ability to erode stereotyped notions about the identity of the contemporary Australian Aboriginal. The Wrong Side of the Road takes the urban Aboriginal, as its subject, and, using contemporary black music as its cutting edge, proceeds to demonstrate the way this group is marking out its own ground in the white context in which they are forced to survive.

1987. pp. 33-43 Ethnomusicology in NSW Music Education Dianne Bishop

Thirty years ago the term Ethnomusicology was little known in this country. Today it is a subject available to virtually all students of music at Australian universities. CAEs are also recognising the importance of Ethnomusicology and have been developing an ever increasing range of courses for trainee teachers, for performance and as general studies for a wide student body. In schools, there is a growing awareness of the relevance and potential of the music of other cultures in the curriculum. This paper seeks to review the present state of ethnomusicology teaching in NSW and represents the first part of an Australia wide Ethnomusicology in music education.

1989. pp. 22-30 An Integrated Method for making sense of unfamiliar music: Suggestions for music education in a multicultural society Reis Flora, Department of Music, Monash University

This paper presents a carefully programmed method for active listening, as well as subsequent guides for investigating the proposition that a musical performance embodies information about culture. These ideas derive from experience during graduate study at the University of California, Los Angeles, 1969-70, and from lecturing and tutorial experience in the Department of Music at Monash University, 1973-1988. In addition, another important influence on the analytical outlines set out below has been the theoretical frame of reference provided by another well known ethnomusicologist, the late Alan P. Merriam, in his monograph, The Anthropology of Music (1964).

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1990. pp. 32-41 Difficult but Sensitive: Participant observation research in music education Roland Bannister, Charles Sturt University, Riverina

Qualitative research has yet to make a real impact in the field of music education (Kreuger, 1987) despite its wide acceptance in the cognate disciplines of the sociology of music, ethnomusicology and general education. The present paper argues that there is a need for qualitative research into 'sociomusical' problems and that the participant observation techniques used by ethnographers working in the interpretive traditions of anthropology and sociology are appropriate for researching this work. The paper demonstrates that research in music education has been mainly experimental in design and that its topics have been mostly in the 'psychomusical' arena.

1991. pp. 132-154 Documenting the Culture of Communities of Musicians: Some tentative findings of a participant observation study of an Australian Defence Force Band Roland Bannister

This paper's main purpose is to present a set of tentative findings - I have called them propositions-about the music culture of the Band of the First Recruit Battalion of the Australian Army (the Kapooka Band). The propositions are the results of a partial, informal, analysis of data gathered during a sixteen week period of participant observation research with the Band and further subsequent intermittent return visits. The data is in the form of fieldnotes and interview transcripts. The propositions will be tested in the process of data analysis as the study proceeds.

1998. pp. 141-145 Is Inclusivity an Apologist's Reconstruction of Assimilation? The issue of inclusively in contemporary music education Dr. Robert G Smith, Music Education Consultant Northern Territory

We could be forgiven for being suspicious, particularly in the current post-Mabo political climate of late twentieth century Australia, that the notion of inclusivity is a construct rather like that of Aboriginality, invented by westcentric control freaks to justify bringing `those people' over to 'our' worldview. I view inclusion and exclusion as the opening and closing of gates to participation in contexts related to attributes or cultures. Relative to my work in diverse cultural settings, I went in search of references to inclusively (Smith, 1998). While the word or variants of it appeared frequently in what I would describe as west-centrically oriented publications, perhaps not surprisingly I found few in texts written by Indigenous 'First Nation' or migrant Australians.

2001. pp.141-150 'Boys' Business' and Music Education in Top End Schools Robert Smith

This paper documents the evolution of a program in Darwin schools identifying boys at risk and engaging them and their peers with music. A year ago a principal noted that my music-making activities were involving middle school boys who normally shunned school music. Persuaded by the principal, I agreed to help establish an entirely male student music group. I shared time with a teacher, working with an often difficult and resistant group of some forty boys drawn from a range of middle school classes. We both agreed that we would develop an affirming relationship between us, the boys and music. After a year its impact on the school's culture has been quite remarkable. Equally remarkable is the level of musicianship achieved.

2002. pp. 41-49 Issues for Consideration in the Teaching of World Musics: A re-assessment of music education practice Dr. Peter Dunbar-Hall, University of Sydney

Music education in the Western world has developed ways of teaching music objectively, but with little acknowledgment of how the teaching and learning of music may take place in other cultural contexts. This paper outlines ways in which music education can be refigured to allow the music pedagogies of a range of cultures to

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influence the strategies by which music from those cultures is taught. This framework consists of a set of processes across a range of cultures. This represents a move away from attempts to construct musical meaning through universalism, to those which focus on difference and individuality. The implications for music education will be demonstrated through musical examples from a range of sources.

2003. pp. 215-229 Music, learning and life: Indigenous students achieving educational and life skills outcomes in the Northern Territory Anja Tait, Charles Darwin University

My key concerns are the links between the arts, educational achievement, social and emotional well-being for Indigenous learners, and a model of professional learning for teachers that promotes a transdisciplinary approach, inclusive of an arts focused pedagogy. Reflective teaching practices, Indigenous families and staff within the school community and student participation and achievements will inform the outcomes and recommendations of this project. Both qualitative and quantitative data will evaluate and celebrate artistic practice as evidence of both students' and teachers' learning across the curriculum.

2004. pp. 1-12 The Influence of Culture on Music Teaching and Learning Dr Georgina Barton, Griffith University

Music tells us something of the particular culture from which it comes. This paper explores the extent to which culture influences the methods of teaching and modes of communication used within the music teaching and learning context. It presents data from a comparative study between Queensland and Karnatic (South Indian) instrumental music teachers. Both the similarities and differences between these two contexts will be discussed paying particular attention to how culture influences the ways in which these teachers teach. The paper will then suggest how this knowledge may be relevant to developing a model of teaching in the Australian classroom.

2004. pp. 144-151 Expectations and Outcomes of Inter-Cultural Music Education: A Case Study in Teaching and Learning a Balinese Gamelan Instrument Dr Peter Dunbar-Hall, University of Sydney I Wayan Tusti Adnyana, Tabanan, Bali

Cross-cultural, multi-cultural and inter-cultural music education are three types of music education that can be defined differently through reference to the ways they treat culture as a factor of pedagogy. After defining each of these, this paper presents a case study of inter-cultural music teaching and learning to demonstrate how culture influences the roles and positions of both the teacher and the learner in lessons on the gangsa, a Balinese gamelan instrument. The case study is based on the experiences of the paper's authors as teachers/learners and presents their positions through transcription of interview material.

2004. pp. 216-225 Smaller Steps into Longer Journeys: Experiencing African Music and Expressing Culture Dr. Dawn Joseph, Deakin University

This paper outlines an exploratory research project that draws on survey data from both primary and secondary school music teachers in Victoria. The research stems from a study that I undertook in 2002-2003 with final year Deakin University undergraduate students that investigated the potential of African music to enhance the confidence and competence of non-specialist primary teacher education students. This paper outlines the progress of and provides preliminary data about the emergence of an innovative area of teaching and learning based on African music in Victorian schools. It also explores the notion of why cross-cultural and multi-cultural engagement matters in the contemporary context of educational change.

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2004. pp. 270-284 Global Resonances ­ Beyond Exotic Sounds: Approaches and Perspectives for Cultural Diversity in Australian Music Education Associate Professor Huib Schippers, Queensland Conservatorium Research Centre, Griffith University

A substantial body of practice and ideas has developed in Australia that reflects the mixture of cultures that forms the essence of the nation. Policy documents attest to this, as well as numerous examples of `world music' in classroom and community settings. However, if we wish to fully understand the challenges of cultural diversity for music education, we need to explore the nineteenth century when many of the ideas that govern music education to this day took shape. This paper investigates the wide range of approaches to cultural diversity in music education, drawing upon sources in music education literature, and practical experiences.

2005. pp.25-36 Lost in Translation: Reflections on Learning South Indian Music in Context Dr Georgina Barton, Education Queensland

This paper outlines both the processes and personal journey experienced by the writer when learning South Indian music in Chennai, India and Brisbane, Australia. It is a reflective journey about being immersed in another culture. As a result of this experience many changes have occurred to the author's own teaching practice. The paper will explain the background of the research presenting how the writer came to learn in a foreign setting and outline the learning journey experienced thus far. The differences and similarities in learning modes and methods between both Indian and `western' classical music as experienced by the author will be presented.

2005. pp. 61-66 Music Education as Translation: Reflections on the Experience of Learning Music in Bali Dr Peter Dunbar-Hall, University of Sydney

Through reflection on the personal benefits of learning Balinese music from musicians in Bali, in this paper I draw an analogy between such an undertaking and the act of translation between two languages to propose reasons for the study of music from cultures outside one's own. The reasons relate to the growing awareness that much received knowledge about music learning and teaching is based on unquestioned assumptions. Discussion of teaching methods, notation, terminology, and the concept of unlearning as a way of learning, is used in this paper to propose future directions in which music education can move.

2005. pp.81-88 Musical Arts Education in Africa: Differentiation, Integration and Disassociation Dr Dawn Joseph, Deakin University Dr Christopher Klopper, CIIMDA

By discussing the future challenges to musical arts education in Africa, the differences of those historically marginalised by virtue of gender, race, ethnicity, and class, are celebrated. In Africa, musical arts education and culture are regarded as an integral part of our life. The authors will consider the concept of `differentiation', `integration' and `disassociation' within musical arts practice. The structure of a Music Action Research Team (MAT cell) in Southern African Developing Community (SADC) countries will be highlighted as a means to address disassociation through the active engagement of professional development programmes offered by the Centre for Indigenous African Instrumental Music and Dance (CIIMDA).

2005. pp.150-156 Integration and Multiculturalism in Music in Australian Schools: Has/Can/Should the Leopard Change its Spots? Dr Jane Southcott, Monash University Dr Dawn Joseph, Deakin University

The 1960s saw a broadening of the offerings of music from other cultures in the materials and programs of the Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC). Since then, increasingly `authentic' music materials have been

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available to primary classroom teachers. Blacking (1973) identified the difficulty of understanding the music of another culture. It is very difficult for a member of one culture to comprehend the music and culture of another without understanding its social milieu. As a `work in progress', this paper will consider the inclusion of African music in the nationally distributed ABC school singing books as a means of illustrating and marking change.

2006. pp. 66-70 The Blind Men and the Elephant: Music Education in a Changing World Dawn Joseph, Deakin University Jane E. Southcott, Monash University

All educational settings have an important role to play in bridging differences and promoting mutual respect between people of different races, cultures, and religions. Currently music educators implementing the Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) are faced with the challenge of developing multicultural practices that align with both curriculum initiatives and create authentic experiences for students. As in the well-known story of the blind men and the elephant, teachers are faced with resources that offer only a shallow introduction to what is a multifaceted field. The question we pose is: "How do music educators embrace a vast range of cultural programmes without grasping only one perspective?"

2007. pp. 47-55 The World Music Ensemble as Pedagogic Tool: The Teaching of Balinese Gamelan to Music Education Students in a University Setting Associate Professor Peter Dunbar-Hall, University of Sydney

This paper investigates the role of a one semester course in Balinese gamelan performance as a component of two music education pre-service degree programs, one at undergraduate level, the other at graduate level. Through analysis of the opinions of the curriculum designer responsible for introduction of this course, the specialist who is employed to deliver it, and cohorts of students who have completed it, issues of pre-service preparation for music educators are raised. Results demonstrate that differing positions exist on the perceived purpose and value of world music ensembles in university settings.

2007. pp. 81-88 Sharing and Speaking about African Music: Professional development with Swaziland Primary School Teachers Dr. Dawn Joseph, Deakin University

The teaching and learning of Indigenous African music is characterized as a holistic integrated experience. In African societies, the arts are fundamental to life. This paper reports on an in-service program (August 2006) offered at the Centre for Indigenous African Instrumental Music and Dance Practices (CIIMDA), Pretoria, South Africa. The one week professional development course undertaken by generalist primary school teachers from Swaziland is highlighted. This paper summarizes some key findings of interview data from ten participants. By offering such inservice programs, teachers are able to reach their wider communities where they will continue to share and speak about African music, dance and culture.

2007. pp. 89-94 The Development of Learning Music in Foreign Spouse's Pre-School Age Children Dr Angela Hao Chun Lee, Transworld Institute of Technology, Taiwan

This paper considers the impact of cultural differences apparent in the learning of music of children of foreign spouses in Taiwan. The influx of immigrants into Taiwan from various nations poses challenges. In the past two decades research has focused on the education and well-being of the mainly female spouses and on the primary education of their children. In this research both teachers and children were interviewed concerning their attitudes to learning, the abilities of the children and the musical activities provided for them. It was found that there was no significant difference between the learning behaviors of children of foreign spouses to that of children of Taiwanese parents.

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2007. pp. 137-143 Perceptions of multiculturalism in music education: What matters and why Jane E. Southcott, Monash University Dawn Joseph, Deakin University

Pre-service teacher education students from two Australian universities were interviewed about their understandings of cultural diversity in music education. These initial findings revealed varied but generally consistent enthusiasm. However comments revealed an almost haphazard exposure to other musics. Interviewees expressed the intention to pursue professional development in their future careers. Engaging with the music of other cultures allows teachers and students to develop understanding and empathy with others. This is in line with current governmental initiatives. Comments from the interviewees illustrate just such attitudes and understandings. It behoves us as educators to prepare students for teaching in multicultural classrooms that reflect the wider Australian society.

Gifted, Special Needs, Therapy 1981. pp. 38-51 An Investigation into Identifying Musical Talent in Eighty Year one Children John B. Taverner, Mitchell College of Advanced Education, New South Wales

Over the last four years I have been actively involved in looking at the educational needs of gifted and talented children. I have had the good fortune to have been to Israel three times to look at their overall plan for the education of their gifted and talented children. I believe that we in Australia are beginning to examine this issue now and do something about it. At Mitchell College in Bathurst, we are currently planning a postgraduate diploma external course for teachers to teach talented children.

1982. pp. 43-48 Music in the Education of the Young, Deaf-Blind Multi-Handicapped: Not why? but how?" Vanda Weidenbach Special Education, Nepean College of Advanced Education, New South Wales

In the past, severely and profoundly handicapped populations have been either confined to institutional care or remained at home. Consequently providing educational programmes has not been a pressing issue. Since education is largely the product of our need to fit into a highly structured society to survive, education was deemed irrelevant for this population whose opportunities for interacting with the non-handicapped were restricted. Furthermore, the cost of maintaining full-time residential care in itself considerable. Providing educational services could be seen as unnecessary, even wasteful expense, especially since the teacher/pupil ratio is, of necessity, very high. Recently in other countries, a variety of legal social and political forces combined to create changing attitudes.

1983. pp. 46-49 Gifted and Talented Students: Implications for Music Educators Maria McCann, Department of Special Education South Australian College of Advanced Education

Music educators have in many ways led the field in recognizing and nurturing special gifts and talents. The Menuhin School was established at a time when the musical prodigy was traditionally revered. During the same period the mathematically or linguistically talented child was eyed with suspicion by both educators and society in general. However with advances in special education during the 1970's and 1980's these attitude's are changing. While there is a growing acceptance of special provision in these non-traditional areas of gifted and talented education on there is a danger that the tradition areas such as music may be left behind.

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1985. pp. 139-164 Developing Skills in the Profoundly Retarded Joyce McNamara, Music therapist, Department of Health, Stockton Hospital

The skills development programme is a series of programmes designed to meet and develop the social, cognitive, emotional and physical needs of the profoundly retarded child and adult. No distinction has been made between child and adult, as programmes have been based on perceptual development of the client rather than chronological age.

1996. pp. 33-38 Activity in a Music Program and the Development of Cognitive Processing Skills Patricia L. Bygrave, University of Canberra

This paper is based on a study which identifies the role of activity in a music program. During a 30-week intervention period, young students experiencing learning difficulties participated daily in a music program. Test data indicate that over this time the students developed cognitive processing skills of listening comprehension. The test results show a significant effect of the music program from the pretest to the posttest and the post posttest period. Observational data supplemented with data from teacher-diaries, lesson-ratings and teacher-interviews appear to qualify the test findings. It is concluded that participation in a music program of appropriate musical activities can develop cognitive processing skills in students with learning difficulties.

1997. pp. 68-75 A Study of Pre-tertiary Specialist Music Programmes within Australian Institutions with Special Emphasis on the 'Young Conservatorium' Programme offered at the Queensland Conservatorium of Music, Griffith University Julie Kirchhubel, Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University

The purpose of this study is to trace the development of musical ability in selected groups of students at secondary level in order to attempt to measure their learning processes over a span of several years. Commencing with a literature review, a detailed study over three years, using an action-research approach, will focus on secondary students currently enrolled in the 'Young Conservatorium' programme at the Queensland Conservatorium of Music, Griffith University. In addition to the standard procedures of formal testing, the collection of data to be analysed for this study will arise from a variety of sources including students' reflective journals, as well as questionnaires and interviews with teachers, students and parents.

1998. pp. 124-130 Arguments used to Support or Oppose inclusion policies: Some applications to music education Professor Peter G. Cole, Faculty of Community Studies, Education and Social Sciences Edith Cowan University

Arguments have been proposed to support or oppose the value of the inclusion model in the education of students with disabilities. There are four basic categories. The first is the consequential argument which requires an empirical approach and focuses on various attempts to measure the positive and negative outcomes of inclusion policies. The second is the argument which focuses on the importance of equality and fairness in the delivery of services to persons with and without disabilities. The third is the rights argument which is based on the view that persons with disabilities have rights to prescribed levels of quality of service provision. The fourth is the needs argument which directs attention to the special needs, of individuals with disabilities.

1998. pp. 131-140 A Profile of Music Education and Children with Special Needs in Selected Western Australian Schools Wendy S. Fullerton, East Claremont Primary School Perth, Western Australia

Policies requiring accountability and educational standards have made teachers more aware than ever of the need to provide quality education for all students. Often when a special needs child is placed in the school system, one of the first classes the child may be included into is the music class. However, it is difficult to ascertain what provision is

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made for the special needs student in the music education class. Music specialists, and special education teachers were surveyed regarding music education for the special needs child. The survey also ascertained the music qualifications special education teachers possess, the practical experience music specialists had in teaching music to children with special needs and the approaches used to teach music in the classroom.

1998. pp. 158-172 An Investigation into the Nature and Benefits of Specialist Pre-Tertiary Music Education Julie Kirchhubel, Queensland Conservatorium of Music Griffith University, Australia

This paper presents the initial findings of a three-year longitudinal study investigating the development of secondary-level students enrolled at the Queensland Conservatorium of Music's junior music programme. The intention of this paper is to report preliminary findings which relate to students' levels of musical skills, listening habits, progress, and in particular, their ability to integrate their learning experiences with their musical studies and involvement outside the programme. Outcomes at this stage in the research indicate that the majority of students are able to successfully link their learning in a variety of situations and apply aural and theoretical skills to the practical context.

1999. pp. 93-97 Strategies for the Education of Gifted and Talented Music Students: Acceleration without speedbumps Ron Brooker

This report overviews the various strategies recommended for the education of gifted and talented students in New South Wales and then describes a case study evaluation of the acceleration program in music performance (APMP) at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music and its associated Conservatorium High School.

1999. pp. 112-117 Environmental Support for the Development of Musical Talent: The impact of the musical involvement of parents in the homes of talented young Australian musicians Felicia Chadwick

This paper, based upon an Australian study of families of talented young musicians, examines three dimensions of parental musical involvement, and the environmental influence that these may have upon the development of the child's musical potential. The three dimensions are; consideration of self as musical, past or current involvement with formal musical tuition and current involvement with musical activities.

2000. pp. 111-119 Effective Strategies that Enhance the Learning Success of an ADHD Student in an Inclusive and Outcomes-based Music setting: A three-dimensional case study Michael Newton, Dr. Belinda Yourn Dr. Sam Leong, School of Music, The University of Western Australia

This paper reports on a three-dimensional case study involving one Year 9 female music student (Student X), a classroom teacher (Teacher J) who had previously undertaken formal research on ADHD children and the music class which Student X belonged to (consisting of thirteen female and three male students). The main purposes of this study were: (1) to assess the effectiveness of the teaching strategies chosen to address some of the problems of ADHD as identified in Barkley's Unified Theory of ADHD, and (2) to assess the attitudes of the participating ADHD student and her music teacher towards these strategies.

Historical and Biographical Studies

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1978. pp. 4-9 Towards a Rationale for Music Education: An overview Dr Doreen Bridges, Senior Lecturer Music Nursery School Teachers' College, NSW

I consider that this conference is potentially the most important gathering of music educators ever to be held in this country. In numbers it is probably the smallest, in scope the narrowest, but we who educate teachers hold in our hands the future of music as part of the educative process. If music education in our schools is to flourish, if it is to play its part in the development of the child as a whole person, if it is to give children access to the ever-growing treasury and ever-widening possibilities of organized sound as a vital experience of mankind, then it is time for us to re-think our position.

1979. pp. 61-66 Aspects of Teacher Education in Music in Western Australia John D Williamson, Nedlands CAE, Western Australia

In this discussion l have chosen to overview and evaluate selected aspects of historical developments of teacher education in music particularly as they relate to the College in which I work, then I comment on some of the major challenges as I see them concerning W.A. State Schools and the education of music teachers. Hopefully I shall finish by listing some recommendations concerning music education which are relevant to the Auchmuty Inquiry. While confining most of my comments to the scene in Western Australia, some of my views may well have a more general application.

1981. pp. 52-63 Historical Research in the Field of Musical Education: Its nature and applications Robin S Stevens, School of Education Deakin University, Victoria

During 1980 I was privileged to attend the MENC National In-Service Convention at Miami Beach, Florida, and, while there, to participate in sessions organised by the Society for Research in Music Education. Most areas of music education research were represented at what were called Special Research Interest Group meetings, and I was pleasantly surprised to find a strong contingent of music education historians attending the sessions organised for the History Special Interest Group. From what I gathered, there is a healthy rivalry among the various factions of the American music education research community, and I was surprised at the almost militant approach taken by the historians in support of their area of research.

1981. pp.142-144 The Eurhythmics of Emile-Jacques Dalcroze M. Giddens, Post-Graduate Student, University of Melbourne, Victoria

I am currently involved in the writing of a major thesis on Emile Jacques Dalcroze (1865-1950). The thesis presents an historical unfolding of the reforms proposed by Dalcroze as necessary if the music education of his time were to cease to be a purely intellectual process, and to become, instead, a vital and living force. In so doing, the thesis also implies that much of what Dalcroze abhorred in the music teaching of his day has continued to exist, and consequently proposes that the Dalcroze method may still offer one relevant approach to a sounder, freer, and more creative approach to the music experience.

1982. pp. 34-42 Administrators on Policy Making Malcolm Fox, Associate Dean, Faculty of Music, University of Adelaide.

Any consideration of policy making in Universities must start with a statement of the functions of Universities in society. Briefly, there are three: 1"to produce adequate numbers of graduates of an increasing variety; (ii) to pursue new knowledge for its own sake, ie to undertake research, and (iii) to be the guardians of intellectual standards and of intellectual integrity in the community. The teaching function of Universities is characterised by the fact that Universities have an international responsibility, and their courses are therefore not planned to meet local or national manpower needs.

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1984. pp. 14-18 A Report on the Developmental Music Program Deanna Hoermann

A Developmental Music Program has been operating in the Metropolitan West Region of' the New South Wales Department of Education since 1971. The program has been fully documented over thirteen years and its contribution to music and education evaluated. It was the initial task of the project to examine the relevance of the Kodaly approach to music education for the primary school. The recognition of the name "Kodaly" in the original title of the project led many musicians to assume that the philosophies and techniques of the Hungarian system were a rigid basis for the Australian project.

1984. pp. 24-48 Research in Australian Music Education; A review and analysis. The Australian Journal of Music Education and Music Education Research: Early Years 1969-1973 W. Lett,Dean, School of Education La Trobe University

In the first conference of ASME in 1969, a resolution was accepted stressing the need for research in music education and establishing a Standing Committee on Research. The specific and first research in which assistance was to be sought from ACER was the validity of methods of assessment being used in music, and dissatisfaction with syllabuses. Bridges (1970) reported on how the problem of testing musical outcomes required the construction of tests and the clarification of objectives in music teaching.

1987. pp. 6-10 Your Loving Wife, Constanze Elizabeth Silsbury, SACAE, Sturt Campus

Johann Eismann refers to his early friendship with Beethoven-they grew up together in Bonn his loyalty in spite of the composer's "difficult temper which often results in quarrels with myself and other friends. He goes on "Just recently he has been an extremely difficult person to get on with. It seems he does not wish to be a part of the Music of the time. He appears to have broken away into this ridiculous music, full of Romantics 'writing from the heart'! What nonsense!" The Fifth Symphony, says Eismann, could have been magnificent, but was "full of romantic interruptions." He quotes Mendelssohn's reaction, "How big it is! Quite wild!

1989. pp. 79-84 A Music Education Pioneer: Dr Satis Naronna Barton Coleman Jane Southcott, School of Education Monash University College, Gippsland

Satis Coleman (nee Barton) was born in 1878 in Texas. From 1919 to 1931 she taught in the Lincoln School of Teachers College, Columbia University. In 1927 she took a Bachelor of Science degree from Columbia University and then her Master of Arts degree the following year. Coleman studied at Columbia University, New York, receiving her Doctorate in Educational Psychology in 1937. She was further attached to this institution for some time, as a teacher and demonstrator at the Lincoln School of Teachers College, Columbia University, where many of her programmes were instigated under her direct supervision and described in her report, "A Children's symphony" (1931). Coleman first published in 1917 and continued to do so until at least 1954.

1990. pp. 17-31 An Early Model of Participant Learning in Music: The percussion band Jane Southcott, School of Education, Monash University College, Gippsland

In music education we need to be aware of our pedagogical history. Current music education contains many vestiges of past practice-much of our current Australian practice is based on English models. The Percussion Bank is one such strand in our inheritance. I was in such a band as a young child and later I was a staff member with the same teacher. As a young teacher I was critical of what I perceived as a somewhat unmusical activity. However upon reflection I believe that we should acknowledge our debt to the Percussion Band method.

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1990. pp. 64-74 The School Recorder: Stepping-stone or millstone? Robert Erlich

The rise of the school recorder since 1945 has had a profound effect on what the man or woman in the street thinks a recorder is. In the public eye it means "school recorder". People like me, who choose to play the instrument as their first or only concert instrument must therefore today work against the grain of an inaccurate public image. The recorder is so familiar to us as a school instrument, that its roles outside the classroom, as a concert instrument and in adult amateur music making, are sometimes forgotten. In this talk I will try to present a more comprehensive picture. I will trace the recorder's principal musical and social roles in society.

1991. pp. 171-206 Coloured Birds and Balls J. Southcott

This paper is an exploration of the similarities and disparities between the ideas and methods for initial music instruction held by two music educators of the late nineteenth century based in Australia and America respectively. Both had included colour in their materials and methods. Both suggested using birds of specific colours on flash cards and walls to represent the different degrees of the scale. Both had suggested using coloured balls to enforce the concepts being taught. Both provided well designed, sequential learning in which involved a lot of practical work which would clearly appeal to children. The educators knew of each other and both were very well versed in the Tonic Sol-fa.

1992. pp. 269-286 Martial Strains Jane Southcott

During the-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in South Australian state school almost every school possessed a drum and fife band and every school was expected to teach physical drill, usually most effectively taught to a musical accompaniment. In 1879 a group of interested teachers founded the Floricultural Society which developed into a major annual exhibition which grew to encompass the Thousand Voices Choir established in 1891 and performing annually in South Australia to this day. Drum and fife bands became very popular for at least the next fifty years. The drums gave the beat to march the children into school with the fifes performing the National Anthem at morning assemblies.

1993. pp. 80-88 Watching Paint Dry: Musical meaning in a military ceremony Roland Bannister, Charles Sturt University

In this paper, I report on my participant observation study of music making in one of society's major institutions; I examine the experience of soldier-musicians in the Australian Army Band Kapooka as they participate in one of the army's major ceremonies, the weekly March Out Parade. I compare the experience of the soldier-musicians with that of other participants in the parade, and then examine the significance of military music for the wider society. In doing so I cite some of the literature pertaining to meaning in ritual.

1993. pp. 89-98 Music as a Vehicle of Reform in 19th Century Educational Movements Jane Southcott, Faculty of Education, Monash University

In the nineteenth century mass movements for popular education, particularly in singing, developed in England and spread throughout the Colonies. These movements were associated with a philanthropic and religious desire to improve the lifestyles and aspirations of the 'less fortunate' and a belief that a happy, sober workforce would result in greater productivity. Three major strands in this evangelical movement were the Tonic Sol-fa, Temperance and Sunday School movements. The Tonic Sol-fa movement was instigated in 1841 as a means of improving the quality of congregational singing, but became far more than that. It developed its own notation which was cheap and accessible, established a system of qualifications, published copious music and an international journal.

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1994. pp. 110-123 Alexander Clark: South Australian music educator and advocate Jane Southcott, Gippsland School of Education, Monash University

Alexander Clark, a trained tonic sol-faist, became an Inspector of South Australian schools in 1884. Clark was an enthusiastic, committed educator who lead by example and encouragement. This paper seeks to outline his career and contribution to the development of music in state schooling in South Australia. Many of the arguments Clark advanced for music's inclusion are cited today. The core of the curriculum he put into place in South Australia did not markedly change until the 1960s. Effectively, Clark established the content and delivery practices of music in South Australian schools.

1995. pp. 7-14 Dmitri Kabalevsky: Unravelling a philosophy of music education David Forrest, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology

Dmitri Kabalevsky (1904-1987) was an educator, writer, composer and pianist whose life spanned the changes in twentieth century Russian history. Central to Kabalevsky's philosophy is the belief that music and the arts should be accessible to all. Throughout his life, Kabalevsky was a strong and powerful advocate for music and the arts in education. His beliefs were firmly placed in the times and the society in which he lived. This paper explores the complex nature of the educational and musical philosophy of Dmitri Kabalevsky.

1995. pp. 2-9 Glover's intellectual odyssey Jane Southcott, Monash University

At a time when professional development was a personal matter, Sarah Glover (1786-1867) developed an unique and influential music education method. Glover not only developed and published her movable doh music pedagogy, known as the Norwich Sol-fa, but she developed a didactic musical instrument to suit her purposes and had it made commercially available. Glover also explored and melded musical and scientific theories. 'Her development of a singing pedagogy is increasingly acknowledged but her other explorations have passed essentially unnoticed. 1t is intended here to focus on the intellectual journey that Glover undertook.

1997. pp. 33-42 Evaluating Music Education: The role and processes of historical inquiry Jane Southcott, Monash University

To apprehend clearly the current state of music education it is necessary to understand how present practices evolved. The role of historical inquiry in music education will be considered, as will the research methods employed by historians. Illustrations will be employed to illuminate general historical methodological principles and practices. Particular attention will be given to narrative history as this appears to be the most prevalent mode of historical inquiry employed by music educators, both in Australia and overseas. Little historiographical discussion has occurred in Australian music education research and this paper seeks to begin to redress that oversight.

1999. pp. 299-305 A Nineteenth Century Australia-Japan Connection in Music Education: The work of Emily Patton in Yokohama Robin S. Stevens

Emily Sophia Patton (born England, 1832) established Tonic Sol-fa classes both for adults and children, and conducted a highly successful Juvenile Tonic Sol-fa Choir in Yokohama in the late nineteenth century. This paper will discuss the work of Emily Patton in Japan (and China) and attempt to place her achievements within the broader context of Japanese music education. Although not the pioneer of the Tonic Sol-fa method in Japan-or even Yokohama, Patton nevertheless exerted a degree of influence on music education in Japan up to the end of the Meiji Period (1912), not only in her propagation of Tonic Sol-fa, but in her promotion of choral music in both Japanese and expatriate community life.

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2000. pp. 54-59 Emblems Sweet of Our Dear Austral Land: The role of the school paper song collection in the education of Victorian state primary school children, 1943-1968 Jill Ferris, RMIT

This paper will explore the way in which the songs in the School Paper in Victoria contributed to a sense of identity in children in grades three to six, 1934-1968. The collection will be reviewed in relation to two frameworks: choice of `suitable' song materials in the 1934 and 1956 course documents, and Musgrave's theoretical concept of the development of a sense of identity in school children. These two frameworks provide the opportunity to discuss the collection in two contexts: the music educators who wrote the music sections of the curriculum course materials, and the general expectations about the role of mandated curriculum resources in schools.

2000. pp. 60-64 Biographical Research: Reflection on an unfolding case David Forrest

The initial intention of this paper was to present a biographical sketch of the composer and educator Dmitri Borisivich Kabalevsky that was developed over the course of my doctoral research. It was while thinking about this paper that I decided against this approach and opted to consider some of the implications of collecting materials and assembling a biographical sketch of a composer and educator.

2000. pp. 75-85 Influence of Christian Missionaries on the Music Education in Taiwan Angela Lee, Monash University

This paper traces the influences of early western missionaries on school music in Taiwan. Two distinct stages occurred in the expansion of western music in Taiwan. The Dutch occupation between 1624 and 1642 and the British and Canadian Presbyterian missionaries arrival. In southern Taiwan Smith introduced the first formal music lessons in 1876. Presbyterian missionaries established music which was continued during the Japanese occupation after 1895. The development of music in northern Taiwan was largely due to Dr. Mackay, Mrs. Gauld, and Miss Taylor. Mackay encouraged and established the Oxford College. Gauld taught music in churches and schools as did Miss Taylor.

2000. pp. 164-171 Songs for Young Australians Jane Southcott, Monash University

Many of the songs written for Australian children since the middle of the 19th century reflect, to some degree, the growing sense of a unique culture and national identity. Songs have been used as vehicles of messages in schooling to introduce and encourage nationalism. Over time songs gradually began to reflect the life of the Australian child. All of these songs were written with didactic purpose, for use in home, kindergarten and school. Many of these songs were written as school anthems for wider public performances. This paper examines some of the early songs developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to inculcate such sentiments in Australian children.

2000. 172-182 James Churchill Fisher: Pioneer of Tonic Sol-fa in Australia Associate Professor Robin S. Stevens, School of Social and Cultural Studies in Education, Deakin University

This paper documents the work of James Fisher (1826-1891) who arrived in Sydney in 1852. Fisher brought a knowledge of Curwen's method of sol-fa and produced the first tonic Sol-fa publication in Australia. His work in teaching choral music led to his appointment in 1867 as singing master to the Fort Street School and to other Sydney schools. The Tonic Sol-fa method was officially adopted as the music teaching system to be used in public schools by 1867. During his period as singing master, Fisher published a Manual of the Tonic Sol-fa Method (1869) and

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several school song books. As a composer Fisher produced several school cantatas and as well as a secular cantata entitled The Emigrants (c. 1880).

2001. pp. 151-158 "A Knight of Song": F.L. Gratton Jane Southcott, Monash University

Francis Lymer Gratton (1871-1946) became the Inspector of Music at the Training College in Adelaide in 1914. He became the Supervisor of Music in the South Australian Education Department in 1920 and held that position at his retirement in 1936. Gratton acquired Tonic Solfa qualifications and eventually becoming an Associate of the Tonic Sol-Fa College, London. Gratton was also an accomplished musician, and conductor. He conducted nearly one hundred "Thousand Voices" concerts and helped train nearly, 100,000 South Australian children in singing. Gratton was an impressive product of a music education curriculum that gave scope for his ability to flourish.

2002. pp. 50-58 Song and Cultural Hierarchy: An investigation of the song material available to Victorian primary school classrooms to support the 1934 curriculum Dr A. Jill Ferris, RMIT University

This paper explores the contention that the Victorian primary school music curriculum, have historically been influenced by a form of cultural hierarchy. Rickard observed a marked division between so-called 'high' culture and 'popular' culture, which was further complicated by a residual colonial sensibility. This paper investigates the proposition that both the official 1934 Victorian primary school curriculum, and the songs which were supplied to all state primary school teachers, were influenced by these kinds of notions of cultural hierarchy. The songs printed in the monthly editions of the Victorian Education Department's School Paper for grades 3 to 8 will be examined with this contention in mind.

2002. pp. 78-85 Ruby Davy: An atypical music teacher Ms Louise E. Jenkins, Monash University,

Dr Ruby Davy (18831949), was an active and successful music teacher during the first part of the twentieth century in Australia. Despite her success, she has been relatively unheralded and her achievements ignored by the music historians. Ruby gained a doctorate of music from the University of Adelaide, which was an outstanding achievement for a woman during this period. She was also a successful business woman. Her single lifestyle set her apart from other women and her decision to travel overseas in pursuit of a performance career demonstrated her disregard for the gender constraints of the time. Ruby's atypical approach to her music career will be examined in the paper.

2002. pp. 179-186 A tale of two brothers: E. Harold and H. Walford Davies Dr Jane E. Southcott, Monash University

E. Harold Davies (1867-1947) and H. Walford Davies (1869-1941) were part of a family of nine. In 1887, E. Harold came to Australia. He was the first to take a musical doctorate from an Australian University, and became the Professor of Music in the University of Adelaide and Principal of the Elder Conservatorium. Throughout his career, E. Harold was involved in many musical organizations. Remaining in England, H. Walford was Professor of Music, University of Wales, and Master of the King's Music. The careers of the two brothers had many remarkable similarities. They maintained a close relationship despite the geographical distance between them.

2002. pp. 193-205 Why Teach Music in Schools? Changing values since the 1850s Associate Professor Robin S. Stevens, Deakin University

In the face of an overcrowded curriculum it is more than ever necessary to have convincing answers to the question `why teach music in schools?' Since the introduction of singing during the early 1850s, public and professional

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opinion about the value of music in schools has changed in line with what both governments and the community expect. The introduction of new technologies has led to an expansion of the music curriculum as well as music teaching methods. By drawing both on contemporary views as well as on past experiences and traditions, sufficiently forceful arguments can hopefully be found to counter the current threat to music as a core curriculum subject.

2003. pp. 25-43 The Great Public School Choir of Ten Thousand Marilyn J. Chaseling, Southern Cross University

On January 1 1901, as part of the ceremony in Centennial Park, Sydney, for the inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia, a Great Public School Choir of ten thousand Sydney children performed under the direction of Herr Hugo Alpen. Despite the logistical and organizational feat of assembling a vast choir and its high quality, the performance was given little attention in the reports of the day. This paper reflects on the performance of this choir of thousands and concludes that, at the time of Federation, Sydney public schools were very musical places.

2003. pp. 78-86 Curriculum and Cultural Hegemony: An historical study of the role of the Australian Broadcasting Commission's school concerts in the promotion of high art music to support classroom music curriculum in Victorian primary schools, 1934 to 1980 Dr. A. Jill Ferris, RMIT University

By 1934, Victorian primary school classroom teachers were required to undertake musical appreciation as part of the compulsory music course. The Australian Broadcasting Commission, newly established as a national broadcaster in 1932, considered that its responsibility was to cater for all members of the community, regardless of their musical tastes and interests. In regard to school music broadcasts, however, the ABC considered its role was to provide 'the best' examples it could of the 'higher forms' of music, to support the school syllabus requirements for musical appreciation. This paper investigates the ways in which primary classroom teachers in Victoria were supported to teach musical appreciation through the agency of the Australian Broadcasting Commission.

2003. pp. 178-191 "Dear Madam" - the letters of Sarah Glover and John Curwen Dr Jane E. Southcott, Monash University

The extant correspondence between Glover and Curwen spans the length of their professional relationship. The letters reveal a changing relationship. At the time of their first meeting Glover was an established music educator and Curwen was a young Congregational minister. By the last letter, Curwen's Tonic Sol-fa empire had eclipsed Glover's achievements. Within the letters, couched in the politest terms, are glimpses of the personalities and opinions. Glover's principles and practices were, to some degree, appropriated by Curwen. In turn, Curwen's Tonic Sol-fa method was adapted to form part of the Kodaly method. Effectively, the ideas of Glover remain current 150 years after she first published them.

2003. pp. 192-203 The missionaries' helpmeet: Tonic Sol-fa in Madagascar Dr Jane E. Southcott, Monash University

In mid-nineteenth century England John Curwen (1816-1880) developed the Tonic Sol-fa system. This method was, from the outset, intended as both a systematic method of class instruction in music and an aid to worship. The Tonic Sol-fa system was taken up by various missionary societies, the first being the London Missionary Society (LMS). In 1862 this society sent the Reverend Robert Toy to learn the Tonic Sol-fa method of singing instruction. Toy then travelled to Madagascar where the method became part of the evangelising, worship and teaching undertaken by the LMS missionaries. The nineteenth century history of Madagascar will be outlined to contextualise the discussion of the use of the Tonic Solfa.

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2004. pp. 58-74 Why Celebrate in 2004? The Centennial of the New South Wales Primary Syllabus Marilyn J. Chaseling, Southern Cross University

March 1 1904 marked the publication of the first syllabus in New South Wales public schooling, a single volume syllabus which organised the curriculum into seven parts, one of which was music. This paper considers the historical background to the music section of the syllabus, and the place of music. The first syllabus was an historical event that should be remembered for three reasons: it marked a time of education reform in New South Wales; its introduction demonstrated the ability of a large system to undergo effective change; and, finally, because certain aspects of the syllabus writers' vision are still relevant for today's curriculum.

2004. pp. 75-94 Snapshots from the Inspectorate: Music in New South Wales State Primary Schools: 1908, 1914, 1918 Marilyn Chaseling, Southern Cross University

The physical size of New South Wales meant that from the early days of public education inspectors were employed to regularly visit schools to ensure that policies were being implemented and teaching was being carried out effectively. This paper examines the Extracts of District Inspectors' Reports from 1908, 1914 and 1918 as a way of viewing what was occurring in music education. It concludes that in the decade from 1908 to 1918 generalist primary teachers demonstrated that they could successfully teach a vocal music program using the tonic sol-fa method, which resulted, at least in the early years, in children sight-singing and singing in parts.

2004. pp. 242-257 Heather Gell: A Dalcroze Influence in NSW Music Education from 1939 to 1981 Sandra J. Nash Sydney Conservatorium of Music

Heather Doris Gell (1896 - 1988) was a unique figure in music education in Australia. Born in Adelaide, she trained as a kindergarten teacher, studied the piano and discovered the eurhythmics of Emile Jaques- Dalcroze. After qualifying as a Dalcroze teacher in London in 1923, she returned to Australia promoting Dalcroze work. The study looks at four main areas of Gell's work during the period when she lived in New South Wales, 1939 to 1981; the broadcasts for radio and television, early childhood teacher education, the promotion of Dalcroze Eurhythmics through her own classes and the reformation of the Dalcroze Society of Australia in 1970 and community music activities.

2004. pp. 292-300 Essential Learning in Music Education: Teaching music in schools in South Australia during the 1950s Dr Jane E. Southcott, Monash University

In Victoria, major curriculum changes are being heralded. Across Australia there has been a move to "essential learnings" in which students should be given the opportunity to increase the depth of their learning to equip them for life in the 21st century. In the past two decades there has been an erosion of time allocated to particular subjects and the combination of separate disciplines under one "integrated" banner has hastened this process. It is informative to consider a past model of primary teaching in music, designed to be implemented by generalist teachers. This paper will consider one such program where specialist primary music demonstration teachers moved between schools in South Australia during the early 1950s.

2005. pp. 37-45 Teaching and Learning Music: The Thoughts of E. Harold Davies (1867-1947) Dr Doreen M. Bridges, Retired

This paper, partly historical and partly reflexive, highlights the attitudes of E. Harold Davies towards music education from the time of his appointment as Professor of Music and Director of the Elder Conservatorium at the University of Adelaide in 1919. His chief concerns were raising teaching standards and building audiences by developing informed community response to and participation in music. The main themes presented in this paper include the crucial role of aural training, the development of students' independent learning, and the need for

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musicians to have a broad general education. The author recalls from her student days how Davies emphasised these in his own teaching.

2005. pp. 46-52 The Relevance of Creativity: John Paynter and Victorian Music Education in the Twenty First Century Harry Burke, Monash University

This paper discusses the achievements of John Paynter and the relevance to current classroom music practices in Victorian state schools. Paynter nearly single-handedly changed the focus of classroom music in the United Kingdom. The concerns he faced, and the concepts he developed to overcome them still resonate in schools in Victoria today. Paynter's concept of creative music education and integrated arts offer classroom music students engaging ways of composing, performing and improvising in music. As governments grapple with ways to introduce creative education, the work of John Paynter offers important insights into the teaching of creative arts and `integrated' studies in the twenty first century.

2005, pp. 106-116 Spinning a Vision: Heather Gell's Life and Work in the War Years 1939­1945 Sandra J. Nash, Sydney Conservatorium of Music

When Heather Gell arrived in Sydney in late 1938, she was already a recognized figure in the artistic and musical life of Adelaide. Her radio broadcasts for children on the ABC, Music through Movement, commenced in February 1939 and her voice soon became well known to audiences throughout the eastern states. This paper draws on archival material and interviews during the war years. Espousing the Dalcroze philosophy, Gell encouraged musical appreciation through movement and provided an outlet for creativity and artistic expression for children, students in colleges, teachers and members of the community. The time and place were right for her enterprise and talents.

2005. pp. 117-125 Wretched Victims in Singlets: A Jaques-Dalcroze Music Examination Joan L. Pope, Monash University

The powerful influence of Jaques-Dalcroze and the crucial importance of examinations in preserving the integrity of his system, had serious implications for the efforts to establish the work in Australia. Although making many demonstration tours in Europe and England, he did not travel further afield, but several Australian women who studied at the London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics in the years following the Hellerau impact, had the opportunity of close association with the personality and ideals of Jaques- Dalcroze. It may be helpful for contemporary researchers to reflect on the difficulties encountered in transmitting and sustaining a particular approach to music education as we `review the future' at this conference.

2005. pp.134-141 Removing the "Australian Twang and Slang": Vocal Health, Singing Tone and Enunciation in School Music in South Australia in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries Dr Jane E. Southcott, Monash University

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century there was considerable concern about managing the perceived "Australian twang and slang" of school children. There was a focus on vocal health with detailed advice and instructions for breathing and vocal exercises provided in the South Australian Education Gazette. Singing was advocated as a form of "health-giving exercise" for children. The physical benefits of singing were added to the arguments for the inclusion of music in schooling. This paper will explore past practices, rationales, advocacies and underlying understandings of a facet of school music: vocal health, singing tone and elocution. Some of these ideas remain current.

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2006. pp. 57-65 The Odd Bod, the Icon and the Modest Woman: The Differences and Similarities Amongst Three Australian Women Music Teachers, Performers and Composers Louise E. Jenkins, Monash University

Throughout Australia's history there have been many women who have been active in music despite the traditional family commitments. The period 1900 to 1950 in Australia saw significant changes in the social structure which broadened opportunities for some women to negotiate a life-time career in music. The researcher has identified three significant women, McBurney, Davy and Flockart who were able to forge careers in music during this time. This research looks at the differences and similarities amongst these three women in terms of family life, social position, education and support systems, and their ability to negotiate a career in music teaching, performance and composition.

2006. pp. 85-94 Dalcroze Eurhythmics in Melbourne: 1919-1929 Joan Pope, Monash University

The story of Dalcroze Eurhythmics in Melbourne, and the people who feature in its first decade, form the basis of this narrative paper. It neatly illustrates the Australasian experience of the music education ideas of Emile JaquesDalcroze. Typically, initial interest was followed by a period of intense study, promotion and support, which then gradually declined. Background information about visiting English exponents who promulgated the Dalcroze work in Melbourne and the establishment of a Victorian Dalcroze Society are recorded. It is argued that the inability to train a new generation of teachers, presented inherent difficulties in sustaining and nurturing a remarkable and dynamic educational method.

2006. pp. 116-125 "Forward Gaily Together"--The School Music Compositions of Samuel McBurney Associate Professor Robin S. Stevens, Deakin University

As one of the leading figures in nineteenth century school music in Victoria and Australia, Samuel McBurney contributed significantly to the promotion of Tonic Sol-fa as a music teaching method as well as in supporting the role of school music. However his role also extended to that of composer of vocal and choral works for both adults and children. McBurney's compositional output represents a variety of styles ranging from lieder to school and popular songs. This paper considers a representative sample of McBurney's compositional output in the light of both its musical and extra-musical content.

2007. pp 9-19 Theodore Stephen Tearne: New South Wales' Second Superintendent of Music Marilyn J. Chaseling, Southern Cross University

In 1908 Hugo Alpen retired after a long period of 23 years as Superintendent of Music in the New South Wales Department of Public Instruction. In January of the following year, a new arrival in Australia, Theodore Stephen Tearne, was appointed as Alpen's successor. This paper discusses Tearne's background, interests and emphases, and attempts to determine the influence which he had on school music during his then almost 13 years as Superintendent of Music. Major aspects identified are a pursuit of excellence and an innovative approach to professional development. In this, resonances in the contemporary situation are noted.

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Instrumental Practice and Performance 1980. pp. 51-56 Group Instrumental Teaching in the Secondary School F. J. Erickson, Lecturer in Music, Kelvin Grove College of Advanced Brisbane.

I am constrained by circumstances to adopt a viewpoint, the viewpoint of the innovator. The fact is that group instrumental teaching in the sense to which I refer (heterogeneous or multi instrument, on a balanced class ensemble basis) does not yet exist, so far as I am aware, in any Australian school situation. I am therefore denied comment on the immediate situation and the pleasure of retrospect. I cannot invite specific discussion on implementation procedures and effective methods, and these aspects are to me the most interesting of all. What I shall do is to suggest to you a broad framework and conditions, against which group instrumental music teaching may be seen to be both desirable and feasible.

1982. pp. 65-67 Music Education for the Private Music Teacher Rodney Smith, Lecturer in Piano, Adelaide College of Technical and Further Education School of Music

It can be argued that a strong, vital private music teaching sector will be an essential ingredient in the music education scene for years to come. A falling school population, dwindling funds for music education in schools towards job-oriented general education will only reinforce a situation which has continued to exist throughout the good years as well the lean. Private teaching sector continues to flourish because it meets demonstrated need for indepth music learning which cannot be provided in most schools.

1989. p. 57 The Alexander Technique Rosslyn McLeod

Alexander (b. 1869 Tasmania; d 1955 London) began to develop his teaching work in Melbourne during the 1890's. In 1904 he went to London and taught there and in America. His first teacher training course was opened in London in 1931. There are now forty Teacher Training Schools in eleven countries. Australia has seventy Alexander teachers who work in all States. Overseas, many Music and Drama Schools have Alexander teachers on the staff. Here, the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts has two lecturers in the Alexander Technique and all first year drama and music students study the Technique.

1990. pp. 11-16 A "Frameworks" approach to instrumental music study Robbie Grieg, Victoria College

In this paper I want to take a critical look at the way we conduct our instrumental study programs in teacher training institutions, and explore ways of making those programs more responsive to students needs and more compatible with approaches being taken in their broader musical education. The tool I will use for this purpose is the Arts Framework document, which was released two years ago as the official Victorian Ministry of Education's policy document on arts education from years Prep to 10. My personal orientation in instrumental study is toward the teaching of guitar to groups of pre, and post-graduate students.

1990. pp. 57-63 What do you Mean?: A 'traditional' approach? M. Giddens and Richard Owen

This century has witnessed the development of several unique approaches to music education such as, Dalcroze, Orff, Kodaly, and Suzuki. It is commonplace to relegate the approaches of Dalcroze, Orff and Koddly to the classroom, while Suzuki slots neatly into the domain of the instrumental studio. In fact, all of these so-called 'methods' are relevant to instrumental and vocal teaching, because each method aims to achieve a consummate

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musicianship. In the latest edition of the Orff Schulwerk Newsletter, McLaughlin (1990) has provided an interesting discussion entitled Traditional Music Teaching Compared with Newer Approaches. There are several aspects of the article which we believe warrant further discussion.

1992. pp. 96-103 Improvisation: Who needs it? Gavin Franklin, Deakin University, Warrnambool

From time to time I ponder the question about what happens to the products of instrumental programs after they leave school? It would seem a great pity if they could find no community or the ability they had developed, or at least felt that they wanted to. When I talk to secondary instrumental teachers and former student musicians, their opinions are that the non participation rate is fairly high, although no formal research has been done on this, either by the schools or any external agent. It would seem a pity if, having developed to a level of reasonable competence, a fair number of students did not wish to pursue this interest in their lives beyond school.

1994. pp. 70-77 String Teaching in Australia and the need for "Whole Music Education" William Howard, 1994 Churchill Fellow in Music Education

In this paper I am aiming to indicate patterns that emerged for me throughout the Churchill Fellowship tour. I suggest to those who are in a position to influence our teachers, trainee teachers and tertiary students of music that there is a need to review tertiary assessment requirements for our future teachers so that they will graduate with greater expertise.

1995. pp. 1-6 Potential for Partnerships: Community music and tertiary institutions Belle Farmer, Deakin University

Community music making reflects the richness and diversity of music making activities at grass roots level. As an emergent field of study, community music is attracting the interest of researchers, policy makers, politicians, community leaders and tertiary music educators at national and international levels. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of community music and the potential that exists for strengthening music education when community music groups and tertiary institutions establish strong partnerships.

1995. pp. 35-41 Voluntarily on the Firing Line: Performance as professional development Karlin Greenstreet Love, University of Tasmania

Music performance is an extremely complex subject, involving analytical and intuitive thinking, kinesthetic awareness, physical stamina, social interaction and non-verbal communication skills, the ability to decode a complex written language, and emotional and spiritual awareness. Few, if any, other academic subjects require such a range. Consequently the demands on the music educator are vast and wide-ranging, particularly when one adds the creative and musicological areas, let alone assessment and administration.

1995. pp. 110-122 Facilitating the Progress of Novice to Expert: Cognitive aspects of instrumental practice Vanda Weidenbach, University of Sydney

Elite musical performance is generally assumed to occur as a consequence of combined innate musical ability, expert teaching, and practice. Recent investigations however suggest that while musical ability is a primary requirement, the effects of practice are more significant than has been previously considered. The beginning instrumentalist is introduced to the fundamentals of the instrument during lessons by the teacher who then expects the student to practise in the intervening period. If these practice periods are to be effective, in addition to providing technical musical instruction, teachers need to inculcate in their students, from the earliest stages of learning, the importance of qualitative practice.

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1996. pp. 103-104 Building a Confidence Performer Dr David Roland, Psychologist

Every performer experiences moments of self-doubt and anxiety. The mental approach to performing is just as important as technical preparation. The performer can prepare themselves for performance through positive self-talk, shedding distracting thoughts, mental imagery, relaxation, health and lifestyle. This round table discussion addresses the psychological issues that relate to successful performing. A conceptual model will be outlined and practical examples of how to work within this model will be given.

1997. pp. 12-20 Self-Regulated Learning and its Influence on Instrumental Performance Practice Dr Vanda Weidenbach, Faculty of Education, University of Sydney

Although learning to play a musical instrument is an activity begun by many individuals, few achieve success. There has been a gradual shift from the previously accepted view of musical giftedness to the effects of practice. Little however is known about the diversity of strategies used by instrumentalists, particularly beginners, Results from a study of practice methods showed that students who were metacognitively engaged in their practice and could be identified as self-regulated learners, made the most significant progress in performance achievement. The outcomes suggest that teachers need to know how their students practise and to assist beginners, in particular, in becoming more metacognitively involved in their own learning.

1998. pp. 146-157 The Effects of Lip-Slur Practice on increasing Pitch Range in Brass-Wind Instrument students Robert L. Benton, School of Instrumental Music Education Department of Western Australia

The study investigated a view commonly held by brass-wind instrumentalists in which practising lip-slurs is a method of increasing the range of one's high register. This study concerned itself exclusively with the physical aspects of brass-wind playing which enable musicians to play with musicality style and taste. While musicality, style and taste are important goals, this study confined itself to the measurement of physical factors.

1999. pp. 197-204 The Contribution of Motivational Factors to Instrumental Performance in a Music Examination Gary E. McPherson John McCormick

This paper reports on a study with 349 instrumentalists between the ages of 9 and 1$ who completed a self report questionnaire immediately before undertaking an externally assessed music performance examination. The first purpose was to clarify the degree to which internal attributions were cited by students to explain their results on the performance examination. The second purpose was to investigate a range of self-regulatory and motivational influences which predict student results in the performance examination. Results show that an ability to perform proficiently relies not only on technical and expressive skill, but also on the employment of a range of motivational resources.

1999. pp. 205-210 The "Tsumari" Phenomenon in Performance of Beat Division: Differences in beginner's deviation and musician's deviation Hiromichi Mito

Tsumari is the phenomenon when the first note in a sequence of two eighth-notes is performed shorter than the second. In previous studies, the tsumari has mainly been examined among beginning musicians. The present study examined the occurrence of tsumari among musicians and music beginners to investigate the cause of tsumari in reference to performer's uncontrollability and expressive expression. The result revealed that not only music beginners but also musicians showed tsumari in the performance of two eighth-notes even when they were instructed to perform mechanically. From these findings, it was suggested that there exists some perceptual or motor inclination which is beyond the performers' control in the performance of two eighth-notes.

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1999. pp. 211-215 Effect of Melodic Context on the Tuning accuracy of Beginning and Intermediate Wind Players: A preliminary analysis Steven J. Morrison

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of melodic context on the tuning accuracy of beginning and intermediate instrumentalists. Findings indicated subjects' responses to the tuning pitch were more accurate than to the melodic pitches; no differences were found among the melodic pitches. There was a high positive correlation among the four melodic pitches, but a low positive correlation between the melodic pitches and the tuning pitch. Each subject's error across all five pitches tended to be in a uniform direction. Overall, subjects erred most often in the sharp direction; a stronger tendency toward sharp errors was noted among more experienced students.

1999. pp. 328-332 Instrumental and Classroom Music Education: Towards an integrated music curriculum Belinda Yourn

Instrumental and classroom music teachers have been delivering a music curriculum that runs parallel and rarely intersects. This research will investigate the relationship and attitudes of instrumental and classroom music pedagogues towards an integrated music curriculum. The project aims to bring together the two strands and challenge music educators to view their students' musical development in a fundamentally different way. This research will investigate current practice and attitudes towards an integrated music curriculum in Perth, Western Australia. Classroom and instrumental teachers will complete a questionnaire. Further data will be collected through interviews.

1999. pp. 339-345 The Development of Skills and Artistic Potential in Children David Forrest

The piano music of D.B. Kabalevsky provides an insight into the workings and philosophical underpinnings of a composer of music for children. Specific examples will be drawn from Kabalevsky's Piano Music for Children and Young People, particularly pieces from op. 3/86, Op. 14, op. 27, Op. 39 and op. 89. Each piece becomes a small lesson in itself and some of the material normally includes revisionary elements as well as the new materials to be discussed and worked in the lesson. Kabalevsky identified the pieces as a song, dance or march in the title, tempo marking or character. Kabalevsky argued that young students can associate with these three genres and immediately be given an idea of the important characteristics of the piece they are working on.

2000. pp. 86-92 A study of Effective Applied Violin Instruction of the Master Teacher for students at Intermediate and Advanced Level Sheau-Fang Low

Literature has shown that violin teachers lack an instructional model to which they could aspire. The purpose of this study is to identify the underlying principles that contribute to the effectiveness of applied violin instruction for students at intermediate and advanced level. A case study approach has been chosen for close examination of the instructional process of one violin master teacher. Preliminary results have shown that repertoire selection, efficient teaching strategies, and openness to the use of technology to enhance teaching, are factors contributing to the success of applied violin instruction of the master teacher.

2001, pp. 15-26 Parents as Facilitators of Effortful Approaches to Music Practice Felicia Chadwick, University of Newcastle

This paper examines the role of parents in facilitating children's effortful approaches to daily music practice. The findings contribute previously unreported qualitative insights into the nature and extent of parental involvement with children's music practice routines, demonstrating ways in which musically informed and involved parents construct

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well-defined music practice tasks, of appropriate levels of difficulty, in accordance with their children's musical experience levels. Additionally, the use of informative feed back pertaining to technical aspects of musical skill development is evident. The data also contain descriptions of strategies employed by parents to encourage children's engagement with deliberate repetition.

2001. pp. 73-80 The Teaching of Intonation Accuracy for Students above the Elementary Level: An area of emphasis in applied violin instruction Sheau-Fang Low

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate ways in which violin teachers could assist students above the elementary level to improve their intonation. A case study was conducted with three violin master teachers in Sydney: Professor Shi-Xiang Zhang, Goetz Richter and Janet Davies. Grounded theory procedures were used. Accuracy of intonation was identified as one of the major areas of emphasis in the curricular decisions employed by the master teachers. Results demonstrate that playing with good intonation could be instilled into students if appropriate teaching strategies were used. It was observed that methods used to improve accuracy of intonation differ for each master teacher.

2001. pp. 119-130 Variation in Musicians' Experience of Creating Ensemble Anna Reid, Macquarie University Peter Petocz, University, of Technology, Sydney

In this paper, we describe phenomenography, and its application in investigating the experience of the recorder consort. Phenomenography is used to carry out an analysis of a small number of interviews with members of the ensemble. The analysis elucidates the process of negotiation between musicians in rehearsal and shows that a Professional Entity is apparent. The results of the study have important pedagogical implications, enabling teachers to help students develop their conceptions of music, while the methodology can be a useful tool for researchers in music education.

2002. pp. 26-40 Alternative Strategies for the Tertiary Teaching of Piano Mr Ryan J. Daniel, James Cook University

One of the most debated and indeed challenging issues to emerge is the rationale for one to one instrumental tuition. The arguments for and against the continuation of one to one tuition appear largely to be based on perception. The literature reveals issues concerning the efficacies and efficiencies of teaching which must be addressed. The rationale for an alternative method of the teaching piano at the tertiary level is argued. The construction and progression of the model in implementation will be discussed, as will evaluative data gathered from participating students. The paper concludes by proposing a number of implications and possible directions for instrumental pedagogy at the tertiary level.

2002. pp. 168-178 Some Considerations Concerning Current Career Prospects for Newly Credentialed Private Music Teachers in the Australian Context Rodney L. Smith, University, of Adelaide

In this paper, it is asserted that Australian private music teachers are experiencing a widening gulf between the increasing breadth and depth of study they undertake during initial training and the static recognition and rewards they can command in the freelance workplace. Hampered by small, ageing, under- credentialed memberships many private teaching associations have shown themselves powerless to help better qualified teachers. Several attempts at self-regulation have failed. Since regulation by legislation as in the New Zealand model is unlikely, it is argued that well credentialed private teachers may now need to seek association with established educational organisations such as the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

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2003. pp. 170-177 Artistic Practice as Research in the Conservatorium Huib Schippers, Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University

In the academic environment, a Conservatorium is often considered somewhat of an eccentric presence, with its insistence on artistic rather than academic excellence. Contemporary research redefines the academic relevance of the Conservatorium in terms of creative research. From this perspective, the musician is a researcher. The performer consults a vast database of information, of which the performance represents the conclusions of this process. New directions in research aims to represent an important step in mapping out these choices and the processes underlying them. Included are not only obvious factors such as technical skills, repertoire, arrangements, and instrumentation, but also less tangible aspects such as expression, creativity, and quality.

2003. pp. 240-252 Modern Saxophone Performance: Classical, jazz and crossover style Rebecca M. Tyson, Griffith University.

With the dawn of the 21" century, the modern Saxophonist often faces the challenge of focusing solely on one particular musical style. This paper attempts to delve into the physical, emotional and mental demands of three musical `avenues' namely: Classical. Jazz and a hybrid of these two styles - crossover music. The paper will discuss the varying education methods each style demands, as well as repertoire, Saxophone "set-ups"" and other such paraphernalia pertinent to the modern player. Primarily this paper will address these three avenues with research derived from current Saxophone performers and teachers, and should be regarded as an educational tool for the modern player.

2003. pp. 276-289 Examining the Constructs used to Assess Music Performance Excellence William J. Wrigley, Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University Stephen B. Emmerson, Queensland Conservatorium Griffith University Patrick R. Thomas, Faculty of Education Griffith University

This paper examines the use of musical constructs by practitioners in their assessment of music performance across the five instrument families of strings, piano, woodwind, brass, and voice. It outlines the qualitative research methods and results of a recent study aimed at determining the constructs employed most frequently by examiners in assessing students' music performances at the Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University. The commonalities and idiosyncrasies are explored and implications for the assessment of performance in music education are discussed. This study was supported by two Griffith University, Quality Enhancement Grants.

2004. pp. 25-39 Teaching Australian Cello Music to Intermediate Students: An exploratory study of motivation through repertoire Anne I. Berry, University of Queensland

This paper explores the motivational aspects of contemporary and Australian music repertoire for intermediate student cellists. Research into interest and intrinsic motivation related to the learning of instrumental music has been limited to date. The paper presents the findings of a purpose-designed questionnaire distributed to cello teachers in Queensland. The questionnaire gathered information on the most frequently used teaching repertoire. It is hoped that information collated from this research will be of benefit in the selection of motivational repertoire for intermediate student cellists and especially in promoting the composition of Australian pieces for intermediate cellists.

2004. pp. 95-106 Instrument Teaching and Learning: An exploration of self-reflection on action and resultant impact on a small group learning environment Ryan J. Daniel, James Cook University

One of the emerging areas of focus in the higher education music environment is the means by which to engage students more directly in the teaching and learning process. While expert guidance is clearly critical, the need to

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enable students to acquire and develop independent learning skills is arguably critical during undergraduate education with its increasing emphasis on generic skills. This paper outlines the rationale for, methodology applied, and reflections on the introduction of a self reflection mechanism for students participating in a trial of small-group tertiary piano teaching.

pp. 315- 328 The Musical Dropout: A New Perspective Jennifer M. A. St. George, University of Newcastle

This paper presents the literature analysis for a PhD research proposal. The study aims to develop a detailed understanding of the attitudes, perspectives, and experiences, of young people who discontinue musical instrument lessons in studio and school settings. The paper will examine the extant literature and suggest a fresh perspective on this topic. Recent research shows family and school surroundings profoundly influence children's music education. The researcher's intention is to explore the contexts that shape students' decisions to give up learning. A deeper understanding of these pedagogical and cultural processes may lead us to re-examine and renew methods and settings of instruction.

2004. pp. 347-357 Preparing Instrumental Music Teachers to Deliver the Senior School Music Performance Syllabuses Offered in Australian Schools Dr Amanda R. Watson, Department of Education & Training, Victoria Associate Professor David L. Forrest, RMIT University

This paper will consider the place of the assessment of performance courses as documented in the senior school music syllabuses in Australia. This will build on the work previously undertaken by Watson and Forrest (2004). The paper will identify the assessment criteria used by examiners as documented by the various Boards of Study. It will raise issues concerned with the preparation of instrumental music and studio music teachers, to effectively prepare students. Issues include the isolated environment, educational background and experience, and their understanding of the requirements of current school curricula.

2005. pp. 73-80 Women in Brass: Re-examining Gendered Involvement in Music, A Preliminary Report into Musical Preference Stereotypes Dr Scott D. Harrison, Griffith University

There is a well-proven stereotypical preference for musical instruments, based on masculine/feminine binaries. Recent interest in the education of boys has brought about a renewed focus on engaging boys in playing the socalled feminine musical instruments. The dearth of females playing so-called masculine instruments has not gone unnoticed, but frameworks for investigating females' participation have been driven almost entirely by a feminist agenda. As one of the major areas in which female participation does not match their male counterparts is in that of brass playing. This paper reports on the preliminary stages of a project aimed at engaging more females in playing brass instruments.

2005. pp. 89-97 What is the Place of Instrumental Music in Schools? Reviewing the Future of Instrumental Music Programs Dr Sharon M. Lierse, RMIT University

Thirty-five factors have been identified which influenced the development of instrumental music programs in Victorian government secondary schools. These factors were placed in five categories, which were personnel, policy, provision, profession and place. The subject of the place of instrumental music in schools will be the focus of the paper. The factors under the category of place were itinerancy, connection between the instrumental and classroom music programs, connection between the Secondary, Technical and Primary Divisions, Regional Music Placement Schools, Victorian College of the Arts Secondary School, government primary schools and music in the community. The research was part of a PhD study concluded this year.

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2006. pp. 126-137 The Relationship of Practice to Continued Participation in Musical Instrument Learning Jennifer M. St. George, University of Newcastle

The aim of this study was to investigate students' perceptions of their progress and learning when studying a musical instrument. An important objective was to compare students who were continuing their instrumental learning to those who had discontinued. A questionnaire was completed by 376 primary and secondary students, of whom 31% had discontinued their learning. The results showed a significant difference between these two groups on a number of variables. Discontinuers were less confident in their practice, and were lower in self-efficacy than were continuers. Overall, the findings provide insight into students' perceptions of their own learning processes.

Interrelated Music Education 1981. pp. 106-116 Interdisciplinary Co-operation revisited: A report on the development of multi-arts curriculum in Australian schools with particular reference to the CDC multi-arts project D. A. Simper, Marion High School, Adelaide, South Australia

In 1976 the Curriculum Development Centre (Canberra) formed a study group to report on 'The Expressive Arts in Education'. The Study Group met during 1976-1977 to investigate the 'place of the arts in schools'. Its reports highlighted the isolation of the arts in schools and society, in spite of some breakdown of the traditional division between them. It emphasized the importance of focusing arts curricula on the local culture of that area embracing the artistic community in the educational process. The report also noted the rigid stratification between the different levels of schooling and its effect on arts education, and the decline of student involvement in the arts in senior secondary school.

1983. pp.60-62 A Class in Residence at the St George Institute of Education Music in Integrated Studies Dianne Bishop, Lecturer in Music, St George Institute of Education Sydney

In April, 1983, the year six class of the Jannali Public School spent a week in residence at the St George Institute of Education, Oatley N.S.W. It is a well established facet of institute's Teacher Education Programme for classes from local schools to attend lessons at the campus for periods of half a day or less. The hosting of a class for a more extended time, however, was an innovation. This paper seeks to outline and evaluate the role of Music in the programme and to identify some implications of the visit for teacher education.

1993. pp. 153-161 Matching Musical and Mathematical Patterns Steven Nisbet, Griffith University

The association between mathematics and music has been well documented for centuries. This project is an investigation of the role of contour as a possible common element. It focuses firstly on the role of contour in the matching of melodic and visual contours, and secondly on the relationship between children's ability in mathematics and their ability in music. The results of the melody and visual contour matching tasks revealed that children (aged 10) with high music ability were more competent than those with low ability at tasks involving conventional music notation, but not at tasks involving non-conventional music notation.

2006. pp. 73-80 Living the arts: The City of Melbourne and ArtPlay Dr Neryl Jeanneret & Robert Brown, University of Melbourne

ArtPlay is the first permanent home for children's art and play in Australia. Inspired by The Ark in Dublin, it was established in 2003 by the City of Melbourne as a part of the artistic, creative and cultural development of Melbourne as a child-friendly city. In 2005, the Council provided funding for a pilot research study to identify and

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map engagement, learning and cultural citizenship for children undertaking ArtPlay's artist-led workshops. This study provided researchers with a unique opportunity to document, understand and analyse possible connections and interrelationships between children's engagement in art making learning and cultural citizenship.

2007. pp. 177-185 Values of Music Learning through Initiatives in Arts Education across the Curriculum Dr. Lai Chi R. Yip, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong, China

With the revival of interest in integrative learning approaches in some parts of the world, initiatives in integrating music learning with other art forms or non-arts disciplines are gaining increased attention in Hong Kong schools. How much value this has to music learning is of interest to music educators. This paper reports on the case studies involving two primary schools with different principles. A questionnaire was administered to all students after they have participated in these classes to retrieve collective quantitative data to see the impact of integrative learning on students. Teachers involved were interviewed to reveal their perspectives regarding pedagogy and values they hold in these initiatives

Listening 1992. pp. 161-172 Understanding New Age Music Robbie Grieg

Record stores everywhere bear testimony to the emergence of a major new player on the music market. Wherever its wares are displayed the record racks overflow, and people come in increasing numbers to partake of its offering. I refer of course to the phenomenon of New Age music, a loose collection of music's from many genres that are perceived as sharing a common mood and a common intent. What is New Age music? Where did it come from? Can it be legitimately viewed as a distinct musical genre? What implications does it have to music education generally? These are some of the questions this paper seeks to explore.

1999. pp. 233-240 The Preference of Signal Music at Railway Stations in Tokyo Yoko Ogawa, Tazu Mizunami Teruo Yamasaki

This paper investigates whether musical features cause artificial sound pollution. In 1989, Japan Railway Company proposed departure music when the train leaves the platform at two stations in place of the electric bell. A diverse selection of departure signal music has been played, but there is considerable disagreement among travelers on its assessment. 'Noisiness' is defined as an 'unpleasant impression caused by sound itself. According to many researchers, there are various physical factors which degrade the quality of sound, but I limit the discussion to the musical features: How do people feel about different kinds of departure signal music and aspects of music which arouses people's displeasure/pleasure.

2006. pp. 138-143 A Preliminary Discussion of `Cross-media Listening' as a Means of Enhancing Classroom Music Experiences Dr Michael H. Webb Sydney Conservatorium of Music, The University of Sydney

School students' immersion in a rich entertainment media environment has implications for classroom listening. In diverse and imaginative ways sound and music is being aligned with moving images in media products, including interactive formats. In this article I propose an approach I term cross-media listening, which variously merges aural, visual, spatial and kinesthetic orientations to music. Grounded in sound pedagogical principles and expounded through a series of analyses, cross-media listening as outlined in the article advocates a reintegrated, multi-domain, body-mind approach to encountering music in educational settings.

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Music Literacy, Aural Perception, Harmony 1979. pp. 34-43 Musical Thought: A neglected aspect of music education? Dr. M. Stuart Collins, Kelvin Grove CA E, Queensland

At the last ASME Conference in Canberra, Dr. Clive Pascoe spoke on `Music in the Community'. After a closely reasoned argument, he concluded by claiming that `the intrinsic value of music in the community, and, hence, the intrinsic value of music education in the community, lies in its power to order and structure thinking processes of the human mind'. But what is musical thinking, what is the essence of musical thought? Can such essence be demonstrated, can we all hear it in the concert hall, can it be summarized in words? What, for example, is the essential musical thinking behind, say, Beethoven's `Fifth Symphony' or the Prelude `Canope' by Debussy?

1981. pp. 20-37 Perception and Concepts of' Musical Rhythms in Primary School Children John Wise, Education Department, Victoria

The perception of musical rhythms by older primary-school children and the concepts they have of rhythms were explored in a replication of study- by Bamberger (1975). Of particular interest were the relationships between two hypothesised concepts of rhythm, prior musical. training, and cognitive development. A sample of 105 fourth and sixth grade girls, selected to represent contrasting levels of prior musical training, were given two experimental tasks. The first was to make a drawing of a rhythm they had learned to clap. The second task was a forced choice matching-test made of drawings authorised to incorporate principles of the two rhythm concepts. Content analyses of the drawings by two judges offered support for Bamberger's (1975) findings.

1984. pp. 49-52 Auditory functioning: The missing link in education Deanna Hoermann, Department of Education N.S.W.

Auditory functioning in the sense that I am discussing it, is not simply nearing, not even auditory acuity, but something more. Auditory, functioning is listening, perceiving and ultimately comprehending. It is dependent upon the sense impressions transmitted to and processed by the brain. There are different levels at which we listen. Sometimes one is vaguely aware of sound, sufficiently perhaps to recognize a person's voice, a particular type if music or some background environmental sound. At other times, we listen intermittently, switching off, or allowing the mind to wander.

1985. pp. 64-71 Children's Perceptions of Music Elements Olive McMahon, Brisbane College of Advanced Education, Kelvin Grove Camp

Field experience indicates that young children have major difficulties in understanding some concepts such as pitch. This is not because of perceptual or intellectual limitations, biological or developmental, but because some of the terms used have more than one meaning. Young children tend to concentrate on the meaning they are most familiar with, many of these having emotional over-tones such as high and low. Andrews and Madeira (1977) suggest that young children may fail to complete pitch discrimination tests due to an inability to deal with the relational language used in such tasks.

1985. pp. 92-112 Eye before Ear or Ear before Eye? Dr Mary Lou Sheil, Medical Practitioner and Music Educator Hunters Hill, New South Wales

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The paper discusses childhood development in regards to auditory and visual maturity in young children and the rationale. The introduction of Kodaly, Orff and Suzuki has changed the way music is now taught to young children. Until recent times, formal music training was not begun until a child could handle the written musical code. Nowadays, children are starting to play instruments earlier and earlier, and in many i n s t a n c e s t h e i r m u s i c a l instruction is beginning at two and three years of age. At this young age their eyes are not ready to read music they are learning by ear alone. This practice of teaching by ear alone has thrown the music teaching world into uproar.

1985. pp. 113-138 Mental Models of Musical Sight Reading Richard K. Lowe, Murdoch University, Western Australia

The question of' whether or no t it is possible to significantly improve instrumental sight reading by means of instruction is contentious. This paper discusses the results from a project that involving ten professional, and ten nonprofessional cellists to ascertain the different ways professional cellists coped with sight reading tasks in their work as professional orchestral musicians. Three aspects of the study are detailed. The categorizing of the sight reading excerpts, the players are asked to comment on, the conditions under which the music would be played, and the operational concepts the players held about themselves.

1987. pp. 53-62 Fixed versus Movable Doh; An excursion into musical mythology M. Giddens, Victoria College Toorak Campus

Fixed or Movable Doh? This question has inspired acrimonious debate for well over a century. However the value of this argument, and it's imitate contribution to any enrichment of music education, seems doubtful. The aim of this paper is to focus attention on an historical conception which has its origin in the fixed versus movable doh controversy. To this end, the discussion will highlight three distinctive influential approaches to sightsinging and aural training, Dalcroze who employed a fixed Doh, Curwen, who used a movable doh and Kodaly who also utilizes a movable doh.

1987. pp. 16-28 Towards Accuracy and Consistency of Terminology used in Music Education Noela Hogg, Victoria College, Burwood Campus

When one compares the terminology used in music education texts, it is clear that there are many different opinions about: what constitutes the main concepts in music; the placement of the various sub-concepts in relation to these major concepts; the definitions of some of the, terminology used by music educators. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some of these inconsistencies and to make a plea for music educators to establish procedures whereby a consistent taxonomy of music concepts can be developed. I wish first to draw your attention to the diversity of opinion about what constitutes the major elements of music, beginning with significant Australian texts.

1998. pp. 26-33 Relationships between Textual Literacy and Music literacy in young Children Carmen Cheong-Clinch Dr. John Geake, School of Education, Southern Cross University Lismore, NSW

This study investigated some possible relationships between textual literacy and music literacy in young children. The study involved twelve case studies of' young children aged between five to eight from the researcher's piano teaching studio. The data consisted of school classroom observations, interviews with the pupils' classroom teachers, interviews with parents, school reports, music studio journals, and aural and written tasks devised for this research. The results suggest that children who demonstrate weaknesses in text reading have weaknesses in music reading, while children who have high text reading abilities also perform well in reading and performing music. Music lessons may be helpful in reinforcing some information processing skills necessary for successful reading.

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1999. pp. 7-17 Accessing the Child's View: A Study of a five-year-old's descriptions and explanations of invented notations Margaret S, Barrett

In this paper the musically/notational discourse of a pre-literate musically naive five-year-old kindergarten child is examined in conjunction with his verbal discourse, in order to probe the child's understanding of the music/notation experience.

1999. pp. 140-143 The Development of a Music Aptitude Test for 4th to 9th Grade Students in Korea Kyungsil Hyun

This paper provides a description of the Korean Music Aptitude Test (KMAT), for 5th to 9th grade Korean students. There has been efforts to apply music aptitude tests developed in Western countries to Korean students. Studies showed that aptitude tests by Gordon can measure Western music aptitude of Korean students, but they do not measure Korean music aptitude of Korean students. Therefore, Korean students need a music aptitude test that can measure both Western and Korean music aptitude. To address this need we developed the Korean music aptitude test.

1999. pp. 254-258 Applying Music Psychology to Music Education: Can perceptual theory inform undergraduate harmony? Richard Parncutt

An undergraduate harmony course is presented that is grounded in recent research on the perception of harmony and tonality, and makes relevant aspects of that research accessible to music students. Perceptual theory can shed light on general basic issues of harmony. The proposed course is intended to complement and enrich more familiar historical and notational approaches. All possible chords, functions, or harmonic sequences conforming to clearly defined perceptual constraints are systematically enumerated using pitch-class set theory. Relevant perceptual properties (consonance, interrelationships) of the elements, calculated according to available models, are then compared with both their musical function in conventional harmonic theory and with their frequency of occurrence in relevant musical literature.

1999. pp. 273-277 Teaching Music Through Iconic and Enactive Modes Mikyung Rim

This paper introduces several kinds of the iconic scores for the youngster's song and the listening example. It also demonstrates how to make and use them in the singing and listening sessions. Lesson plans with the iconic scores for each session are presented. The subject of every lesson plan is a student and each step of the lesson plan shows what students do. Consequently, the lesson plan is based on the enactive mode and an example of student oriented instruction.

2001. pp. 35-42 Identifying Metacognitive Strategies in Aural Perception Tasks: What do students do? Neryl Jeanneret, University of Newcastle Sam Leong, University of Western Australia Jenny Rosevear, Adelaide University

This paper examines aspects of aural perception skills needed by all musicians through the identification of strategies currently being used by music students in three university settings. Students were given combined melodic/rhythmic dictations taken from past New South Wales' Higher School Certificate Aural and Musicology examination papers. After the process students were asked to reflect on and identify the strategies they used, as well as responding to other survey questions about their confidence to do these tasks. A number of levels of confidence were expressed in the student responses. Although on one level the strategies identified by both the confident and

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non-confident students did not differ hugely in their basic approach, the ability to articulate and describe what they were doing did.

2001. pp.159-167 The Case for a Revival of Tonic Sol-fa in the Twenty-First Century Robin Stevens, Deakin University

The Tonic Sol-fa method of teaching singing was developed in England by John Curwen as an aid to reading staff notation. The 1872 Standard Course saw staff notation dispensed with altogether in favour of its own notational system. By the end of the century it had spread around the world. Except for certain aspects in the Kodaly method, it has largely disappeared from contemporary music teaching practice. Surprisingly, Tonic Sol-fa is "alive and well" in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. This paper will present an analysis of Tonic Sol-fa and evaluate its characteristics in terms of contemporary pedagogical and notational theory. The paper will then report on the current use of Tonic Sol-fa in developing countries.

2003. pp. 15-24 Student Preference for Learning: The notion of music literacy? Dr Georgina Barton, Griffith University

The notion of music literacy and how the concept of being musically literate varies across cultural boundaries. Increasingly music educators and researchers acknowledge that a `west-centric' approach to what music literacy is may not necessarily be appropriate given the diverse student population. These views will be explored. The background to this research will then be presented, documenting the findings of a participant-observation case study of a number of music teachers carried out for my doctoral research. Following on from this, the student voice on preference for learning and concept of skill development was acquired. The initial findings of this study (Stage 1) and suggestions for further stages of the research will then be presented.

2005. pp. 98.-105 In Search of the Lost Chord: Reclaiming the Element of Harmony in Contemporary Music Dr Anne K. Mitchell, Southern Cross University

The significance and influence of the musical element of harmony, though fundamental to the aesthetic identity of many musical styles which developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, appears to be greatly reduced in many forms of contemporary music. Contemporary music genres such as hip-hop and grunge are notable for a reduction in harmonic vocabulary and complexity. However, other forms of popular music integral to contemporary music such as film scoring, and stage band performance require highly developed harmonic knowledge. This paper addresses aesthetic and pedagogical issues involved in fostering in beginning contemporary musicians, an understanding of, and respect for, advanced harmonic knowledge.

Music Psychology 1978. pp. 69-80 Language and Music Education: On teaching symbolic systems Elizabeth Dines, Melbourne University

Language and music teachers share common problems in deciding what and how to teach. Confusion arises because of different emphases. The solution lies in considering what constitutes knowledge. Musical knowledge like linguistic knowledge consists of tacit awareness of underlying organising principles of a system. The teacher's role is not so much to teach facts as to preside over the child's induction into the system. Some teachers interpret their role as passive. Others opt for any system without regard for its appropriateness. It is suggested that language and music teachers will best be able to develop explicitly principled teaching on the basis of natural stages and processes of linguistic and musical acquisition.

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1978. pp. 81-88 What If? Janette Cook, University of Melbourne

Let us consider the proposition that music, like language, is a symbolic system and that education in music is, at least in part, an induction into that symbolic system. In this context the term "symbolic system" refers to something much broader than the written symbols, be they crotchets or clusters, which attempt to capture and preserve for future performances the essence of an art which employs sound to occupy the dimension of time. The meaning given to and the interpretation of sounds and combinations of sounds by social groups in a multitude of historical settings, is what is meant here by that term.

1980. pp. 102-104 What do we know about Music Learning? Charles H. Benner, Professor Emeritus, University of Cincinnati, Ohio

The importance of the word music learning in the topic title (instead of music teaching) is that the primary focus in the instructional process is on the learner rather than on the teacher. The recent attention to behavioural objectives has justification in shifting attention from the teacher teaching to the learner learning. This change of focus has at least two effects:(i) the methodology of teaching (ii) the effective teacher must stand ready to be an analyst, a diagostician of both and internal and external conditions present within a teaching-learning situation, and to be skilful and resourceful in altering and adapting the shape of the situation in accordance with effectations aimed at specified learning outcomes.

1981. pp. 117-131 Implications of Piaget's theories for education Janelle Shepherd, Post Graduate student, Adelaide, South Australia

In this paper I will present an outline of Piaget's theories of intellectual development and then draw general conclusions about the implications of these theories for music education. The third section contains a survey of available on the research programmes that have been carried out, theories applied to music development and education. Piaget is undoubtedly recognised as the most important contributor to the field of intellectual development. His studies of children have spanned more than fifty years, and his output, with his collaborators, has been extensive. Naturally he has critics, and there are some whose ideas who differ from his own.

1984. pp. 116-121 Music in the Upper Primary School: A beginning, a continuation or an end? Deanna Hoermann, Department of Education and for the office of the Minister for the Arts NSW

The importance of early music education stands undisputed. The commencement of music training at the upper primary level, is too late for the development of the hearing eye and the seeing ear in all children. Over a period of thirteen years we now have the evidence that the ear can be trained in all children, provided that the training is commenced on entry to school when the child's perceptual functioning is most receptive and when the strategies which are familiar to teachers of young children can be most successfully applied to music.

1985. pp. 30-51 All children understand music: The implications of research conducted with 8-16 year olds for music education Daniele Burkhardt-Byrne, University of New England, New South Wales

This research was motivated by reflections about music as an activity common to all people, rather than as exclusive, an art form in the domain of an elite. My research went some way in demonstrating that there is a clear relationship between identifiable musical variables and specific perceived meaning. It has been suggested that perception of meaning in music changes fundamentally with age between early childhood and adulthood. I shall discuss four aspects; the use of the adjectives or rating scales, the meaning produced by specific musical variables, as they were tested, the meaning of the same variables as they appeared and implications of the findings.

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1985. pp. 52-63 Stages of Artistic Growth in Children's Development: Some implications for arts education Susan Wright, Teacher in the Certificate of Child Care Studies Newcastle Technical College

The literature associated with arts education reveals a general lack of understanding of artistic development. Regardless of the extensive number of developmental theorists, most notably Piaget within the cognitive domain and Erikson and Freud within the affective domain, there are few theories-which examine artistic or aesthetic development. In addition, general developmental textbooks which cover a broad range of areas of development, such as language, physical, social, emotional and cognitive, rarely consider the area of aesthetics, artistry or creativity. At best, these areas are hastily glossed over or perfunctorily subsumed under social or emotional development. There are two implications, the arts are not a serious endstate, and that artistry has little or nothing to do with cognition.

1985. pp. 86-91 Interactions between theories of learning and music: Going beyond the information given Doreen Bridges, New South Wales State Conservatorium

Most of you will recognise the second part of the title from Jerome Bruner. It sums up one of Bruner's main attitudes to the psychology of learning. I want to speak about the need to bridge two gaps; on the one hand between psychological theories of learning and the actual practice of music teaching, on the other hand between the teaching/ learning process as applied to music and the verification of existing theories or development of new ones. Both are aspects of going beyond information given.

1989. pp. 58-67 A Process Approach to Teacher Education Margaret Barrett, Tasmanian State Institute of Technology

In recent years the work of a number of researchers in the field of language acquisition, has greatly influenced our understanding of how children learn oral language. Smith (1978), Holdaway (1979), and more recently, Cambourne (1988) amongst others, appear to have reached agreement about certain factors connected with the ways in which children learn oral language. These factors, have had a major impact on the way in which we think about children's language acquisition in its spoken form, and consequently, the way in which we think about children's acquisition of the written forms of language. This has resulted in a number of initiatives within education, with particular reference to the development of literacy skills in children.

1991. pp. 207-244 Body, Mind and Spirit: The stages of musical development Robbie Grieg

The ideas for this paper have been hanging about for the past two years, ever since my studies led me into the realms of developmental psychology and modern consciousness research, and I began trying to relate these disciplines to the meditation technique I had been practising for some years. I was interested to see how far psychology had managed to incorporate and assimilate the valuable insights into human well-being contained in the so-called consciousness disciplines, the various techniques of self-growth practised by people from many different cultures.

1994. pp. 45-58 Music as an Agent for Self-Esteem Development amongst the Confused Elderly Robbie Grieg, Deakin/Monash/VUT

While the study is not directly concerned to advance the cause of music education, it is nonetheless an example of how a contemporary model of music education theory can be utilised in conjunction with ideas from other disciplines-in this case music therapy, gerontology and self-esteem psychology-to develop a music program specifically targeted towards the needs of a particular population. Also, the study does raise some interesting questions regarding the role of personal empowerment within a music program, and may hold some interest in terms of the research methodology employed.

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1999. pp. 79-83 The Construction of the Musical Memory in the Subject: A study of the cognitive processes Esther Beyer

This paper addresses the research question, how does the musical memory work, according to a constructivist theory?

1999. pp. 184-190 Education and the Development of Structural Hearing: A study with children Isabel Cecilia Martinez Favio Shifres

The purpose of this study has been to explore, evidence about the acquisition of structural hearing (Salzer 1962,1990) from a developmental perspective. Results of an experiment with children between six and fourteen years old are presented. In this exploratory study we have hypothesised that some of the variables involved in structural hearing are: the quality of the surface to convey direction and its relationship with the conveyed direction of the underlying structure, the actual length of the prolongation. In this way there would be certain melodic movements that would benefit the prolongation of the underlying structure.

1999. pp. 227-232 Preferential Listening Responses to Matched and Mismatched Harmony in Infants Hiromi Nito, Yoko Minami Naoko Niinobe

In this paper a study of infant's listening preferences for consonant and dissonant harmonic examples is described. Infants listening preferences were tested in two experiments. The hypothesis that infant's discrimination between consonance and dissonance is based on the level of discordance in the harmonic progression was proved.

2004. pp. 163-175 The Impact of Music Education on Children's Overall Development: Towards a proactive advocacy Dr Noel Geoghegan, University of Southern Queensland Ms Janine M. McCaffrey, University of Southern Queensland

Children aged 3-5 years display natural ability in musical intelligence. Gardner (1983) has stated that of all the gifts with which individuals may be endowed, none emerges earlier than musical talent. Assisting young children to develop this early intelligence enables them to use and develop their natural strengths and build on positive experiences to channel into less dominant areas of intelligence. This paper explores the impact of early music education on a child's overall development, emphasizing cognition and spatial-temporal reasoning. Music advocacy in Australia will be discussed, with a view to encouraging a change in the present perception of music as an exclusively fun experience for children.

2004. pp. 228-232 Student Composition in a Technology Based Environment. A Social Cognitive Interpretation of Motivation, Efficacy and Self-Regulatory Behaviour Bradley Merrick, Barker College, Hornsby

Albert Bandura's seminal work in Social Cognitive Theory (1986, 1997) identifies that self-efficacy is a key determinant of a human's level of motivation. Many studies have identified the strength of self-efficacy as a predictor of `academic' achievement in core subject areas. Few studies have investigated its influence in the domain of music. Drawing upon a range of student work samples and researcher developed measures, this paper will identify and discuss the relationship that this theory has when students work creatively in a music technology based classroom. Case studies of students who display, low, moderate and high levels of perceived ability will be highlighted.

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2006. pp. 23-27 Music and Stress Management: An Overview of the Research Zhiwen Gao, Monash University

There are many different research approaches in the history of stress management in which music therapy plays an integral part. In many studies stress is measured in terms of changes in certain physical characteristics of the human body. The physical characteristics involve directly measurable changes. An approach has been to compare how participants respond to different music in an attempt to understand stress management. Specifically, a number of studies that explore different kinds of music used for relaxation, has a pronounced influence over stress. This paper will present an overview of current research in the use of music in stress management.

2006. pp. 71-78 Shifting the Focus from `Product' to `Process': An Investigation of the Behaviors of Skilled and Naive Self-regulators while Creating Music in a Classroom Setting Dr Bradley M Merrick, Barker College, NSW

Contemporary education practices suggest that teachers need to become more aware of how students think, act and regulate their behaviour as they participate in the learning process. The `Cycle of Academic Regulation' (Zimmerman, 1998) provides a framework through which to observe students. This paper will examine the nature and degree of skilful and naive self-regulated behaviour exhibited by students as they create their own piece of music. Using a mixed method approach and a combination of qualitative and quantitative data from student case studies, the varying use of `product' and `process' oriented behaviour by skilled and naive self-regulators will be examined through the context of music composition.

2006. pp. 111-115 A case study in performance tension: responding to the vulnerable child Dr Jane Southcott, Monash University Dr Janette Simmonds, Monash University

Performance tension is commonly experienced in many fields, including music. Self help books predominate in the existing literature. Often the suggested remedies are not tailored to the needs of the individual. A refined approach, based on systematic, developed research is needed. In the case study reported here, questions that were systematically investigated included: What happens when a performer faces his or her audience? What psychological processes occur that might ease and enhance music performance? This research aims to explore these questions and provide recommendations that will inform music educators who are commonly faced with both their own and their students' performance tension.

2007. pp. 95-103 I Will Get Better at Class Music in the Future: Reviewing the Construct of Expectancies within Expectancy-Value Theory in the Class Music Domain Geoffrey M. Lowe, Edith Cowan University

Eccles (1983) Expectancy-Value Theory has a substantial research history and has been applied across a range of subject domains to help explain student achievement motivation. While the theory differentiates values into four components, expectancy beliefs are described only in global terms. However, research by Harter (1982), albeit from a related theoretical perspective, implies that expectancies via competence beliefs in class music may also differentiate into four components. As part of a larger study into the impact of learning activities on student motivation to continue class music, this paper will report on the potential for differentiated expectancy components to be incorporated into an Expectancy-Value framework specific to class music.

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2007. pp. 112-123 Valuing self-reflection in music performance: An evaluation of self-regulation and strategy development in adolescents Dr Bradley M Merrick, Barker College

Models of learning continue to place an onus upon the individual to develop their use of metacognition and selfreflection as they strive to complete tasks and learn more about their actions (Pajares & Urden, 2002). The act of music performance provides an opportunity for students to refine their ability through purposeful assessment of their progress. This paper explores the different reflective processes and strategies employed by adolescents as they prepare for a practical music exam. This paper draws upon qualitative data and annotations collected from secondary students, providing an insight into their thinking and the different type and degree of self-regulatory behaviour that they use as musicians.

2007. pp. 144-153 "It goes to where you live": Psychological and physiological manifestations of performance anxiety Jane E. Southcott, Monash University Janette G. Simmonds Performance tension is a complex issue that can have both positive and negative aspects. Some degree of tension is experienced by most musicians and appears to be necessary to achieve peak performance. However, the negative aspects of the performance tension are often referred to as performance anxiety. The condition can be debilitating to the point that performers can be discouraged from the further study of music. In this research project, a number of musicians and non-musicians have been interviewed. As young musicians are

Music Technology 1985. pp. 229- 232 The Roland Keyboard Laboratory and Music Education Steve Watson, Macarthur Institute of Higher Education, New South Wales

The Roland Keyboard Laboratory system can be utilized in many ways to teach musicianship skills to students of all ages. Below is a list of ideas that I have found useful in developing various skills of musicianship. It is assumed that the operation of the keyboard laboratory system is understood by the readers. It should be mentioned however, that the system which uses twelve keyboards can be divided provide the opportunity for group work, as well as individual work.

1989. pp. 51-56 Accessing Music Skill and Understanding via technology: "Great Fun-amazing tool!" Jane Southcott, School of Education Monash University College Gippsland

Prior to this year I had avoided spending much time with computers, on the grounds that they could not do what I wanted. I maintained that when technology caught up with my demands I would then give it my time and attention. I am now well and truly hoist with my own petard. A grant was approved for the purchase of an extended keyboard laboratory which was approved. Whilst writing the specifications for tender I found myself using such terms as "midi capable" and "a real time digital sequencer with a built in sound module". After much advice the tender was published and let. By then I could quote makes and model numbers with alacrity.

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1991. pp. 251-266 Reflecting on Contemporary Technological Developments: Predictions for innovative teaching and learning in the 21st Century Vanda Weidenbach

When AMEL was formed in 1978, few of us attending that conference entitled Towards a Rationale for Music Education, would have thought as far ahead as the year 2000, and computer technology was not on the agenda. We are now less than a decade from the next century. Students currently in the primary school will enter our institutions in the year 2000 and the majority of them will be computer literate. Unless we begin to plan for this new era now, we may find ourselves irrelevant to the needs of the students preparing to live and work in a society very different from the one for which we were trained.

1992. pp. 24-45 Gee-Whiz is not the only Response: Music educators attitudes to new technologies Carol Biddiss, University of south Australia

This review of articles in recent education journals (1982-1991), on music, technology, computers and elementary education, is structured around a number of themes to uncover the influences of various theories of education. The teacher as smart technician examines articles which describe new technology. The second theme, music teacher as arts educator, seats music in a context of arts or aesthetic education. In the third theme, new technologies are viewed as harmful. Technology transplant versus a reconstructed curriculum notes practices which relieve the teacher of donkey-work. A reconstructed curriculum examines innovations sparked by the technology itself. Technology as a creative sound tool is concerned with creativity or thinking skills which is driven by a developmental psychology model.

1992. pp. 46-57 SoundScope II and the Mozart Program: Software developed at the Sydney Conservatorium Dr Leonard Burtenshaw, University of Sydney

During 1991-1992, the Sydney Conservatorium Software Development Centre devoted research grants to developing software packages. The research has built on SoundScope I. In some respect SoundScope II for the ATARI TT and STE has some similar functions to Hypercard and its basic function is that of an authoring tool for developing other software programs. SoundScope II brings together many differing medias of communication eg CD, MIDI, animation, text and combines them together in any way the user requires. This effectively allows a user to create such diverse products as discussions of music and multiple choice tests. SoundScope II has been radically reorganised and rethought to allow pictures, text, buttons, pointers, animation, CD.

1992. pp. 58-68 Experiments in Videoconferencing: Implications for music education Dr Leonard Burtenshaw, University of Sydney

Although videoconferencing units have been used since the seventies, it is only recently that the potential of videoconferencing for teaching and research purposes has become a reality. To provide the Conservatorium Faculty with an understanding of the various technical means and the teaching and research strategies in distance learning, Associate Professor Betty Lawrence, was pointed in 1992. Her report, "Extended Campus Programs-Future Directions for the Conservatorium of Music, Sydney" made recommendations for the Conservatorium to embark on a series of experiments in distance learning in various areas of musical instruction, and to consolidate these experiments through teaching and research commitments in addition to purchasing the appropriate equipment.

1992. pp. 104-116 The Role of the Body in Computer Music Education: Some physiological implications M. Giddens

I have put together some thoughts, insights, and intuitions relating to computer technology and the role of this technology in music education, and its relationship, if any, to rhythmic sensitivity. My priority has been the teaching of rhythm and, more specifically, current trends in kinesthetic rhythmic education. Adolphe Appia, the Genevan

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stage theorist, observed that 'Rhythm is in Man.' His colleague, Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, devoted his life to helping students to translate this corporeal rhythm to musical performance. Nonetheless, while musical rhythms may spring from the body, teaching students to play rhythmically is no easy matter. Listen to young instrumentalists (and the not so young) and it will be discovered that the ingredient most often lacking is a personal rhythmic vitality.

1992. pp. 287-302 HyperCard as a Medium for Off-Campus Teaching of Music: Implications for music education practice Robin Stevens, Senior Lecturer in Music Education

This paper reports on an innovative approach to delivering parts of a music education unit using computer-aided learning software. The problem with most traditional approaches to teaching music notation-including selfinstructional materials is that the visual representation of music is divorced from the aural stimulus of music. Two of the most potentially useful aspects of a computer for music education are its ability to generate and/or replay musical sounds, and its ability to randomly access both visual and auditory material. Developments in computer hardware and software have resulted in computers being able to replay music of a highly complex nature. The computer represents an almost ideal medium for many aspects of music teaching and learning.

1993. pp. 112-118 Film and Electronic Media Students and Music Composition Carol Biddiss, University of South Australia, Underdale

This paper examines three notions: democratisation of music-making, the rise of multitrack recording and computer assisted learning. These notions inform the design of a research project proposed for 1994, semester. The research will take the form of an ethnographic study of a group of students using computers and computer musical instruments to compose music for film and electronic media. From this research I hope to formulate some implications about how tertiary students, from a variety of musical or not so musical backgrounds, may best learn music, when their chosen course or career is not substantively in the field of music.

1993. pp. 119-124 Investigating Assessment Alternatives: The feasibility of developing a computer interactive music test Jennifer Bryce, Australian Council for Educational Research

This paper will describe steps in progress to explore the feasibility of developing a computer interactive music test which requires only basic computer hardware for operation, but in which the quality of the music is not compromised. A 'model' which has been developed will be demonstrated. It has the following features: multiple choice questions; graphics, notation and printed questions appear on the computer screen; students activate the sound stimuli (for each question) as they are needed; students will be able to receive immediate feedback (if desired); and a record of each student's responses will be stored and a report of results will be produced. The model will be a revised version of ACER 1976.

1993. pp. 125-135 Generative Processing in the Acquisition of Keyboard Performance Skills Vanda Weidenbach, University of Western Sydney, Nepean

The emergence and proliferation of computer technology has caused educators in various disciplines to re-think the proposition of the teacher as the central focus in teaching and learning. There already exists a wide range of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) programs of the drill and practice type. Recent developments have produced more "intelligent" programs. Such programs are particularly appropriate for researchers interested in creative thinking processes in music as well as learning outcomes. MIDI is also having an impact on music learning. This paper will report on a recent study of the development of performance skills in novice keyboard players.

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1994. pp. 124-136 Variables Affecting Learning and Student Attitudes in a Microtechnology Music Teaching Environment Vanda Weidenbach, Faculty of Education, The University of Sydney

This paper reports on a study which investigated the responses of a group of students who were taught keyboard performance skills in an interactive computer-based keyboard laboratory, and it identified some of the difficulties in providing individualised instruction within a group teaching mode from both the perspective of the teacher and the learners. It is part of a wider study, which was prompted by three current forces within the delivery of educational programs.

1996. pp. 93-96 Teaching Teachers to use Technology in the Classroom: A model for inservice training Mr Bradley M. Merrick, University of Sydney

This paper will outline the current research design of a proposed model of music technology based inservice training for music educators. Specific reference will be made to current generic research into the use of technology in educational training and professional development. Discussion will highlight the specific factors that have influenced the design of this model, including the process of educational change, the teaching and learning process, co operative structures, time allocation, attitudes and needs of teachers, advances in technology and school culture as well as the current direction of the secondary music curriculum in NSW. The researcher will highlight preliminary information derived from involvement in one-day technology training courses offered at the University of Sydney.

1996. pp. 105-116 The Art-E-Mus Course: New technologies and Teacher Professional development in music education-An Action Research Approach to Course Development and Implementation Associate Professor Robin Stevens, Deakin University, Victoria

The objective of this course has been the provision of teacher professional development courses in the use of technology for teaching music and visual art in primary and lower secondary schools. In attempting to uphold the principle of `practice what you preach', the course has utilised various forms of technology-based media for course delivery in a distance education mode. The need for professional development for music educators in the applications of computer technology to their teaching will be discussed and the development and implementation thus far of the Art-E-Mus Technology Course will be outlined and demonstrated. An action research model has been adopted both for the development and implementation of this course.

1998. pp. 34-43 Music Technology in the New Millennium: Issues for consideration in tertiary training programs Bradley Merrick, Faculty of Education University of Sydney

Secondary schools throughout Australia are demanding that a much larger focus be placed upon the use of information technology in music education. Syllabus guidelines present outcomes which imply greater technology based application at all learning levels. A factor that will significantly influence the classroom implementation of music technology and the structure of tertiary course design is the understanding and perception that students display towards the use of technology. This paper will discuss attitudes, skill and knowledge levels identified by students as they commenced a Master of Teaching/Diploma of Education program. Data were collected from a questionnaire survey and are representative of students from different universities over a two-year period.

1998. pp. 109-123 Computer-Aided instrumental practice: The influence of instructional and motivation applications on performance achievement Dr. Vanda Weidenbach, Faculty of Education University of Sydney

This paper focuses on how the incorporation of computers within the teaching environment influenced student practice and performance outcomes. Incoming status of students' ability to use computers and attitude to computers was assessed. During the study, measures were taken of students' use of computers. Measured outcomes included

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performance achievement and student attitudes towards computer aided practice. Evidence showed that using the computer influenced performance achievement positively. Students who used the computer primarily for instructional purposes made significant gains over those who did not. Contrary to previous studies which found that students use computers more for motivation than for instructional qualities, this belief was not upheld in this study.

1999. pp. 98-104 The Effects of a Hypermedia Program, Cognitive Style, and Gender on Middle School Students' Music Achievement J. E. Bush

This study investigated the effects of a hypermedia program, cognitive style, and gender on middle school students' achievement in music. Four groups of middle school students were identified. Although previous research suggests that attitudes toward computers may differ between males and females, this study demonstrated that boys and girls are equally capable of learning in a music classroom through hypermedia and traditional instruction.

1999. pp. 105-111 Computer-assisted Visual Feedback in the Teaching of Singing Jean Callaghan William Thorpe Jan van Doorn

The paper reports a pilot study on the use of computer-assisted visual feedback in the teaching of singing. The study aims to provide answers to the following two questions: Is it feasible and productive to utilise computer technology for the purpose of assisting the learning of singing and can a simple visual feedback of voice parameters, using existing speech analysis technology provide significant benefits to students of singing?

1999. pp. 123-127 Are We Ready to Follow the Leader'? A survey on the use of technology in classroom music in the secondary schools of Hong Kong Jane W. Y. Cheung

This paper provides a description of a survey on music technology distributed to the music teachers of 378 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Findings revealed that music theory, score arrangement and composing were the areas that used computers most. Software on Chinese instruments was in greatest demand. The majority of teachers believed that music technology could motivate students to learn music, provide more opportunities for music activities, develop creative thinking and promote self learning.

1999. pp, 241-245 Networking Music Teacher Training Practical Applications of the World Wide Web in Training of Music Educators Juha Ojala Lauri Väkevä¶

This text analyses the use of the World Wide Web in music teacher training at the University of Oulu, Finland. Focus is on the practical implementations of the internet in constructing and exploiting open learning environments. It is seen that network environments are suitable especially for studying aural-based and media-related musical practices, such as Afro-American music. The features offered by the WWW in the 1990's have made it possible to relay musical information interactively. In the future, the network environments may provide users with a musical context of operations independent of time and space.

2000. pp. 99-103 The Internet and Technology in Music Education: Are teachers adapting their skills or not? Bradley Merrick, University of NSW

Are educators just retrieving information for themselves, or actually applying the diverse opportunity provided by the internet to develop new skills, knowledge and approaches to learning amongst their students? Factors such as

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access, technology based literacy, resource awareness and searching skills will affect the use that teachers make of the Internet. In this paper, the researcher will evaluate a random selection of tertiary and secondary educators to ascertain their current use of, and understanding of the Internet. A written survey questionnaire in a snapshot format will form the basis of the information collected. An assessment of current usage and practice will allow the writer to identify possible implications for the future use of electronic transfer and the Internet.

2001, pp. 3-14 Applications of Visual Feedback Technology in the Singing Studio Jean Callaghan, University of Western Sydney, William Thorpe Jan van Doorn, University of Sydney

This paper reports aspects of a continuing investigation into the use of computer-assisted visual feedback in the teaching of singing. The project is concerned with refining existing computer technology designed to provide visual feedback on acoustic parameters of the speaking voice and investigating how such feedback can be most effectively utilised in the singing studio. A preliminary study (Callaghan, Thorpe & van Doom, 1999) discovered that it was feasible to utilise computer technology in singing. Further research was undertaken in 2000 with a computer system that displays acoustic characteristics of a student's voice during singing. Results indicate that teacher needs to be able to interpret the data.

2001. pp. 105-110 Research Using the Internet for Teaching Music at a Distance in the United States Fred Rees, Indiana University

A review of the literature reveals that music's role in using current electronic technology for teaching music at a distance is now starting to emerge. In the past three years there have been several studies undertaken that have systematically implemented and evaluated the processes of using current electronic technology for teaching and learning music. They have focused on the use of the Internet as the most available electronic information medium and as the principal source of instruction. Given the tradition of teaching music at a distance in Australia and Australasia this paper is intended to provide insight into the challenges of music teaching and learning over the Internet, as represented by recent research in the USA.

2002. pp 99-106 Single-Sex Classes and Technology: Remedies for ineffective secondary level classroom music programs Dr Anne Lierse, Melbourne High School

It is not my intention in this paper to revisit the research showing problems in our classroom music programs in relation to effective outcomes. As revealed in research including the 1995/6 by Lierse, (1999), and former studies, these included: lack of student interest, teacher stress, limited time for music on the timetable, and lack of resources. Instead I speak more from the position as a practitioner seeking pedagogical solutions to the teaching of the core music curriculum to secondary school students.

2002. pp. 118-126 Self-Rregulation, Motivation and Computer Composition. How does music technology impact on teaching and learning in the music classroom? Bradley Merrick, University of New South Wales

Computer based technologies continue to provide educators with a port to examine the way in which students engage in the learning of knowledge. In music education, the composition process provides a fascinating window through which to observe student metacognition, motivation and the various strategies and factors that impact upon task completion. Through a combination of qualitative and quantitative data, this study reports on several groups of high school music students and the way they compose when using MIDI keyboards and Cubase, within the day to day classroom environment. Methods employed include various rating scales, survey and questionnaires. The discussion identifies a range of influences upon the composition process.

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2002. pp. 127-137 A Composer-specific Conducting Simulation Nigel Nettheim, MARCS Auditory Laboratories, University of Western Sydney

Many people respond to music with an internalized gesture rather like a conducting shape. Such shapes were closely studied by Gustav Becking (1928), who drew them on paper as so-called "Becking Curves". These shapes are composer-specific. The present research contributes a computer animation of the conducting shape in an example from Mozart's Piano Sonata K576 III, matched to the sound of a recording by Walter Gieseking. A given composer's musical personality, can thus be conveyed convincingly to students and other listeners. The character of students' performances can be expected to correspond much more nearly to that of the given composer. 2003. pp. 65-77

jam2jam-Meaningful Music Making with Computers Dr Steven C. Dillon, Queensland University of Technology.

This paper examines the application of theoretical models to the development of an interactive generative musicmaking instrument for children, jam2jam. The research applies Dillon's (Dillon, 2001b) theory of music and meaning and Brown's (Brown, 2003) modes of compositional engagement to the creative practice of software development. These philosophical ideas are supported by a vignettes drawn from the analysis of research data gathered in the USA and Australian case study sites. The research explores a process of software development as creative practice, where the software is developed in response to interaction with the music maker's need for meaningful engagement with music making and facilitated by accessible and expressive interface design.

2003. pp. 253-263 The Contemporary Music Student: A pilot study of "The Virtual Conservatorium" initiative Bradley D. Voltz, Queensland University of Technology

From 2003, the Conservatorium is offering a Bachelor of Music/Performing Arts as part of a new initiative, "The Virtual Conservatorium". The transmission of primarily content-based subjects is viable in an e-learning environment, and is used extensively in distance education. A potentially more complex application of the technology is where it is used for instruction that has traditionally required a high level of interactivity, timely feedback and formative activities. The study seeks to examine music studies in "virtual" mode and the implications for curriculum, teaching and learning.

2004. pp. 50-57 Teaching Music Technology: `Experimental tools 1.0': Software for teaching and experimenting with music technology Mark N. Brown, James Cook University

Teaching music technology is fraught with danger as instructors and students battle with interface, platform and hardware configurations. These challenges often leave the novice with a sense of frustration. This has led me to create a customised and cost effective software solution that addresses these issues. Experimental Tools 1.0 is userfriendly that invites experimentation and creativity without complex manuals and overly difficult set-up configurations. This paper addresses the issues of software development and chronicles the various design stages from initial concept through to implementation into teaching environments. The paper also suggests models for future development and expansion of the software.

2004. pp. 116-128 Modeling, Meaning Through Software Design Dr Steve Dillon, Queensland University of Technology

This paper builds upon an approach to modeling music education philosophy through the design and subsequent interaction of children and generative music making software. The research draws upon a 2004 case study where 600 four to eight -year old children were observed using jam2jam software. The research examines the development of analytical tools which might be used to evaluate the experiences of students. Issues about the nature and

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connection of gesture and sound are also raised through a comparison between the activities of dance, percussion and laptop manipulation. This data also generate implications for the further development of the software as a learning environment.

2004. pp. 129-143 save to DISC: Documenting innovation in music learning Dr Steve C. Dillon, Queensland University of Technology

The paper discusses an approach to determining the worth and value of innovation in music education. It aims to identify new examples across a broad range of music learning contexts. It discusses a pilot project that seeks to document innovation in sound curriculum (DISC). save to DISC is an exploratory study that proposes to establish flexible and effective procedures for the sourcing, evaluating, refereeing, editing, producing, validating, storing, publishing, and distributing of a wide range of media and content types. It involves documenting innovative and successful practice in music education, creating and evaluating programs in difficult/challenging school contexts and commissioning and encouraging the production of resource materials.

2005. pp. 9-14 Research Directions: Gender, Technology and Engagement in Music Dr Julie C. Ballantyne, Australian Catholic University Dr Scott D. Harrison, Griffith University

Beyond sequencing and notation exercises, the traditional music teacher has been somewhat conservative in embracing technology. In a study on the attributes necessary to teach music effectively, pre-service and early-career music teachers did not mention skills and knowledge in technology as highly important (Harrison, 2004; Harrison & Ballantyne, 2005). Experienced teachers acknowledge the need for skills in managing technology as one of the most important aspects of teaching. Given that the current cohort of school students has not known a world without technology, the perceptions of both music teachers and music students are worthy of investigation. The review of the literature reported here indicates that engagement with technology in boys' schools is an area for future research. This paper describes a proposed project that examines pre-service teacher motivation and confidence in the use of technology in schools and which will seek to provide a template for professional learning about music technology in pre-service and in-service phases.

Philosophy, Sociology and Musicology 1978. pp. 1-3

Opening Address

Dr. C. Pascoe, Director, Music Board, Australia Council

Preaching to the converted is not everyone's idea of a challenge. Yet that is the position in which I find myself today, and for me it is a real challenge. It is a challenge because I realise that there is no single congregation in Australia at this time with more potential for influencing the quality of music education over the next few years. There is no group more capable of progressing towards a rationale for music education. With only twenty-two years to the dawn of a new century, the potential of this congregation takes on dramatic significance!

1978. pp. 10-18 The Potential of Music as an Educational Component Peter Larsen, Senior Lecturer in Charge of Music, S.C.V. Coburg

This paper argues the case for the arts in general and music in particular, as an integral part of the process which we call education. The term 'education', of course, is difficult to define. Let us assume, however, that by 'education' we refer to a process which has values at its centre; that these values are concerned, at the least, with concepts such as 'good', 'right' and 'justice'. I think that most people would agree that the idea of education is value-imbued.

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1978. pp. 20-36 Is Music Part of a Liberal Education? The need for justification W. G. S. Smith

The justification of music teaching in schools is a task requiring urgent attention from all who are interested in the subject. For there is now pressure upon the curriculum from a number of sources. On one hand, there are those who see the schools as failing in their job of producing men and women who can read, write and count sufficiently well to be effective consumers and workers. Hence they want more emphasis on the so called basic subjects, this emphasis taking the form of a greater share of school time or more efficient teaching or both. With such pressure from all sides it is not surprising that music teachers are alarmed.

1980. pp. 17-29 What is Basic about Music? Professor Keith Swanwick, Head of the Department of Music, University of London, Institute of Education

I intend to discuss three concerns: Is Music Basic to the Curriculum?; What is Basic to Music?; and the third, What are the Basics for Music Education?. Is Music Basic to the Curriculum?-not to the U.K. Department of Education and Science. The Department came out recently with the core subjects, and music and sundry other things are put at the end under a heading, Preparation for Adult Life. Is Music Basic to the Curriculum?-not for some of the pupils who don't do it when given the option, don't take examinations in it, and their attitudes reject what is offered.

1980. pp. 49-50 New Perspectives Olive Frame, Private Music Teacher, Buderim, Queensland

Do we really know what music does for the individual? Do we realise what it can do for nerves, digestion, and lungs? We must try and make governments see what music can do to lessen mental breakdown, vandalism and crime. We must change people's attitude to music from being a pretty pastime to a valuable discipline. In the face of tremendous odds some say why bother? But that is a poor return for the great joy we have had from this noble art.

1980. pp. 78-92 Music in the Core Curriculum of First-Year High School Helen Stowasser, Tutor in Music, University of Queensland

After generations of working in isolation from each other, Music and Education are at last showing signs of forming a partnership, and music educators are beginning to realise that to make a professional musician out of every pupil is not the name of their game. As part of my research study, I was able to visit a number of Australian secondary schools. I wished to determine whether the situation in Queensland was at all comparable with secondary music in other parts of Australia. Classes from the first year of high school, the middle school and the senior school were involved in questionnaires and recorded discussions, while teachers were interviewed separately.

1981. pp.7-12 Music Education Teaching and Research Keith Swanwick, Institute of Education, University of London

There may be a number of colleagues, musicians and teachers, who have deep and serious reservations about the wisdom of attempting to analyse a highly valued and intuitively grasped activity like music, let alone the complex and subtle ways in which musical skills and understanding are transmitted and learned. There may also be colleagues in education who have doubts about whether music education is rich in possibilities as a field of study. Is the territory big enough to permit large-scale prospecting? Do essentially practical activities of music making and music teaching lend themselves to the development of theoretical frameworks? Can we go beyond merely descriptive? Indeed, ought there to be such a thing as a Chair of Music Education?

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1981. pp. 145-146 Sex Roles in Music Education in Victorian Schools Glynis Dickins, Post-Graduate Student, Monash University

This project attempts to assess the extent to which musical involvement and of adolescents are influenced by traditional sex-role stereotypes music and musicians. For the purposes of this study, 282 year 10 (form 4) students were surveyed at three schools within an outer-eastern, predominantly middle-class area of Melbourne. The students came from an independent girls' school, Catholic boys' school and a state co-educational high school.

1982. pp. 5-7 Conference Opening Speech Jim Giles, Assistant Director-General of Education, Education Department, South Australia

I'd like to discuss briefly some aspects of the social context in which musical education is likely to be conducted in the next four or five years. The first and most striking aspect of the context, in this state at least, is the downturn in student numbers in schools. There are various demographic reasons for this - the fertility rate has been just about zero, the migration of people into the state is very low and the migration out of the state is significant. The net result is that the numbers of young people in the age range 0-10 years is steadily falling.

1982. pp. 19-25 The Cultural Politics of the Music Curriculum M. Vick, Tutor in Education, University of Adelaide

In this paper, I wish to suggest a framework within which we can consider the music curriculum as a social process, operating within a social music framework. In particular, I wish to consider some implications of the secondary school music curriculum for working class boys and girls. A case study from the nineteenth century will provide a starting point.

1984. pp. 56-62 Children's Artistic Thinking and Making Dr. W. Lett, La Trobe University

In the last two decades, Australian educational and community networks have witnessed a greater incidence of advocacy for the arts and an increased level of activity, accompanied by demands for more activity, more staffing, more time and greater funding. The accountability movement has lead art educationists to attempt to justify the arts in various ways, especially by trying to show that they have direct value in an educational sense. This has lead a small group of international theorists to attempt to establish common agreement about the nature of artistic knowing or thinking, in children.

1984. pp. 75-95 The Classroom Environment and Student Learning Dr. D. Fisher, Senior lecturer in Science Education, Tasmanian College of Advanced Education

Walberg (1982a) has noted seven variables identified by educational research as affecting the learning achievement of children. He notes that to increase learning effectiveness we need to consider all of these variables. Much has been written on instructional quality and quantity, motivation and general ability, but it has been demonstrated only in recent years that the classroom environment is worth assessing. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of measuring the classroom environment.

1985. pp. 180-186 Another Look at Objectivity in the Arts Patricia Barker, Catholic College of Education, Sydney, New South Wales

I want to look at the problem of the generally low status of the arts in education and to think about why, when faced with a choice between Mathematics and Music, most students would choose Mathematics because it is perceived as

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being "more important". Perhaps psychologists and sociologists with arts interests could perhaps be helping us in the arguments for the importance of our subject. There are undoubtedly huge areas at present untapped and even unthought of which would show how vital the arts are to people.

1991. pp. 67-80 Challenge in SA Music Programmes Jenny Rosevear

This paper is based on the survey that I subsequently undertook in June of this year, and outlines the progress made in classroom music, and describes some of the challenges that exist in school music programmes and teacher training in South Australia.

1992. pp. 173-186 The New Right and Arts Education Kipps Horn

I grew up in a social climate variously described as, the New Elizabethan Age. There were the usual national and international power games involving so-called 'minor' wars and apparent temporary economic slumps. It came as only a gentle surprise to discover that neither democratic socialist or conservative parties were really likely to threaten the status quo. That is, until the 1980`s when I saw the policies of the 'new right' unfold. The implications of the new technologies were huge and unavoidable and we had, as it were, better change to meet the changes! British educators were asked to take a fresh look at curricula. They were asked to make them more accountable to the industrial needs of the country.

1992. pp. 197-213 The Implications of Feminist Musicology for Music Education Maree Macmillan

Until recently, musicology has exhibited little evidence of the impact of feminist scholarship. The work of Susan McCIary, in examining the gendered nature of music as a discourse, radically challenges traditional musicology. The application of this approach to music education entails going beyond liberal feminist strategies to the deconstruction of traditional historiography and formalism, thus enabling a more realistic, contextually informed assessment of music by both women and men to be made. An epistemological framework based on the grounding of knowledge in the body suggests the possibility of a feminist aesthetic in music. The acknowledgement of "women's ways of knowing" and of the power of music is a socialising force has far reaching implications for education in general and hence for society as a whole.

1992. pp 346-350 Women and Administration A. Wojtowicz

The common way of dealing with this topic is to highlight the problems encountered by many women in administrative or management roles. It seems to me more appropriate to consider the commonly agreed attributes of good administrators/managers, and from there to discover some of the directions which could be useful for persons of either gender. So the following comments are not in the nature of an affirmative action position, but rather a recognition of qualities which can be of equal advantage to men as well as women. Critics of affirmation action claim.

1997. pp. 100-106 Applying Meta-theory at the Chalkface: The need for greater credibility in secondary music education Dr Guy E. Jansen, University of Queensland

This paper introduces the current debate on the relative importance of listening, composing and performing as major aspects of secondary school music programs. It then suggests that there are many factors which impinge on the practical application of general philosophies of music education and that it is crucial for these factors to be taken

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into account. They include, developmental stages, differing school situations, elective classes, whether key components are dealt with outside of the music timetable; and whether a "balanced" music curriculum is desirable. The paper also notes the need for a deeper understanding of how music actually functions and flourishes in our communities, and recommends research into the musical integrity of current secondary school music syllabuses.

1998. pp. 44-55 A Re-Modeling of Music Education in Western Australia Theresa Nazareth, Graduate School of Education Western Australia

This paper is a condensed version of a study undertaken as part of a doctoral thesis on Lifelong. It examines the current situation with regard to the provision and delivery of music education, particularly music making activities, to adult beginners in Perth, Western Australia (WA). It aims to develop a theory about Lifelong Learning Music Education for Adult Beginners so as to arrive at a model for music education where purposeful and systematic music programs for adult beginners can be effected in a pluralist society. The changing social reality point to the need for a lifelong music orientation.

1999. pp. 144-148 Tradition and Cultural Modern Modes: Counterfeit Nineteenth Century European ideas on Japanese music education Tadahiko Imada

In order to develop European social structure, Descartes, Hegel and Marx, proposed a style of modern European ethics. The Japanese nineteenth century, however, differed fundamentally by not having a concept of ``man" or "meaning". The introduction of Western music education in Japan was cleverly engineered by the Meiji restoration Government. Music curriculum in Japan has been based on Western aesthetics and many teachers have blind faith in it. The use of Western music will be examined to clarify a number of issues by giving an ontological, and epistemological analysis of modern Japanese music education.

1999. pp. 156-159 A Sociological Study on the Ordinary Singers of Korean Traditional Children's Songs: From 1910s through 1930s Young-Youn Kim

The purpose of this study was to retrospect a past society from socio-musical perspective through the examination of singing activities of children from the 1910s to the early 1930s when the influence of Western music was weak compared to later periods. The researcher interviewed 13 older Korean women about the ways they learnt Korean traditional children's songs. The major singers of Korean children's songs during this era were the girls rather than the boys. Korean traditional children's songs were frequently sung by the children regardless of their educational background, and finally they still want to preserve and distribute these songs to their offsprings.

1999. pp. 216-220 An Expanded Music Education Orientation: A developmental perspective for the new millennium Theresa Nazareth

This paper argues that children's music learning can be enhanced by an expanded orientation to music that can benefit from the interrelatedness and complementary nature of learning throughout other stages of life. The framework proposed articulates a vision for a lifelong approach to music education to meet changing demands. It suggests that it is in the context of learning communities that children's musical development can best be addressed. While the provision of music programs at various stages of life is a necessary precondition for lifelong music learning, this alone will not necessarily achieve a lifespan orientation to music. To attain success requires a coherent and coordinated approach to music education reform.

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1999. pp. 311- 316 Music Education as Enculturation': A semiotic approach, pragmatism, semiotics and meaning in praxial music education philosophy Lauri Väkevä Juha Ojala

This paper is an attempt to construct a hermeneutic interpretation of certain ideas regarding musical learning as semiotic process in the texts of Praxial Music Education Philosophy. Pragmatistic theory of meaning, semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce, and a Peircean model of action and experience by Pentti Määttänen are used as a reference, against which praxial conceptions of musical meaning and learning are examined. While our task at this point is mostly philosophical, our final goal is pragmatic, namely to offer theoretical points of view for practical applications in training of music educators.

2000. pp. 136-146 Applying Schenkarian Concepts in Mapping Thematic Routes: A juxtaposition of musicological and sociological perspectives within a metatheoretical schema in the analysis of a symbolic gesture Valerie Ross, DRSAMD, B.Mus (Hons) London, M.Ed Deakin

The aim of this paper is to examine the manner in which musicological and sociological perspectives pertaining to a 'symbolic gesture' may he juxtaposed within a framework of social analysis. Central to the argument in this instance is the associated symbolic significance in the act of playing of the piano by an individual. This symbolic gesture is believed to he supported by the collective act of four dialectically interrelated stages of impulse, perception, manipulation and consummation interacting in a performative and referential manner; and situated within a peculiar socio-cultural context.

2000. pp. 158-163 "Oh no! Where's my Recorder?' Using activity theory to understand a primary music program Rosalynd Smith Ian Walker, Monash University

Lierse (1999), in her study of music programs in Victorian government secondary schools, describes characteristics of schools with effective music programs, some of which seem appropriate also to primary music programs; however the goals of a primary program may be so different from that of a (largely elective) secondary program that this does not seem a useful starting point. One strongly supported finding of Lierse's study was the belief of music co-ordinators that the single most important influence on the effectiveness of the music program was the active support of a principal who worked to create a school culture that valued music.

2003. pp. 87-94 Engaging the Year Eight Student in Music Making Dr Kay A. Hartwig, Griffith University

"Music sucks!" These words are often spoken by year eight students when referring to their classroom music lessons. This perception of music changes outside of school. How do we engage these young adolescents in the music making process? This paper details the results of a ten week action research project that was conducted in collaboration with another music teacher in a year eight classroom for my doctoral thesis. Also included in the paper is a small case study of one of the students-Steve. It details his progress over the ten week period. The project explored issues that confront year eight music students. It contributes to the body of knowledge that provides ideas for music teachers in planning experiences for their students.

2003. pp. 134-145 The Role of the Socio-Cultural Context in Framing Student Music Self Concept and Task Values as Factors Influencing Enrolment Behaviour in an Elective Classroom music Curriculum Robert W. McEwan, University of Tasmania 78

This paper presents the preliminary findings of a larger case study examining the motivational factors influencing student enrolment behaviour in the elective music curriculum within the social context of an independent secondary school in regional New South Wales. The research explores the key motivational constructs within the socio-cultural contexts of school culture, peer group and family. Purposive sample interviews were conducted with fifteen students and their parents, providing a rich understanding of the complex forces that operate in shaping student academic motivation and subsequent enrolment behaviour. The analysis discussed in this paper focuses on the music selfconcept and task values of instrumental music students and the role of socio-cultural factors in shaping student academic motivational orientations.

2003. pp. 146-154 An overview of the Musical Experiences of Adolescents, both at School and outside of School Jennifer C. Rosevear, University of Adelaide

High school students typically tend to be passionate about their musical likes and dislikes. This paper reports on some recent research undertaken with high school students in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. The research is part of a larger study exploring relationships between academic achievement, self-concept and musical activities of adolescents. Via a researcher-designed survey, students responded to questions about their music listening habits, their involvement in learning a musical instrument, practice habits, composing, music technology and whether or not music is being taken as a school subject. This paper presents a summary of the data collected and considers how the findings could have some influence on music curriculum development.

Popular Music 1992. pp. 79-95 An Etic and Emic Model for Teaching Popular Music P.Dunbar-Hall

Even though the teaching of popular music is a recognised component of music education, its acceptance into the core of the discipline is surrounded by problems. One of these problems is unlike art music, a developed and accepted teaching model music does not exist. This paper examines one model to this area, one based on the etic and emic properties of popular music. The model is applied to a song by Bob Marley to demonstrate its workings and scope, implications of the etic/emic divide in analytically defining popular style and tracing its influence, as well as implications for the study of music and the training of teachers are considered.

1999. pp. 67-70 The Weakened Mora in Japanese Pop Songs: 1960's to the 1990's Nozomi Azechi

This paper provides a description of an investigation into the incapacity of older Japanese people to sing popular songs of the 90's, and probes the reasons for this phenomenon.

1999. pp. 160-162 On the Unisex Phenomenon of Young People's Singing Voice Atsuyasu Kitayama, Yoko Ogawa Tadahiro Murao

In the field of Japanese popular music, the phenomenon that men and women sing their songs with the same key was found in the early 1990s (Murao, 1998). This paper investigates this phenomenon; the time it arose, the reason it was caused, and the relations with the changes of the society. The songs during the 1940s to the 1990s which have appeared on the hit charts and the complete works of the popular songs were classified into five periods to compare the tendency. Melody Analysis, the computer software, was used for calculating the center of the vocal range.

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Rationale, Policy, Research, Methodologies 1978. pp. 37-48 Music as Part of the Total Curriculum K-12 H. G. R. Billington, Inspector of schools, Department of Education, N.S.W.

There is a growing recognition that there is a need to provide a rationale for music education within the classroom situation and that there is a need to identify that peculiar place which music holds as part of the total curriculum. Not all music educators are agreed as to the solution of these problems. In any attempt to develop a rationale for music in education, the music educator appears, in the initial stages, to be faced with a series of diametrically opposed viewpoints. Music is seen to be 'elitist' or 'for everyone'; it is to be presented as an 'academic', teacher-dominated discipline or as experiential 'creative' and child-centred.

1980. pp. 64-72 Extra-Musical Benefits of Music Education: Preliminary investigation Anne Gates, Lecturer in Music Education, Faculty of Music, University of Melbourne

Today's economic conditions may enforce increasing justification for the place of music in education. Indications are that the study of music may also be beneficial in nonmusical ways. Research findings such as the Kodaly based Developmental Program of Music Education for Primary School, (Hoermann and Herbert,1979) should be of interest to music educators. The purpose of the present study was to investigate some of the possible outcomes of early music training, with a view to establishing a long term project on the benefits of early music education. Because it appears that cognitive function is enhanced by musical experience, it was decided to investigate possible effects in this domain.

1981. pp. 88-101 Research Design and Reporting Format in Music Education F. J. Rees,University of Queensland

Since the early part of the twentieth century, music education research expanded dramatically in many directions. Today, a list of music education theses would probably include studies that border on or interact with fields of psychology, educational psychology, administration, aesthetics, musicology, ethnomusicology, acoustics, and even human physiology Gordon, (1978). Internationally, there are already three English-language journals which specialise in research on music learning (ie, Psychology of Music, of Research in Music Education, and Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education), not to mention many journals in other subject fields that publish musically related studies.

1982. pp. 8-13 Politicians on Policy Making Hon. Leigh Davis, Member of the Legislative Council, South Australia

How does music rate in Australia-what do people prefer and why-what has shaped their attitudes, preferences and appreciation of music? Quantitative and qualitative research in this area has been noticeably thin in Australia. In fact, really non existent, but a start was made in the Tavistock report released in 1981 and commissioned by the Australia Council which through 1700 personal interviews across Australia, and discussions with Musica Viva, Arts Councils and other bodies sought to establish Australian attitudes to the Arts.

1982. pp. 68-70 Music Educators on Policy Making Barbara van Ernst, Lecturer in Music, Victoria College, Toorak Campus, Victoria

Policy making is a rather complex notion. As I began to work on this paper, I tried to tease out the specifics a little and decided that, in broad terms; (1) politicians make decisions about education related to their respective party philosophy and their current policy on funding; (2) administrators follow this with decisions based on policy on staffing and courses; (3), the educators try to influence these decisions or to change them but rarely, it seems, are they involved in setting up the broader context within which educational decisions are made. Music educators' main concern should be the students, the teachers and music.

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1982. pp, 39-42 Administrators on Policy Making G. Ramsey, Principal, South Australian College Advanced education

This topic of policy making is one we too rarely explore in higher education, yet without good and well thought out policy, we slip into adhocracy in our decision making and penalty through inconsistency and often, a waste of resources. If politics' is the art of the possible, then administration is putting the possible into practice and the 'possible', in the most general of terms, is the policy agreed on, no matter what the organizational level, it be Parliament, Government, Federal or State instrumentality, or institutional level.

1983. pp. 22-29 Recent Trends in American Music Education Dr. Lois N. Harrison, School of Music, University of Oregon Visiting Fellow, Western Australian College of Advanced Education, Churchlands Campus 1983

It is important to note that this paper is a personal view of music education practices in the United States in the lost thirty-five years. Furthermore, because school policy, curriculum, finances, faculty, materials and the like are largely determined at the local level, it is difficult to acknowledge all the varieties of music education practices that have taken place. With these qualifications in mind, here are recent trends in American music education concerning philosophy, students, curriculum, materials and equipment, teachers and teacher training, associations and finances.

1984. pp. 53-55 Music, Participation and Discourse Bevis Yaxley, University of Tasmania

I think that it is particularly appropriate that you have come together at a time when there appears to be a rapidly increasing debate about the content of school education and, by implication, teacher education. As music educators you are no doubt part of this debate and have begun to feel, perhaps more than ever, the urgent need to rearticulate why it is that the study of music should form part of the school curriculum at all levels and through this become an exciting aspect of the life of us all.

1985. pp. 165-17 What Counts as Knowledge in Our-Society? Noela Hogg, Victoria College of Advanced Education Victoria

The intent of this paper is to present information which demonstrates the low status accorded to music within the administrative structure of the state school system in Victoria and to relate this situation to the views of educational

administrator, T. F. Greenfield that knowledge is socially constructed and that what counts as knowledge determined by dominant social groups. When one looks at recent central administrative statements in Victoria the position for music seems to be secure. While there appears to be hope, the reality of the current plight of music education in Victoria is clearly indicated by the staffing figures presented in many documents which have been produced over the last few years.

1989. pp. 47-50 The Bibliography of Australian Music Education Research Project Dr. Robin S. Stevens, Senior Lecturer in Music Education School of Education Deakin University

Although ASME and AMEL have done much to promote music education through various publications, it has only been comparatively recently that a more substantial contribution has been made through systematic research, principally by those undertaking higher degrees. It is my belief that it is only by Australian music educators contributing to this body of knowledge through systematic research that music education in this country can claim to be an academic discipline in its own right. There is a growing need for greater access to the existing body of research. The importance of a bibliographic database of music education research to both scholars and students is

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amply demonstrated by the publication of a series of special issues of the American Journal of Research in Music Education.

1991. pp. 11-24 Music Education: A matter of the human spirit Noela Hogg, Lecturer, Victoria College

For those who wish to see music as a subject, it is somewhat like standing on the bank and watching a stream flow by. In music appreciation lessons students sit with their backs to the stream while the teacher tells them about the stream's history. In theory lessons, students often did not make it down to the stream at all, instead, the teacher, who had a high regard for the stream, went down there for them. With percussion instruments, students were being encouraged to step into it, but too often, their experience was limited to formation swimming in a carefully roped-off area as they had no opportunity to choose which parts of the stream to explore.

1991. pp. 81-88 Why the Arts? Related arts projects with special reference to music D. Tompson

The arts offers us valuable ways to organise the way we perceive the world, they provide a whole language, be it emotional, intellectual or physical. Important studies in Tasmania have proved that by teaching a comprehensive art programme, we can influence the learning of other areas and improve children's performances. For example, science, mathematics language and non arts related areas. The arts enable us to explore the world through different mediums and to become fulfilled as a person.

1992. pp. 336-345 Research in Music Education: Caught in a twelve tone row and lost in retrograde inversion Vanda Weidenbach, University of Western Sydney Nepean

From the conception of serial music, twelve tone composers acknowledged that their works would he understood by no more than a few 'educated listeners'. The audiences for Schoenberg's compositions are still small. Does a parallel exist between serial music and research in music education in Australia today? Is there an identifiable research base which follows logical progressive development? Is there a significant cumulative research base which addresses key questions concerned with past findings, current concerns and future directions'? If the question, `what is the single most important concern in music education today'? it would be difficult to find a consensus of opinion. The profession would be well served by being able to provide key questions and relevant answers.

1993. pp. 1-12 Bitter Sweet: The broad context of research and music education in Australia Millicent Poole, Queensland University of Technology

Institutions, faculties, centres and individuals are competing for increasingly scarce resources to support research. Research performance is judged more and more by a rather highly defined set of indicators. For research in music education to obtain musical and human resources that it needs to grow, it must operate and compete successfully within this paradigm. This article examines the growing maturity of research in music education both in Australia and overseas, and suggests ways in which the challenges ahead may be met by the joint efforts of music educators.

1993. pp.13-18 Focusing the Research Effort Barbara van Ernst, Deakin University

Research in music education is reaching a new maturity in Australia. There are opportunities for researchers to apply for reasonably significant grants, several universities around the country are offering masters and doctoral studies in music education, and there are new opportunities for music educators to publish in refereed journals or monographs. The purpose of this paper is to explore ways that this research effort can be supported and focused.

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1993. pp. 35-40 How much Influence do, and should Schools have in Shaping Musical Preferences compared to other Groups? Nita Temmerman, Faculty of Education, University of Wollongong

This paper presents the results of a national survey conducted in 1991 with musicians, music teachers and music organisations to determine (inter alia) their respective views on the perceived level of present and expected influence of a number of groups including primary and secondary schools in shaping the musical preferences of the general public. The findings of the survey reveal that primary and secondary schools are generally perceived to have a small amount of present influence compared to other groups. Several survey respondents qualified their response by suggesting the need for some substantial changes to the current system of school music education.

1994. pp. 9-13 Reflections on the Experience of Undertaking a Qualitative Research Study without having to Dress as a Bikie: The issue of persona Jennifer Bryce, Australian Council for Educational Research

This paper is not specifically concerned with music education, but it raises issues which I hope will be helpful to researchers using particular qualitative methodologies. I intend to reflect on the methodology used for a research study where I attempted to provide teachers and curriculum developers with some illuminative comments about the experience of undertaking the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) for those young people who do not intend to proceed to university.

1996. pp. 66-72 The Influence of Primary School Music Programmes on Student Choice of Music Studies in Lower Secondary Schools in WA Assoc Prof. John D Williamson Beverley J. Pascoe, Edith Cowan University

In the Perth metropolitan region of Western Australia during 1994, research was conducted to ascertain why first year high school students selected or did not select to study music. This study arose from the difference between the 70% of students who studied music in their last year of primary school and the 35% of first year high school students who elected to study music.

1997. pp. 2-10 Strange Bedfellows: Positioning the arts within positivistic education systems Associate Professor John O'Toole, Faculty of Education Griffith University

The first part of the keynote address will explore the necessary nexus between research in the performing arts, artmaking, and teaching. The second part uses a dramatic metaphor to advocate the positioning of the arts in the classroom in two so far neglected ways: a) taking up the challenge of the dominant 'workplace' rhetoric of schooling, to subvert it by actually colonising it. The Key Competencies are, strangely enough, the domain of the arts. b) giving substance to the notion of 'the aesthetic classroom' (and an aesthetic of teaching).

1998. pp. 1-16 Lifelong Learning: The Mission of Arts Education in the Learning Community of the 21st Century Professor David N. Aspin, Faculty of Education Monash University Clayton

The Arts have a particularly powerful part to play in adapting to and even leading the way in embracing the challenges and changes inherent in the imperative for learning to be an activity engaged in throughout people's lifespan. Their special emphases upon skills of exploration and discovery flexibility and adaptability, initiative and iconodasm, creativity and imagination, and the observation of the highest standards of accuracy, rigour and personal endeavour, while at the same time forging new concepts, categories and forms of communication, production and presentation, provide learners with paradigms which lifelong learning in other fields can take as their models.

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1998. pp. 87-100 Trends in Music Education Research in Australia with Implications and Recommendations for the Twenty-first Century Assoc. Prof. Robin Stevens, Faculty of Education, Deakin University Burwood, Victoria

This paper reports on the current state of 'award' research in music education in Australia using data from the 'Bibliography of Australian Music Education Research' (BAMER) Project. The findings from an analysis of data from approximately 350 research theses including both 'completed' and 'in progress' studies undertaken for higher degrees at Australian tertiary institutions are discussed. Conclusions are drawn regarding the level of the higher degree work being undertaken (honours, masters and doctoral degrees), the demographic spread across the various states, the distribution of music education research across the major educational research paradigms, and the focus of research in relation to both content/'subject and educational sector.

1999. pp. 250-253 To Know the Child in a Musical Sense Sanderi Oosthuysen

Knowledge of the child and his/her concept of music is exceedingly important. This perception will vary with age and will be influenced by factors such as musical development and exposure. The assessment of the child's understanding of musical concepts is problematic in music education in South Africa. In this paper, I describe a qualitative, exploratory pilot study in which children's musical understanding is probed through the use of drawings (notations), verbalization and sound application.

1999. pp. 283-287 Children, Teachers and Music: A report on the needs of Australian primary school teachers in relation to teaching music Deirdre Russell-Bowie

This paper draws from research undertaken to identify what teacher and school characteristics affect the priority and practice of music education in some Australian state primary schools (ie for children aged 5 - 12 years). It gives an overview of the original project and includes results which indicate that, in order to deliver effective music programs, generalist primary school teachers need adequate training, support personnel within the school, and adequate facilities, resources and instruments.

2000. pp. 39-45 Grounded Theory Methodology in Music Education Research Jean Callaghan

This paper describes grounded theory methodology. Qualitative methodologies have often been criticized for researcher bias. Grounded theory is useful in offering a qualitative research model. Researcher bias is addressed both by identifying the researcher's involvement and by an analytical framework that guides the research and provides a model for documenting it. The analytical framework comprises a series of interconnected systematic procedures-open coding, axial coding, selective coding, building a conditional matrix, and theoretical sampling to establish and verify relevant categories and the relationships among them. The researcher moves between data collection, coding, and theory building. Grounded theory allows the researcher a good balance between being creative and being systematic.

2000. pp. 104-110 On Research for Music and Arts Education: Methods, uses and justification William E. (Bill) Miles, Monash University, Clayton

Research in music and the arts can serve to justify the role of the disciplines in the curriculum and is critical to the health and development of the field. Nevertheless, research intended to inform significantly the multifarious components of educational practice in music and the arts continues to be rather limited and piecemeal. This paper reviews appropriate research methods common to music and the arts, and surveys their usage. The strengths of these research methods, especially to inform debate and justify curricular decisions, are identified and discussed. Finally, a

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number of overarching research considerations are identified with a view to establishing consistent, useful and generalisable approaches to research in the arts disciplines.

2002. pp. 148-154 A preliminary snapshot of the academic achievement and self-concept of music and non-music school students Ms Jennifer C. Rosevear, University of Adelaide

In recent years, there has been much discussion about whether "music makes you smarter". There is also a longstanding debate about academic self-concept. Recent research suggests that there is a two-way interaction between academic self-concept and achievement. This paper reports on some preliminary findings, which are part of a larger study on the relationship between musical activity, self-concept development and academic achievement in adolescents. The findings presented are based on data collected pertaining to background information, musical experiences, self-esteem and perceived competence of Year 9 students (N=190) in a metropolitan Adelaide high school.

2003. pp. 44-50 The Writing of Research as Artistic Practice Dr Peter A. de Vries, University of Technology, Sydney

This paper examines how educational research can be presented in a creative way, through alternative modes of representation such as the novel, short story and poetry. Thus the writing of research becomes artistic practice, where the researcher-writer acts as novelist, poet, short story writer. The paper specifically addresses how this occurred in the writing of a short story titled, Leaving Teaching, which centres on the issue of male primary school music teacher attrition. Issues about writing in this mode that are addressed include justifying such a presentation as "research'", relevance to a wide readership, and personal benefits for the researcher-writer.

2003. pp. 204-214 "Through a glass darkly": A Report on Trends in School Music Education Provision in Australia Associate Professor Robin S. Stevens, Deakin University

This paper reports on research commissioned by the Music Council of Australia (MCA) on the provision of school music education in Australian states and territories. Using guidelines developed by the principal researcher, a team of state and territory investigators collected data on eleven research questions formulated by MCA's Research Committee. One of the major findings was the limited amount of uniform data available from education authorities; or non-availability of data from some states is a matter of serious concern. The study revealed that the provision of music has not changed significantly over the past two decades. The principal recommendation is the need for a more comprehensive survey to be undertaken.

2004. pp. 285- 291 The Musical `Mother Tongue': A Twentieth Century Relic? Dr. Rosalynd Smith, Monash University

The concept of the musical `mother tongue' is familiar in music education, having been used especially by Zoltán Kodály and Shin'ichi Suzuki. Both men developed their approaches in response to unique times and circumstances, and it is necessary in a new century to consider them anew and assess whether their meaning and application remain intact in the contemporary world. In this paper I will examine the background and meaning of the concept of a musical `mother tongue' and consider what application it may have in contemporary music education. These developments include socio-cultural understandings of development and current ideas about language, cultural identity and critical language pedagogy.

2004. pp. 329-340 Home, School, Community and their Role in the Provision of Music Education Professor Nita Temmerman, Deakin University

The National Review of School Music Education aims to provide examples of best practice of teaching and learning of music in schools. This paper argues that the home, school and community are insufficiently connected on a

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number of fronts, not least being an understanding about the purpose of young people's engagement with music. A number of proposals for action are suggested as a means of progressing the discussion. It asserts that there is much valuable activity occurring within the three locales of school, home and community, but a firmer relationship could be forged across all three to ensure young people's on-going, life-long enjoyable engagement with music.

2005. pp. 126-133 `Much Ado About Teaching': Music Theatre, Authenticity and Experiential Learning in Music Education Dr Jane E. Southcott, Monash University

In the current educational climate advocacy for music in schools continues to be necessary. Recent calls for `real life' or `authentic' learning in education provide music educators with another avenue for advocacy. In secondary schools, many music educators are responsible for all or part of major school music theatre productions. These experiences can be understood as a form of `authentic' experience. The creation, development and presentation of a major music theatre work has been a significant component of the Graduate Diploma of Education (Secondary) Monash University, Victoria, for the past decade. This paper considers such music theatre productions as experiential education and articulates the potential benefits and pitfalls.

2006. pp. 79-84 Education, Globalisation, Samba and the Fourfold Christopher F. Naughton, University of Auckland, New Zealand

This paper is a reflection on a community Samba school working with schools in mainstream education. Throughout the paper reference is made to Heidegger's fourfold theory as it forms a foundation for `truth' in art. Heidegger's work has to, by necessity, be seen within the terms of globalisation. This examination of global pressures on education and music reveals the difficulty of students engaging in the Arts when time allocation and funding have been severely reduced. Arguing within Heidegger's terms of the fourfold and the rejection of old and revaluing.

Teacher Education 1978. pp. 97-100 Know thy Subjects: The students who learn Patricia Holmes, Senior Lecturer in Music, Torrens College of Advanced Education, South Australia

From a standpoint of many years experience in teacher education, I wish to share with you my thoughts on certain aspects of teacher development in music. In arriving at a rationale for our courses in music education we must examine the background of our students and our expectations for them at the end of such courses. The kinds of programmes most are capable of putting into effect in schools upon graduation will change and be developed if continued support and teacher development opportunities are provided, after the classroom is reached. My remarks particularly concern students entering training for early or middle childhood levels, the generalist rather than the specialist.

1979. pp. 22-27 The Place of Music in Teacher Education: A philosophical point of view W. G. S, Smith, Lecturer in Philosophy of Education University of Melbourne

In this short paper I wish to put forward some ideas on the justification of the study of music as an educational pursuit. By themselves, these ideas do not constitute a justification; rather they are part of what might be called the groundwork necessary before arguments to do with justification can proceed. More specifically, they attempt to show how philosophy can contribute to a rationale of the curriculum as far as music is concerned. Before expounding these ideas, some preliminaries need to be stated. Our teachers-in-training must engage in reasoned argument concerning the justification of music in an educational curriculum.

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1979. pp. 7-11 Music in Teacher Education: Problems, perspectives, prospects and proposals Dr. Doreen Bridges, Music Educator and Researcher, NSW

Of those areas of education which come under scrutiny from time to time, the arts in general and music in particular seem to present the most problems. Over the last ten years or so, they have probably given rise to more investigations and reports than any other aspect of the curriculum. Despite the present almost over-riding concern for standards of literacy and numeracy in schools, nobody can say that consideration of the arts has been completely pushed aside. A number of reports stress the lack of confidence and competence in music teaching and comment on the fact that large numbers of teachers have little or no commitment to music as part of the educative process. Most see it mainly as entertainment.

1979. pp. 12-21 The Philistines are upon you: An education lecturer looks at the education of music teachers Peter Davis, School of Education and General Studies N.S. W. State Conservatorium of Music, Philomena Brennan David Russell, Lecturers in Music Education, N.S. W. State Conservatorium of Music

We have taught Education to prospective music teachers for the last eight years at the N.S.W. State Conservatorium of Music. During that time, we have had the opportunity to study the needs of the would-be secondary music specialist, and have gradually developed a course which attempts to meet that need. Naturally, what we have done has been designed to meet the needs of the schools of New South Wales, and in particular, the needs of our major customer, the New South Wales Department of Education. But it is the hope of my colleagues and myself that our ideas on how to prepare music educators may be of value in promoting discussion.

1979. pp. 28-33 Imagination, Feeling and Education Peter Larsen, S. C V. Coburg, Victoria

This paper is concerned with the personal education of teachers in the context of pre-service programs. It commences with two assumptions, both of which involve a degree of over-simplification. They are first, that `personal education', which throughout most of the paper I shall refer to simply as `education', is essentially a values-imbued process and second, that `education' is different from `training'. An educated person is one who is widely experienced in reading, conversation and the arts, who has the resources necessary to make responsible decisions, who is interested in unfamiliar ideas and outlooks and who has the capacity to continue to learn.

1979. pp. 44-49 The Nature of Teacher Training in the Implementation of a Developmental Programme of Music for the Primary School Gwynneth F. Herbert, Metropolitan West Region NSW, Dept. of Education

I am the least qualified in musical terms of all the people I see before me, a classic example of the music education of my generation, through the state school system, virtually an illiterate. In spite of my lack of formal music education, one of my happiest memories of high school was the singing lesson once a week. I love to watch and listen to musicians at work, whether it be jazz in New Orleans or the orchestral symphony in Sydney. Perhaps it is just this situation which accounts for my current involvement with the developmental music project in NSW and my conviction that basic music training should be an integral part of the education programme for all children.

1979. pp. 50-53 Teacher Education from a Special Interest Music Centre William Shaw, Special Music Centre, Woodville, S.A.

My experience has shown that most pre-service teachers cannot be given all the skills of music education which we would like them to have. We require more than some other pre-service education courses, followed by the roughand-tumble of work in the field. To try to send into the field, the`Compleat musick teacher' is a hopeless and impossible task. We should be working at enabling teacher education students to make beginnings and kindling

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interest. Some basic skills obviously need to be acquired, but we need to provide ways of extending musical knowledge in the field. It seems to me that this aspect of teacher education has received scant attention.

1979. pp. 54-56 Music In-Service Education in Victoria Helen McMahon, Special Services, Education Department, Victoria

This paper will be presented in two sections. Firstly I will tell you briefly of the philosophy and rationale on which we base our in Service, and then, Marie Hibberd will outline in more detail how we attempt to transfer this into practice. There are seven basic premises each of which could be discussed at some length but in the time available I shall simply put these to you and emphasise and extend one or two which I feel are particularly relevant to this conference, namely, In-Service Education.

1979. pp. 57-60 Theory into Practice Marie Hibberd, Special Services, Education Department, Victoria

As a result of the 1973 Australian Schools Commission Report now known as the Karmel Report, you are probably familiar with those recommendations which have influenced the growth of in-service throughout Australia. This outline will serve to identify the Victorian Committees through which funding is available to administer music inservice activities.

1979. pp. 73-78 Where are we going? Douglas Heywood, Faculty of Education, University of Melbourne

One of the propositions I wish to put forward in this paper is that until we have an overall structure at all levels of music education, the variety of programmes now offered at the tertiary level will, of necessity continue, and continue to add to the confusion that now exists. One of the results of this present conference will be that we will rethink our aims and objectives as educators in this area. In so doing, it is important to be constantly aware of the tasks that our students will have to fulfill once they become practising teachers.

1979. pp. 79-82 Let's make an uproar John Ashton, Dr. Stuart Collins, Kelvin Grove CAE, Queensland

Frequent criticisms for the lack of development of a challenging music education programme are laid at the door of the individual music teacher. Hoffer states, `The job of promoting music education rests primarily on the music teachers' but the music teacher is often a voice crying in the wilderness. He is expected to pit his wits against seemingly insurmountable odds. Two areas of concern being perhaps uppermost, the first created by the diverse nature of the subject itself, with a range from mediaeval to twentieth century and the problems of a practical programme, and the second, the systemic problems concerned with the organisation of music education and its place in the curriculum.

1979. pp. 83-90 The Edifice Complex: An examination of the role of post secondary institutions in music education Elizabeth Silsbury, Sturt College of Advanced Education, South Australia

Two years ago I had just completed a national study of post-secondary music and music education courses throughout Australia, and was both surprised and puzzled at the insularity and conservatism of many of the places I visited. Many staff seemed quite unaware of the tenuousness and insecurity of their positions, even though warning lights had been flashing for some time. Teacher education can no longer be the sole justification for a postsecondary institution's existence, with most of it being no more than a perpetuation of the past, not because it was good and effective, but because no other possibilities had even been considered.

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1980. pp. 42-48 A Music Programme for Student Teachers made Comparable with Young Children's Learning Tine Bosman, Senior Lecturer in Music, Hartley College of Advanced Education

It would seem that musical learning processes of young children and adults cannot easily be compared. I will argue, however, that they have to be compared, and that they have to be made comparable in order for the student teacher to gain understand of the young child and his musical growth. The raw material of music is sound. All musical creations are sound creations. The many languages of music, however, differ greatly. When considering the musical development of young children and their future teachers, it is vital to determine first of all, what musical culture, period or style this development is directed at.

1982. pp. 56-64 Secondary Music Teacher Training: Some thoughts for the future Douglas Heywood, Faculty of Education, University of Melbourne

I have taken the liberty to briefly examine three areas of teacher training: selection procedure, course content, and field training (school practice). Resting securely in the knowledge that greater minds than mine have, and will continue to confront the many problems associated with teacher training (problems ranging from fiscal restrictions to philosophical revolutions), it is hoped that this contribution albeit small, will at least invoke some discussion and perhaps even offer some viable alternative solutions. I believe that one of the most challenging and, in many ways, the most difficult levels to teach music is at the junior secondary levels of years 7 and 8.

1983. pp.15-21 United States experience with music in the Arts Curriculum and Implications for Teacher Education Dr. Lois N. Harrison, School of Music, University of Oregon, Visiting Fellow, Western Australian College of Advanced Education, Churchlands

For many years when music was integrated into the curriculum it was done by the primary classroom teachers. With careful planning, social studies, spelling, math, art, physical education and other curricular components were enhanced by having music contribute to broader understanding of them, and by helping to make experiences within those curricular components more interesting. The children would have opportunities to sing songs of the countries being studied in social studies, to learn spelling words and number combinations through chants or songs, to develop works of art while listening to music, to develop physically while doing movement activities in time to music, and so on.

1983. pp. 50-59 Starting with Music: Related arts connections Edward F. Gifford, Lecture Music Curriculum Studies T.C.A.F.

This paper centres around a series of ten workshops held with twenty third year Bachelor of Education students. Working in pairs, students conducted a one hour workshop with their peers. The aim was to generate experiences across the related arts, using music as the initial stimulus. The students chose their own music and made connections to other arts areas where they thought these naturally occurred. More specifically, the integrity of music was to be retained by discussing in an objective way the music's expressive qualities. These discussions provided a starting point for related activities in movement, art, language and their own musical improvisations.

1984. pp. 96-108 Individualizing Instruction: An old ideal with some new concerns R. Warren Tiller, Ballarat College of Advanced Education

The ideal of individualized instruction derives from a 'student centric' view of teaching and learning. Musgrave (1975) describes this as personalized learning that allows the student to move at his or her own pace. In addition, the materials that are employed will be directed at the learner's level of maturity and intellect. The learning activities that are incorporated in an individualized format are usually quite diverse. This allows for the student to make

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choices and co-operatively plan for the learning process. Activities may be repeated until mastery is demonstrated or until interest has been exhausted.

1984. pp. 110-115 Specialist-Generalist: A compromise? Megan Russell, Co-ordinator Tasmanian College of Advanced Education

This paper presents a case for a teacher training programme which integrates music specialist training with that of a general K-6 classroom teacher. After briefly examining the recognized differences between a general classroom teacher teaching music and a specialist itinerant (peripatetic) music teacher, it goes on to argue that a hybrid of these two. The case is based solely upon Tasmanian needs and in the Tasmanian setting. Whether or not it is reconcilable to situations in other states is for others to decide.

1984. pp. 126-138 Socialization into the Profession of Classroom Music Teaching Noela Hogg, Lecturer Victoria College Burwood campus

Each year I go into about forty different secondary schools in Victoria and I am amazed at the overall consensus of opinion about what should be taught at years 7 and 8 in classroom music programs. Such consensus is not the result of a state-wide syllabus because there is no such thing. Neither is it the result of a particular 'method' being dominant, for post-primary schools generally haven't been revitalised by Kodaly, Orff, Dalcroze or Suzuki approaches and there is no leading guru of the secondary school classroom music program.

1985. pp. 206-220 The Preparation and Design of the Graduate Diploma in Educational Studies: Primary Music at Kuring-Gai CAE Dowie Taylor and Suzanne Gerozisis, Kuring-Gai College of Advanced Education NSW

This paper details the developments undertaken for the preparation of the Graduate diploma in Primary Educational studies for primary school teachers in the New South Wales Department of Education. Results from a survey of metropolitan primary school principals showed that there was a need for specialist primary music teachers as the generalist classroom teachers were unprepared and unskilled to teach classroom music effectively in their school.

1985. pp. 233-241 Putting the learning back into music education Barbara van Ernst, Victoria College

Teachers in the field are still experiencing problems in the teaching of music, especially in post primary schools. The fields of science, art, literacy and oracy emphasize the learning practice rather than the teaching process. It seemed to me such a change of emphasis in music might change the results music educators achieve.

1987. pp. 4-5 Preservice Teacher Education in Music Barbara van Ernst Martin Comte

This document has been developed as a position statement to contribute to discussions on future directions in preservice teacher education in music. The statement is based on an assumption that a study of music is basic to general education. It is therefore essential that this be reflected in teacher training courses. It should be stressed that teacher education is a continuum, with preservice training, both for specialists and generalists, being the commencement of professional development.

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1987. pp. 11-15 Music is Fun: An Approach to Creative Music Education for, Student Teachers Deirdre Russell-Bowie, Macarthur Institute of Higher Education, Sydney

The primary teacher trainees sat in the music room in silence. They realised that it was their first music lesson. At the end of two semesters of compulsory music curriculum lectures and workshops, they were expected to be competent generalist teachers who would program and present music lessons, based on the NSW K-6 music syllabus, to their future classes, regularly and effectively. A questionnaire was administered at the initial lecture. The results were fairly disheartening. Sixty six percent of the students were total beginners in the area of formalised music training, with 21.5% having some knowledge and skill in one or more of these areas, and only 12.5% had had any sort of competency in one of these areas.

1987. pp. 29-32 Staff Development: A Collaborative approach R. Burrows, North West Education Centre

The impetus to seek a new approach to servicing Professional Staff Development (PSD) in the N.W. Region, Tasmania, arose from an observation that the existing programme was resource wasteful and possibly incorrectly orientated to some degree as it was not effective in catering for the actual needs of the practitioner. This mis-match resulted in a number of regionally and centrally designed and run courses either being cancelled or having a low participation rate. This situation would worsen as schools evaluated the relevance/worth of such courses with the continuing reduction in resource allocation. There was also a desire to have a PSD programme which complemented a current programme of high value.

1987. pp. 44-52 Learning Styles: A new concern for music educators R. Warren Tiller, Ballarat CAE

Most educators have probably always been concerned with the success of their students. This concern for individual success has motivated curricula innovations such as homogeneous grouping, programmed instruction, individualized instruction and personalized systems of instruction. Music educators have been quite active in these last three areas. Research and development work show a vital interest regarding programmed, individualized and personalized instruction. The common thread has been an attempt to devise materials, strategies, and delivery systems that all allow a student to move at his or her own pace while, at the same time, dealing with content written at the student's level of understanding.

1987. pp. 63-76 Process Consultation and Staff Development in Music Education at a Local School Deirdre Russell-Bowie, Macarthur Institute of Higher Education

Towards the end of 1986, the Principal of a local State school, located in the Western suburbs of Sydney, committed his teachers to a staff development project which aimed at developing each teacher's personal and professional skills in the area of music education. A needs survey was conducted by him, and this ascertained the lack of confidence and competence teachers felt about programming and teaching music according to the New South Wales {NSW K-6 Music Syllabus. A Music Education lecturer from a local Institute of Higher Education offered her services to assist in this staff development project, so, in liaison with the Principal, a Process Consultation model was adopted.

1989. pp. 1-10 Development of Music Education Courses to meet New Needs: A working model for teacher education in Tasmania Amanda Wojtowicz, Department of Teacher Education University of Tasmania

Recent developments in curriculum renewal in Tasmania present particular challenges for both pre-and post-initial teacher training. The present guidelines and secondary curriculum for school music in Tasmania are based on the premise that music is available for every student, the importance of active participation in listening, composition and performance and at primary level on an expressive arts tradition. Teacher education in music mainly takes place

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within a performance based conservatorium tradition. The paper examines a model based on a view of the teacher as facilitator, researcher and reflective practitioner with the learner as an active participant in their own learning.

1989. pp. 11-21 Living with Music: Implementing the NSW (K-6) syllabus in a primary school: A case study Deirdre Russell-Bowie, Wollongong University

This paper outlines a case study report on a year-long DSP funded project which aimed at the implementation of the NSW (K-6) Music Syllabus in a local school. In 1988 I was involved, as a music consultant, in case study research at a local Catholic Primary School in the Bankstown area of Sydney's south west. The aim of the project was to train the teachers so they could effectively implement the NSW (K-6) Music Syllabus in their classrooms. In order to give some structure to this task, the Living With Music Project was firmly based on the framework of Walker's naturalistic case study approach which uses a three step approach to curriculum design.

1990. pp. 42-49 Practicum Angelus or an Alternative Practicum in Music at Victoria College: An innovation Belle Farmer, Department of Music Victoria College, Burwood Campus

The purpose of this paper is to describe an alternative practicum offered to third year music majors in the Diploma of Teaching at Victoria College, and to raise some fundamental questions relating to the involvement of college staff, students and the schools. We, as music educators, have many things in common, not the least of which is the fact that we all strive to make the link between 'theory' and 'practice' of teaching as powerful and as relevant as possible. It is both inevitable and desirable that we anticipate this link will occur, in its most meaningful way, through the scheduled practica.

1991. pp. 47-56 Putting Music back into the Classroom Belle Farmer, Victoria College, Burwood Campus

In 1990, a research team from Victoria College was funded to investigate the factors that influence the involvement of generalist class teachers in the music programs in government primary schools. This paper describes that project and highlights some of the important issues raised by the study. Generalist teachers are required to conduct music programs as part of the class curriculum. Despite the fact that teachers are required to demonstrate adequate teaching in the three "A's", the adequacy of the class music program appears to be of little or no consequence to those who have been charged with the overseeing of education.

1991. pp. 57-66 Reflections on the Teacher-proof Curriculum Dianne O'Toole

The Teacher-proof curriculum is a phrase I encountered recently for the first time in many years, when reading for another purpose. Do you remember the classrooms of the sixties? Anywhere you looked, there was a large box with a kit of some kind in it. In considering the value and purpose of these materials, it is apposite to consider whose interests are served by their promotion and usage. Many people concerned with the politics of education write forcefully about the use made of teacher-proof curriculum packages to further the interests of education bureaucrats.

1991. pp. 245-250 Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Attitudes to Music and to Music Teaching: Implications for teacher education Edward F. Gifford

Recent national and international documents dealing with education and the arts attributed poor teaching of music in primary schools to inadequacies in the training of primary teachers. The most frequently reported problems associated with the training of teachers in music education were students' lack of confidence and their low musical ability. Against this background, a study was undertaken to examine the extent to which participation in a music education course during pre-service training advanced the musical skills, music reaching ability, musical sensitivity,

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and attitudes towards music of students who become general p primary teachers. This paper reports data on the influence of pre-service training on attitudes to music and to music teaching.

1992. pp. 141-160 Music Types and Tiger Stripes: Do learning styles matter in music teaching and learning? E. Gifford

Learning style has been demonstrated in the literature to be an important factor in teaching. This paper reports on an investigation of primary teachers and primary music teachers (N=395) preferred learning style using the Personal Style Inventory an adoption of the Myres Briggs Type Inventory. Primary pre-service teachers' personal types are identified and classified; the results are compared with similar populations cited in the literature; type differences of primary teachers are related to how they learn in the music context and correlations and associations between primary teachers' MBTI type; their musical achievement and preferred learning environment are reported respectively. Implications for music teaching and learning in schools and in pre-service training are discussed.

1992. pp. 303-327 A Study of the Learning and Teaching Processes of Non-Naive Music Students Engaged in Composition Dr Barbara van Ernst, Associate Professor in Music Education Deakin University

The inclusion of composition as an important aspect of the music curriculum can be supported on the grounds that it is a unique way of knowing music, and that through participation in the process of composing, students are required to use their musical knowledge in a creative way. It is argued that current theory on the teaching and learning of composition is insufficient in that it does not clarify the conditions most appropriate for student initiative or control in learning, nor the possible importance of prior knowledge. This paper describes a study which involved a search for a model for the teaching of composition to students with some prior musical experience.

1993. pp. 19-34 Resolving the Dilemmas of Music Teaching Noela Hogg, Deakin University

Following a recent research project involving the observation of more than 300 music lessons in secondary classrooms, it was found that teachers demonstrate one of three perspectives in their teaching; a valuing of music as knowledge, music as accomplishment, or music as empowering agent. Eleven dilemmas of music teaching were also identified. In order to encourage reflective thinking amongst music educators, a simple diagram was designed to deflect teachers' thinking away from a one-sided view of music education to a more central position, and strategies for effective teaching in the three areas of composing, listening and performing were outlined.

1993. pp. 41-55 New Directions: For Better or for Worse? The relationship between personal musical competency and student teachers' confidence in teaching music Deirdre Russell-Bowie, University of Western Sydney, Macarthur

This paper reports on a research project in progress which examines the development of music education skills and confidence in primary teacher education students. The development of these attitudes and skills is compared between two groups of students, one of which has received instruction in personal musical skills alongside their music curriculum lectures and the other group, which received only music curriculum lectures. This situation was brought about by the introduction of a new Bachelor of Teaching course in which the contact hours for compulsory music subjects were decreased considerably.

1993. pp. 56-68 Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Perceptions of what makes a good Music Teacher Edward Gifford, Faculty of Education, Griffith University

This study investigated pre-service general primary teachers' perceptions of the characteristics of successful music teaching practice by observing teacher-pupil interactions in a video-taped music lesson. This was part of a larger

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study which examined primary teachers attitudes toward music and music teaching from the commencement of their training to the end of their first year of teaching (Gifford 1993a, Gifford 1993b; Gifford 1991; Gifford 1990; Gifford 1989). This paper describes the development and application of the Music Teacher Video Observation Questionnaire and reports on data concerning pre-service teachers' perception of the factors which characterise successful music teaching.

1994. pp. 22-35 Live and Sweaty: Making connections with the real world involvement of tertiary music education students with department of school education programs in the performing arts and school based curriculum implementation activities Felicia Chadwick, University of Newcastle

This study relates to the involvement of final year tertiary music education students with programs and activities involving secondary school students and teachers from the "real world". The activities with which the tertiary students were involved required them to move beyond the tertiary setting to situations in which school students and teachers were engaged with two types of programs. The first group of activities were associated with performance programs organised by state and regional education authorities. The second group of activities relates to school based programs.

1994. pp. 78-91 Teaching Music K-6: Confidence and the preservice primary teacher Neryl Jeanneret, University of Newcastle

While some education systems employ specialist music educators in the primary school, there are a large number of generalist primary teachers in Australia, the United States and Great Britain who have responsibility for teaching music in their classrooms. Research and literature supports the notion that generalist primary teachers (preservice and inservice) lack the confidence to teach music in their classrooms.

1994. pp. 100-109 Making Connections between the Arts Dr Deirdre Russell-Bowie, Senior Lecturer, University of Western Sydney, (Macarthur)

The NSW Ministry of Education has introduced six Key Learning Areas for primary schools. This model has also been adopted by the Faculty of Education in its Bachelor of Teaching and Bachelor of Education courses. Faculty staff are being encouraged to diversify from their original areas of teaching expertise and be involved in teaching other KLAs using an integrated team approach. The Creative Arts KLA includes Music, Dance, Drama and Visual Arts. Many primary school teachers perceive that their skills in this area are minimal. To address some of these problems and concerns, the Faculty of Education, has developed a Bachelor of Education (Primary: Creative Arts) course.

1995. pp. 21-28 Preservice Teacher Attitudes: Implications for tertiary curriculum design and professional development in music Neryl Jeanneret, University of Newcastle

Although some school systems maintain music specialists in Primary schools, the reality of the situation is that a large number of generalist primary teachers in Australia, Great Britain and the United States of America have the responsibility for teaching music in their classrooms. A notable amount of research from these countries has supported the notion that generalist and preservice Primary teachers have a negative attitude towards and lack the confidence to teach music. This study attempts to assess whether pre-service Primary teachers' confidence to teach music might be influenced by their experiences in a Music Fundamentals course that was a prerequisite to a Music Methods course.

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1995. pp. 52-55 Teacher Attitudes: Their effects on curriculum implementation and the implications for the professional development of music educators Denise Paterson, University of Newcastle

Research studies, particularly in Australia, America and Great Britain have revealed relationships between teacher attitudes and the implementation process in curricula that have implications not only for the planning and implementation of curricula but also for the way teachers are trained and provided with ongoing professional development in music education. Any change in the classroom ultimately depends on the individual teachers, so it is important to understand the types of factors that could influence this behaviour.

1995. pp. 57-63 Professional Collaborations of Community-Based Music Educators Max Reeder, Charles Sturt University

Nine Music Conservatorium Centres have been established throughout regional New South Wales to supply or complement music education needs in large and small communities, spanning all ages. Due to the uneven distribution of music education at the early childhood and primary school levels in particular, these Centres sometimes become the sole focus of specialist music tuition and performance experiences. The initial specialist demands especially for the instrumental and vocal teachers, have been challenged lately to more realistically reflect the State's Key Learning Area curriculum in Creative and Practical Arts.

1995. pp. 65-70 The professional development of music educators: A South Australian perspective. Jenny Rosevear, University of Adelaide

This paper will explore some of the issues affecting the professional development of music educators in South Australian schools. These include the implementation of the Arts Statement and Profile, the Graduate Certificate of Professional Practice through the NPDP Arts Consortium and the University of South Australia, and the role of professional associations in the provision of professional development. Other related issues include the impact of the "Review of Music in Schools" undertaken by DECS (Department of Education and Children's Services), and the lack of tertiary options for intending music educators.

1995. pp. 71-82 Wow! I can do music! A study of the self-concept of student teachers in relation to various subject areas Deirdre Russell-Bowie, Lawrence Roche, Herbert Marsh, University of Western Sydney, Macarthur

This paper explores the nature and structure of self-conceptions among first and second year undergraduate student teachers in response to a questionnaire designed to distinguish between self-conceptions related to the different roles and domains, with particular reference to music education. Initial results indicate that their self-concept as students in music improved relative to other subjects over time, whilst teaching self-concept there was not a significant difference at either point in the analysis. Potential implications for teacher education and for teaching and learning generally are discussed.

1995. pp. 94-109 The Professional Development of Music Educators: An overview of postgraduate offerings in Australia Nita Temmerman, University of Wollongong

There is a vast array of postgraduate courses available to (suitably qualified) music educators in Australia not only in the music and music education fields, but also in related areas such as curriculum studies, teaching and learning, administration, special education, early childhood, and information technology. Music educators potentially have the

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opportunity to specialise in as many as 21 different Masters and four distinct Doctoral programs on offer in Australian universities. This paper provides music educators with an overview of these programs and their structure.

1996. pp. 60-65 An Investigation of Undergraduate Music Education Curriculum Content in Primary Teacher Education Programs in Australia Dr Nita Temmerman, University of Wollongong

Primary school music experiences have been shown to impact not only on future adult attitudes to, but also interest and participation in music. Unfortunately, current policy and practice of music in primary schools is still perceived to be unsatisfactory. This can be attributed to their undergraduate university training in music education. Music educators have a key role to play in breaking the apparent current cycle of unsatisfactory (or no) music practice at the primary school level. This paper investigates what curriculum content is currently included in compulsory undergraduate university music education programs. It asks teacher educators, in light of recent research, to reflect on the adequacy of their current curriculum to prepare beginning teachers to teach primary school music.

1997. pp. 21-26 Self Evaluation of a Music Teacher Peter de Vries, Faculty of Education, Griffith University

In this paper the researcher, a practising primary school music teacher, documents how he has used the research act to evaluate his place in the teaching profession. The research data, an autobiographical novel of the researcher's teaching experiences, was collected/written prior to any other part of the research act occurring. A methodology was subsequently constructed stemming from phenomenology and autobiography whereby themes were drawn from the novel, analysed, and selected teachers from the novel were interviewed to enable the researcher to explore his teaching experiences and attitudes to teaching music.

1997. pp. 43-58 Assessing and Improving the Music Classroom Environment Edward Gifford, Faculty of Education Griffith University

Research into classroom learning environments can answer important questions about student learning such as the following: How does a classroom's environment affect student learning and attitudes? Can teachers conveniently and reliably assess the climates of their own classrooms, and can they change these environments? This paper presents data from research with general primary teachers undertaking music as part of their teacher training at Griffith University, Mt Gravatt Campus. The paper concludes that, while there is considerable difference between students' perceptions of actual and preferred music environments, the music classroom environment can be reliably assessed and improved, with demonstratable gains in students' attitude towards music.

1999. pp. 128-135 An Investigation and Analysis of Environmental Stress Factors Experienced by K-12 Music Teachers Debra G. Gordon

This study aimed to identify stress factors, sources of stress among practicing music educators. A number of stress factors were identified. Significant differences were demonstrated between urban and non-urban teachers. Manifestations were negligible in most areas, but did demonstrate significant differences for men and women. Data from this and other studies suggest there is a discrepancy between the teacher preservice program and the realities of the music educator's job, ultimately creating stress.

1999. pp. 221-226 Introducing Chaozhou Xianshi Musical Elements into the Theory and Aural Classes for Initial Teacher Training Courses in Hong Kong Daniel Chun-hoi Ng

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In Hong Kong, the Chinese and the English languages are studied side by side throughout the entire years of schooling. However, the music curriculum does not reflect this. In the official general music curriculums set forth by the Curriculum Development Committee, Western music dominates what is currently taught in Hong Kong schools. Chinese music is given far less prominence than Western music in all years of schooling. This paper discusses this issue, plus other factors in the training of the teachers that will help build a more fuller understanding and healthier attitude toward the teaching of Chinese music and Chinese culture.

1999. pp. 246-249 Soundscapes and Learning Strategies in Music Education Guenter Olias

Soundscapes are important events for the development of children and young people, with regard to their intercultural connections and to all of their music related activities. Soundscapes program music and electroacoustical sound productions, can determine special strategies of music learning, especially in connecting document-related and metaphoric learning as an as an effective condition for the integration and development of learning strategies in music education. Sound education means to recognize sound and music as a document and as a metaphor. Metaphoric thinking could be the key for the development of music understanding and consciousness, and the basis for understanding learned processes by making music.

1999. pp. 263-268 Children, Teachers and Music: Training and development; teachers' reflective practice and improved music learning outcomes in the K-6 classroom Anne Power

This paper reports the first stage of a study of teacher's engagement with professional development and the impact of such PD on improved music learning outcomes in the K-6 classroom. The main aim of the paper is to document teachers' identification of student learning that they attribute to their experience of professional development. In addition the research provides some findings concerning a hypothesis that teachers' responses about integration of music with other Key learning Areas (KLAs) have a correlation with responses concerning the value and application of course content to the needs of their students.

2000. pp. 120-126 International practicum: Benefits and problems in teaching music to primary school children in a different cultural context Anne Power, School of Teaching and Educational Studies University of Western Sydney Nepean

Since 1996, pre-service teachers at UWS Nepean and the Sydney conservatorium have participated in International Practicum experiences. Both the literature and verbal assurances from students report that an international practicum experience confirms pre-service teachers in their choice of profession. With Dr Peter Dunbar-Hall, a preliminary study is under way investigating the experience for Australian pre-service teachers teaching music outside Australia. This paper will focus on the perceived benefits and problems encountered in one location Nadi, Fiji, in Spring 1998. Future papers will extend this research to include experiences in Asian countries and England.

2000. pp. 127-135 The Effect of Collaborative Learning on Music Performance Self Concept of Pre-service, Early Childhood Teachers Max Reeder, School of Technical Education, Charles Sturt University

Universal research supports the conclusion that the large majority of generalist and pre-service teachers have negative attitudes and a lack of self- confidence in studying and teaching music. These responses are frequently attributed to a lack of successful school musical experiences and inadequate teaching at tertiary level. As one solution to improving self-concept, this study explores the relationship between music performance self-concept of pre-service teachers and the use of collaborative learning. Reference will be made to research into collaborative learning. In particular, a pilot study based on a new model of learning will he outlined, which compares traditional methods of teaching music performance with peer tutoring, among a musically varied cohort of pre-service early childhood teachers.

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2000. pp. 147-157 Flying blind: Lessons learned by first-year music teachers Kathy Roulston, Graduate School of Education The University of Queensland

Although there is a large body of empirical research which focuses on the 'beginning teacher', few studies have investigated the experiences of' first-year music specialists. This paper discusses selected data from a three-year study concerning the work of itinerant primary music teachers in Queensland. In formation was gained through, a pilot study, a state-wide survey of itinerant teachers and conversations and observations music teachers over the course of one school year. Accounts provided by two first-year teachers are analysed here. Analyses of these accounts and descriptions will provide insight that is of value to pre-service music teachers, music teachers, teacher educators and school administrators.

2001. pp. 89-96 Pre-Service Teachers' Rationale for why Peers' Music Teaching is Creative Anne Power, University of Western Sydney Myung-sook Auh, University of New South Wales

This is a follow-up study of our previous investigation of pre-service teachers' perceptions of creative music teaching. Participants were 45 pre-service teachers attending universities in Sydney. Students delivered 10-minutes lessons, and their peers commented on 1) what creative aspects were in the teaching, and 2) why they thought so, using the Creativity Response Sheet (CRS). Results showed the greatest attention was paid to teaching skills and, to a lesser degree, to originality. These results indicate that the pre-service teachers' personal reflections are informed by teaching and learning theories and specific music and teaching experiences. Implications are that there should be more awareness of creative music teaching strategies.

2001. pp. 131-140 How do our Primary Teacher Education Students Perceive their Background and Abilities in Music and Music Education? Deirdre Russell-Bowie, University of Western Sydney

Many reports into arts education in Australia over the past thirty years have highlighted the inadequacy of most music education programs within primary schools. As tertiary music educators, we need to ascertain the background and attitudes our student teachers have towards music and music education. This study initially identifies the students' perceptions of their background and abilities in relation to music and music education. Secondly, it examines if there are differences between male students' and female students' perceptions of their own background and abilities. Finally, the study investigates if there is a correlation between the age of the students, their TER score, year level and SES background and their perceptions of their background and ability in music and music education.

2002. pp. 59-66 Reflect! Have music teachers got time to reflect? Kay A. Hartwig, Griffith University

The findings of recently conducted research into the reflective practitioner and their implications for changing practice through self-motivated inquiry will be presented. Most music teachers work in isolation with very little time to talk to colleagues. The factors impacting upon music educators are complex and varied. It is a contention of this paper that music educators do have a capacity to monitor how effectively they are operating in their school environments. The study highlighted that there is a great need for music teachers to reflect on their practice and then share these reflections with others. At the core of this form of research is the building of a better future for music education.

2002. pp. 86-98 Umoja: Teaching African Music to Generalist Teacher Education Students Dr Dawn Joseph, Deakin University

This paper reports on the beginning stages of a pilot study which examines the teaching of African songs to generalist primary teachers. At the conclusion of the semester students will be invited to participate in questionnaires

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and interviews to assess how teaching music through another genre influences non-music specialist learning. This paper will outline the research design and the literature on the use of non indigenous musical genres in `western" cultures. Issues of tokenism and cultural engagement will be addressed as will the choice of action songs which narrate the history and stories of a `foreign' culture.

2002. pp. 168-178 Reflection and Inspiration: Understanding music pedagogies through journal writing Dr Jane Southcott, Monash University Dr Rosalynd Smith, Monash University

This paper examines the use of journals by a group of music teachers undertaking postgraduate study, the purpose of their journals being to respond to the practice of other teachers, rather than to their own. Five masters students at Monash University undertook fieldwork in Europe during January, 2002. The assessment task for this component was the completion of a journal to be kept during the trip. Students were asked to record their experiences and observation of teaching at three levels: description, interpretation and evaluation. This paper reports on the outcomes of this experience, showing how the structure imposed enabled students to draw out their understandings of the pedagogies concerned in a way that was valuable and meaningful for their own professional practice.

2002. pp. 206-213 So what Extra-Musical Benefits did your Arts Education Subject Provide? The potential contribution of arts (music) education to the development of generic skills in undergraduate teacher education programs Professor Nita Temmerman, Deakin University

The debate continues in teacher education about how to best prepare quality teachers. Importance is usually placed on two interrelated categories of attributes as quality measures, namely generic and professional, discipline specific knowledge and skills. The former are especially' important because they are skills that support life-long learning, whereas discipline specific knowledge often becomes obsolete. This paper describes a strategy within a university undergraduate teacher education program, to determine the extent to which generic skills were integrated within its curriculum. Three major elements were investigated, evidence of each subject area's commitment to the integration of generic skills; a mechanism for demonstrating how students are presented with opportunities to develop different skills; and a means of discovering where certain skills night be underemphasized.

2003. pp. 124-133 The African Difference: Results and implications of using African music in teacher education Dr Dawn Y. Joseph, Deakin University

This paper describes the findings of a music education research project undertaken at Deakin University during 2002. African music meets the challenges presented to both lecturer and students to adequately prepare primary teacher education students with knowledge and skills in specific music content and music pedagogy. By focusing specifically on rhythm and movement, my program incorporated African action songs and drumming with traditional Euro-centric repertoire. The use of African music facilitated effective rhythmic learning and, at the same time, motivated students' interest and promoted their intercultural engagement. Findings presented are drawn from both questionnaire and interview data, on the use of Orff, Kodaly and Dalcroze principles in combination with African music repertoire, performance genres and a study of African culture.

2004. pp. 198-206 Identities of Music Teachers in Australia: A Pilot Study Dr. Scott D. Harrison, Griffith University

This paper examines some of the issues of identity in relation to music teachers in Australia. It investigates the models of Hargreaves and Marshall (2003) and Harrison (2003c) While Hargreaves' model looks at teachers in the United Kingdom, this paper applies these principles to the Australian setting. Harrison's research focused on singing teachers and provides some insights for applications in broader music education settings. These two viewpoints and frameworks will be drawn together, along with more recent research and anecdotal accounts of teacher education to give practical examples for pre-service teachers and existing practitioners.

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2004. pp. 207-215 Ways of Knowing: An investigation into how pre-service teachers learn music Dr Kay A. Hartwig, Griffith University

There are many ways of knowing that have been highlighted. Gardner posits that musical intelligence is one. Within the facet of music learning and teaching there are multiple ways of knowing. Whether it is the methods employed by the teacher in the transmission of music knowledge, or the approach that students of music favour in their acquisition of music knowledge, it is important that in the education environment these ways are recognised. This paper investigates the ways of knowing that pre-service teachers used in their experience of formal music education. For some students this was their first encounter with music learning.

2004. pp. 233-241 Looking Back Towards the Future: Vocational Classical Music Education for Contemporary Music Students Dr. Anne K. Mitchell, Southern Cross University

Secondary school music education remains heavily centred on the Western classical tradition. This paper addresses issues involved in the training of contemporary music students, most of whom have little or no prior classical music knowledge or education, for careers as secondary school classroom music teachers. The paper reports preliminary findings from a pilot research project aimed at establishing and implementing best practice in the training of secondary school music teachers. Concerns raised by the established music teaching collegiate about the preparation of beginning teachers for this profession will be addressed. The paper will also evaluate the unique contribution in contemporary music theory, practice and industry-based skills these students can offer to secondary school music education.

2004. pp. 258-269 Experiences and Feelings in Music Education: The musical experiences, feelings and hopes of pre-service primary teachers over 14 years Associate Professor Deirdre E. Russell-Bowie, University of Western Sydney

This paper investigates the musical experience of pre-service primary teachers over a 14-year time span and identifies if there has been a change in the level of musical experience of these students. It also identifies what they feel about teaching music lessons at the start of their music education units, what they hope to gain from the music education subject and their feelings about doing this subject. Results indicated that there were no clear trends of increasing or decreasing musical experience across the years. Based on the findings, suggestions are made for the development of music education subjects.

2004. pp. 341-346 Music Teacher Standards in Australia Dr Amanda R. Watson, Department of Education & Training, Victoria Associate Professor David L. Forrest, RMIT University Dr Neryl C. Jeanneret, University of Newcastle

This paper documents the continued process used in developing draft professional standards for Music Educators in Australia and considers the major issues and concerns encountered to date. A brief literature review and background to the professional standards for teachers of English and Literacy, Mathematics and Science developed by the relevant professional teaching associations will be included. The Australian Society for Music Education (ASME) commenced work on behalf of Music Educators in 2002. This paper will highlight the process used in the development of the draft standards and will address the issues that have arisen in the development and in the current consultation phase with the profession.

100

2005. pp. 15-24. Looking Forward: An Investigation into how Music Teachers Perceive their Practice Dr Georgina Barton, Education Queensland

Within the education context there is an increasing demand for teachers to address the diverse needs of their students. This paper will explore the concept of inclusivity in the music education environment. It will present research on how music in various contexts is transmitted and how it is important to recognise these ways of teaching and learning. Part of this argument will include data that investigated how students in the contemporary music education context prefer to learn. It will then outline further data collected via an interview process with a number of music teachers in regard to the contemporary music education `space'.

2006. pp. 50-56 Music Education for the Pre-service Generalist Primary Teacher: The Question of Assessment Dr Kay Hartwig, Griffith University Dr Peter de Vries, Monash University

This paper discusses assessment tasks in music education subjects in two undergraduate teacher education courses, in Queensland, and New South Wales. The aim is to begin discussion amongst tertiary educators about assessment tasks in music courses in teacher education programs. This dialogue is more vital than ever with the impact of so much `change' affecting university courses, such as revised and changing courses, which ultimately impact on music education subjects and assessment. In this paper, a number of assessment tasks are outlined and discussed, indicating the rationale behind the tasks, and how and why these tasks have been modified over time.

2006. pp. 95-103 Lessons from Teaching Practice: Self-perceptions of Student Teachers Jennifer C. Rosevear, University of Adelaide

The long established practice of the teaching practicum, in which students carry out the role of teacher whilst being supervised is well recognised in preparation for teaching. The opportunity to reflect on the teaching experiences is a necessary part of refining and addressing aspects which require further development. Data were collected from student teachers in music at the University of Adelaide over a 4-year period (2003-2006 inclusive). Each cohort of students attended a seminar and completed a questionnaire shortly after the conclusion of their practicum blocks. This paper reports on their perceptions and identifies common aspects which may be of some relevance to other tertiary music educators.

2007. pp. 20-27 Mini-Musicals for Maximum Impact Lyndell Bussa, Southern Cross University Marilyn Chaseling, Southern Cross University Dr Robert Smith, Southern Cross University

Primary teacher education students, who chose to enroll in a Primary music education elective, were required to work in groups to create and perform a mini-musical. They were also required to reflect on their experiences by way of personal writings. This paper examines these student reflections. The students expressed much newfound confidence in their future teaching of creative arts. Furthermore, it was found that such performances had benefits in developing group process strategies in ways not matched elsewhere in the students' teacher education program. The findings are an endorsement of the value of creative arts performance in teacher education programs.

2007. pp. 65-72 Finding the right balance? Dr Kay A. Hartwig, Griffith University

For many years, music education lecturers and researchers have debated what is the best model to use when training generalist primary teachers for the teaching of music. Given that pre-service teachers must be equipped with the knowledge and skills to teach music in their future classrooms, how then do universities provide the necessary

101

training when the time for arts/music training continues to be eroded? This paper reports on data obtained via an email questionnaire to student teachers who had completed their one semester of music education in their first year of training, and had now completed a four-week practicum in schools in their second year of training.

2007. pp. 104-111 Autonomous Learning within a Learning Community? Musicians have been doing it for years! Ms Maree Macmillan, RMIT University

This paper reflects on an experience in musical learning and self-development co-created by a class of year three and year four (mostly) Bachelor of Education students at RMIT University. This group of approximately twenty students, whose respective backgrounds ranged from no formal musical experience to confident performing musicians, were challenged to take charge of their own learning in music performance, improvisation and composition. The students' creation of their own goals and invention of their own learning processes resulted in a richness of musical and personal learning that was highly rewarding for each participant in this very diverse class.

2007. pp. 130-136 'Everything was different': Experiencing music pedagogies in an unfamiliar context Rosalynd Smith, Monash University Jane E. Southcott, Monash University

This paper reports on a study of changes to music teachers' attitudes to and practice of Orff, Kodály and Dalcroze approaches to music teaching following a three week study tour in Europe. Participants interviewed a year or more after the study tour valued the experience and were able to point to ideas and teaching practices they had subsequently incorporated into their teaching. For some participants, especially those who already had experience of teaching one or more of these pedagogies in Australia, it was not the content of the methodologies but the shock of experiencing them in an unfamiliar context that had a more profound effect on their thinking.

Vocal and Choral 1981. pp. 102-105 Recent Research in Singing: The work of Lucie Manen David Galliver, University of Adelaide, South Australia

Lucie Manen is one of the most interesting and original investigators into the art of singing, and in particular into the technique of the bel-canto, the classical school of singing of the seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth centuries. Possessing professional qualifications and experience in music and human physiology, she combines to an unusual degree the ability to illumine what is both a science and an art. Born in Berlin some eighty years ago, Lucie Manen received her singing training there from Anna Schoen-Rene, who herself had been a pupil of Pauline ViardotGarcia.

1983. pp. 11-14 The Integrity of Music Faye Dumont, Music Educator, Choral Conductor

On the assumption that no music conference should revolve only around the arts of public speaking and debate we are going to use our voices in singing. The ability to tackle such a performance is the melding of many skills. These skills may have been accumulated from schooling, from experiences at college or university, or through participation in community ensembles. They have come together because at some time these factors became desirable to us-the unique experience of using the inbuilt instrument for the heightening expression of singing, hearing and remembering sounds accurately, for the purpose of reproducing them.

102

1991. pp. 97-114 The teaching of Vocal Technique for the Twenty-First Century: Current scientific models compared with Bel-Canto precepts J. Callaghan

Bel-canto, literally `beautiful singing' emerged as a distinctly Italian phenomenon towards the end of the sixteenth century. Many studio teachers working one-to-one with a student still largely rely on this teaching method, which is counter-productive if the vocal sound needed by the student is not one in which the teacher is proficient. It may also be deficient in imparting some essential skills such as those needed to prevent vocal damage. In the last twenty years or so a great deal of scientific evidence has been published on various aspects of vocal functioning. While much of this evidence appears in specialist journals, a start has been made in collecting it in a book accessible to the practitioner.

1992. pp. 69-78 Science, Art and Vocal Pedagogy: A research design to investigate the relationship between scientific understandings of Voice and current practice in the teaching of singing Jean Callaghan

The teaching of singing as a solo virtuoso art goes back to Italy early in the seventeenth century, where it emerged in response to demand for solo vocal virtuosos. The seventeenth and eighteenth century tradition of bel-canto was an oral one based on continuity of objectives, technique and criteria of musical judgment, and dependent on the close relationship between composer and performer, teacher and student, performer and audience. This tradition has been broken by social and musical changes, one of the most influential being the development of scientific investigation of the voice. In singing, technical matters pose more problems than in the playing of any musical instrument.

1993. pp. 140-146 Pandora in the 90's: Representations of the Lulu figure Maree Macmillan, Department of Arts Education, RMIT

It is perhaps particularly apt in the current climate that my concern is to explore the myth of Pandora, whose box has come to denote any source of multiple disaster. This myth has been representated over the centuries in various text forms and art works; the most familiar of these to musicians is Alban Berg's Lulu. My exploration will draw on feminist psychoanalytic theory and semiotics, developed by the avant-garde over the last twenty years around the psyche and representation.

1994. pp. 14-21 Projection: Interdisciplinary connections in the professional education of singing teachers Jean Callaghan, University of Western Sydney, Nepean

In earlier AMEL papers, (Callaghan, 1991, 1992) I have described the scientific basis of the art of singing. I have spoken of the need for teachers to bridge the 'know-how' of singing and the 'knowing that' of voice science. To do this they need a good knowledge of both. Training and experience as a singer are a necessary, but, no longer a sufficient, qualification for a teacher of singing. In addition, teachers need to understand the anatomical, physiological and acoustic bases of vocal technique and to develop the ability to apply these understandings diagnostically in teaching.

1996. pp. 82-92 The Training of Choristers to Sing Unaccompanied Renaissance Polyphony Ms Margaret McMurtry, NSW Conservatorium of Music

Areas of agreement and disagreement between musicologists and conductors regarding Renaissance unaccompanied polyphony vary, although specialist singers feel that the answers lie in the practical performing conditions of the Renaissance period. This paper attempts to analyse the collected information pertaining to three focus areas thrown up by discussion with leading world conductors and Renaissance ensemble singers. These focus areas are: the importance of performing editions used in rehearsal, the central function of the text, and tuning. It is hoped that after

103

analysis of the data the resulting document will provide a guide for conductors on techniques that are used by proven conductors hat captures the essence of the Renaissance style.

1996. pp. 101-102 Small Group Vocal Tuition in Australian Schools: Investigation and evaluation Max Reeder, Charles Sturt University

There is a rapid accumulation of studies discussing the practice of group teaching and learning in music. While supporting the established values of choral experiences and individual singing tuition as educational strategies, the alternative practice of tuition in vocal techniques, repertoire, sight reading and aural skills in small groups merits further investigation.

1997. pp. 27-32 Science and Singing Jean Callaghan, University of Western Sydney, Nepean

This paper is an interim report of a study of the relationship between scientific understandings of voice and current practice in the teaching of singing in Australian tertiary institutions. An understanding of this relationship is necessary to inform planning for the professional education and practical training of singing teachers.

1998. pp. 17-25 The Italian Vocal Tradition for the New Millennium: Isaac Nathan's singing pedagogy and current voice science Dr. Jean Callaghan, University of Western Sydney, Nepean

Applied voice research needs to take account of the understandings of the traditional Italian school of singing as well as of the new voice science. The vocal pedagogy of the traditional Italian school was imported to Australia in the 19th century by Isaac Nathan. Nathan emigrated to Australia in 1841. In Sydney he was active as composer, conductor, impresario and teacher until his death in 1864. He was also active as a teacher of singing. Trained in the Italian operatic tradition, in 1823 Nathan had published a book on singing, entitled Musurgia vocalis, which appeared in a revised second edition in 1836. This paper represents an initial examination of Nathan's writing on singing in Australia.

1998. pp. 82-86 Chosen Voices: Recruitment in Victorian children's choirs Dr. Rosalynd Smith, Faculty of Education, Monash University

This paper considers some of the implications of a research project investigating children's choirs in Victoria. The choirs involved were all independent choirs and included boys', girls' and mixed choirs, both in Melbourne and in regional centres. The first stage included observations of rehearsals, collection of documentation about the choirs and interviews with choral directors about their alms for the choir and the ways in which they tried to achieve them. A later stage of research will consider the experiences and perceptions of the children who sing in choirs; and of their parents. This paper explores the reasons behind the selectivity of participants which characterizes most of the choirs investigated, and the implications of this for choral music education.

1999. pp. 88-92 Singing Self-Efficacy: The critical years Jenny Boyack

The myth of tone deafness is alive and well in New Zealand families and schools. Although vocal development research points to singing as a developmental skill rather than a fixed ability trait, school practices reflect that the opposite view is widely held. This research involves the survey of a year group of teacher education students about self efficacy in singing and about the factors which have influenced their beliefs. Preliminary analysis of the data

104

indicates that feedback about singing ability from family members, teachers and peers is the most significant factor in the development of beliefs about singing capability and that the years 8-12 are critical.

1999. pp. 191-196 The Effects of Head Voice Training on Register Classifications: Pitch Accuracy, singing habits, and singing skills of young children Gwendolyn McGraw

This paper reports a study in which the effects of group training upon the vocal register classification, register transition skill, register-related pitch accuracy, and singing habits of second grade students (n = 66) were assessed.

1999. pp. 288-293 Parent Involvement in Children's Choirs in Victoria Rosalynd Smith

This paper reports some of the findings of a study of independent children's choirs (those not affiliated with a church or school) in Victoria, Australia. The number of children's choirs in Australia and the quality of their performances has risen greatly in the last ten years. This study proceeded from the hypotheses that different children's choirs may have different emphases on recreational, educational, and performance goals. This paper examines the points of view of parents from two of the choirs, using data collected through questionnaires. Parents' expectation of the choir, the degree to which they saw these expectations as having been met, and the kind of involvement parents have in their children's choirs are discussed.

2000. pp. 93-98 "Femininity" as Performance: The female voice as cathartic-transformational force from Lulu to Run Lola Run Maree Macmillan, RMIT, Victoria

This paper examines the role of the female voice as a locus of performance and as a point of catharsis in Lulu and Lola texts, most of which feature a cabaret performer as protagonist. Deriving from Wedekind's Lulu plays and Mann's 1905 novel Professor Unrat, they include works such as Berg's Lulu and Fassbinder's Lola. The most recent text is Tykwer's 1998 film, Run Lola Run, which, like Berg's opera, Lulu, culminates in an ear-splitting scream. All these texts explore the mythical Pandora as femme fatale. This paper investigates how these texts mediate cultural significations of Woman by offering a variety of interpretations of the myth, suggesting that Lulu's scream of death might be transformed into Lola' scream of empowerment.

2002. pp. 138-147 Is the Choral Program of the South Australian Public Primary Schools Music Festival Effective? Helen M. Pietsch, University of Adelaide

The South Australian Public Primary Schools' Music Festival involves up to two-thirds of the state's public primary schools. This choral program culminates in a series of combined schools" performances in Adelaide's Festival Theatre and up to eight regional centres towards the end of term three. The paper considers whether this choral program functions as it was intended-as a co-curricular arm of music education in upper primary music instruction in South Australia's public primary schools. Based on the researcher's Ph.D. data, it looks at the background of the teacher/choir trainers and accompanists who are responsible for implementing the program and the place of the program within the context of current music education practices in South Australian government schools.

2004. pp.177-190 Understanding and Improving Boys' Participation in Singing in the First Year of School Clare A. Hall, Monash University

This paper aims to better understand the singing behaviour of young boys' and to explore ways to improve boys' participation in singing. The project investigates whether the genesis of the `missing male' trend in singing at school is evident in early childhood through a case study of boys in their first year of school. Previous research indicates that boys' participation in singing at secondary school is less than girls'. Boys may reject singing in the construction

105

of a `masculine' identity, most notably during adolescence, in response to social perceptions that singing is `feminine'. However, the literature fails to address the impact restrictive attitudes about acceptable male behaviour has on young boys' participation and learning in music.

2004. pp. 301-314 Tonic Sol-fa in South Africa--A Case Study of Endogenous Musical Practice Associate Professor Robin S. Stevens, Deakin University Professor Eric A. Akrofi, University of Transkei, South Africa

Tonic Sol-fa was introduced to South Africa during the mid nineteenth century initially by Christian missionaries and later by professional. Despite Tonic Sol-fa being the principal means of formal pedagogy there has been some fairly forthright condemnation, Agawu (2003) and Nzewi (1999), for example of the overall effects of European music--particularly tonal-functional harmony--on indigenous culture. This paper argues that, Tonic Sol-fa represents what Ntuli (2001) identifies as endogenous knowledge--knowledge acquired from non-indigenous sources that has been assimilated and integrated with indigenous knowledge to become the collective heritage of a people. The paper aims to counter the general criticism that European music has been injurious to indigenous African culture.

106

Index

A

Akrofi, Eric A · 109 Allen, Julie · 15 Alvarez, Barbara J · 28 Ashton, John · 92 Aspin, David N · 87 Atsuyasu, Kitayama, · 82 Auh, Myung-sook · 9, 102 Azechi, Nozomi · 82

C

Callaghan, Jean · 73, 74, 87, 106, 107, 108 Calver, Pam · 12 Cantwell, Robert H · 11 Cavanagh-Russell, Megan · 17 Chadwick, Felicia · 21, 41, 55, 97 Chalmers, Brian · 4 Chaseling, Marilyn J · 47, 48, 49, 51, 105 Cheong-Clinch, Carmen · 62 Cheung, Jane W. Y. · 73 Chun-hoi Ng, Daniel · 100 Cole, Peter G · 40 Collins, Stuart M · 61, 92 Comte, Martin · 94 Cook, Janette · 65 Croft, Martyn · 7

F

Farmer, Belle · 5, 53, 95, 96 Ferris, A. Jill · 45, 47, 48 Fisher, D. · 78 Fitzgerald, Jon · 24 Flora, Reis · 34 Forrest, David · 22, 25, 26, 31, 45, 46, 55, 58, 104 Fox, Malcolm · 42 Frame, Olive · 28, 77 Franklin, Gavin · 52 Fullerton, Wendy S · 40

B

Bannister, Roland · 34, 35, 44 Barker, Patricia · 79 Barrett, Margaret · 16, 63, 66 Barton, Georgina · 23, 24, 36, 37, 64, 104 Benner, Charles H · 65 Benton, Robert L. · 54 Berry, Anne I. · 57 Beston, Pauline · 10, 11 Beyer, Esther · 67 Biddiss, Carol · 70, 71 Billington, H. G. R · 83 Bishop, Dianne · 34, 59 Blyth, Andrew · 21 Bodkin, Sally · 30 Bolton, Jan · 10 Bosman, Tine · 92 Bowes, Jennifer · 31 Boyack, Jenny · 108 Brennan, Philomena · 90 Bridges, Doreen · 15, 41, 49, 66, 90 Brooker, Ron · 41 Brown, Andrew · 5 Brown, Mark N · 75 Brown, Robert · 59 Bryce, Jennifer · 4, 13, 18, 71, 86 Burke, Harry · 12, 22, 26, 49 Burkhardt-Byrne, Daniele · 27, 65 Burrows, R. · 94 Burtenshaw, Leonard · 4, 70 Burton, Leon · 14 Bush, J. E · 73 Bussa, Lyndell · 105 Buxton, Ruth D · 12 Bygrave, Patricia L. · 39

G

Galliver, David · 106 Gao, Zhiwen · 68 Gates, Anne · 83 Geake, John · 62 Geoghegan, Noel · 17, 67 Gerozisis, Suzanne · 94 Giddens, M · 42, 52, 62, 70 Gifford, Edward, F · 16, 93, 96, 97, 100 Giles, Jim · 78 Gordon, Debra G · 100 Grieg, Robbie · 9, 52, 60, 66 Guenter, Olias · 100

D

Daniel, Ryan J · 6, 56, 57 Davis, Leigh · 83 Davis, Peter · 90 de Leon Arcila, Maria · 30 de Vries, Peter · 5, 26, 32, 33, 88, 99, 105 Dickins, Glynis · 78 Dillon, Steve · 5, 75, 76 Dines, Elizabeth · 64 Dobb, Wendy · 8 Doorn, Jan van · 73, 74 Dumont, Faye · 106 Dunbar-Hall, Peter · 35, 36, 37, 38, 82

H

Hall, Clare A · 109 Hames, Richard David · 6 Hannan, Michael · 11, 25 Harrison, Lois N · 84, 92 Harrison, Scott D · 12, 58, 103 Hartwig, Kay A · 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 81, 102, 103, 105 Haward, G · 15 Hayward, Philip · 24 Heim, Christian · 3 Herbert, Gwynneth F · 91 Heywood, Douglas · 91, 92 Hibberd, Marie · 91 Hoermann, Deanna · 25, 42, 61, 65

E

Ellis, Catherine · 33 Emmerson, Stephen B. · 57 Erickson, F. J. · 51 Erlich, Robert · 43 Evans, Glen · 13

107

Hoey, Damien · 20 Hogg, Noela · 29, 62, 84, 85, 93, 97 Holmes, Patricia · 89 Hongsoo, Lee · 20 Horn, Kipps · 79 Howard, William · 52 Hyun, Kyungsil · 63

I

Irvine, Ian J · 11

J

Jansen, Guy E · 80 Jeanneret, Neryl · 11, 22, 59, 63, 98, 104 Jenkins, Louise E · 47, 50 Joseph, Dawn · 21, 36, 37, 38, 102, 103

McLeod, Rosslyn · 52 McMahon, Helen · 91 McMahon, Olive · 61 McMurtry, Margaret · 107 McNamara, Joyce · 39 McPherson, Gary · 7, 54 McPherson, Jay · 22 Merrick, Bradley · 67, 68, 69, 72, 73, 74 Mikyung, Rim · 63 Miles, William E. (Bill) · 88 Minami, Yoko · 67 Mitchell, Anne K · 64, 104 Mito, Hiromichi · 54 Mizunami, Tazu · 60 Moore, Margaret · 9 Morrison, Steven J · 54 Murao, Tadahiro · 82 Murphy, Frank · 18

Rees, F. J · 4, 74, 83 Reid, Anna · 22, 56 Richards, Carol · 29 Roche, Lawrence · 99 Roland, David · 53 Romet, Cheryl L · 14 Rosevear, Jennifer · 10, 15, 63, 79, 82, 88, 99, 105 Ross, Valerie · 81 Roulston, Kathy · 5, 101 Russell, David · 90 Russell, Megan · 93 Russell-Bowie, Deirdre · 16, 17, 23, 87, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 102, 104

S

Schippers, Huib · 36, 56 Schofield, Margaret · 13 Shaw, William · 34, 91 Sheil, Mary Lou · 61 Shepherd, Janelle · 27, 65 Shifres, Favio · 67 Siddell, K. · 3 Silsbury, Elizabeth · 14, 43, 92 Simmonds, Janette · 68, 69 Simper, D. A. · 59 Smith, James · 12 Smith, Jude · 5 Smith, Robert · 35, 105 Smith, Rodney · 51, 56 Smith, Rosalynd · 17, 81, 89, 102, 106, 108 Smith, W. G. S · 3, 77, 90 So Ming-Chuen, Allison · 20 Southcott, Jane · 19, 25, 32, 37, 38, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 68, 69, 89, 102, 106 St. George, Jennifer M. A. · 57, 58 Stauffer, Sandra L · 10 Stevens, Robin S · 42, 45, 46, 47, 51, 64, 71, 72, 85, 87, 88, 109 Stockigt, Jan · 13 Stowasser, Helen · 14, 77 Suthers, Louie · 28, 29, 30, 31 Swanwick, Keith · 77 Symington, David · 15

N

Nalder, Glenda · 5 Nash, Sandra J · 49, 50 Naughton, Christopher F · 89 Nazareth, Theresa · 80 Nettheim, Nigel · 75 Newton, Michael · 41 Niinobe, Naoko · 67 Nisbet, Steven · 59 Nito, Hiromi · 67 Nyland, Berenice · 33

K

Kirchhubel, Julie · 40 Klopper, Christopher · 37

L

Lade, James · 6 Larkin, Veronicah · 30 Larsen, Peter · 76, 90 Lean, Bettina · 19 Lee, Angela · 38, 46 Leong, Sam · 17, 18, 41, 63 Lett, W · 43, 78 Leung, Bo-wah · 9 Lierse, Anne · 19, 20, 74 Lierse, Sharon M. · 58 Livermore, Joan · 17, 18 Logan, Julie · 31 Love, Karlin Greenstreet · 53 Low, Sheau-Fang · 55 Lowe, Geoffrey M · 68 Lowe, Richard K · 62

O

O'Toole, Dianne · 96 Ogawa, Yoko · 60, 82 Ojala, Juha · 73, 81 Oosthuysen, Sanderi · 87 O'Toole, John · 86 Owen, Richard · 52

P

Parncutt, Richard · 63 Parsons, Graham · 3 Pascoe, Beverley · 5, 86 Pascoe, C. · 76 Paterson, Denise · 19, 22, 98 Peake, Catherine · 34 Petocz, Peter · 56 Pietsch, Helen M. · 109 Poole, Millicent · 85 Pope, Joan · 50, 51 Poston-Anderson, Barbara · 5 Power, Anne · 9, 27, 101, 102

M

Mackay, Linda M · 23 Macmillan, Maree · 79, 105, 107, 109 Marsh, Herbert · 99 Marsh, Kathryn · 29, 30 Martinez, Isabel Cecilia · 67 McCaffrey, Janine M · 67 McCann, Maria · 39 McCormick, John · 54 McDowall, Janet · 28 McEwan, Robert W · 82 McGraw, Gwendolyn · 108 McKinley, Ian · 13

T

Tadahiko, Imada · 80 Tait, Anja · 35 Taverner, John B · 39 Taylor, Dowie · 94 Temmerman, Nita · 23, 86, 89, 99, 103 Terry, Graham · 4 Thomas, Patrick R · 57 Thorpe, William · 73, 74 Tiller, R. Warren · 93, 95 Tompson, D · 85 Tyson, Rebecca M · 57

R

Ramsey, G. · 84 Rankin, Beth · 30, 32 Reeder, Max · 7, 8, 98, 101, 107

108

V

Väkevä, Lauri · 73, 81 van Ernst, Barbara · 6, 7, 8, 15, 84, 86, 94, 96 Vick, M · 78 Vlismas, Wendy · 31 Voltz, Bradley D. · 75 Vuckovic, Aleksandra · 33

W

Walker, Ian · 81

Watson, Amanda · 18, 19, 22, 25, 26, 27, 58, 104 Watson, Steve · 69 Webb, M · 60 Weidenbach, Vanda · 39, 53, 70, 71, 72, 85 Wheeley, Elizabeth E · 24 Wilkin, Phyllis E · 28, 29 Williamson, J. D · 3, 42, 86 Wisbey, Audrey S · 27 Wise, John · 61 Wojtowicz, Amanda · 15, 79, 95 Wright, Susan · 11, 66 Wrigley, William J · 57

Y

Yamasaki, Teruo · 60 Yaxley, Bevis · 84 Yip, Lai Chi R · 60 Young, Susan · 31 Young-Youn, Kim · 80 Yourn, Belinda · 41, 55 Yuen, G. · 33 Yuet-Wah, Ruth Yu Wu · 20

109

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