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For IT Infrastructure & Operations Professionals

October 1, 2007

ITIL V3: The Evolution From Process To Service Model

by Evelyn Hubbert with Simon Yates and Rachel A. Dines

EXECUT I V E S U M MA RY

The first version of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) was created during the time period 1986 to 1992 and consisted of a variety of booklets based on work done by the UK Government Information Infrastructure Management Forum. The second version emerged over the years 1996 to 1998 with nine books -- the two most widely read focused on service delivery and service support. These two books present the foundation for IT service management (ITSM), which is a set of 10 management processes that provide guidance and best practices on managing assets, bugs, changes, disasters, efficiency, and finances. The model shows the goals, general activities, inputs, and outputs of the various processes and facilitates communication and cooperation among various functions in IT. The newest version, ITIL v3, is fundamentally different from previous versions. ITIL v3 focuses on the entire service life cycle, taking the ultimate consumer of the services -- the business -- into consideration.

QUESTIO N S

1. 2. 3. 4. How did ITIL v3 come about? How is ITIL v3 different from ITIL v2? What's new in ITIL v3? Why and when should you move to ITIL v3?

5. What about training and certification from v2 to v3? 6. Where can I find resources for training and additional reading? 7. Where will ITIL go in the future?

THE ITIL BEST PRACTICE FRAMEWORK IS A RAPIDLY GROWING PHENOMENON As the ITIL framework has undergone a transformation during the past several years, speculation has abounded about the implications and changes to ITIL. Forrester receives numerous client inquiries and advises many clients about the adoption of ITIL v3. Adoption of ITIL in the US is catching up to Europe, and many infrastructure and operations professionals have questions. In this document, we tackle the most commonly asked questions about ITIL v3.

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1. How did ITIL v3 come about? ITIL v3 was designed to address the significant shortcomings of ITIL v2. Specifically, each of the nine ITIL v2 books had its own organizational structure, and the connections among the books, even though some were continuations of the same subject, were not evident.1 The structure of the books was confusing, as topics did not follow a logical order -- security was completely decoupled from the service support and service delivery subject areas of the IT organization. This did not reflect the actual situation inside IT operations, as the topic of security is a key topic inside all IT groups. The biggest issue, however, was that the notion of service was only addressed from an IT management perspective and not in connection with the business for which IT actually delivers value (or should deliver value). ITIL v3 addresses the life-cycle stages of service management to embrace a more holistic service management practice that includes business and IT at strategic, tactical, and operational layers. ITIL v2 focused just on the operational layer of IT operations. In order to involve an ever-growing ITIL community, the Office of Government Commerce (OGC) decided to collaborate with business and industry stakeholders on the ITIL Refresh development phase.2 An advisory panel of 30 experts was recruited to become the ITIL Advisory Group (IAG), which started work on the first phase in August 2005.3 In four cycles, with five authoring teams, eight IAG Mentor teams, and more than 200 selected reviewers, the final ITIL v3 books were published in June 2007. 2. How is ITIL v3 different from ITIL v2? The new version provides best practice guidance to implement a true life cycle of service management in five best practice guides. Each volume is set up consistently with the same structure, navigation, and cross-references. Some key differences between ITIL v2 and v3 include changes in the focus from the operational aspects of IT to a more holistic approach to service management reaching beyond IT, as well as more practical advice and improved guidance on metrics (see Figure 1).

October 1, 2007

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Figure 1 Key Differences Between ITIL V2 And ITIL V3

Subject area Structure ITIL v2 Inconsistent layout of volumes as books evolved over time Mostly focused on the operational aspects of IT by defining and listing processes in service support and service delivery. Note: Other books were available, but service support and service delivery were the most adopted ones. Very limited guidance on organizational structures; no recognition or recommendations regarding organizational culture Homogeneous and very generic No connection or correlation to other best practices such as COBIT, Six Sigma, ISO, etc. Single-sourced IT organizations that solely own and manage their IT ITIL v3 Consistent look and feel of core publications with matching navigational structure Focused on a holistic approach to service management that reaches beyond the IT operational aspects yet preserves service operations, which was described in service support and service delivery in v2 Includes guidance on supporting organizational structures, cultural adoption, techniques, and benefits Continues homogeneous nature but more topic-specific Discussions on complementary bestpractice methodologies and explanation of benefits of alignment; additional work is done to align to COBIT v4 Single- and multisourced IT environments with decision drivers for multisourcing and organizational structure examples Includes business case examples, case studies, implementation work packages, and templates for quick start and adoption Includes detailed description of cost/benefits, service performance analysis and benchmarks, and improvement practices All five books include key performance indicators and explanations on usage and meanings. Good workflow examples ready to adopt for quick wins Continues to play nonpartisan role; however, provides automation opportunities and functionalities needed

Source: Forrester Research, Inc.

Concept

Organizational guidance

Depth Openness

Target customers

Practical guidance ROI/TCO

No practical examples -- only theory

No ROI or TCO examples with regard to monetary or efficiency gains; very limited benefit description. Very limited focus on key performance indicators with examples Very theoretical, high-level operational descriptions Not included

Metrics

Practical, usable examples Guidance for tool evaluation

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3. What's new in ITIL v3? Beyond the two books about service delivery and service support, all of the subjects in today's ITIL v3 books were once introduced in either v1 or v2. For example, in ITIL v1, there was a booklet called "Understanding and Improving," which described how IT could better understand its alignment with the business. Another example is that in ITIL v2, the topic of service portfolios was discussed, which led many organizations to implement a service catalog.4 The new features in ITIL v3 include designing, developing, and implementing an organizational service management capability from a strategic perspective; operating it; and continually improving it. Version 3 is about making IT a business partner by providing services to the organization rather than merely providing technology and components to support the business. All of the books are aligned with the Deming Cycle of Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA).5 The new books include:

· Service Strategy. This book primarily focuses on the planning aspects of a service strategy and

the inclusion of key organizations inside and outside IT to provide true service delivery.

· Service Design. The second book has more structure and explains a step-by-step approach to

designing services. This book focuses on designing the services to support the strategy defined in the first phase as part of the planning cycle. Many of the puzzle pieces were already addressed by ITIL v2 with the exception of security management -- an excellent addition.

· Service Transition. This book covers configuration, change, and release management. Change

management focuses on how to assess and plan for changes. To effectively manage change, IT must know what configuration items exist, how they are related to each other, and what services are supported via these configuration items. The subject of configuration management has been extended to include service assets, or IT assets, which are also important for IT to be aware of. IT organizations have funded asset management processes and tools in the past with a strong financial focus. This new book describes the need to manage configuration items as part of the change, release, and capacity management process. The subject of service validation, testing, and quality assurance is introduced along with knowledge management.

· Service Operation. Like Service Transition, Service Operation focuses on the "Do" in the PDCA

cycle. This book focuses on the restoration of services and mostly incorporates all of the key pieces from the service support book in ITIL v2. Very few substantive changes have been made to this book.

· Continual Service Improvement. The concept of continuous improvement is not new, although

it generally receives more praise than action. This book makes it clear that, for organizations to become more proactive, assessment must be a continual process, rather than one that only happens when a failure occurs.

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© 2007, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited

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4. Why and when should you move to ITIL v3? If you have already implemented ITIL v2, continue your operation and start looking to design new services and projects that allow you to adopt and apply a service life-cycle approach during the service design, transition, and continuous improvement superprocesses. For existing services in your service catalog, check and see if there are possibilities for improvements. Stay focused on your goals and plans, working out and implementing the key subprocesses of service design and service delivery. Once you have reached your goals on the service support and service delivery side, expand your ITIL implementation by using and applying the ITIL v3 concepts and best practices with incoming new service requests from your business. If you have not started your ITIL journey, familiarize yourself with, train on, and adopt ITIL v3 right away. 5. What about training and certification from v2 to v3? The training is very similar to training on a new operating system or new version of an application. All folks who are new to ITIL (either Foundation or the next levels) should attend ITIL v3 training courses, and everyone should start with the ITIL v3 Foundation course. It provides a good starting point, to be supplemented with reading the books and applying the details in IT. For those who have already attended ITIL v1 or v2 training, there are a variety of bridging classes. For people who are already practitioners in any of the practitioner clusters, each cluster accounts for 3.75 credits. Version 2 practitioners who have taken single-subject items receive one credit. The Foundation Certificate for v1 or v2 is worth 1.5 credits, and a v3 bridge class is available for 0.5 credits. There are two streams to reach the prerequisite number of 22 credits before one can take the ITIL Diploma. Stream one is the life-cycle stream, with each subsection -- service design, for example -- worth three credits. Stream two is the capability stream, with each subsection worth four credits. The "Managing through the Lifecycle" course is a prerequisite for all who want to reach the ITIL Diploma.6 The certification is separated into foundation, intermediate, and advanced levels. The advanced levels are still works in progress. 6. Where can I find resources for training and additional reading? There are a number of Web sites available to learn about ITIL and the training and certification issues, as well as to find answers to your questions. Forrester recommends the official ITIL Web site, which provides excellent pointers and details.7 7. Where will ITIL go in the future? The adoption rate of ITIL v1/v2 varied greatly between Europe and North America -- in part because the early versions of ITIL lacked truly quantifiable business value in the eyes of many potential adopters. The objective of v3 is to move ITIL out of its IT roots and into the executive suite. However, when Forrester asked, during inquiries and discussions with IT organizations, if other functional departments in the organization are interested in and supportive of IT service management processes, the majority of respondents said they were not. This means that, in the future, ITIL in general faces an uphill battle for acceptance and credibility that needs to be won across the entire organization.

October 1, 2007 © 2007, Forrester Research, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited

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ITIL has met many of its original goals -- today, successful ITIL implementation is associated with a significant change in perception across the business. IT is no longer perceived purely as a cost center and has gained the status of a department that offers a measurable contribution to the wider organization. The measurements of many IT organizations today are still not the return on investment for the business. With ITIL v3 and the extension of it outside the IT department, it will require a cultural and mindset change from measuring transactions and processes to that of measuring contribution and value to the business. ENDNOTES

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Of the nine ITIL v2 IT service management books, Service Delivery and Service Support were the most widely read and each covered five subprocesses. Service Delivery covered service-level, financial, availability, capacity, and IT continuity management, while Service Support covered incident, problem, change, configuration, and release management. Other books in the series covered ICT infrastructure management, security management, the business perspective, application management, and software asset management. The last two books assisted with the implementation of ITIL best practices. The eighth focused on planning to implement service management, and the ninth gave guidelines for small-scale ITIL implementations, addressing smaller IT units. The Office of Government Commerce (OGC) is an office of HM Treasury, responsible for improving value for money by driving up standards and capability in procurement in the United Kingdom. A list of current IAG members can be found online at the IT Service Management Forum Web site. Source: IT Service Management Forum list of IAG members (http://www.itsmf.com/news/news.asp?NewsID=202). A service catalog is a description of IT services provided to the business (consumer) by IT (vendor) in terms that the business can understand. It has both transaction-based services and subscription-based services. In the 1950s, W. Edwards Deming proposed that companies measure and analyze business processes to figure out why products deviate from customer requirements. Source: The Balanced Scorecard Institute, The Deming Cycle (http://www.balancedscorecard.org/bkgd/pdca.html). A detailed picture that describes the ITIL v3 certification schema and bridging schema can be found on the ITSM Academy Web site. Source: ITSM Academy, ITIL V3 Certification Scheme (http://www.itsmacademy. com/files/V3_Qualification_Scheme.pdf). Source: The Official ITIL Web site (http://www.itil-officialsite.com).

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Forrester Research, Inc. (Nasdaq: FORR) is an independent technology and market research company that provides pragmatic and forward-thinking advice to global leaders in business and technology. For more than 24 years, Forrester has been making leaders successful every day through its proprietary research, consulting, events, and peer-to-peer executive programs. For more information, visit www.forrester.com. © 2007, Forrester Research, Inc. All rights reserved. Forrester, Forrester Wave, RoleView, Technographics, and Total Economic Impact are trademarks of Forrester Research, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective companies. Forrester clients may make one attributed copy or slide of each figure contained herein. Additional reproduction is strictly prohibited. For additional reproduction rights and usage information, go to www.forrester.com. Information is based on best available resources. Opinions reflect judgment at the time and are subject to change. To purchase reprints of this document, please email [email protected] 42953

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